WorldWideScience

Sample records for subsea increased oil

  1. Assessing drivers of export orientation in the subsea oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarstad, Jarle; Pettersen, Inger Beate; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this short study was to identify the drivers of export orientation of firms in the subsea oil and gas industry in Western Norway. As the oil fields in the North Sea are approaching a stage of maturity, gaining knowledge of these drivers is crucial. An online survey was conducted of firms operating in the subsea oil and gas industry in the region. Consistent with previous research, the data reveal that product innovation and a majority share of international ownership increase firms' export rates. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes of subsea petroleum exports. The study moreover finds that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct exports than system providers, but international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors' export rates, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. A clear recommendation for managers and stakeholders is that they should encourage foreign investments throughout the value chain. The results of such a strategy appear to be especially positive for subcontractors.

  2. Technology for Subsea 3D Printing Structures for Oil and Gas Production in Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musipov, H. N.; Nikitin, V. S.; Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers an unconventional technology of offshore oil production and the prospects for its further development. The complexity of Arctic shelf development and the use of subsea production units have been analyzed. An issue of the subsea drilling unit construction technology with the help of 3D printers has been considered. An approximate economic efficiency calculation of the 3D printer technology introduction has been given.

  3. Subsea technology 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The conference focuses on Subsea problems and requirements and contains 18 presentation on the topics: Flow management, autonomous underwater vehicles, risers and other technologies, installation of offshore production and exploitation units, management and maintenance of Subsea installations, design, production and functionality aspects of the Subsea structures and equipment, simulation aspects and oil and gas exploitation and production. (tk)

  4. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  5. Effect of flow and physical parameters on the wax deposition of Middle East crude oil under subsea condition: heat transfer viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooya, Reza; Gooya, Mehdy; Dabir, Bahram

    2013-08-01

    Change in pressure, temperature, flow rate and concentration of oil causes precipitation and deposition of wax particles in the pipelines which has become a major problem for oil industries. By decreasing the capacity and economic efficiency of land oil reserves, demand for offshore reserves increases. Change in temperature in subsea pipelines is more possible and so the wax deposition happens under this condition more. Low water temperature and subsea condition change overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate in pipe cross-section which affects the wax transportation from bulk fluid to the wall. In this study, the effects of temperature, flow rate and oil characteristic in different pipeline diameters on Middle East oil which covers the most oil reserves of the world have been investigated under Persian Gulf water condition. Higher inlet temperature postpone the wax deposition to far locations and higher flow rate causes lower wax thickness in first stages of pipe and higher wax thickness after passing the first stage.

  6. Management of oil spill contamination in the Gulf of Patras caused by an accidental subsea blowout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makatounis, Panagiotis Eleftherios; Skancke, Jørgen; Florou, Evanthia; Stamou, Anastasios; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2017-12-01

    A methodology is presented and applied to assess the oil contamination probability in the Gulf of Patras and the environmental impacts on the environmentally sensitive area of Mesolongi - Aitoliko coastal lagoons, and to examine the effectiveness of response systems. The procedure consists of the following steps: (1) Determination of the computational domain and the main areas of interest, (2) determination of the drilling sites and oil release characteristics, (3) selection of the simulation periods and collection of environmental data, (4) identification of the species of interest and their characteristics, (5) performance of stochastic calculations and oil contamination probability analysis, (6) determination of the worst-cases, (7) determination of the characteristics of response systems, (8) performance of deterministic calculations, and (9) assessment of the impact of oil spill in the areas of interest. Stochastic calculations that were performed for three typical seasonal weather variations of the year 2015, three oil release sites and specific oil characteristics, showed that there is a considerable probability of oil pollution that reaches 30% in the Mesolongi - Aitoliko lagoons. Based on a simplified approach regarding the characteristic of the sensitive birds and fish in the lagoons, deterministic calculations showed that 78-90% of the bird population and 2-4% of the fish population are expected to be contaminated in the case of an oil spill without any intervention. The use of dispersants reduced the amount of stranded oil by approximately 16-21% and the contaminated bird population of the lagoons to approximately 70%; however, the affected fish population increased to 6-8.5% due to the higher oil concentration in the water column. Mechanical recovery with skimmers "cleaned" almost 10% of the released oil quantity, but it did not have any noticeable effect on the stranded oil and the impacted bird and fish populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Development of a simulation method for the subsea production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hun Woo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure of a subsea production plant could induce fatal hazards and enormous loss to human lives, environments, and properties. Thus, for securing integrated design safety, core source technologies include subsea system integration that has high safety and reliability and a technique for the subsea flow assurance of subsea production plant and subsea pipeline network fluids. The evaluation of subsea flow assurance needs to be performed considering the performance of a subsea production plant, reservoir production characteristics, and the flow characteristics of multiphase fluids. A subsea production plant is installed in the deep sea, and thus is exposed to a high-pressure/low-temperature environment. Accordingly, hydrates could be formed inside a subsea production plant or within a subsea pipeline network. These hydrates could induce serious damages by blocking the flow of subsea fluids. In this study, a simulation technology, which can visualize the system configuration of subsea production processes and can simulate stable flow of fluids, was introduced. Most existing subsea simulations have performed the analysis of dynamic behaviors for the installation of subsea facilities or the flow analysis of multiphase flow within pipes. The above studies occupy extensive research areas of the subsea field. In this study, with the goal of simulating the configuration of an entire deep sea production system compared to existing studies, a DES-based simulation technology, which can logically simulate oil production processes in the deep sea, was analyzed, and an implementation example of a simplified case was introduced.

  8. Subsea equipment marriage is top ROV priority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redden, J.

    1985-04-01

    Interfacing subsea equipment with remotely operated vehicles (ROV's) and the further development of arctic-class units are the primary challenges facing manufacturers. Worldwide use of the ROV for drilling support has exploded during this decade as oil companies continue their search in deeper waters. If the unmanned vehicles are to become an even more integral tool of the oilman, experts say they must be able to perform more complex tasks. The evolution of more multi-purpose ROVs, however, hinges on the redesigning of subsea equipment. The severe limitations on subsea support (by ROVs) is the obsolete design associated with the subsea equipment itself. These limitations are discussed.

  9. Tyrihans SRSWI (subsea raw seawater injection)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Time, Nils Petter

    2010-07-01

    By the summer of 2010, Statoil will have installed and commissioned a 2 x 2.5 MW electrical subsea pump system for injection of seawater on the Tyrihans field. Powered from the Kristin platform, the system will pump untreated water directly from the sea into one well at a rate of 14000 m3/day to achieve an Increased Oil Recovery of 10%. The pump system was designed and delivered by Aker Solutions and interfaces the Tyrihans subsea production system delivered by FMC, a power umbilical from Nexans as well as the Kristin topside facilities. In addition to qualification testing, the SRSWI system underwent extensive system testing, including performance- and long term testing, and function testing of the control system from FMC and Kongsberg Maritime. The subsea modules of the SRSWI system and the power umbilical were installed by Acergy's vessel Scandi Acergy, while the topside transformers and variable speed drives were installed on Kristin by Aker Reinertsen, the topside modifications and hook-up contractor. The many interfaces in this project required close and constructive cooperation between the parties in all phases of the development. This paper summarises the experiences from the project. (Author)

  10. Droplet and bubble formation of combined oil and gas releases in subsea blowouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Gao, Feng; Socolofsky, Scott A; Lee, Kenneth

    2017-07-15

    Underwater blowouts from gas and oil operations often involve the simultaneous release of oil and gas. Presence of gas bubbles in jets/plumes could greatly influence oil droplet formation. With the aim of understanding and quantifying the droplet formation from Deepwater Horizon blowout (DWH) we developed a new formulation for gas-oil interaction with jets/plumes. We used the jet-droplet formation model VDROP-J with the new module and the updated model was validated against laboratory and field experimental data. Application to DWH revealed that, in the absence of dispersant, gas input resulted in a reduction of d50 by up to 1.5mm, and maximum impact occurred at intermediate gas fractions (30-50%). In the presence of dispersant, reduction in d50 due to bubbles was small because of the promoted small sizes of both bubbles and droplets by surfactants. The new development could largely enhance the prediction and response to oil and gas blowouts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Subsea building blocks for slender wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabedotti, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    Reduce the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), IOR and improve HSE are fundamental aspects in future subsea field developments. The SBB (Subsea Building Blocks) is an R D effort from Statoil and Aker Solutions to investigate and develop new technology that can allow the industry to achieve these objectives. One important aspect of this initiative is well construction and reduced rig time for drilling, completion and intervention of subsea wells. To enable a slender system and increase the operational flexibility, well equipment (WH, XMT) has been analyzed and redesigned. (Author)

  12. Systems for nuclear auxiliary power. Annual report, government fiscal year 1975. [Space and subsea systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-30

    For the past two decades, programs have been conducted to develop ZrH reactor space power systems. Present development plans for reactor space system components are geared to the development of off-the-shelf standardized reactor components which can be used without modification in either Brayton, thermoelectric (TE), or organic Rankine power systems over a power range of 3 to 15 kW(e). In recent years, national energy programs have highlighted the need to increase production of oil and gas from domestic sources. The US oil and ocean engineering industries are developing subsea production methods and equipment for recovering petroleum from deep water and ice-covered regions. There is the need for a subsea power source for highly reliable, unattended operation. Preliminary studies indicate that ZrH reactor subsea power systems may offer advantages in deep water sites remote from surface support facilities, in regions of severe surface or icing conditions, and in areas of critical environmental problems. A number of major US oil companies have indicated a potential need for a subsea nuclear power system for future offshore operations and have expressed their interest in a concept based on the ZrH reactor and an organic Rankine power conversion system (PCS). Work pursued during FY 1975 were to: (1) investigate standardized ZrH reactor-TE, -Brayton, and -organic Rankine space power systems and components; (2) perform conceptual analysis and design of ZrH reactor-organic Rankine power systems for subsea applications; (3) perform tests on key space system components; (4) conduct fuel hydriding and hydrogen barrier investigations; and (5) perform support system studies. This report describes the activities conducted and results obtained during FY 1975. (DLC)

  13. Research on he Classification of Life-Cycle Safety Monitoring Levels of Subsea Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Junfu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As a traffic engineering project across straits or gulfs, subsea tunnel is one of the oceaneering with great construction difficulties, and the key to the success of subsea tunnel engineering lies in timely and accurate assessment of the structure safety of subsea tunnel engineering construction and life-cycle. Xiang’an Xiamen subsea tunnel is China’s first subsea tunnel which crosses complex formation conditions, engineering accidents such as collapse, sudden inflow of water or mud might occur during tunnel construction and operation. Therefore, the concept of subsea tunnel life-cycle monitoring is proposed aiming at the particularity of subsea tunnels. The variation forms of subsea tunnel mainly include large deformation, collapse, primary support cracking, water leakage, water pressure increase, steel arch corrosion, concrete corrosion, longitudinal differential settlement, etc., and classification of the life-cycle safety monitoring levels of the subsea tunnel is conducted based on risk assessment theory and risk level management benchmark to determine the possible variation forms in the monitoring level segments. The research results will provide reference for the subsea tunnel life-cycle monitoring, disaster warning as well as risk management under construction or to be built at home and abroad.

  14. A remote and autonomous continuous monitoring ultrasonic system for flood detection in sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijarez-Castro, Rito

    2006-07-01

    This thesis presents a novel and autonomous continuous monitoring system for flood detection in the hollow sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs. The technique offers an alternative to underwater nondestructive testing methods based on ultrasound and x-rays, which have been used to detect the presence of seawater in these applications, often with divers or remote operating vehicles. The research consists of theoretical and experimental work necessary for the development of an integral system that can be used in new fixed offshore oil rig designs. The system employs a single piezoelectric transducer which can be permanently attached to the inner wall of every sub-sea structure and which is powered by a normally inert seawater battery. Upon activation, the sensor transmits ultrasonic chirp or tone encoded pulses in the range of 21 k Hz to 42 k Hz, to a monitoring system at deck level for decoding and identifying flooded members. Two approaches to the system were considered during the investigation, depending on the communication channel exploited. These were based on either using the seawater as a propagation medium or using the steel structure as a wave-guide. A system based on theoretical models was built and field experiments were conducted using a purpose built jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m in length, 0.5 m in diameter and 16 mm in thickness. This structure was flooded by complete immersion in seawater. Results obtained using water as communication medium and a frequency in the order of 38 k Hz yielded an attenuation figure of 0.4 d B m{sub -}1 over 100 m, since losses were predominantly geometric. In contrast, using the tubular structure as a wave-guide and axis symmetric guided waves as the excitation, a gross attenuation figure of 1.3 d B m{sub -}1 was attained. In the straight parts of the structure, the attenuation ranged from 0.3 d B m{sub -} 1 to 0.6 d B m{sub -}1. The modes most likely to have been excited within the structure were L(0,5) - L(0

  15. Use of hazardous event frequency to evaluate safety integrity level of subsea blowout preventer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Chung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the Safety Integrity Level (SIL of a subsea Blowout Preventer (BOP is evaluated by determining the Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD, a low demand mode evaluation indicator. However, some SIL results are above the PFD's effective area despite the subsea BOP's demand rate being within the PFD's effective range. Determining a Hazardous Event Frequency (HEF that can cover all demand rates could be useful when establishing the effective BOP SIL. This study focused on subsea BOP functions that follow guideline 070 of the Norwegian Oil and Gas. Events that control subsea well kicks are defined. The HEF of each BOP function is analyzed and compared with the PFD by investigating the frequency for each event and the demand rate for the components. In addition, risk control options related to PFD and HEF improvements are compared, and the effectiveness of HEF as a SIL verification for subsea BOP is assessed.

  16. Pompano subsea development: Template/manifold, tree and ROV intervention systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.M.; Byrd, M.L.; Holt, J.; Riley, J.W.; Snell, C.K.; Tyer, C.; Brewster, D.

    1996-12-31

    BP Exploration`s Pompano Subsea Development, in 1,865 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico, uses a subsea production system to produce oil to a host platform 4{1/2} miles away. The 10-slot subsea template/manifold supports Through FlowLine (TFL) wells, which are controlled by means of an electrohydraulic control system. All process components of the system are retrievable with ROV intervention. This paper describes the template/manifold system, TFL tree system and ROV intervention systems.

  17. Communications systems and methods for subsea processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Pereira, Luis

    2016-04-26

    A subsea processor may be located near the seabed of a drilling site and used to coordinate operations of underwater drilling components. The subsea processor may be enclosed in a single interchangeable unit that fits a receptor on an underwater drilling component, such as a blow-out preventer (BOP). The subsea processor may issue commands to control the BOP and receive measurements from sensors located throughout the BOP. A shared communications bus may interconnect the subsea processor and underwater components and the subsea processor and a surface or onshore network. The shared communications bus may be operated according to a time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme.

  18. Sub-sea engineering course (offshore submarine systems); Subsea engineering course (systemes sous - marins offshore)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preedy, J.; Chasserot, J.L. [Azur Offshore Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-15

    This document gathers 770 pages of information about offshore submarine systems and 16 pages of appendix (glossary). Content: course introduction, introduction to sub-sea engineering, review of diver-assisted sub-sea production systems, sub-sea completion and christmas trees, basis of offshore exploration and production, sub-sea manifolds and templates, new technology for sub-sea production, flow-lines and pipelines, design of risers (flexible, towers, steel catenary and rigid), reliability, risks and human factors, review of deep-water (diver-less) sub-sea production systems, sub-sea control systems and chemical injection, case study - Malampaya Field Tie Back (Philippines), sub-sea systems inspection, maintenance and repair, cost evaluations, field assessments and cost data base, sub-sea well operations and flow assurance.

  19. Assuring asset integrity through improving the accuracy of leakage source identification of a permanently installed subsea leak detection system using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Poungkrajorn, Tawan

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology : industrial asset management Environmental concerns and regulatory controls for oil and gas exploration and production activities have been increasing with the prospecting of deep-water fields and sensitive areas, such as the artic seas. To stop any incidents developing into critical events, subsea leak detection systems are required for a fast, cost-effective, and reasonable accurate method to not only detect the leakage substance (in this case meth...

  20. Enhanced Subsea Acoustically Aided Inertial Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Juhl

    This thesis deals with enhancing state-of-the-art underwater acoustic–inertial navigation systems that are necessary for deep water robotic operations. Throughout the project intelligent and simple operational solutions to complex real-world problems was emphasized. Offshore hydrocarbon, oil...... and gas, exploration is advancing further into treacherous territories such as deeper waters and arctic region. Deep underwater navigation poses a deluge of challenges; there is no such luxury as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) underwater. Many of these challenges have been solved, but vessel...... time is expensive so lots of effort is put into cutting down on time spent on all tasks. Accuracy demanding tasks such as subsea construction and surveying are subject to strict quality control requirements taking up a lot of time. Offshore equipment is rugged and sturdy as the environmental conditions...

  1. Development of a subsea system for water separation; Desenvolvimento de sistema submarino de separacao de agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Mauricio W. de; Ramalho, Joao Batista V.S.; Souza, Antonio Luiz S. de; Gomes, Jose Adilson T.; Burmann, Clovis P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil production is normally followed by water production in increasing rates, mostly when waterflooding is used as oil recovery mechanism. In order to minimize the impact that high rates of produced water causes to the topside facilities , PETROBRAS is working on the development of a subsea system for oil-water separation, so that most of the produced water on the mud line can be removed and reinjected in the reservoir or in a bearing formation. The article shows how this development has been carried, the scenario definition for the pilot, the problems associated to an installation in a system already operating and the oil characteristics determination. These data constitute the base for the survey to define the technologies with potential application on the separation system to be developed. The special characteristic of the oil, with high tendency to form stable emulsions with water, are also analyzed, as well as the difficulties it brings to the process in the subsea environment, where there are vessel size and fluid heating limitations. (author)

  2. Subsea pipeline operational risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.L.; Lanan, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    Resources used for inspection, maintenance, and repair of a subsea pipeline must be allocated efficiently in order to operate it in the most cost effective manner. Operational risk management aids in resource allocation through the use of risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses. It identifies those areas where attention must be focused in order to reduce risk. When they are identified, a company`s resources (i.e., personnel, equipment, money, and time) can then be used for inspection, maintenance, and/or repair of the pipeline. The results are cost effective risk reduction and pipeline operation with minimum expenditure.

  3. SUBMATIC - Remotely Operated Subsea Machine Tool and Inspection CNC-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerke, Oe.; Husebye, R.E. (Statoil (NO)); Jenssen, H.P.

    1990-03-01

    The Norwegian oil company STATOIL and the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the University of Trondheim (SINTEF) have jointly developed a remotely operated subsea machine tool system for deepwater machining and inspection of subsea wellheads and multibore connectors. The system is designed for water depths down to 400 meters. The project has been initiated and funded by STATOIL, while the project work has been carried out by SINTEF. The system will provide a number of optional machining operation together with specific inspection systems for dimension and surface roughness documentation both before and after machining. 11 refs.

  4. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Subsea Multiphase Pump Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Shobowale Kafayat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding oil and gas reserves in deep/harsh environment with challenging reservoir and field conditions, subsea multiphase pumping benefits has found its way to provide solutions to these issues. Challenges such as failure issues that are still surging the industry and with the current practice of information hiding, this issues becomes even more difficult to tackle. Although, there are some joint industry projects which are only accessible to its members, still there is a need to have a clear understanding of these equipment groups so as to know which issues to focus attention on. A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a potential first aid in understanding this equipment groups. A survey questionnaire/interview was conducted with the oil and gas operating company and equipment manufacturer based on the literature review. The results indicates that these equipment’s group are similar with its onshore counterpart, but the difference is the robustness built into the equipment internal subsystems for subsea applications. The results from the manufacturer perspectives indicates that Helico-axial multiphase pump have a mean time to failure of more than 10 years, twin-screw and electrical submersible pumps are still struggling with a mean time to failure of less than 5 years.

  5. Economics Aspects of Increasing the Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grendel Peter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In paper I describe mainly high price of oil, which has influence on many circumstances. The important effect on growing up the price of oil has situation in Mid-east, and everyday rising consumption of oil in China. Meaningful position have USA, which using 45% of word energy. The problem is particularly in daily mining of lode. In next part i describing aspect of this situation on stock-exchange, mainly behaviour of speculators, and OPEC, and also presure on inflation in Euro-zone. In the last chapter I discuss about reaction of the big world oil concern like CONOCO, SHELL, BP, OMV and MOL.

  6. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  7. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  8. En-Tegrity - Advanced subsea well control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Jeff

    2010-07-01

    Shear Seal Valve: En-Tegrity - Advanced subsea well control technology. With the growing complexity of well interventions operations such as zone isolations, chemical treatment, sand removal and side track re-completion drilling, there is an increasing demand for an efficient light well intervention service equipment. This paper details the design, development and qualification program undertaken to introduce a new technology for well interventions operations. The Shear Seal Valve provides dual barrier sealing integrity that is capable of cutting large diameter coiled tubing, drill pipe and intervention tooling within a single compact housing. The hydraulic design of the valve minimizes operating volumes and negates the requirement for mechanical ram locks therefore greatly simplifying control system complexity. Utilizing dual metal to metal sealing technology and a fail safe close rational the system is ideally suited to HPHT applications providing optimum operational integrity. (Author)

  9. Increasing the flow of carbon into seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weselake, Randall J; Taylor, David C; Rahman, M Habibur; Shah, Saleh; Laroche, André; McVetty, Peter B E; Harwood, John L

    2009-01-01

    The demand for vegetable oils for food, fuel (bio-diesel) and bio-product applications is increasing rapidly. In Canada alone, it is estimated that a 50 to 75% increase in canola oil production will be required to meet the demand for seed oil in the next 7-10years. Plant breeding and genetics have demonstrated that seed oil content is a quantitative trait based on a number of contributing factors including embryo genetic effects, cytoplasmic effects, maternal genetic effects, and genotype-environment interactions. Despite the involvement of numerous quantitative trait loci in determining seed oil content, genetic engineering to over-express/repress specific genes encoding enzymes and other proteins involved in the flow of carbon into seed oil has led to the development of transgenic lines with significant increases in seed oil content. Proteins encoded by these genes include enzymes catalyzing the production of building blocks for oil assembly, enzymes involved in oil assembly, enzymes regulating metabolic carbon partitioning between oil, carbohydrate and secondary metabolite fractions, and transcription factors which orchestrate metabolism at a more general level.

  10. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  11. Get smart, go optical: example uses of optical fibre sensing technology for production optimisation and subsea asset monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveley, Chris

    2014-06-01

    With the growth in deep-water oil and gas production, condition monitoring of high-value subsea assets to give early warning of developing problems is vital. Offshore operators can then transport and deploy spare parts before a failure occurs, so minimizing equipment down-time, and the significant costs associated with unscheduled maintenance. Results are presented from a suite of tests in which multiple elements of a subsea twin-screw pump and associated electric motor were monitored using a fibre optic sensing system based on fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) that simultaneously measured dynamic strain on the main rotor bearings, pressure and temperature of the lubricating oil, distributed temperature through the motor stator windings and vibration of the pump and motor housings.

  12. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  13. Modeling and Control of Industrial ROV’s for Semi-Autonomous Subsea Maintenance Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Pedersen, Simon; Hansen, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Remotely Operated Vechicles (ROV’s) takes a big part in the installation, maintenance and inspection of offshore subsea energy activities, such as inspections of Oil & Gas and wind energy pipelines and cables. By improving the ROV automation the operational cost can be significantly decreased...... as well as improving the inspection quality. This study examines an industrial ROV, where the investigations include modeling of a real industrial prototype, which is then linearized and used for Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) development. The results are validated both based on non-linear model...

  14. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  15. Installation of deep water sub-sea equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Jack; Demian, Nabil [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)

    2004-07-01

    Offshore oil developments are being planned in water depths exceeding 2000 m. Lowering and positioning large, heavy sub sea hardware, using conventional methods, presents new technical challenges in these ultra deep waters. In 3000 m a safe lift using conventional steel cables will require more capacity to support the cable self weight than the static payload. Adding dynamic loads caused by the motions of the surface vessel can quickly cause the safe capacity of the wire to be exceeded. Synthetic ropes now exist to greatly reduce the lowering line weight. The lower stiffness of these synthetic ropes aggravate the dynamic line tensions due to vessel motions and relatively little is known about the interaction of these ropes on the winches and sheaves required for pay-out and haul-in of these lines under dynamic load. Usage of conventional winches would damage the synthetic rope and risk the hardware being deployed. Reliable and economic installation systems that can operate from existing installation vessels are considered vital for ultra deep-water oil development. The paper describes a Deep Water Sub-Sea Hardware Deployment system consisting of a buoy with variable, pressure-balanced buoyancy, which is used to offset most of the payload weight as it is lowered. The buoyant capacity is controlled by air pumped into the tank from the surface vessel through a reinforced hose. The buoy and payload motion are isolated from the deployment line surface dynamics using a simple passive heave compensator mounted between the buoy and the bottom of the deployment rope. The system components, functionality and dynamic behavior are presented in the paper. (author)

  16. Subsea Cable Tracking by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Magnetic Sensing Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Yu, Caoyang; Niu, Zemin; Zhang, Qin

    2016-08-20

    The changes of the seabed environment caused by a natural disaster or human activities dramatically affect the life span of the subsea buried cable. It is essential to track the cable route in order to inspect the condition of the buried cable and protect its surviving seabed environment. The magnetic sensor is instrumental in guiding the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to track and inspect the buried cable underseas. In this paper, a novel framework integrating the underwater cable localization method with the magnetic guidance and control algorithm is proposed, in order to enable the automatic cable tracking by a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) under-actuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) without human beings in the loop. The work relies on the passive magnetic sensing method to localize the subsea cable by using two tri-axial magnetometers, and a new analytic formulation is presented to compute the heading deviation, horizontal offset and buried depth of the cable. With the magnetic localization, the cable tracking and inspection mission is elaborately constructed as a straight-line path following control problem in the horizontal plane. A dedicated magnetic line-of-sight (LOS) guidance is built based on the relative geometric relationship between the vehicle and the cable, and the feedback linearizing technique is adopted to design a simplified cable tracking controller considering the side-slip effects, such that the under-actuated vehicle is able to move towards the subsea cable and then inspect its buried environment, which further guides the environmental protection of the cable by setting prohibited fishing/anchoring zones and increasing the buried depth. Finally, numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed magnetic guidance and control algorithm on the envisioned subsea cable tracking and the potential protection of the seabed environment along the cable route.

  17. Subsea Cable Tracking by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Magnetic Sensing Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The changes of the seabed environment caused by a natural disaster or human activities dramatically affect the life span of the subsea buried cable. It is essential to track the cable route in order to inspect the condition of the buried cable and protect its surviving seabed environment. The magnetic sensor is instrumental in guiding the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV to track and inspect the buried cable underseas. In this paper, a novel framework integrating the underwater cable localization method with the magnetic guidance and control algorithm is proposed, in order to enable the automatic cable tracking by a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF under-actuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV without human beings in the loop. The work relies on the passive magnetic sensing method to localize the subsea cable by using two tri-axial magnetometers, and a new analytic formulation is presented to compute the heading deviation, horizontal offset and buried depth of the cable. With the magnetic localization, the cable tracking and inspection mission is elaborately constructed as a straight-line path following control problem in the horizontal plane. A dedicated magnetic line-of-sight (LOS guidance is built based on the relative geometric relationship between the vehicle and the cable, and the feedback linearizing technique is adopted to design a simplified cable tracking controller considering the side-slip effects, such that the under-actuated vehicle is able to move towards the subsea cable and then inspect its buried environment, which further guides the environmental protection of the cable by setting prohibited fishing/anchoring zones and increasing the buried depth. Finally, numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed magnetic guidance and control algorithm on the envisioned subsea cable tracking and the potential protection of the seabed environment along the cable route.

  18. Seismic stability of subsea tunnels subjected to seepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuansheng; Ren, Yi; Du, Xiuli; Zhang, Yida

    2014-01-01

    Strength reduction method and ADINA software are adopted to study the stability of submarine tunnel structures subjected to seepage and earthquake under different seawater depths and overlying rock strata thicknesses. First, the excess pore water pressure in the rock mass is eliminated through consolidation calculation. Second, dynamic time-history analysis is performed by inputting the seismic wave to obtain the maximum horizontal displacement at the model top. Finally, static analysis is conducted by inputting the gravity and the lateral border node horizontal displacement when the horizontal displacement is the largest on the top border. The safety factor of a subsea tunnel structure subjected to seepage and earthquake is obtained by continuously reducing the shear strength parameters until the calculation is not convergent. The results show that the plastic zone initially appears at a small scope on the arch feet close to the lining structure and at both sides of the vault. Moreover, the safety factor decreases with increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness. With increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness, maximum main stress, effective stress, and maximum displacement increase, whereas displacement amplitude slightly decreases.

  19. Seismic Stability of Subsea Tunnels Subjected to Seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuansheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength reduction method and ADINA software are adopted to study the stability of submarine tunnel structures subjected to seepage and earthquake under different seawater depths and overlying rock strata thicknesses. First, the excess pore water pressure in the rock mass is eliminated through consolidation calculation. Second, dynamic time-history analysis is performed by inputting the seismic wave to obtain the maximum horizontal displacement at the model top. Finally, static analysis is conducted by inputting the gravity and the lateral border node horizontal displacement when the horizontal displacement is the largest on the top border. The safety factor of a subsea tunnel structure subjected to seepage and earthquake is obtained by continuously reducing the shear strength parameters until the calculation is not convergent. The results show that the plastic zone initially appears at a small scope on the arch feet close to the lining structure and at both sides of the vault. Moreover, the safety factor decreases with increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness. With increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness, maximum main stress, effective stress, and maximum displacement increase, whereas displacement amplitude slightly decreases.

  20. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...... (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  2. Integrity management of deepwater subsea flow system; Gerenciamento de integridade de sistema de escoamento submarino em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, Helio A. de; Oliveira, Luiz F.S.; Cardoso, Cassia O.; Cabete, Ricardo; Matos, Barbara; Alvarenga, Tobias V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Wallace B. e; Bessa, Guilherme S.; Divenyi, Sandor; Gomes, Andre L.C [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios Rio

    2008-07-01

    Deep and ultra-deepwater Exploration and Production activities offshore Brazil have become a reality, corresponding nowadays to the majority of the national production. In order to make oil and gas production viable in this kind of environment, complex systems are used, requiring very strong investments, as well as equipment with high reliability requirements, to assure the benefits of the high productivity of the fields. The production flow systems comprise rigid and flexible pipelines, umbilicals and subsea equipment, to which high costs are associated regarding inspection, maintenance and intervention activities. Besides this, social claims through actions by regulatory agencies are getting stricter with time, as they increase their control of aspects related to safety and environmental impact aspects. In this scenario, PETROBRAS, through its Exploration and Production Business Unit in Rio de Janeiro (UN-RIO), signed a service contract with Det Norske Veritas (DNV). The development and application of specific methodologies for risk and reliability analysis, as well as the development of a specific software, are included in this project. (author)

  3. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  4. Subsea prizes : companies pushing the envelope offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2009-06-15

    In order to make projects economic, companies are going farther offshore and deeper to find oil and gas or to use existing offshore platforms and longer horizontals. Companies such as StatoilHydro are reworking strategies on how to approach future oil finds. This article discussed examples of ultra deep and long horizontal oil finds such as Statoil's complicated but highly successful Gulltopp project. Although drilling ultra-deep wells or long horizontal wells is risky, they can also be very lucrative. The article also discussed McMoRan Exploration Company of New Orleans' high-risk deeper targets in the Gulf of Mexico and its exploration strategy. The longest well in the world, drilled by Maersk Oil Qatar AS was also described. The article noted that the Danish company reported that the entire horizontal section of the well was placed within a reservoir target which was only 20 feet thick. Schlumberger helped Maersk Oil Qatar break several records with extended reach drilling (ERD) offshore well. This well set 10 records, including the longest well ever drilled; longest along-hole departure; longest 8 and a half inch section; highest ERD ratio; highest directional drilling difficulty index; deepest directional control; deepest downlink, MWD transmission and LWD geosteering; deepest battery-less operation; longest reservoir contact; and longest open hole. Last, the article discussed an unsuccessful well drilled by Murphy Oil Corporation known as the Manhattan well. 8 figs.

  5. Bayesian-network-based fault diagnosis methodology of subsea jumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Lei; Hu, Song; Xue, Haitao; Wang, Jiaxing

    2017-10-01

    The paper proposes a Bayesian-network-based real-time fault diagnosis methodology of M-shaped subsea jumper. Finite element models of a typical M-shaped subsea jumper system are built to get the data for diagnosis. Netica is Bayesian-network -based software and is used to construct diagnosis models of the jumper in two main loading conditions which are falling objects and seabed moving. The results show that the accuracy of falling objects diagnosis model with four faults is 100%, and the accuracy of seabed moving diagnosis model with two faults is also 100%. Combine the two models into one and the accuracy of combined model is 96.59%. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated.

  6. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  7. Increased Oil Recovery Prize for work on Troll; Fikk pris for Troll-arbeid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2007-07-01

    Halliburton and Baker Hughes have developed tools that ensures increased oil recovery from the Troll platform. For this work, the companies were awarded the Increased Oil Recovery (IOR) Prize. Details on the technical principles are provided (ml)

  8. Crude oil impairs immune function and increases susceptibility to pathogenic bacteria in southern flounder

    OpenAIRE

    Bayha, Keith M.; Ortell, Natalie; Ryan, Caitlin N.; Griffitt, Kimberly J.; Krasnec, Michelle; Sena, Johnny; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Takeshita, Ryan; Gregory D Mayer; Schilkey, Faye; Griffitt, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to crude oil or its individual constituents can have detrimental impacts on fish species, including impairment of the immune response. Increased observations of skin lesions in northern Gulf of Mexico fish during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill indicated the possibility of oil-induced immunocompromisation resulting in bacterial or viral infection. This study used a full factorial design of oil exposure and bacterial challenge to examine how oil exposure impairs southern flounder...

  9. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  10. Climate change affecting oil palm agronomy, and oil palm cultivation increasing climate change, require amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    Palm oil is used in various valued commodities and is a large global industry worth over US$ 50 billion annually. Oil palms (OP) are grown commercially in Indonesia and Malaysia and other countries within Latin America and Africa. The large-scale land-use change has high ecological, economic, and social impacts. Tropical countries in particular are affected negatively by climate change (CC) which also has a detrimental impact on OP agronomy, whereas the cultivation of OP increases CC. Amelioration of both is required. The reduced ability to grow OP will reduce CC, which may allow more cultivation tending to increase CC, in a decreasing cycle. OP could be increasingly grown in more suitable regions occurring under CC. Enhancing the soil fauna may compensate for the effect of CC on OP agriculture to some extent. The effect of OP cultivation on CC may be reduced by employing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plans, for example, by avoiding illegal fire land clearing. Other ameliorating methods are reported herein. More research is required involving good management practices that can offset the increases in CC by OP plantations. Overall, OP-growing countries should support the Paris convention on reducing CC as the most feasible scheme for reducing CC.

  11. Evaluating vibration performance of a subsea pump module by full-scale testing and numerical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Pereboom, H.P.; Slot, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior to subsea installation, a subsea system has to be tested to verify whether it performs in accordance with specifications and component specific performance evaluation criteria. It is important to verify that the assembled components work in accordance with the assumptions and design criteria

  12. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illustrated by introducing a typical grouting process. Then the site-specific grouting techniques employed in the Xiang'an subsea tunnel are elaborated. By using this ground reinforcement technique, the tunneling safety of the Xiang'an subsea tunnel was guaranteed.

  13. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  14. Emerging Subsea Networks: SMART Cable Systems for Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Butler, R.; Joint Task Force, U.

    2016-02-01

    The subsea telecommunications cable industry is approaching a prospective new era: deploying SMART subsea cable systems (SMART = Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunication). The current global, commercial cable infrastructure consists of 1 Gm of cable, being refreshed now and expanding in the future. The SMART concept is to add a small external sensor package along the cable system at its optical repeaters to transmit important real-time environmental data via a dedicated wavelength or overhead channel in the transmission system, avoiding any impact on the commercial traffic. These small, reliable, existing sensors would precisely measure temperature, pressure and three-axis acceleration across the world's ocean floor over an extended period of time, being deployed using standard cable-laying procedures on new or refurbished cables, but not requiring maintenance through the 2-3 decade life of the cable systems. The game-changing factor is the urgent international need for ocean environmental data related to mitigating climate and sea-level change and improving tsunami and slope failure hazard warnings. Societal costs incurred by these are reaching billions of dollars and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Pressures for new and urgent public policies are evident from the 5th IPCC Assessment, USA-China agreement on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, clear evidence for rapid global warming, 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (December 2015, Paris), and the scale of the costs of inaction. To support revised public policies and actions, decision-makers, industry leaders, and the public are seeking key scientific data, which will necessitate new sources of funding. Hence, the emergence of new SMART cable systems offered by the subsea telecommunications industry will provide new market opportunities, engage additional non-traditional users, and make profound societal contributions. The Joint Task Force (JTF) on SMART Subsea Cable Systems

  15. Crude oil impairs immune function and increases susceptibility to pathogenic bacteria in southern flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, Keith M; Ortell, Natalie; Ryan, Caitlin N; Griffitt, Kimberly J; Krasnec, Michelle; Sena, Johnny; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Takeshita, Ryan; Mayer, Gregory D; Schilkey, Faye; Griffitt, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to crude oil or its individual constituents can have detrimental impacts on fish species, including impairment of the immune response. Increased observations of skin lesions in northern Gulf of Mexico fish during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill indicated the possibility of oil-induced immunocompromisation resulting in bacterial or viral infection. This study used a full factorial design of oil exposure and bacterial challenge to examine how oil exposure impairs southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) immune function and increases susceptibility to the bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, a causative agent of vibriosis. Fish exposed to oil prior to bacterial challenge exhibited 94.4% mortality within 48 hours of bacterial exposure. Flounder challenged with V. anguillarum without prior oil exposure had Oil/Pathogen challenged fish and was nearly non-existent in the No Oil/Pathogen challenged fish bacterial community. Elevated V. anguillarum levels were a direct result of oil exposure-induced immunosuppression. Oil-exposure reduced expression of immunoglobulin M, the major systemic fish antibody, and resulted in an overall downregulation in transcriptome response, particularly in genes related to immune function, response to stimulus and hemostasis. Ultimately, sediment-borne oil exposure impairs immune function, leading to increased incidences of bacterial infections. This type of sediment-borne exposure may result in long-term marine ecosystem effects, as oil-bound sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico will likely remain a contamination source for years to come.

  16. Expendable Tubulars and Controlled Oil and Water Withdrawal Increase Oil Fields Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Abdrakhmanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the achievements of PJSC Tatneft in the field of isolating water inflow zones in horizontal wells by expandable cross-sectional profile pipes. An example of the isolation of water inflow zones on a well that left the production for three years due to 100% water cut is given, and the dynamics of its operation for 16 years after insulation by two expandable profile packers is shown. Technologies and technical means for regulating oil and water flows in horizontal wells, multi-channel well designs for simultaneous targeted impact and operation of different sections of the reservoir (deposit are presented. An example is given of the separation of a horizontal well into two segments controllable from the surface and graphs are shown of the dynamics of bottomhole pressures in segments obtained during the well operation. The most promising directions of science development are shown to simplify well designs and improve the quality of their fixation by cardinally solving complications emerged during the drilling process, as well as to increase the productivity of wells by controlling the flow rates of liquids that are extracted from several heterogeneous zones of oil deposits.

  17. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2017-04-01

    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e. g. depressurization and/or carbon dioxide injection) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR - Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs«. In order to simulate the exploitation of hydrate-bearing sediments in the subsea, an in-house simulation model HyReS which is implemented in the general-purpose software COMSOL Multiphysics is used. This tool turned out to be especially suited for the flexible implementation of non-standard correlations concerning heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate kinetics, and other relevant model data. Partially based on the simulation results, the development of a technical concept and its evaluation are the subject of ongoing investigations, whereby geological and ecological criteria are to be considered. The results illustrate the processes and effects occurring during the gas production from a subsea gas hydrate deposit by depressurization. The simulation results from a case study for a deposit located in the Black Sea reveal that the production of natural gas by simple depressurization is possible but with quite low rates. It can be shown that the hydrate decomposition and thus the gas production strongly depend on the geophysical properties of the reservoir, the mass and heat transport within the reservoir, and

  18. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  19. Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    The deepwater energy sector represents one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry today. In order to meet the challenges of hydrate formation, corrosion, scaling and foaming the oil and gas industry uses many chemicals and their use has increased significantly over the years....... In order to inhibit gas hydrate formation in subsea pipelines monoethylene glycol (MEG) and methanol are injected in large amounts. It is important to know the distribution of these chemicals in oil and water systems for economical operation of a production facility and to evaluate their impact on marine...... of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. When methanol and MEG are used as gas hydrate inhibitors, the most significant disadvantage, especially for methanol, is their loss in hydrocarbon phase(s). The successful estimation of inhibitor loss would enable the inhibitors injection optimization...

  20. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  1. Surface towed electromagnetic system for mapping of subsea Arctic permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Dallas; Kannberg, Peter; Constable, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Sea level has risen globally since the late Pleistocene, resulting in permafrost-bearing coastal zones in the Arctic being submerged and subjected to temperature induced degradation. Knowing the extent of permafrost and how it changes over time is important for climate change predictions and for planning engineering activities in the Arctic environment. We developed a controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method to obtain information on the depth, thickness, and lateral extent of marine permafrost. To operate in shallow water we used a surface towed electric dipole-dipole CSEM system suitable for deployment from small boats. This system was used to map permafrost on the Arctic shelf offshore Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Our results show significant lateral variability in the presence of permafrost, with the thickest layers associated with a large river outflow where freshwater influx seems to have a preserving effect on relict subsea permafrost.

  2. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  3. Crude oil impairs immune function and increases susceptibility to pathogenic bacteria in southern flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Bayha

    Full Text Available Exposure to crude oil or its individual constituents can have detrimental impacts on fish species, including impairment of the immune response. Increased observations of skin lesions in northern Gulf of Mexico fish during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill indicated the possibility of oil-induced immunocompromisation resulting in bacterial or viral infection. This study used a full factorial design of oil exposure and bacterial challenge to examine how oil exposure impairs southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma immune function and increases susceptibility to the bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, a causative agent of vibriosis. Fish exposed to oil prior to bacterial challenge exhibited 94.4% mortality within 48 hours of bacterial exposure. Flounder challenged with V. anguillarum without prior oil exposure had <10% mortality. Exposure resulted in taxonomically distinct gill and intestine bacterial communities. Mortality strongly correlated with V. anguillarum levels, where it comprised a significantly higher percentage of the microbiome in Oil/Pathogen challenged fish and was nearly non-existent in the No Oil/Pathogen challenged fish bacterial community. Elevated V. anguillarum levels were a direct result of oil exposure-induced immunosuppression. Oil-exposure reduced expression of immunoglobulin M, the major systemic fish antibody, and resulted in an overall downregulation in transcriptome response, particularly in genes related to immune function, response to stimulus and hemostasis. Ultimately, sediment-borne oil exposure impairs immune function, leading to increased incidences of bacterial infections. This type of sediment-borne exposure may result in long-term marine ecosystem effects, as oil-bound sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico will likely remain a contamination source for years to come.

  4. An experimental study on the internal corrosion of a subsea multiphase pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Shangbi Peng; Zhaoxiong Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the actual operational parameters of a subsea multiphase pipeline, an experimental study on the internal corrosion of a subsea multiphase pipeline was conducted in a dynamic, high-temperature autoclave, which had a similar environment to an actual field environment, using the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), velocity of the corrosion medium, temperature, corrosion time, and corrosion inhibitor as variables. The results show that CO2 resulted in severe localized corrosion and that the ...

  5. SELECTION RESPONSE FOR INCREASED GRAIN YIELD IN TWO HIGH OIL MAIZE SYNTHETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made J. Mejaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  7. Standardized ROV and diver interfaces will bring surge in subsea capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baugh, B.F.

    1989-05-01

    Standardization and new developments in subsea interfaces, or profiles, for remotely operated vehicles (ROV's) or divers promise a new generation of subsea capabilities. Progress in subsea systems comes from the development of several individual components. ROV/diver interface profiles are a critical component in this chain of developments. ROV's are also of particular importance because these unmanned submarines provide low-cost flexibility in deep water applications. The development of standardized profiles, which means basic size and shapes, for intervention will affect subsea completion and drilling systems, emergency safety valves (ESV), and any other subsea installation. As an example of their importance, standardized profiles could help keep some offshore fires from becoming full-fledged disasters, such as the one at the Piper-Alpha platform in the North Sea. Pipeline riser valves in such cases could be closed by ROV's to prevent the pipelines from feeding the fire. Standardized profiles to accomplish this and other subsea tasks are available in the public domain for immediate application.

  8. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  9. Increase oil recovery of heavy oil in combustion tube using a new catalyst based nickel ionic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Garnica, M.A.; Hernandez-Perez, J.R.; Cabrera-Reves, M.C.; Schacht-Hernandez, P. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    An ionic liquid-based nickel catalyst was used in conjunction with a combustion tube as an in situ process for heavy oil. The experimental system was comprised of a fluid injection system; a combustion tube; a fluid production system; a gas chromatograph; and a data recording system. Injected nitrogen and air was controlled by a mass flow controller. Nitrogen was used to pressurize the combustion tube and flush the system. Air was injected at a rate of 3 L per minute throughout the combustion run. Liquids leaving the combustion tube passed through a 2-stage separation process. Gases passing through the condenser were kept at low temperatures. Fractions of produced gas were analyzed by the chromatograph. Data loggers were used to obtain data at 30 second intervals. Two combustion experiments were conducted to obtain production times, temperature profiles, and the quality of the oil produced by the catalyst. Combustion tests were conducted with and without the catalyst. An analysis of the experimental data showed that use of the nickel catalyst resulted in increases in oil production as well as higher combustion efficiencies. Use of the catalyst also resulted in a faster combustion front and accelerated oil production. It was concluded that the produced oil contained fewer impurities than oil produced during the control experiment. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Technology transfer to US oil producers: A policy tool to sustain or increase oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, W. T.

    1990-03-01

    The Department of Energy provided the Interstate Oil Compact Commission with a grant to identify and evaluate existing technology transfer channels to operators, to devise and test improvements or new technology transfer channels and to make recommendations as to how the Department of Energy's oil and gas technology transfer methods could be improved. The IOCC conducted this effort in a series of four tasks: a structural analysis to characterize the oil producing industry according to operator production size class, geographic location, awareness and use of reservoir management technologies, and strategies for adding reserves and replacing produced reserves; targeted interviews conducted with some 300 oil and gas industry participants to identify current technology transfer channels and their relative usefulness for various classes of industry participants; a design and testing phase, in which the IOCC critiqued the current technology transfer structure, based on results of the structural analysis and targeted interviews, and identified several strategies for improvement; and an evaluation of existing state outreach programs to determine whether they might provide a model for development of additional outreach programs in other producing states.

  11. Coconut oil increases HDL-c and decreases triglycerides in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiani Figueiredo Santana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile in rats, supplemented with coconut oil, are evaluated and compared to other lipid sources. Female Wistar rats received by gavage 1 mL kg-1 of saline, soybean oil, lard or coconut oil during 21 days. At the end of the study period, body composition, food intake, feces, urine, organ weight and serum lipid profile were assessed. No statistical differences between the groups were found in body composition, food intake, fecal and urinary analysis, and organ weight. In the case or plasma lipid concentrations, coconut oil and lard raised total cholesterol levels, without changes in LDL levels. On the other hand there was no change in total cholesterol levels in the soybean oil group. HDL fraction increased in all groups when compared to that in the saline group; this increase was more significant in the coconut oil group. There was significant reduction of serum triglycerides only in the coconut oil group when compared to the saline group. Supplementation with coconut oil did not interfere in weight and body composition of the animals used in current study, but revealed significant effect on the increase of HDL-c levels and decrease of serum triglycerides.

  12. Ecological Impacts during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest spill and response effort in United States history. Nearly 800 million L of oil was spilled in the Gulf of Mexico, and nearly 7 million L of chemical dispersants were applied in at the ocean surface and subsea1. The DWH spill ...

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  14. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Fiel Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Edith

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  15. Expression of Umbelopsis ramanniana DGAT2A in seed increases oil in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, Kathryn; Effertz, Roger; Levering, Charlene; Mai, Jennifer; Pedroso, M C; Jury, Tom; Aasen, Eric; Gruys, Ken; Bennett, Kristen

    2008-09-01

    Oilseeds are the main source of lipids used in both food and biofuels. The growing demand for vegetable oil has focused research toward increasing the amount of this valuable component in oilseed crops. Globally, soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important oilseed crops grown, contributing about 30% of the vegetable oil used for food, feed, and industrial applications. Breeding efforts in soy have shown that multiple loci contribute to the final content of oil and protein stored in seeds. Genetically, the levels of these two storage products appear to be inversely correlated with an increase in oil coming at the expense of protein and vice versa. One way to overcome the linkage between oil and protein is to introduce a transgene that can specifically modulate one pathway without disrupting the other. We describe the first, to our knowledge, transgenic soy crop with increased oil that shows no major impact on protein content or yield. This was achieved by expressing a codon-optimized version of a diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2A from the soil fungus Umbelopsis (formerly Mortierella) ramanniana in soybean seed during development, resulting in an absolute increase in oil of 1.5% (by weight) in the mature seed.

  16. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in healthy individuals with response to 4-week n-3 fatty acid supplementation from krill oil versus fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-05

    Due to structural differences, bioavailability of krill oil, a phospholipid based oil, could be higher than fish oil, a triglyceride-based oil, conferring properties that render it more effective than fish oil in increasing omega-3 index and thereby, reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to assess the effects of krill oil compared with fish oil or a placebo control on plasma and red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid profile in healthy volunteers. Twenty four healthy volunteers were recruited for a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The study consisted of three treatment phases including krill or fish oil each providing 600 mg of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or placebo control, corn oil in capsule form. Each treatment lasted 4 wk and was separated by 8 wk washout phases. Krill oil consumption increased plasma (p = 0.0043) and RBC (p = 0.0011) n-3 PUFA concentrations, including EPA and DHA, and reduced n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios (plasma: p = 0.0043, RBC: p = 0.0143) compared with fish oil consumption. Sum of EPA and DHA concentrations in RBC, the omega-3 index, was increased following krill oil supplementation compared with fish oil (p = 0.0143) and control (p krill (TC: p = 0.0067, LDL: p = 0.0143) and fish oil supplementation (TC: p = 0.0028, LDL: p = 0.0143) compared with control. Consumption of krill oil was well tolerated with no adverse events. Results indicate that krill oil could be more effective than fish oil in increasing n-3 PUFA, reducing n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio, and improving the omega-3 index. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01323036.

  17. Increased tolerance to oil exposure by the cosmopolitan marine copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kamille Elvstrøm; Dinh, Khuong V; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-12-31

    Oil contamination is an environmental hazard to marine ecosystems, but marine organism tolerance to oil after many generations of exposure remains poorly known. We studied the effects of transgenerational oil exposure on fitness-related traits in a cosmopolitan neritic copepod, Acartia tonsa. Copepods were exposed to an oil compound, the PAH pyrene, at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 100+(the saturated pyrene concentration in seawater)nM over two generations and measured survival, sex ratio, size at maturity, grazing rate and reproductive success. Exposure to the pyrene concentration of 100+nM resulted in 100% mortality before adulthood in the first generation. At the pyrene concentration of 100nM, pyrene reduced grazing rate, increased mortality, reduced the size of females and caused lower egg production and hatching success. Importantly, we found strong evidence for increased tolerance to pyrene exposure in the second generation: the reduction in size at maturity of females was less pronounced in the second generation and survival, egg production and hatching success were recovered to control levels in the second generation. The increased tolerance of copepods to oil contamination may dampen the direct ecological consequences of a coastal oil spill, but it raises the concern whether a larger fraction of oil components accumulated in survived copepods, may be transferred up the food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increase of heavy oil reservoir recovery using chemical injection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Amin Alishvandi; Ehsan Eskandari

    2016-01-01

    Due to thermal properties, Nano fluids may be new generation of thermal transfer fluids that would be used invarious industries. Energy carrier Nano fluids as waters, lubricants and ethylene glycol include of particles with dimensions of 100 nm as metal, metal oxid or carbon Nano tubes. Based on evaluation, with increase of viscosity of Nano fluid surfactant, absorbed dispersion materials would be increased and Nano particles dispersion and stability and thermal transfer would be developed...

  19. THE INCREASED PRODUCTION OF OIL CITRONELLA IN THE VILLAGE CIMUNGKAL-SUMEDANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugraha Nugraha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inability to fulfill the demand of consumers is becoming the major issues on citronella oil refinery in the village of Cimungkal Sumedang. This study was conducted to formulate alternative measures in order to increase the production of citronella oil distillates in the Cimungkal village. Mapping of the production process is done with Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a first step to determine the processing time (lead time of production and identify the waste that occurs, analyze the causes of the problems at the manufacturing level, and formulate remedial measures to increase the production of oil of citronella. The results show some activity in the production process of citronella oil which is a waste and should be minimized. By mapping, it can be seen that the lead time citronella oil refining initial amounted to 647 minutes or 10.78 hours. After repairs (Future State improvements Total lead time to 274 minutes. Value-added activity increased by 38.93%, non-value added decreased by 3.63%, and necessary but non-value added fell by 35.3%. The study also resulted in the formulation of strategies that can be done to increase the production of oil of citronella.

  20. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2012-01-01

    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    scenarios. The physical and chemical properties of oil resulting from these scenarios can be very different and change with time.  Heavy oil from a...it reached the sea bottom.  Oil rising to the surface from a subsea blowout.  Fine droplets of oil resulting from chemical dispersants being...mechanical properties and prepare it for the next step, which is the coating of an ultrathin oleophilic chemical through the atomic layer deposition

  2. Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, V R; Eyal, I; Zchut, S; Shafat, I; Jones, P J H

    2015-11-04

    Bioavailability of krill oil has been suggested to be higher than fish oil as much of the EPA and DHA in krill oil are bound to phospholipids (PL). Hence, PL content in krill oil might play an important role in incorporation of n-3 PUFA into the RBC, conferring properties that render it effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of the present trial was to test the effect of different amounts of PL in krill oil on the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, assessed as the rate of increase of n-3 PUFA in plasma and RBC, in healthy volunteers. In a semi randomized crossover single blind design study, 20 healthy participants consumed various oils consisting of 1.5 g/day of low PL krill oil (LPL), 3 g/day of high PL krill oil (HPL) or 3 g/day of a placebo, corn oil, for 4 weeks each separated by 8 week washout periods. Both LPL and HPL delivered 600 mg of total n-3 PUFA/day along with 600 and 1200 mg/day of PL, respectively. Changes in plasma EPA, DPA, DHA, total n-3 PUFA, n-6:n-3 ratio and EPA + DHA concentrations between LPL and HPL krill oil supplementations were observed to be similar. Intake of both forms of krill oils increased the RBC level of EPA (p krill oil consumption. HPL krill oil intake elevated (p krill oil did not alter total and LDL cholesterol, relative to control. The results indicate that krill oil with higher PL levels could lead to enhanced bioavailability of n-3 PUFA compared to krill oil with lower PL levels. Clinicaltrials.gov# NCT01323036.

  3. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/task-force-sc). A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril-Gravel, L; Labonté, M-E; Couture, P; Vohl, M-C; Charest, A; Guay, V; Jenkins, D A; Connelly, P W; West, S; Kris-Etherton, P M; Jones, P J; Fleming, J A; Lamarche, B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of various dietary fatty acids on pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key inflammatory genes and transcription factors in whole blood cells. In a randomized, crossover controlled nutrition intervention, 114 adult men and women with abdominal obesity and at least one other criterion for the metabolic syndrome consumed 5 experimental isoenergetic diets for 4 weeks each, separated by 4-week washout periods. Each diet provided 60 g/3000 kcal of different oils: 1) control corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff; LA-rich), 2) flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff; ALA-rich), 3) conventional canola oil (Canola; OA-rich), 4) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest OA content), 5) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; OA- and DHA-rich). Gene expression in whole blood cells was assessed in a subset of 62 subjects. CanolaDHA increased plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with the control CornSaff oil treatment (+4.5%, P = 0.04) and FlaxSaff (+6.9%, P = 0.0008). CanolaDHA also reduced relative expression levels of interleukin (IL)1B compared with CornSaff and Canola (-11% and -13%, respectively, both P = 0.03). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were lower after Canola than after FlaxSaff (-17.8%, P = 0.047). DHA-enriched canola oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Neelakantan, Nithya; Wu, Yi; Lote-Oke, Rashmi; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils, but studies have reported inconsistent effects of palm oil on blood lipids. We systematically reviewed the effect of palm oil consumption on blood lipids compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for trials of at least 2 wk duration that compared the effects of palm oil consumption with any of the predefined comparison oils: vegetable oils low in saturated fat, trans fat-containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats. Data were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis. Palm oil significantly increased LDL cholesterol by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.13, 0.35 mmol/L; I(2) = 83.2%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat. This effect was observed in randomized trials (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.42 mmol/L) but not in nonrandomized trials (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.20 mmol/L; P-difference = 0.02). Among randomized trials, only modest heterogeneity in study results remained after considering the test oil dose and the comparison oil type (I(2) = 27.5%). Palm oil increased HDL cholesterol by 0.02 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04 mmol/L; I(2) = 49.8%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat and by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11 mmol/L; I(2) = 47.8%) compared with trans fat-containing oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat-containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Exposure to Deepwater Horizon weathered crude oil increases routine metabolic demand in chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Dane H; Dale, Jonathan J; Machado, Benjamin E; Incardona, John P; Farwell, Charles J; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-15

    During the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident, the continuous release of crude oil from the damaged Macondo 252 wellhead on the ocean floor contaminated surface water habitats for pelagic fish for more than 12weeks. The spill occurred across pelagic, neritic and benthic waters, impacting a variety of ecosystems. Chemical components of crude oil are known to disrupt cardiac function in juvenile fish, and here we investigate the effects of oil on the routine metabolic rate of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus. Mackerel were exposed to artificially weathered Macondo 252 crude oil, prepared as a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF), for 72 or 96h. Routine metabolic rates were determined pre- and post-exposure using an intermittent-flow, swim tunnel respirometer. Routine energetic demand increased in all mackerels in response to crude oil and reached statistical significance relative to unexposed controls at 96h. Chemical analyses of bile from exposed fish revealed elevated levels of fluorescent metabolites, confirming the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exposure WAF. The observed increase in metabolic demand is likely attributable to the bioenergetic costs of contaminant detoxification. These results indicate that short-term exposure (i.e. days) to oil has sub-lethal toxicity to mackerel and results in physiological stress during the active spill phase of the incident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamber, Shaw D., E-mail: shaw.bamber@iris.no; Westerlund, Stig, E-mail: sw@iris.no

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Valve pumping activity in A. islandica significantly increased at pH 6.2 seawater. • Changes in valve movements were not related to attempted burrowing activities. • Valve activity returned to control levels after 5 days of continuous exposure. • A. islandica tolerate pH reductions likely to follow leakage of sub-sea stored CO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO{sub 2}. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9 pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO{sub 2} from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40 h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity

  8. ROV role grows as depths increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redden, J.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in offshore oil and gas exploration is discussed. One of the most promising segments of the industry for ROVs is in the area of drilling support. The ROV is the only viable tool for subsea operations as drilling operations move into deepwater areas. The operation and capabilities of ROVs are discussed.

  9. Nine cycles of mass selection for increasing oil content in two maize (Zea mays L. synthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosulj Milorad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes in oil content, grain yield, percentage of broken plants and changes in yield components in the maize populations DS7u and YuSSSu. As estimations were performed at C0 and C9 for both populations, it was possible to observe changes occurring following long-term mass selection for high oil content. The synthetic population DS7u population was developed by recombination of 29 inbred lines of Yugoslav, Canadian and US origin. The synthetic population YuSSSu population is an Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic - BSS(RC5. Progenies were derived according to the North Carolina Design II. Results indicated that nine cycles of selection led to statistically significant increase in oil content and statistically significant decrease for grain yield in both populations. Estimates of additive and dominance variances for grain oil content were highly significant in C0 and C9 of the population DS7u population. Dominance variance showed significance in the initial cycle of the population YuSSSu population, but it was not detected in the course of nine cycles of mass selection. Additive and dominance variances for grain yield were highly significant in both initial populations. Loss of significance did not result from selection, while the proportion of dominance vs. additive variance became greater. High narrow-sense heritability was detected for grain yield, oil content, moisture content, and cob percent in the initial cycles of both populations. Mass selection resulted in increased heritability for oil content and cob percent in the DS7u population and increased heritability for percentage of broken plants in the YuSSSu population. The strongest additive correlation between oil content and other traits was detected for grain moisture (r a = 0.90* in the C9 of the DS7u population.

  10. Theoretical lessons for increasing algal biofuel: Evolution of oil accumulation to avert carbon starvation in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Tetsuya; Kamo, Masashi

    2015-09-07

    Microalgae-derived oil is considered as a feasible alternative to fossil-derived oil. To produce more algal biomass, both algal population size and oil accumulation in algae must be maximized. Most of the previous studies have concentrated on only one of these issues, and relatively little attention has been devoted to considering the tradeoff between them. In this paper, we first theoretically investigated evolutionary reasons for oil accumulation and then by coupling population and evolutionary dynamics, we searched for conditions that may provide better yields. Using our model, we assume that algae allocate assimilated carbon to growth, maintenance, and carbon accumulation as biofuel and that the amount of essential materials (carbon and nitrate) are strongly linked in fixed proportions. Such stoichiometrically explicit models showed that (i) algae with more oil show slower population growth; therefore, the use of such algae results in lower total yields of biofuel and (ii) oil accumulation in algae is caused by carbon and not nitrate starvation. The latter can be interpreted as a strategy for avoiding the risk of increased death rate by carbon starvation. Our model also showed that both strong carbon starvation and moderately limited nitrate will promote total biofuel production. Our results highlight considering the life-history traits for a higher total yields of biofuel, which leads to insight into both establishing a prolonged culture and collection of desired strains from a natural environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  12. 76 FR 14980 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0185, Increased Safety Measures for Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ..., ``Increased Safety Measures for Oil and Gas Drilling, Well-Completion, and Well-Workover Operations,'' and... Measures for Oil and Gas Drilling, Well-Completion, and Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number: 1010... personnel management. They also improve the safety of offshore oil and gas drilling operations in Federal...

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  15. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production systems caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design

  16. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production system caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design

  17. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  18. Fish oil increases mitochondrial phospholipid unsaturation, upregulating reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in rat colonocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Chapkin, Robert S.; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C.; Turner, Nancy D.; Henderson, Cara E.; Sanders, Lisa M.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A.; Murphy, Mary E.; hide

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that a combination of fish oil (high in n-3 fatty acids) with the butyrate-producing fiber pectin, upregulates apoptosis in colon cells exposed to the carcinogen azoxymethane, protecting against colon tumor development. We now hypothesize that n-3 fatty acids prime the colonocytes such that butyrate can initiate apoptosis. To test this, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with diets differing in the fatty acid composition (corn oil, fish oil or a purified fatty acid ethyl ester diet). Intact colon crypts were exposed ex vivo to butyrate, and analyzed for reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol, and caspase-3 activity (early events in apoptosis). The fatty acid composition of the three major mitochondrial phospholipids was also determined, and an unsaturation index calculated. The unsaturation index in cardiolipin was correlated with ROS levels (R = 0.99; P = 0.02). When colon crypts from fish oil and FAEE-fed rats were exposed to butyrate, MMP decreased (P = 0.041); and translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol (P = 0.037) and caspase-3 activation increased (P = 0.032). The data suggest that fish oil may prime the colonocytes for butyrate-induced apoptosis by enhancing the unsaturation of mitochondrial phospholipids, especially cardiolipin, resulting in an increase in ROS and initiating apoptotic cascade.

  19. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Matsubara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s. Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees’ mental health.

  20. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Iris J. A. M.; Smelt, Augustinus H. M.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Kuipers, Folkert; Romijn, Johannes A.; Boverhof, Renze; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Stellaard, Frans

    2006-01-01

    Fibrates are drugs of choice in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), but may increase the risk for gallstones by decreasing bile acid synthesis. Fish oil might be a therapeutic alternative, but its effect on bile acid metabolism in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of

  1. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, IJAM; Princen, HMG; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Boverhof, R; Masclee, AAM; Stellaard, F

    Fibrates are drugs of choice in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), but may increase the risk for gallstones by decreasing bile acid synthesis. Fish oil might be a therapeutic alternative, but its effect on bile acid metabolism in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of

  2. Increasing Oil Concentration Affects Consumer Perception and Physical Properties of Mayonnaise-type Spreads Containing KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    Reducing sodium intakes remains a global challenge for the food industry. KCl is a potential salt substitute but imparts bitterness when used at high concentrations. Little is known about how oil concentrations (OC) affect consumers' perception of saltiness and bitterness in emulsion products such as mayonnaise containing KCl. We evaluated consumers' perception and physical properties of mayonnaise-type spreads at various oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations. Consumers (N = 306) evaluated saltiness, bitterness, overall taste liking (OTL) and purchase intent (PI). Viscosity, pH, water activity, and consistency/texture were also measured. Oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations had significant effects on saltiness, viscosity, and pH. As OC increased, saltiness intensity slightly decreased for spreads. Increasing oil concentration increased viscosity. Generally, spreads containing KCl had higher bitterness and pH than spreads containing NaCl. All spreads containing KCl were penalized for being "too bitter." PI was affected by OTL for all spreads but OC was also a significant factor in the purchase decision of spreads containing NaCl. This study demonstrated that increasing OC affected consumers' taste perception (saltiness and bitterness) and spreads' physical properties including pH and viscosity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Long-term oil contamination increases deterministic assembly processes in soil microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Guanghe

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms that drive microbial turnover in time and space have received considerable attention but remain unclear, especially for situations with anthropogenic perturbation. To understand the impact of long-term oil contamination on microbial spatial turnover, 100 soil samples were taken from five oil exploration fields located in different geographic regions across China. The microbial functional diversity was analyzed with a high-throughput functional gene array, GeoChip. Our results indicated that soil microbial α-diversity (richness and Shannon diversity index) decreased significantly with contamination. All contaminated and uncontaminated samples exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation between microbial community similarity and spatial distance, as described by a distance-decay relationship (DDR). However, long-term oil exposure flattened the slopes of the DDRs of all of the functional genes and each functional group involved in C/N/P/S cycling, particularly of those involved in contaminant degradation. The relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in microbial assembly was determined. The decrease in microbial spatial turnover with long-term oil contamination was coupled with an increase in the proportion of deterministic processes that structured microbial assembly based on null model analysis. The results indicated long-term oil contamination significantly affects soil microbial community spatial structure by acting as an environmental filter to decrease the regional differences distinguishing soil microbial communities.

  4. Increase in removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando J S; de França, Francisca P

    2005-01-01

    A 23 full factorial experimental design was adopted to estimate the effects of three variables on the biodegradation of oil during soil bioremediation: bioaugmentation seeding a mixed culture, addition of fertilizer or mineral media, and correction of initial pH of the soil to 7.0. The tests were carried out in polyvinyl chloride reactors with 5.0 kg of crude oil-contaminated soil at 14 g/kg. After screening the variables, soil bioremediation tests were conduced with varied C:N ratios, yielding an increase in biodegradation of the oil heavy fraction from 24 to 65%, consumption of total n-paraffins, and a remarkable decrease in the concentration of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the soil.

  5. Over-expression of JcDGAT1 from Jatropha curcas increases seed oil levels and alters oil quality in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Vidhu A

    2013-12-01

    The increasing consumption of fossil fuels and petroleum products is leading to their rapid depletion and is a matter of concern around the globe. Substitutes of fossil fuels are required to sustain the pace of economic development. In this context, oil from the non food crops (biofuel) has shown potential to substitute fossil fuels. Jatropha curcas is an excellent shrub spread and naturalized across the globe. Its oil contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (about 78-84% of total fatty acid content) making the oil suitable for biodiesel production. Despite its high oil content, it has been poorly studied in terms of important enzymes/genes responsible for oil biosynthesis. Here, we describe the isolation of the full length cDNA clone of JcDGAT1, a key enzyme involved in oil biosynthesis, from J. curcas seeds and manipulation of oil content and composition in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by its expression. Transcript analysis of JcDGAT1 reveals a gradual increase from early seed development to its maturation. Homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing JcDGAT1 both under CaMV35S promoter and a seed specific promoter show an enhanced level of total oil content (up by 30-41%) in seeds but do not show any phenotypic differences. In addition, our studies also show alterations in the oil composition through JcDGAT1 expression. While the levels of saturated FAs such as palmitate and stearate in the oil do not change, there is significant reproducible decrease in the levels of oleic acid and a concomitant increase in levels of linolenic acid both under the CaMV35S promoter as well as the seed specific promoter. Our studies thus confirm that DGAT is involved in flux control in oil biosynthesis and show that JcDGAT1 could be used specifically to manipulate and improve oil content and composition in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters.

  7. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    1998-03-03

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  8. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    1997-08-08

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  9. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... levels of diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramides and arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins compared with mice fed WD-FO. In addition, C57BL/6J mice were fed fish oil-enriched diets with different carbohydrate sources, and we observed that sucrose dose-dependently abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  10. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  11. Flaxseed oil increases aortic reactivity to phenylephrine through reactive oxygen species and the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Almenara, Camila Cruz Pereira; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Silva, Marito Afonso Sousa Costa; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2014-07-03

    Flaxseed oil has the highest concentration of omega-3 α-linolenic acid, which has been associated with cardiovascular benefit. However, the mechanism underlying the vascular effects induced through flaxseed oil is not well known. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of flaxseed oil on vascular function in isolated rat aortic rings. Wistar rats were treated daily with flaxseed oil or a control (mineral oil) intramuscular (i.m.) for fifteen days. Isolated aortic segments were used to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, superoxide anion levels and vascular reactivity experiments. Flaxseed oil treatment increased the vasoconstrictor response of aortic rings to phenylephrine. Endothelium removal increased the response to phenylephrine in aortic segments isolated from both groups, but the effect was smaller in the treated group. L-NAME incubation similarly increased the phenylephrine response in segments from both groups. The TXA2 synthase inhibitor furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, the TP receptor antagonist SQ 29.548, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger apocynin, the superoxide anion scavengers tiron and the phospholipase A2 inhibitor dexamethasone partially reversed the flaxseed oil-induced increase in reactivity to phenylephrine. These findings suggest that flaxseed oil treatment increased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine through an increase in ROS production and COX-2-derived TXA2 production. The results obtained in the present study provide new insight into the effects of flaxseed oil treatment (i.m.) on vascular function.

  12. Industrial vegetable oil by-products increase the ductility of polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruellan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of industrial by-products of the vegetable oil industry as ductility increasing additives of polylactide (PLA was investigated. Vegetable oil deodorization condensates were melt-blended by twin-screw extrusion up to a maximum inclusion quantity of 20 wt% without preliminary purification. Sample films were obtained by single screw cast extrusion. Compounded PLA films featured largely improved ductility in tensile testing with an elongation at break up to 180%. The glass transition temperature remained higher than room temperature. The native mixture of molecules, which composed the deodorization condensates, had superior performance compared to a synthetic mixture of main compounds. The investigation of the correlation between composition of the additives and the ductility of the PLA blends by Principal Component Analysis showed synergy in property improvement between fatty acids having a melting point below and beyond the room temperature. Furthermore, a compatibilizing effect of molecules present in the native mixture was evidenced. Oil deodorization condensates, which are a price competitive by-product of the vegetable oil industry, are therefore a very promising biobased and biodegradable additive for improving the ductility of PLA.

  13. Amaranth oil increased fecal excretion of bile Acid but had no effect in reducing plasma cholesterol in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Luíla Ivini Andrade; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Ferrari, Roseli A; Miguel, Ana M R O; Almeida, Claudia A S; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Hamsters were fed for 4 weeks on four different diets: control (C) (balanced diet containing 20 % corn oil as the lipid source), hypercholesterolemic (H) (identical to C but containing 12 % coconut oil, 8 % corn oil and 0.1 % cholesterol as the lipid source), amaranth oil (A) (identical to H without corn oil but with amaranth oil), and squalene (S) (identical to H but admixed with squalene in the ratio found in amaranth oil). There were no significant differences in lipid profile, and in the cholesterol excreted in the animals' feces from amaranth oil (A) and squalene (S) groups. Fecal excretion of bile acids was greater in the amaranth oil (A) and squalene groups (S) as compared to the other groups. The scores of steatosis and parenchymal inflammation observed in the amaranth oil (A) and squalene groups (S) were superior to the ones observed in the other groups. Our findings demonstrated that amaranth oil, and its component squalene, increased the excretion of bile acids but did not have a hypocholesterolemic effect in hamsters fed on a diet containing high amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol.

  14. Increasing Antioxidant Content of Broccoli Sprouts Using Essential Oils During Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Awady Aml A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli sprouts are natural functional foods for cancer prevention because of their high content of glucosinolate and antioxidant. Sprouts and mature broccoli are of potential importance in devising chemoprotective strategies in humans. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of essential oils on broccoli seed germination, increase their antioxidant content and determine the glucosinolate concentration and other phytochemical parameters in 3-day-old sprouts during cold storage at 4°C and 95% RH for 15 days. The results showed that all treatments of essential oils increased germination index, seed germination percentage, seedling length, seedling vigour index, yield and the antioxidant content of broccoli sprout and reduced the microbial load compared to the control. Fortunately, the coliform bacteria was not detected in all treatments. Different essential oils of fennel, caraway, basil, thyme and sage were tested. The thyme oil was the best treatment, which increased the accumulation of the phenolic compounds and glucosinolate compared to the control at different storage periods. In the sprouts treated with thyme oil treatment and the control, at the end of cold storage, 1.98% and 28.06% of total phenolic content, 1.90% and 20.28% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 1.39% and 58.33% of flavonoids, 1.93% and 36.25% of vitamin C, 2.95% and 22.02% of anthocyanin and 2.18% and 49.12% of glucosinolate were lost, respectively. A slight reduction differences in all detected compound concentrations occurred between the initial content and the end of storage period because of the application of thyme oil compared to the control. Therefore, the total glucosinolate level in the sprout (27.02 μg/g F.W. was higher than that in the florets (7.37 μg/g F.W.. Glucoraphanin was the most abundant aliphatic glucosinolate present in the sprout and reached the highest value (16.24 μg/g F.W. followed by glucoerucin (5

  15. Leadership Redundancy in Subsea Operations: Documentation of a Study Utilizing Stimulus Case Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Idar Alfred; McArthur, Philip,; Jonassen, Jan R.; Leirbæk, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Complex and tightly coupled operations, despite having clear command lines and rigorous procedures, may be vulnerable to unexpected events that threaten their operations. To succeed, they need the capacity to respond flexibly and swiftly. In subsea operations, it has been proposed that when disruptive events occur while the formal leader is focused on task coordination, others with sufficient time, competence and standing step in and exercise informal leadership. This ...

  16. Grand Bank seabed and shallow subsurface geology in relation to subsea engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, G.V.; King, E.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2005-07-01

    An overview of the surficial and subseabed geology of the northeastern section of the Newfoundland Grand Banks was presented with particular reference to the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. The stratigraphy of the upper 100 metres below seafloor has been interpreted from high-resolution seismic reflection data, surficial sediment samples and geotechnical borehole data. This paper described the character and strength properties of nearby seabed sediments and addressed the issue of seabed scour by icebergs, which is the main process threatening subsea facilities. Other potential geohazards such as shallow gas, buried channels and sediment mobility are not considered to be major barriers to offshore development in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. However, drifting icebergs with large drafts often impact the seabed, producing either linear furrows or circular pits. The constraints to subsea design and construction were identified. It was noted that regional geological characterization is needed to help select the location for offshore platforms as well as routes for excavating trenches for subsea installations for offshore hydrocarbon development. Updated regional surficial and near-seabed stratigraphy is needed to predict foundation conditions beyond ground truth from isolated geotechnical borehole investigations. This paper described the Grand Banks regional setting, regional geology, near-surface sediment in the northeastern Grand Banks, and Quaternary sediments in the northeastern Grand Banks with reference to the Grand Banks Drift, Adolphus Sand, and the Grand Banks Sand and Gravel Formation. Risk assessments have shown that well heads and manifolds should be installed below the seabed in order to avoid damage by seabed-scouring icebergs and that the design scour depth should be re-examined for future subsea development. It was suggested that more emphasis on gathering multibeam bathymetric data and repetitive mapping of the seabed will better define scour risk. 57 refs., 3

  17. Foveal light exposure is increased at the time of removal of silicone oil with the potential for phototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Williams, Katie; Lee, Ed; Williamson, Tom H

    2013-01-01

    There is sudden and dramatic visual function deterioration in 1-10 % of eyes filled with silicone oil at the time of removal of silicon oil. Transmission of high-energy blue light is increased in eyes filled with silicone oil. We sought to identify if increased foveal light exposure is a potential factor in the pathophysiology of the visual loss at the time of removal of silicone oil. A graphic ray tracing computer program and laboratory models were used to determine the effect of the intraocular silicone oil bubble size on the foveal illuminance at the time of removal of silicone oil under direct microscope light. The graphic ray tracing computer program revealed a range of optical vignetting effects created by different sizes of silicone oil bubble within the vitreous cavity giving rise to an uneven macular illumination. The laboratory model was used to quantify the variation of illuminance at the foveal region with different sizes of silicone oil bubble with in the vitreous cavity at the time of removal of silicon oil under direct microscope light. To substantiate the hypothesis of the light toxicity during removal of silicone oil, The outcome of oil removal procedures performed under direct microscope illumination in compared to those performed under blocked illumination. The computer program showed that the optical vignetting effect at the macula was dependent on the size of the intraocular silicone oil bubble. The laboratory eye model showed that the foveal illuminance followed a bell-shaped curve with 70 % greater illuminance demonstrated at with 50-60 % silicone oil fill. The clinical data identified five eyes with unexplained vision loss out of 114 eyes that had the procedure performed under direct microscope illumination compared to none out of 78 eyes that had the procedure under blocked illumination. Foveal light exposure, and therefore the potential for phototoxicity, is transiently increased at the time of removal of silicone oil. This is due to

  18. Norwegian concern over strongly increased Russian oil transport along the Norwegian coast; Firedoblet russisk oljetransport skremmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The transport of oil from the northern parts of Russia along the coast of Norway will multiply in a few years. An analysis has shown that the risk of a shipwreck followed by pollution will then increase dramatically. The coastal population of North Norway has begun to demand that measures be taken, and they are backed by the military authorities, who say the preparedness must be considerably improved. Massive oil spills are not the only danger. Spills of ballast water from ships have introduced foreign species that disrupts the local eco systems. A number of bilateral agreements exist between Norway and Russia on prevention and notification of accidents, cooperative rescue work and environmental work. These agreements do not fully satisfy the need for notification and warning, however.

  19. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each of ...

  20. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  1. Fish oil supplementation for two generations increases insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabara, Sandro M; Folador, Alessandra; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Lambertucci, Rafael H; Rodrigues, Carlos F; Rocha, Marlene S; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Martins, Amanda R; Rodrigues, Alice C; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Fernandes, Luiz C; Gorjão, Renata; Curi, Rui

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil supplementation for two consecutive generations on insulin sensitivity in rats. After the nursing period (21 days), female rats from the same prole were divided into two groups: (a) control group and (b) fish oil group. Female rats were supplemented with water (control) or fish oil at 1 g/kg body weight as a single bolus for 3 months. After this period, female rats were mated with male Wistar rats fed on a balanced chow diet (not supplemented). Female rats continued to receive supplementation throughout gestation and lactation periods. The same treatment was performed for the next two generations (G1 and G2). At 75 days of age, male offspring from G1 and G2 generations from both groups were used in the experiments. G1 rats did not present any difference with control rats. However, G2 rats presented reduction in glycemia and lipidemia and improvement in in vivo insulin sensitivity (model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin tolerance test) as well as in vitro insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle (glucose uptake and metabolism). This effect was associated with increased insulin-stimulated p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, but not with activation of proteins from insulin signaling (IR, IRS-1 and Akt). Global DNA methylation was decreased in liver but not in soleus muscle. These results suggest that long-term fish oil supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in association with increased insulin-stimulated p38 activation and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in skeletal muscle and decreased global DNA methylation in liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish oil at low dietary levels enhances physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil at a level of 80 g/kg strongly stimulated the physiological activity of a sesame sesamin preparation containing sesamin and episesamin at equal amounts to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. This study was conducted to clarify whether fish oil at lower dietary levels enhances the physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g sesamin/kg, and containing 0, 15 or 30 g fish oil/kg for 15 days. Among rats fed sesamin-free diets, diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg slightly increased the activity of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin increased these values irrespective of the presence or absence of fish oil in diets; however, the extent of the increase of many parameters was much greater in rats given fish oil-containing diets than in those fed a fish oil-free diet. Diets simultaneously containing sesamin and fish oil increased the gene expression of various peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in a synergistic manner; but they were ineffective in causing a synergistic increase in mRNA levels of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The extent of the synergistic increase in the activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes and mRNA levels of the peroxisomal enzymes was indistinguishable between diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg and appeared comparable to that observed previously with a diet containing 80 g fish oil/kg.

  3. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix and the effects on egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE A.P. ROLL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01 and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01. All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  4. Marine snow increases the adverse effects of oil on benthic invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenennaam, Van Justine S.; Rahsepar, Shokouh; Radović, Jagoš R.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Wonink, Jessica; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2018-01-01

    After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a MOSSFA (Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation) event took place, transporting an estimated 14% of total released oil to the sediment, and smothering parts of the benthic ecosystem. This microcosm study describes the effects of oiled

  5. Oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Ascorbic acid and low pH increase oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Meyer, Anne S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil- water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels......, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8- 4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted...... oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced...

  6. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Progress report for the quarter ending December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Six tasks are reported on: geological and engineering study of the DOE-Kewanee polymer-augmented waterflood, review of polymer injection program in this field, evaluation of results of polymer-augmented waterflood in this field, review of geological and engineering characteristics of oil fields now in waterflood as candidates for polymer augmentation, review of fields currently under primary production, and determination of ranges of future increased oil production from the polymer-water process in the project area.

  7. Evaluation report on research and development of a subsea petroleum production system; Kaitei sekiyu seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    In order to assure stable supply of oil and natural gas resources, and achieve enhancement in ocean development technologies in general, development has been made on the subsea petroleum production system (SBPPS), which is effective in ocean floor petroleum production from oil fields at great depths (300 m or deeper), and can be applicable to continental shelves and continental slopes around Japan. The SBPPS consists of four sub-systems of shafts, pipelines, manifolds, and riser and oil storage, whose basic development targets were established for the total system. The system was given a conceptual design for the total system, and the above four sub-systems were designed according to the conceptual design. The experimenting devices of each system were fabricated on a trial basis while fundamental studies are being made on component technologies, and experiments were performed to verify basic functions of the sub-systems. Developments were made on such operation technologies as the system operation technology, production control technology, safety control technology, and maintenance and repair technology required to operate the SBPPS. On-shore and general off-shore experiments were carried out to verify the functions of the experimenting devices of each system, the comprehensive functions and the operation technology. Comprehensive evaluation was given on the above achievements from the technical, economic and social viewpoints. (NEDO)

  8. Geochemical monitoring for detection of CO_{2} leakage from subsea storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Johannessen, Truls

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in subsea geological formations is a promising large-scale technology for mitigating the increases of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. However, detection and quantification of potential leakage of the stored CO2 remains as one of the main challenges of this technology. Geochemical monitoring of the water column is specially demanding because the leakage CO2 once in the seawater may be rapidly dispersed by dissolution, dilution and currents. In situ sensors capture CO2 leakage signal if they are deployed very close to the leakage point. For regions with vigorous mixing and/or deep water column, and for areas far away from the leakage point, a highly sensitive carbon tracer (Cseep tracer) was developed based on the back-calculation techniques used to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the water column. Originally, the Cseep tracer was computed using accurate discrete measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT) in the Norwegian Sea to isolate the effect of natural submarine vents in the water column. In this work we assess the effect of measurement variables on the performance of the method by computing the Cseep tracer twice: first using DIC and AT, and second using partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and pH. The assessment was performed through the calculation of the signal to noise ratios (STNR). We found that the use of the Cseep tracer increases the STNR ten times compared to the raw measurement data, regardless of the variables used. Thus, while traditionally the pH-pCO2 pair generates the greatest uncertainties in the oceanic CO2 system, it seems that the Cseep technique is insensitive to that issue. On the contrary, the use of the pCO2-pH pair has the highest CO2 leakage detection and localization potential due to the fact that both pCO2 and pH can currently be measured at high frequency and in an autonomous mode.

  9. Consumption of oxidized oil increases oxidative stress in broilers and affects the quality of breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-02-09

    A total of 120 4-week-old broiler chickens were allotted to 12 pens and fed one of three diets including control, oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil), or antioxidant-added diet (500 IU vitamin E) for 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of feeding trial, and breast muscles were sampled immediately after slaughter. Breast meats were also collected 24 h after slaughter and used for meat quality measurements. Oxidative stress in blood, lipid and protein oxidation, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²(+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity of breast muscle were determined. The oxidized diet increased oxidative stress in blood and increased carbonyl content in breast meat compared with the other two dietary treatments (P Meat from birds fed the oxidized diet showed higher drip loss after 1 and 3 days of storage and greater 0-1 h post-mortem pH decline (P < 0.05). Significant differences in specific SERCA activity in breast muscles from birds fed control and oxidized diets (P < 0.05) were detected. This suggested that dietary oxidized oil induced oxidative stress in live birds and increased lipid and protein oxidation in breast muscle. Decrease in SERCA activity in breast muscles due to oxidative stress in live animals accelerated post-mortem glycolysis, which sped the pH drop after slaughter and increased drip loss, indicating that oxidation of diet can cause PSE-like (pale, soft, and exudative) conditions in broiler breast muscles.

  10. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  11. Energy planning and investment for increased earnings: the case of Nigeria's oil and gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A.T.

    1984-03-01

    In view of Nigeria's limited reserves of oil and the high growth rate of oil consumption, and in the wake of the developments in the world oil market since 1981 which have resulted in a drastic shortfall in Nigeria's revenues, the main objective of this article is to highlight some important issues that would spur policy makers towards improved energy planning and increased energy investment in Nigeria so as to assist her in the rationalization of the energy production-mix and consumption, as well as in earning increased revenues from her oil and gas resources. Policymakers in Nigeria are called upon to put an end to further procrastination concerning the liquefied natural gas (LNG) investment project so that the bulk of the country's gas, which is presently being flared, can be re-injected, consumed locally, and exported to supplement dwindling oil revenues. 23 notes and references, 3 tables.

  12. Method of increasing anhydrosugars, pyroligneous fractions and esterified bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Yu, Fei; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-12-30

    The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.

  13. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  14. Geological Investigation and Tunnel Excavation Aspects of the Weakness Zones of Xiang'an Subsea Tunnels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peixin; Zhang, Dingli; Pan, Jianli; Liu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Tunneling through weakness zones under deep seawater involves significant risks and may have disastrous consequences. This paper presents a case study of geological investigation and excavation aspects of subsea tunnels in major weakness zones. The subject is the Xiang'an subsea tunnels, the first subsea tunnel project in mainland China. The Xiang'an subsea tunnels passed through four major weakness zones, mainly consisting of highly to completely weathered rock mass. The weakness zones were characterized by a combination of long-distance and short-distance, destructive and nondestructive methods, which supplement and verify information with each other. The weakness zones were treated by full-face curtain grouting, using both cementitious and chemical grouts. The interrelationship between the settlement at tunnel crown and ground surface, as well as the interrelationship between ground settlement and ground cracking, were explored based on instrumentation data recorded during tunneling on land. The pre-warning, warning, and limiting values of tunnel crown settlement during excavation of each heading of subsea sections were established to protect the seabed against cracking. Engineering means and methods were developed to control the ground deformation during excavation.

  15. Engineering flax plants to increase their antioxidant capacity and improve oil composition and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Magdalena; Prescha, Anna; Stryczewska, Monika; Szopa, Jan

    2012-05-16

    The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues is very important to human health and strongly depends on dietary intake. Since flax seeds are the richest source of polyunsaturated acids, their consumption might be beneficial for human health. Unfortunately, they are highly susceptible to auto-oxidation, which generates toxic derivatives. The main goal of this study was the generation of genetically modified flax plants with increased antioxidant potential and stable and healthy oil production. Since among phenylpropanoid compounds those belonging to the flavonoid route have the lowest antioxidant capacity, the approach was to inhibit this route of the pathway, which might result in accumulation of other compounds more effective in antioxidation. The suppression of the chalcone synthase gene resulted in hydrolyzable tannin accumulation and thus increased antioxidant status of seeds of the transgenic plant. This was due to the partial redirecting of substrates for flavonoid biosynthesis to the other routes of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Consequently, transgenic plants produced more (20-45%) polyunsaturated fatty acids than the control and mainly α-linolenic acid. Thus, increasing the antioxidant potential of flax plants has benefits in terms of the yield of suitable oil for human dietary consumption.

  16. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  17. Dietary linseed oil increases trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in caprine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Cívico, A; de la Fuente, M A; Juárez, M; Sánchez, N Núñez; Blanco, F Peña; Marín, A L Martínez

    2017-06-01

    Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 has been recently detected and characterized in digestive contents and meat and adipose tissue of ruminants, but its presence in milk and dairy products is hardly known. The aim of this study was to quantify trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, better understand its metabolic origin, and help to elucidate the mechanisms of rumen biohydrogenation when the diet composition might affect ruminal environment. To address these objectives, 16 dairy goats were allocated to 2 simultaneous experiments (2 groups of goats and 2 treatments in each experiment). Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets with the same forage-to-concentrate ratio (33/67) and 2 starch-to-nonforage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ratios (0.8 and 3.1), which were supplemented or not with 30 g/d of linseed oil for 25 d in a crossover design. Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 contents in milk fat were determined by gas chromatography fitted with an extremely polar capillary column (SLB-IL111). Levels of trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in individual milk fat samples ranged from 0 to 0.2% of total fatty acids, and its content in milk fat increased 8 fold due to linseed oil supplementation, substantiating the predominant role of α-linolenic acid in its formation. The trans-10,cis-15 18:2 levels in milk fat were similar in both experiments, despite the fact starch-to-nonforage NDF ratio of their respective basal diets greatly differed. In conclusion, trans-10,cis-15 18:2 was clearly related to linseed oil supplementation, and its increase in milk fat was comparable when the basal diets were rich in either nonforage NDF or starch. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of ZmLEC1 and ZmWRI1 Increases Seed Oil Production in Maize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo Shen; William B. Allen; Peizhong Zheng; Changjiang Li; Kimberly Glassman; Jerry Ranch; Douglas Nubel; Mitchell C. Tarczynski

    2010-01-01

    ...% but reduces seed germination and leaf growth in maize. To uncouple oil increase from the undesirable agronomic traits, we identified a LEC1 downstream transcription factor, maize WRINKLED1 (ZmWRI1...

  19. Interspecific hybridization increased in congeneric flatfishes after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego-Prieto, Victor; Martinez, Jose L; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Marine species with relatively low migratory capacity are threatened by habitat alterations derived from human activities. In November 2002 the tanker Prestige sank off the Spanish northwest coast releasing 70,000 tons of fuel and damaging biota in the area. Despite efforts to clean the damaged areas, fuel remnants have affected marine species over the last nine years. This study is focused on two flatfish, Lepidorhombus boscii (four-spotted megrim) and L. whiffiagonis (megrim), whose spawning areas are located at the edge of the continental platform. We have analyzed megrim samples from North Spanish and French waters obtained before and after the oil spill. Genotypes at the nuclear marker 5S rDNA indicate a significant increase in interspecific hybridization after the Prestige accident, likely due to forced spawning overlap. The mitochondrial D-Loop region was employed for determining the direction of hybrid crosses, which were most frequently L. boscii female x L. whiffiagonis male. Reduced ability of L. boscii females to select conspecific mates would explain such asymmetric hybridization. To our knowledge this is the first time that increased hybridization between fish species can be associated to an oil spill. These results illustrate the potential long-term effect of petrol wastes on wild fish species.

  20. THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL OIL PRICE INCREASE ON THE ECONOMY OF FREE STATEPROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonas Tesfamariam Bahta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article researches quantitatively the impact of an increase in the international oil price on economy of the Free State provincial economy using a Computable General Equilibrium model. The result of an increase international oil price shows that, the percentage in labour demand of transport, other services, agriculture, and manufacturing sector decrease. The GDP of the overall economy decrease by 0.01%, the highest decrease observed in transport sector followed by other services, agriculture and manufacturing sector. It also reflects that from the household income analysis the lower income households are more affected compared to the rest of household categories.Considering poverty (measured in terms of Equivalent Variation the results also suggest that the lowest welfare gain observed in poor households. The results suggest that it is inevitable that there will always be some external shocks outside the control of economic policies. Hence it is necessary to strengthen the effectiveness of economic growth by incorporating target available resources and ensuring coherence in policy design.

  1. Maintenance strategy and availabity increasing of a gas compression station in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilis Adriano dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to propose a maintenance strategy and a set of improvement actions for increasing the availability in a compression station of waste gases from the petroleum distillation process, composed of two alternative compressors A and B in a plant of the oil industry. The research method was the quantitative modeling. The methodology includes the calculation of the current availability and suggesting actions to raise it. Time to repair (TTR and time between failures (TBF were modeled for the individual compressors and for the gas compression station as a whole. With the average values of the models (MTBF and MTTR were calculated individual availabilities of A and B (32.4% and 83.3%, respectively and global, 96.7%. The data were collected from the company's information system. By the form factors associated with TBF, it was possible to affirm that, despite operating for over twenty years, both machines are in the premature failures phase. This fact is due to the exchange of raw materials, which occurred about five years ago: the plant proceeded to process heavier oil, originated from the pre-salt layer, for which the installation was not designed. Such divergence may be characterized as a design fault, associated with the corrective maintenance strategy. Finally, a list of improvements projects was presented to increase the availability of the post and terminate the phase of premature failures.

  2. Interspecific hybridization increased in congeneric flatfishes after the Prestige oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Crego-Prieto

    Full Text Available Marine species with relatively low migratory capacity are threatened by habitat alterations derived from human activities. In November 2002 the tanker Prestige sank off the Spanish northwest coast releasing 70,000 tons of fuel and damaging biota in the area. Despite efforts to clean the damaged areas, fuel remnants have affected marine species over the last nine years. This study is focused on two flatfish, Lepidorhombus boscii (four-spotted megrim and L. whiffiagonis (megrim, whose spawning areas are located at the edge of the continental platform. We have analyzed megrim samples from North Spanish and French waters obtained before and after the oil spill. Genotypes at the nuclear marker 5S rDNA indicate a significant increase in interspecific hybridization after the Prestige accident, likely due to forced spawning overlap. The mitochondrial D-Loop region was employed for determining the direction of hybrid crosses, which were most frequently L. boscii female x L. whiffiagonis male. Reduced ability of L. boscii females to select conspecific mates would explain such asymmetric hybridization. To our knowledge this is the first time that increased hybridization between fish species can be associated to an oil spill. These results illustrate the potential long-term effect of petrol wastes on wild fish species.

  3. Increased tolerance to oil exposure by the cosmopolitan marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Kamille Elvstrøm; Dinh, Khuong Van; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-01-01

    Oil contamination is an environmental hazard to marine ecosystems, but marine organism tolerance to oil after many generations of exposure remains poorly known. We studied the effects of transgenerational oil exposure on fitness-related traits in a cosmopolitan neritic copepod, Acartia tonsa...

  4. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-01-01

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 %

  5. Coupled dynamic analysis of subsea pipe laying operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danilo Machado Lawinscky da; Jacob, Breno Pinheiro [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Civil. Lab. of Computational Methods and Offshore Systems

    2009-12-19

    It is recognized that deep water offshore oil exploitation activities requires the use of sophisticated computational tools to predict the behavior of floating offshore systems under the action of environmental loads. These computational tools should be able to perform coupled dynamic analyses, considering the non-linear interaction of the hydrodynamic behavior of the platform with the structural/hydrodynamic behavior of the mooring lines and risers, represented by Finite Element models. The use of such a sophisticated computational tool becomes mandatory not only for the design of production platforms, but also for the simulation of offshore installation operations. For instance, in the installation of submarine pipelines, the wall thickness design may not be governed by the pressure containment requirements of the pipeline during the operation, but by the installation process, specifically the combined action of bending, tension and hydrostatic pressure acting on the pipeline, that is also submitted to the motions of the lay barge. Therefore, the objective of this work is to present the results of numerical simulations of S-lay installation procedures using a computational tool that performs dynamic analysis coupling the structural behavior of the pipe with the hydrodynamic behavior of the vessel motions under environmental conditions. This tool rigorously considers the contact between the pipeline and its supports (lay barge, stinger, seabed). The results are compared to traditional pipe laying simulations based on RAO motions. (author)

  6. On the integrity of flexible pipes for subsea applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Marcos C. de; Brack, Marcelo; Lontra Filho, Lauro L.; Jorge, Nilo de M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Most of PETROBRAS offshore oil and gas production is conveyed through Flexible Pipes (FPs) used for gathering, exporting and importing functions. PETROBRAS is the greatest user of FPs worldwide and, due to the complexity of the FP, a composite structure having many steel and polymeric layers and end fittings, it implies a huge number of possible failure mechanisms, much more than those expected for steel pipes. The use of FP demands a special approach over all life cycle phases, from the basic engineering up to the operation/reuse/decommission, by evaluating the application feasibility together with potential failures. This paper accounts some of PETROBRAS experience on FPs, mainly a current approach on their integrity and planned measures in order to assure production and prevent accidents, based on the most relevant failure mechanisms. The preventive actions includes review on failures and their causes and, consequently, improvement on specifications, FP design verification, prototype qualification, inspection and monitoring of integrity key parameters during installation and operation, as well as, maintenance. A FPs Company Integrity Directives and Database will allow a continuous improvement of field systems reliability through to a periodic assessment of performances and feedback to activities for the whole FP life cycle. (author)

  7. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  8. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1999-04-28

    The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

  9. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Byrnes, Martin J.; Stephens, James O.; Vadie, Alex A.

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate that a microbially enhanced oil recovery process (MEOR), developed in part under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-90BC14665, will increase oil recovery from fluvial dominated deltaic oil reservoirs. The process involves stimulating the in-situ indigenous microbial population in the reservoir to grow in the more permeable zones, thus diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the waterflood. This five and a half year project is divided into three phases, Phase I, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Phase II, Implementation (45 months), and Phase III, Technology Transfer (12 months). Phase I was completed and reported in the first annual report. This fifth annual report covers the completion of Phase II and the first six months of Phase III.

  10. Liuhua 11-1 development -- Subsea conductor installation in the South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, R.P.; Coleman, R.A.; Hughes, J.D.; Mu, H.C.; Jiang, Z.M.; Macfarlane, A.M.; Mohr, H.O.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the initial phase of a multi-well subsea development using a building block technique. This phase included the setting of the conductors for all 20 wells, manifold piles and pipeline bases and the drilling of 15 wells to various stages of completion. Offshore operations were conducted in batches to maximize efficiencies and economies of scale. The emphasis of this paper is on the jetting operation of the conductors and the positioning techniques used to meet the requirements of the later phases of the building block process.

  11. VORTEX: Versatile and open subsea robot for technical experiment: Prototyping software architecture for the next AUV and ROV generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, V. [IFREMER, Toulon (France); Le Rest, E.; Marce, L. [UBO Limi Lab., Brest (France); Coste Maniere, E.; Simon, D. [INRIA Icare Project, Nice (France); Peuch, A.; Perrier, M. [IFREMER, Toulon (France)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a new experimental vehicle named V.O.R.T.E.X. (Versatile and Open subsea Robot for Technical EXperiment) built by the Subsea Robotics Laboratory at the French institute for Sea exploitation (Ifremer). The aim of this project is to work out the metamorphosis of a classical ROV architecture into an AUV architecture in particular for the control and programming architecture design. This vehicle is also designed to emulate the new IFREMER ROV6000 and the future Abyssal Survey Vehicle AUV, from a functional point of view.

  12. Supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon oil is associated with increased metabolic risk in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin B; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine M; Biggs, Janene B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-07-01

    Krill is an increasingly popular source of marine n-3 (ω-3) PUFA that is seen as a premium product. However, to our knowledge, the effect of krill-oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity in humans has not been reported. We assessed whether supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon (KS) oil [which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] affects insulin sensitivity in overweight men. The design was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial. A total of 47 men with a mean ± SD age of 46.5 ± 5.1 y, who were overweight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) from 25 to 30] but otherwise healthy, received 5 1-g capsules of KS oil or a control (canola oil) for 8 wk and crossed over to another treatment after an 8-wk washout period. The primary outcome was insulin sensitivity assessed by using the Matsuda method from an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Secondary outcomes included lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid artery intimamedia thickness. Unexpectedly, insulin sensitivity (per the Matsuda index) was 14% lower with the KS oil than with the control oil (P = 0.049). A mediation analysis showed that, after controlling for the likely positive effects of blood EPA and DHA (i.e., the omega-3 index), the reduction in insulin sensitivity after KS-oil supplementation was more marked [27% lower than with the control oil (P = 0.009)]. Supplementation with a blend of KS oil is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Thus, krill-oil supplementation in overweight adults could exacerbate risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This trial was prospectively registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000602921. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielita, Thomas; Gerton, George L; Neidell, Matthew; Chillrud, Steven; Yan, Beizhan; Stute, Martin; Howarth, Marilyn; Saberi, Pouné; Fausti, Nicholas; Penning, Trevor M; Roy, Jason; Propert, Kathleen J; Panettieri, Reynold A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD) has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density) were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of pcosts of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses.

  14. Use of precipitate formation technology to increase oil recovery under Tarasovskoye field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhametova, E. M.; Gizetdinov, I. A.; Kilmamatova, E. T.; Akimov, A. V.; Kalinina, S. V.; Fatkullin, I. F.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents data about using the technology of precipitate formation on the basis of sodium sulfate under conditions of the Tarasovskoye field, located in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. This technology consists in a sequential injection into the formation of sodium sulfate and calcium chloride, which leads to the formation of a precipitate of calcium sulfate, which eventually blocks flushed zones and water-saturated zones, thereby enabling intensification of oil-saturated areas development. Injection of precipitation systems was carried out in injection well № 775, the focus of which includes 6 producing wells. The daily production rate of the test production wells after the event has increased more than 2 times. In addition, the authors noted the positive results of changes in formation characteristics: a decrease in permeability, pressure conductivity factor and hydraulic conductivity in a water-saturated zone.

  15. The ectopic expression of the wheat Puroindoline genes increase germ size and seed oil content in transgenic corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Martin, John M; Beecher, Brian; Lu, Chaofu; Hannah, L Curtis; Wall, Michael L; Altosaar, Illimar; Giroux, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    Plant oil content and composition improvement is a major goal of plant breeding and biotechnology. The Puroindoline a and b (PINA and PINB) proteins together control whether wheat seeds are soft or hard textured and share a similar structure to that of plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins. Here we transformed corn (Zea mays L.) with the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) to assess their effects upon seed oil content and quality. Pina and Pinb coding sequences were introduced into corn under the control of a corn Ubiquitin promoter. Three Pina/Pinb expression positive transgenic events were evaluated over two growing seasons. The results showed that Pin expression increased germ size significantly without negatively impacting seed size. Germ yield increased 33.8% while total seed oil content was increased by 25.23%. Seed oil content increases were primarily the result of increased germ size. This work indicates that higher oil content corn hybrids having increased food or feed value could be produced via puroindoline expression.

  16. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Coconut oil increases HDL-c and decreases triglycerides in wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiani Figueiredo Santana; Katia Wolff Cordeiro; Fabíola Lacerda Pires Soares; Karine de Cássia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile in rats, supplemented with coconut oil, are evaluated and compared to other lipid sources. Female Wistar rats received by gavage 1 mL kg-1 of saline, soybean oil, lard or coconut oil during 21 days. At the end of the study period, body composition, food intake, feces, urine, organ weight and serum lipid profile were assessed. No statistical differences between the groups were found in body composition, food intake, fecal and urinary analysis...

  18. Distributed multiple-anodes benthic microbial fuel cell as reliable power source for subsea sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingchuan; Weinstein, Alyssa; Kolln, Michael; Garrett, Caleb; Wang, Lei; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Karra, Udayarka; Li, Yan; Li, Baikun

    2015-07-01

    A new type distributed benthic microbial fuel cell (MFC) (DBMFC) consisting of 18 MFC arrays was developed to enhance the robustness and stability of the power source for subsea sensor networks. A power management system (PMS) was integrated into the DBMFC system to boost the power output for two temperature sensors. The PMS was specifically designed with 18 charge pumps capable of simultaneously harvesting energy from 6 MFC units (18 anodes total) in the DBMFC system. The pilot scale DBMFC (total sediment volume: 1 m3) with continuous ocean water supply showed that the power outputs of individual MFC units were affected by the organic carbon and nitrogen contents in the sediment pore water. The MFC units with higher power output resulted in faster charging/discharging rate of the PMS supercapacitor. Manual disconnection of anodes from the PMS was conducted to simulate the anode malfunction caused by bioturbation. Fewer functional anodes (e.g. 12 out of 18 anodes were disconnected) slowed the charging/discharging rate of the PMS supercapacitor but still supported the PMS to regularly power two sensors. This scale-up DBMFC/PMS/sensor study demonstrated that multiple MFC units with multiple PMS substantially enhanced the stability and robustness of power supply to subsea sensors.

  19. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uloth, V; Shewchuk, D; Guy, E; van Heek, R

    2009-01-01

    .... Lab tests showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids, or waste fatty acids from canola processing, could decrease tall oil soap solubility and potentially increase soap skimming efficiency in the affected mills...

  20. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, B.H. (Thums Long Beach Co., Long Beach, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  1. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, B.H. [Thums Long Beach Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  2. Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

    2011-01-01

    This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w.

  3. Overexpression of patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ altered plant growth and increased seed oil content in camelina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoyin; Wei, Fang; Tawfall, Amanda; Tang, Michelle; Saettele, Allison; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-08-01

    Camelina sativa is a Brassicaceae oilseed species being explored as a biofuel and industrial oil crop. A growing number of studies have indicated that the turnover of phosphatidylcholine plays an important role in the synthesis and modification of triacylglycerols. This study manipulated the expression of a patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ (pPLAIIIδ) in camelina to determine its effect on seed oil content and plant growth. Constitutive overexpression of pPLAIIIδ under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter resulted in a significant increase in seed oil content and a decrease in cellulose content. In addition, the content of major membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, in 35S::pPLAIIIδ plants was increased. However, these changes in 35S::pPLAIIIδ camelina were associated with shorter cell length, leaves, stems, and seed pods and a decrease in overall seed production. When pPLAIIIδ was expressed under the control of the seed specific, β-conglycinin promoter, the seed oil content was increased without compromising plant growth. The results suggest that pPLAIIIδ alters the carbon partitioning by decreasing cellulose content and increasing oil content in camelina. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  5. Basil oil fumigation increases radiation sensitivity in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil was tested against the stored product pest rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae(L.). Adult weevils were exposed to seven different concentrations of basil oil ranging from 0.12 µl/ml-0.60 µl/ml in Petri dishes and mortality was assessed at 3,4 and...

  6. Integrated Risk Management as a Factor of Competitiveness Increase of Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Nikolaevna Shabanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to risk assessment and analysis (RAA in oil and gas industry. The article reviews current trends of risks’ assessment and management in oil and gas industry in relation to the activities of enterprises engaged in engineering design in the field of oil and gas processing considering the requirements of international standards (ISO. The classification of risks is provided with consideration of peculiar features of enterprises of Mineral Resources Sector. The authors present a review of major international and national standards, specifying the activities in risk management. It is shown that one of the modern trends of international standardization is a development of risk management and management of sustainable business based on the risk oriented approach. The authors have proposed the algorithm of risk management in oil and gas projects using the domestic software Business Studio, logically divided into following three stages: identification and assessment of project risks, development of risks mitigation measures and monitoring of project risks. The main indicators of the oil and gas complex of Russia (the volume of oil and gas, the primary oil refining, are the main risk factors for the oil and gas industry. The peculiarities of risk management are described in the form of an economic category. The article shows that risk can and should be controlled, in other words, certain measures should be applied to anticipate as many as possible the risk events and to reduce them.

  7. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  8. Biofortification (Se: Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D'Amato

    Full Text Available Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014. Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1 and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1. This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.

  9. Biofortification (Se): Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Roberto; Proietti, Primo; Onofri, Andrea; Regni, Luca; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Businelli, Daniela; Selvaggini, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se) onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino) on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014). Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1) and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1). This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase) activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.

  10. Science-based decision-making on the use of dispersants in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the DWH incident, most (if not all) existing oil spill response knowledgewas based on surface spills and surface applications of dispersant. The behavior ofdispersants subsea was (and still is) less understood, and previous research had notfocused on the duration or quan...

  11. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  12. Increase in the selenium content of extra virgin olive oil: quantitative and qualitative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amato, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biofortification of food crops for human consumption is a direct strategy increasing dietary intake of selenium (Se. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of increasing the Se content of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO by spraying the olive tree canopy with sodium selenate and the effect of the increase in Se on the chemical properties and sensory characteristics of the EVOO. Se treatments were up to 50 times more effective in enhancing Se content in the EVOO compared with the untreated controls. Se concentration in all the EVOO samples can be considered adequate and useful for providing the human diet with the correct dose of Se. Se-enriched EVOO showed a significant increase in pigment and phenol content. Also, Se treatment does not produce negative effects on fruit characteristics or the sensory quality of EVOO.La biofortificación de cultivos alimenticios para el consumo humano es una estrategia directa para aumentar la ingesta de selenio (Se en la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el contenido de Se en aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE pulverizando la copa de los olivos con selenato de sodio y el efecto del aumento en el contenido de Se en las propiedades químicas y características sensoriales del AOVE. Los tratamientos con Se fueron muy eficaces consiguiendo aumentar el contenido de Se en el AOVE hasta 50 veces más en comparación con los controles no tratados. La concentración de Se en todas las muestras EVOO puede considerarse adecuada y útil para proporcionar a la dieta humana con la dosis correcta de Se. EVOO-Se enriquecido mostró un aumento significativo en pigmentos y contenido de fenoles. Además, el tratamiento de Se no implica efectos negativos sobre caracteristicas frutales ni sobre la calidad sensorial de AOVE.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  14. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  15. A year in hypoxia: epibenthic community responses to severe oxygen deficit at a subsea observatory in a coastal inlet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Matabos

    Full Text Available Changes in ocean ventilation driven by climate change result in loss of oxygen in the open ocean that, in turn, affects coastal areas in upwelling zones such as the northeast Pacific. Saanich Inlet, on the west coast of Canada, is a natural seasonally hypoxic fjord where certain continental shelf species occur in extreme hypoxia. One study site on the VENUS cabled subsea network is located in the hypoxic zone at 104 m depth. Photographs of the same 5 m(2 area were taken with a remotely-controlled still camera every 2/3 days between October 6(th 2009 and October 18(th 2010 and examined for community composition, species behaviour and microbial mat features. Instruments located on a near-by platform provided high-resolution measurements of environmental variables. We applied multivariate ordination methods and a principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices to determine temporal structures in our dataset. Responses to seasonal hypoxia (0.1-1.27 ml/l and its high variability on short time-scale (hours varied among species, and their life stages. During extreme hypoxia, microbial mats developed then disappeared as a hippolytid shrimp, Spirontocaris sica, appeared in high densities (200 m(-2 despite oxygen below 0.2 ml/l. The slender sole Lyopsetta exilis was abundant in severe hypoxia and diminished as oxygen increased in the summer. This planktivore may be responding to changes in the depth of the diurnal migration of zooplankton. While the squat lobster Munida quadrispina was common at all times, juveniles disappeared in fluctuating conditions. Despite low oxygen conditions, animal densities were high indicating that the risk from hypoxia is balanced by factors such as food availability and escape from less tolerant predators. As hypoxia increases on the continental shelf, we expect benthic communities to become dominated by low diversity, hypoxia-tolerant species of low commercial significance.

  16. A year in hypoxia: epibenthic community responses to severe oxygen deficit at a subsea observatory in a coastal inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matabos, Marjolaine; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Juniper, S Kim; Dean, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Changes in ocean ventilation driven by climate change result in loss of oxygen in the open ocean that, in turn, affects coastal areas in upwelling zones such as the northeast Pacific. Saanich Inlet, on the west coast of Canada, is a natural seasonally hypoxic fjord where certain continental shelf species occur in extreme hypoxia. One study site on the VENUS cabled subsea network is located in the hypoxic zone at 104 m depth. Photographs of the same 5 m(2) area were taken with a remotely-controlled still camera every 2/3 days between October 6(th) 2009 and October 18(th) 2010 and examined for community composition, species behaviour and microbial mat features. Instruments located on a near-by platform provided high-resolution measurements of environmental variables. We applied multivariate ordination methods and a principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices to determine temporal structures in our dataset. Responses to seasonal hypoxia (0.1-1.27 ml/l) and its high variability on short time-scale (hours) varied among species, and their life stages. During extreme hypoxia, microbial mats developed then disappeared as a hippolytid shrimp, Spirontocaris sica, appeared in high densities (200 m(-2)) despite oxygen below 0.2 ml/l. The slender sole Lyopsetta exilis was abundant in severe hypoxia and diminished as oxygen increased in the summer. This planktivore may be responding to changes in the depth of the diurnal migration of zooplankton. While the squat lobster Munida quadrispina was common at all times, juveniles disappeared in fluctuating conditions. Despite low oxygen conditions, animal densities were high indicating that the risk from hypoxia is balanced by factors such as food availability and escape from less tolerant predators. As hypoxia increases on the continental shelf, we expect benthic communities to become dominated by low diversity, hypoxia-tolerant species of low commercial significance.

  17. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jemielita

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of p<0.00096 was considered statistically significant. Cardiology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with number of wells per zip code (p<0.00096 and wells per km2 (p<0.00096 while neurology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with wells per km2 (p<0.00096. Furthermore, evidence also supported an association between well density and inpatient prevalence rates for the medical categories of dermatology, neurology, oncology, and urology. These data suggest that UGOD wells, which dramatically increased in the past decade, were associated with increased inpatient prevalence rates within specific medical categories in Pennsylvania. Further studies are necessary to address healthcare costs of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses.

  18. Increased intake of vegetable oil rich in n-6 PUFA enhances allergic symptoms and prevents oral tolerance induction in whey-allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; van Esch, Betty C A M; Dingjan, Gemma M; Hofman, Gerard A; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2015-08-28

    Increased intake of vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA, including soyabean oil, has been associated with an increase in allergic disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of an increasing dose of dietary vegetable oil on allergic outcomes in mice. To study this, mice received a 7 v. 10 % soyabean oil diet before and during oral sensitisation with whey or whey hyperimmune serum transfer. Another group of mice received partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) while being fed the diets before oral sensitisation. The acute allergic skin response, serum Ig level, mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) concentration and/or splenic T-cell percentages were determined upon whey challenge. When the diets were provided before and during oral sensitisation, the acute allergic skin response was increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Whey IgE and IgG1 levels remained unaltered, whereas mMCP-1 levels increased in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet. Furthermore, allergic symptoms were increased in naive mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet and sensitised with whey hyperimmune serum. In addition to enhancing the mast cell response, the 10 % soyabean oil diet increased the percentage of activated Th1 and Th2 cells as well as increased the ratios of Th2:regulatory T cells and Th2:Th1 when compared with the 7 % soyabean oil diet. Oral tolerance induction by pWH was abrogated in mice fed the 10 % soyabean oil diet compared with those fed the 7 % soyabean oil diet during pretreatment with pWH. In conclusion, increased intake of soyabean oil rich in n-6 PUFA suppresses tolerance induction by pWH and enhances the severity of the allergic effector response in whey-allergic mice. Dietary vegetable oils rich in n-6 PUFA may enhance the susceptibility to develop or sustain food allergy.

  19. Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L-1 respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L-1 ), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L-1 ) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L-1 ). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 ), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g-1 ), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g-1 ) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g-1 ) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO. Leafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Y-method for subsea equipment installation; Metodo Y de instalacao de equipamentos 'subsea'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Melquisedec F.; Neves, Cassiano R. [SUBSIN - Subsea Integrity Engenharia e Projetos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents a new design of equipment to fall to the seabed, and the results of preliminary calculations to validate the concept. The goals to be achieved consider the current reality of offshore production demands the increasing use of equipment background with large mass and dimensions at increasing depths. The increase of the depths brings necessarily, independent of the mass value, the appearance of a 'zone of resonance' in which pick of tensions arise in values often exceed the capacity of the traction cables designed with all the factors of safety required in standard. This phenomenon necessitates the use of equipment that create the 'spring effect', damping equipment installed in the line of tension involving the use of cranes and ferries or compensating for 'heave' trying to minimize the effects of the balance of the sea in the operation involving where the use of vessels of large size and high cost. By splitting the vector of the load in two, by two different boats, six variables are introduced make it easy to control. The variables are: relative positions and lengths of the cable of witch vessel and the speed of descent of these cables. This development emphasized the cost factor to meet technical and operational characteristics of this type of work, including the same way all the safety requirements and operational speed. As a result of the additional method, we were able to introduce a new parameter in the coupling of equipment in the background since the method also brings the possibility of total control of the speed of approach and touch a tool in its 'slot' even it in a sea adverse. (author)

  1. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-04-30

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels

  3. Characterisation of crude oil components, asphaltene aggregation and emulsion stability by means of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aske, Narve

    2002-06-01

    Effective separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a central challenge for the oil industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, especially with the future increase in subsea and even down-hole processing of well fluids. The mechanisms and properties governing emulsion stability are far from fully understood but the indigenous surface active crude oil components are believed to play a major role. In this work a thorough physico-chemical characterisation of a set of crude oils originating from a variety of production fields has been performed. Crude oil properties responsible for emulsion stability were identified by use of multivariate analysis techniques like partial least squares regression (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). Interfacial elasticity along with both asphaltene content and asphaltene aggregation state were found to be main contributors to emulsion stability. Information on a crude oils ability to form elastic crude oil-water interfaces was found to be especially crucial when discussing emulsion stability. However, measured values of interfacial elasticity were highly dependent on asphaltene aggregation state. Several experimental techniques was utilised and partly developed for the crude oil characterisation. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) scheme was developed for SARA-fractionation of crude oils and an oscillating pendant drop tensiometer was used for characterisation of interfacial rheological properties. For emulsion stability a cell for determining the stability as a function of applied electric fields was used. In addition, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used throughout the work both for chemical and physical characterisation of crude oils and model systems. High pressure NIR was used to study the aggregation of asphaltenes by pressure depletion. A new technique for detection of asphaltene aggregation onset pressures based on NIR combined with PCA was developed. It was also found that asphaltene aggregation is

  4. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it by mouth to lose weight and lower cholesterol. Coconut oil is sometimes applied to the skin as a ... coconut oil by mouth as a medicine. High cholesterol: Coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase ...

  5. RTS-ROV operated tie-in system for low cost subsea developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, P.O.

    1995-12-31

    A new type pull-in and connection system is developed for very deep waters. The system is called ROV-operated Tie-in System (RTS). Main objectives during the development phase was to make a tool system more or less independent of water depth, use of simple low cost installation vessels, minimum equipment left subsea, minimum support structure sizes, simple control system, various launching methods possible and use of field proven clamp hub and seal assemblies. The result has been a very cost effective tie-in system which is a key factor for reduction of total field development costs. The capacity for the tool is 10 inch 3,000 psi flexible flow lines or alternatively 9 inch 5,000 psi. The RTS replaces divers during tie-in operations and can be used down to at least 1500 m water depth.

  6. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  7. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  8. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  9. Inhibitors removal from bio-oil aqueous fraction for increased ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhbaatar, Badamkhand; Li, Qi; Wan, Caixia; Yu, Fei; Hassan, El-Barbary; Steele, Philip

    2014-06-01

    Utilization of 1,6-anhydro-β-d-glucopyranose (levoglucosan) present (11% w/v) in the water fraction of bio-oil for ethanol production will facilitate improvement in comprehensive utilization of total carbon in biomass. One of the major challenges for conversion of anhydrous sugars from the bio-oil water fraction to bio-ethanol is the presence of inhibitory compounds that slow or impede the microbial fermentation process. Removal of inhibitory compounds was first approached by n-butanol extraction. Optimal ratio of n-butanol and bio-oil water fraction was 1.8:1. Removal of dissolved n-butanol was completed by evaporation. Concentration of sugars in the bio-oil water fraction was performed by membrane filtration and freeze drying. Fermentability of the pyrolytic sugars was tested by fermentation of hydrolyzed sugars with Saccharomyces pastorianus lager yeast. The yield of ethanol produced from pyrolytic sugars in the bio-oil water fraction reached a maximum of 98% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers work performed in the area related to the physicochemical factors for the improvement of the oil recovery efficiency in steamfloods. In this context, three general areas are studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes). (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems and long and narrow reservoirs (which are typical of oil reservoirs). (3) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the properties of foams.

  11. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  12. Olive oil attenuates the cholesterol-induced development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis despite increased insulin resistance in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, R; Ascher, M; Gäbele, E; Hellerbrand, C; Kob, R; Bertsch, T; Bollheimer, L C

    2013-10-01

    It is indefinite whether nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) results as by-product from general metabolic perturbations and adipokine dysregulations or whether defined dietary factors also play a pathogenetic role. Here, we examine the effects of a modification of dietary lipids in a NASH inducing diet on metabolic changes as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with variations of the atherogenic diet (AD), which induces pathophysiological changes resembling human NASH. Dietary variants (AD without cholesterol, cholate, or choline; change of neutral fat to olive oil or coconut oil) were fed for 8 weeks. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile, liver histology, and lipid content as well as expression of proinflammatory and profibrogenic genes were examined. AD led to clear signs of hepatic steatosis and inflammation together with an increase in TNF and collagen type 1 expression. AD without cholesterol showed markedly less liver damage without changes of insulin action and adipokine profile. AD with olive oil and AD without cholate clearly attenuated hepatic inflammation, whereas fat deposition and features of the metabolic syndrome were increased in these animals. Insulin resistance and hepatic fat deposition per se do not cause significant hepatic inflammation in this rodent model. However, dietary cholesterol is an important causal agent for the development of NASH. Olive oil plays a protective role in this respect, which might be due to the high content of monounsaturated fatty acids. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Sunflower oil versus no oil moderate pressure massage leads to greater increases in weight in preterm neonates who are low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Razieh; Akhavan Karbasi, Sedighah; Golestan, Motahhareh; Fromandi, Mostafa

    2013-09-01

    Growth velocity is one of the most important problems in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of body massage with and without sunflower oil on the growth of LBW preterm neonates in Iran. A single-blinded randomized clinical trial This study examined neonates admitted to NICU with gestational age of 33-37 weeks and birth weight of 1500-1999 g, without birth asphyxia and medically stable Neonates were randomly assigned to two groups to receive moderate pressure massage alone or the same massage with sunflower oil by their mothers, three times a day for 14 consecutive days. The primary variables were increases in mean of growth parameters (weight, height and head circumference) that were evaluated 14 days after intervention, at ages 1 and 2 months. Secondary variables were clinical side effects. Fifty-four neonates including 25 girls and 29 boys with mean gestational age of 35.3 ± 1.26 weeks were evaluated. Means of gestational age, birth weight and length of NICU stay were not different in both groups. In the oil massage group, mean weight at ages 1 month (mean ± SD: 2339 ± 135 vs. 2201 ± 93 g, P = 0.04) and 2 months (mean ± SD: 3301 ± 237 vs. 3005 ± 305 g, P = 0.005) was significantly greater than that of the body massage group. No adverse events were seen in the two groups. Sunflower oil massage might be used as an effective and safe intervention for weight gain in LBW preterm neonates. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin E or Red Palm Oil Increases The Level Of Nitric Oxide In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The groups were as follows; one unexposed group, six groups exposed to DDVP for 1 week, 2 weeks,3 weeks,4 weeks,5 weeks and 6 weeks in a poorly ventilated compartment, one group was administered with vitamin C, another group was administered with vitamin E and the last group administered with red palm oil.

  15. Vascular permeability-increasing effect of the leaf essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent microvascular hyperpermeability to plasma proteins is a characteristic feature of normal wound healing. Does the leaf essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum heal wounds by promoting this feature? Evan\\'s blue dye (20mg/kg body weight) in normal saline was administered intravenously through marginal ear vein of ...

  16. AMOCO Liuhua Triton{trademark} ROV(s)/AROWs -- Pre-planned remote intervention for subsea production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud-Perry, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the development and design of two (2) Advanced Remotely Operated Heavy Work (AROW) systems which have been designed specifically to support the AMOCO Liuhua FPSO and Subsea Production system remote intervention tasks in the South China Sea. The two ROV systems (Portable and Permanent) incorporate features and tools which have been pre-planned and designed to perform all aspects of the remote intervention requirements of the Liuhua project. This paper will address the design, coordination and planning performed to ensure that all phases of the subsea intervention were achievable in a cost effective, reliable and innovative manner. The emphasis is on the design solutions selected in relation to the project application requirements. The importance of early coordination between the client(s), operator and manufacturer to optimize the required system is also addressed.

  17. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  18. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Global brain storming : oil companies increasingly tap collective intelligence to overcome technology hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2009-04-15

    This article described a novel exploration approach that Toronto-based Goldcorp Inc. took a decade ago when it placed its geological data on the web for a mass collaboration effort among the global community of geologists to identify potential drilling sites. The move resulted in the identification of 110 targets, of which half were entirely new to Goldcorp, and of which four in five struck considerable quantities of gold. The article emphasized that the computer network offers a power that has not yet been fully tapped. It described other companies that have followed suite in finding solutions to proprietary challenges, including Schlumberger, Deloro Resources Ltd., Electro-Petroleum Inc., and Proctor and Gamble Inc. among others. The Web 2.0, which serves as a platform for a range of applications, can also be used for open-source science or global brainstorming. While the idea of open innovation was a novelty a year or two ago, it has now become a necessity. InnoCentive solved a long-standing oil spill problem when a chemist from the web with no ties to the oil industry suggested a way to handle the spill. The Cordova, Alaska-based Oil Spill Recovery Institute has also sought solutions for oil spills and novel boom designs. It was concluded that at a time when research and development budgets in the petroleum industry are being cut, open innovation facilitators stand to benefit. This cross-industry collaboration does not involve geoscientists alone. Rather, it includes people from completely different fields of expertise, experience or education who can add to the real issues that the oil industry needs to address and change. 1 ref.

  20. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kolden Midtbø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainable aquaculture, fish derived raw materials are replaced by vegetable ingredients. Fatty acid composition and contaminant status of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. are affected by the use of plant ingredients and a spillover effect on consumers is thus expected. Here we aimed to compare the effects of intake of Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (FO with intake of Atlantic salmon fed a high proportion of vegetable oils (VOs on development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Atlantic salmon were fed diets where FO was partly (80% replaced with three different VOs; rapeseed oil (RO, olive oil (OO or soy bean oil (SO. Fillets from Atlantic salmon were subsequently used to prepare Western diets (WD for a mouse feeding trial. Partial replacement of FO with VOs reduced the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and dichloro-diphenyl-tricloroethanes (DDT with more than 50% in salmon fillets, in WDs containing the fillets, and in white adipose tissue from mice consuming the WDs. Replacement with VOs, SO in particular, lowered the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content and increased n-6 PUFA levels in the salmon fillets, in the prepared WDs, and in red blood cells collected from mice consuming the WDs. Replacing FO with VO did not influence obesity development in the mice, but replacement of FO with RO improved glucose tolerance. Compared with WD-FO fed mice, feeding mice WD-SO containing lower PCB and DDT levels but high levels of linoleic acid (LA, exaggerated insulin resistance and increased accumulation of fat in the liver. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Replacement of FO with VOs in aqua feed for farmed salmon had markedly different spillover effects on metabolism in mice. Our results suggest that the content of LA in VOs may be a matter of concern that warrants further investigation.

  1. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Ibrahim, Mohammad Madani; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Aune, Ulrike Liisberg; Alvheim, Anita Røyneberg; Liland, Nina S; Torstensen, Bente E; Rosenlund, Grethe; Liaset, Bjørn; Brattelid, Trond; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    To ensure sustainable aquaculture, fish derived raw materials are replaced by vegetable ingredients. Fatty acid composition and contaminant status of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) are affected by the use of plant ingredients and a spillover effect on consumers is thus expected. Here we aimed to compare the effects of intake of Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (FO) with intake of Atlantic salmon fed a high proportion of vegetable oils (VOs) on development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice. Atlantic salmon were fed diets where FO was partly (80%) replaced with three different VOs; rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO) or soy bean oil (SO). Fillets from Atlantic salmon were subsequently used to prepare Western diets (WD) for a mouse feeding trial. Partial replacement of FO with VOs reduced the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichloro-diphenyl-tricloroethanes (DDT) with more than 50% in salmon fillets, in WDs containing the fillets, and in white adipose tissue from mice consuming the WDs. Replacement with VOs, SO in particular, lowered the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and increased n-6 PUFA levels in the salmon fillets, in the prepared WDs, and in red blood cells collected from mice consuming the WDs. Replacing FO with VO did not influence obesity development in the mice, but replacement of FO with RO improved glucose tolerance. Compared with WD-FO fed mice, feeding mice WD-SO containing lower PCB and DDT levels but high levels of linoleic acid (LA), exaggerated insulin resistance and increased accumulation of fat in the liver. Replacement of FO with VOs in aqua feed for farmed salmon had markedly different spillover effects on metabolism in mice. Our results suggest that the content of LA in VOs may be a matter of concern that warrants further investigation.

  2. Intake of Farmed Atlantic Salmon Fed Soybean Oil Increases Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Aune, Ulrike Liisberg; Alvheim, Anita Røyneberg; Liland, Nina S.; Torstensen, Bente E.; Rosenlund, Grethe; Liaset, Bjørn; Brattelid, Trond; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Background To ensure sustainable aquaculture, fish derived raw materials are replaced by vegetable ingredients. Fatty acid composition and contaminant status of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) are affected by the use of plant ingredients and a spillover effect on consumers is thus expected. Here we aimed to compare the effects of intake of Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (FO) with intake of Atlantic salmon fed a high proportion of vegetable oils (VOs) on development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice. Methodology/principal findings Atlantic salmon were fed diets where FO was partly (80%) replaced with three different VOs; rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO) or soy bean oil (SO). Fillets from Atlantic salmon were subsequently used to prepare Western diets (WD) for a mouse feeding trial. Partial replacement of FO with VOs reduced the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichloro-diphenyl-tricloroethanes (DDT) with more than 50% in salmon fillets, in WDs containing the fillets, and in white adipose tissue from mice consuming the WDs. Replacement with VOs, SO in particular, lowered the n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and increased n−6 PUFA levels in the salmon fillets, in the prepared WDs, and in red blood cells collected from mice consuming the WDs. Replacing FO with VO did not influence obesity development in the mice, but replacement of FO with RO improved glucose tolerance. Compared with WD-FO fed mice, feeding mice WD-SO containing lower PCB and DDT levels but high levels of linoleic acid (LA), exaggerated insulin resistance and increased accumulation of fat in the liver. Conclusion/Significance Replacement of FO with VOs in aqua feed for farmed salmon had markedly different spillover effects on metabolism in mice. Our results suggest that the content of LA in VOs may be a matter of concern that warrants further investigation. PMID:23301026

  3. Impact of Oil Price Increases on U.S. Economic Growth: Causality Analysis and Study of the Weakening Effects on the Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi FARHANI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The two oil shocks of the 1970s reduced the GDP growth rate, and since that period, sudden oil price increases have been considered as a major source of economic slowdown in the world. We thus estimate simple linear regression model (SLRM, dynamic regression model (DRM and VAR model to evaluate the impact of oil price increases on the U.S economic growth. Our results indicate strong weaknesses on the relation between these two factors in what way that the relation has had a low significant effect caused by the existence of breakpoints and the asymmetric effects of the oil price variations.

  4. Fish oil induced increase in walking distance, but not ankle brachial pressure index, in peripheral arterial disease is dependent on both body mass index and inflammatory genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Jacqueline; Brunner, Andreas; Dastur, Neville D; Tan, Rebecca M; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed; Shearman, Cliff P; Calder, Philip C; Grimble, Robert F

    2007-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease. Evidence suggests that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition and long chain n-3 fatty acids, found in oily fish and fish oils, have been shown to reduce inflammation. Genetic and lifestyle factors such as body mass index (BMI) also influence inflammation. In this study we have examined the effect of fish oil in patients with claudication secondary to PAD. Fish oil supplementation, providing 1g EPA and 0.7 g DHA per day for 12 weeks, increased walking distance on a treadmill set at 3.2 km/h with a 7% incline. Walking distance to first pain increased from 76.2+/-8.5 m before fish oil to 140.6+/-25.5 m after fish oil (mean+/-SEM, p=0.004) and total distance walked increased from 160.0+/-21.5 m before fish oil to 242.1+/-34.5 m after fish oil (p=0.002). Fish oil supplementation also improved ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) from 0.599+/-0.017 before fish oil to 0.776+/-0.030 after fish oil (p<0.001). The increase in walking distance was dependent on both BMI and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (detected using amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction). Neither BMI nor any of the genotypes examined affected the ability of fish oil to increase ABPI. The mechanisms by which fish oil affects walking distance and ABPI do not appear to be the same.

  5. WRI1-1, ABI5, NF-YA3 and NF-YC2 increase oil biosynthesis in coordination with hormonal signaling during fruit development in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Wan-Chin; Lee, Fong-Chin; Shabari Shan, Dilip Kumar; Musa, Hamidah; Appleton, David Ross; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2017-07-01

    The oil biosynthesis pathway must be tightly controlled to maximize oil yield. Oil palm accumulates exceptionally high oil content in its mesocarp, suggesting the existence of a unique fruit-specific fatty acid metabolism transcriptional network. We report the complex fruit-specific network of transcription factors responsible for modulation of oil biosynthesis genes in oil palm mesocarp. Transcriptional activation of EgWRI1-1 encoding a key master regulator that activates expression of oil biosynthesis genes, is activated by three ABA-responsive transcription factors, EgNF-YA3, EgNF-YC2 and EgABI5. Overexpression of EgWRI1-1 and its activators in Arabidopsis accelerated flowering, increased seed size and oil content, and altered expression levels of oil biosynthesis genes. Protein-protein interaction experiments demonstrated that EgNF-YA3 interacts directly with EgWRI1-1, forming a transcription complex with EgNF-YC2 and EgABI5 to modulate transcription of oil biosynthesis pathway genes. Furthermore, EgABI5 acts downstream of EgWRKY40, a repressor that interacts with EgWRKY2 to inhibit the transcription of oil biosynthesis genes. We showed that expression of these activators and repressors in oil biosynthesis can be induced by phytohormones coordinating fruit development in oil palm. We propose a model highlighting a hormone signaling network coordinating fruit development and fatty acid biosynthesis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  7. Abstract of report on increasing the oil yield in low temperature carbonization by the addition of catalyst and superheated steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-04-29

    In a letter dated February 2, 1943, Hydro-works Poelitz stated that in practical operation, as well as in the laboratory, an increased oil yield in low-temperature carbonization had been obtained by the simultaneous addition of superheated steam and sulfur. Other experiments with the same objective were later performed at Gelsenberg, Scholven, and Ludwigshafen. The laboratory experimental results and operating experimental results were discussed in this report. Poelitz found that it could increase its yield from 71.5% to 79.3% by the addition of 1.2% sulfur and an increase in the steam from 150 kg/hr to 320 kg/hr when carbonizing centrifuge residue from coal and, at the time, increased the throughput in the ball kiln from 3.5 to 3.8 tons/hr. Some properties of the heavy oils were given. The use of these results in mass production depended on two factors. The first was the extent to which the quantity of steam could be increased without too great an increase in the dust content of the precooler oil. The second factor was the economy of increased steam consumption and the cost of catalysts. Most of the beneficial effect of the additions seemed to be due to the steam, but the catalyst added some effect to that of the steam; without the use of steam, catalyst alone seemed to have essentially no effect. Replacement of part of the sulfur in the catalyst by small amounts of sodium sulfide and soda seemed to give the same effect as the sulfur alone, and the alkaline addition seemed to have the additional benefit of preventing the kiln residue from becoming plastic.

  8. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  9. Has Alberta oil sands development increased far-field delivery of airborne contaminants to the Peace-Athabasca Delta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Johan A; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Edwards, Thomas W D; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George

    2012-09-01

    Identifying potential regional contamination by Alberta oil sands industrial emissions on sensitive ecosystems like the Peace-Athabasca Delta, ~200 km to the north, requires knowledge of historical contaminant levels and trends. Here we provide some of these critically-needed data, based on analysis of metals in a sediment core from an upland precipitation-fed lake in the delta. The lake is well-situated to record the anthropogenic history of airborne contaminant deposition for this region. Sediment records of metals of concern (Pb, Sb, As, Hg) reflect early to mid-20th century increases in North American industrial emissions, followed by reduced emissions due to improved industrial practices after 1950-70. Notably, Pb, Sb, As and Hg have declined since the onset of Alberta oil sands production, belying concerns that this activity has enhanced far-field atmospheric delivery of these contaminants to the delta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-11-02

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  11. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  12. Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramprasath, V. R.; Eyal, I.; Zchut, S.; Shafat, I.; Jones, P. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bioavailability of krill oil has been suggested to be higher than fish oil as much of the EPA and DHA in krill oil are bound to phospholipids (PL). Hence, PL content in krill oil might play an important role in incorporation of n-3 PUFA into the RBC, conferring properties that render it effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of the present trial was to test the effect of different amounts of PL in krill oil on the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, asse...

  13. Predicting scour beneath subsea pipelines from existing small free span depths under steady currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Y. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An equation was developed to predict current-induced scour beneath subsea pipelines in areas with small span depths, S. Current equations for scour prediction are only applicable to partially buried pipelines. The existence of small span depths (i.e. S/D < 0.3 are of concern because the capacity for scour is higher at smaller span depths. Furthermore, it is impractical to perform rectification works, such as installing grout bags, under a pipeline with a small S/D. Full-scale two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and the Shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model. To predict the occurrence of scour, the computed maximum bed shear stress beneath the pipe was converted to the dimensionless Shields parameter, and compared with the critical Shields parameter based on the mean sediment grain size. The numerical setup was verified, and a good agreement was found between model-scale CFD data and experimental data. Field data were obtained to determine the mean grain size, far field current velocity and to measure the span depths along the surveyed pipe length. A trend line equation was fitted to the full-scale CFD data, whereby the maximum Shields parameter beneath the pipe can be calculated based on the undisturbed Shields parameter and S/D.

  14. SeeStar: an open-source, low-cost imaging system for subsea observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, F.; Kecy, C. D.; Haddock, S.

    2016-02-01

    Scientists and engineers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have collaborated to develop SeeStar, a modular, light weight, self-contained, low-cost subsea imaging system for short- to long-term monitoring of marine ecosystems. SeeStar is composed of separate camera, battery, and LED lighting modules. Two versions of the system exist: one rated to 300 meters depth, the other rated to 1500 meters. Users can download plans and instructions from an online repository and build the system using low-cost off-the-shelf components. The system utilizes an easily programmable Arduino based controller, and the widely distributed GoPro camera. The system can be deployed in a variety of scenarios taking still images and video and can be operated either autonomously or tethered on a range of platforms, including ROVs, AUVs, landers, piers, and moorings. Several Seestar systems have been built and used for scientific studies and engineering tests. The long-term goal of this project is to have a widely distributed marine imaging network across thousands of locations, to develop baselines of biological information.

  15. Microscale Modelling of Water and Gas-Water Flows in Subsea Sand Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Sugita, T.; Hirabayashi, S.; Nagao, J.; Jin, Y.; Kiyono, F.

    2009-12-01

    Methane hydrate is a promising energy resource in the near future. Its production is a current hot topic and flow of methane gas with water in sediment sand layer is very important to predict the production rate. In this study, permeability of microscale sand layer was numerically simulated by a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method. Shapes of real sands were extracted by series expansion of spherical harmonics using CT-scan images of real subsea core samples. These extracted sands were located in a cubic lattice domain by a simulated annealing method to fit to given porosities. Pressure difference was imposed at the both end faces of the domain to flow water and methane gas. By this simulation, permeability of water phase and water-gas two-phase flow were analysed and compared well with existing models. This work was financially supported by Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program planned by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). 3D image of an extracted frame-sand grain Distribution of gas and water phases in computational domain for Sw=0.80

  16. Extra virgin olive oil in maternal diet increases osteogenic genes expression, but high amounts have deleterious effects on bones in mice offspring at adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Neda Mousavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Maternal high-fat diet has been shown to have deleterious effects on the offspring bones. However, there is no study to assess the effects of type and amount of maternal dietary oil in an isocaloric diet, with focus on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that type of maternal dietary oil has more effects than its amount in an isocaloric diet during gestation and lactation on bone genes expression in offspring in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Virgin female C57BL/6 mice were impregnated and fed either the AIN 93G diet (received 16% of calories as soybean oil, as a control diet, or EVOO or a high fat AIN 93G diet (received 45% of calories as soybean oil or EVOO from the time of vaginal plug confirmation until offspring’s weaning. Results: After adjusting for the amount of oils, osteoprotegerin/ receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-κB ligand (OPG/RANK-L and OPG expressions were 6.1- and 2.8-folds higher in offspring born to EVOO compared with soybean oil-fed mothers. OPG, beta-catenin, and OPG/RANK-L expression were 88%, 94%, and 70% lower in offspring born to the 45% oil-fed mothers compared with the 16% group. In contrast, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARγ2 gene expression was higher in the 45% oil group, adjusted for the types of oil. Conclusion: Maternal EVOO consumption, but not soybean oil increased osteoblastic gene expression, and high amounts of both oils decreased osteoblastic and increased adipogenic genes expression in adolescent offspring.

  17. Extra virgin olive oil in maternal diet increases osteogenic genes expression, but high amounts have deleterious effects on bones in mice offspring at adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohamadreza; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Neek, Leila Shafiei; Shidfar, Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Maternal high-fat diet has been shown to have deleterious effects on the offspring bones. However, there is no study to assess the effects of type and amount of maternal dietary oil in an isocaloric diet, with focus on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that type of maternal dietary oil has more effects than its amount in an isocaloric diet during gestation and lactation on bone genes expression in offspring in adolescence. Virgin female C57BL/6 mice were impregnated and fed either the AIN 93G diet (received 16% of calories as soybean oil, as a control diet, or EVOO) or a high fat AIN 93G diet (received 45% of calories as soybean oil or EVOO) from the time of vaginal plug confirmation until offspring's weaning. After adjusting for the amount of oils, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-κB ligand (OPG/RANK-L) and OPG expressions were 6.1- and 2.8-folds higher in offspring born to EVOO compared with soybean oil-fed mothers. OPG, beta-catenin, and OPG/RANK-L expression were 88%, 94%, and 70% lower in offspring born to the 45% oil-fed mothers compared with the 16% group. In contrast, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARγ2) gene expression was higher in the 45% oil group, adjusted for the types of oil. Maternal EVOO consumption, but not soybean oil increased osteoblastic gene expression, and high amounts of both oils decreased osteoblastic and increased adipogenic genes expression in adolescent offspring.

  18. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin-Hyeob; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM) and peat mineral soil mix (PMM) are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD) can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP) and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM) × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD) factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (pfunctional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates) in both cover soils (pfunctional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining.

  19. Experimental study of oil-water with paraffin precipitation in submarine pipelines; Estudo experimental do escoamento oleo-agua com precipitacao de parafinas em dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Oliveira, Rafael de Castro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo], e-mail: bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: rafael@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The deposition of paraffins in submarine pipelines poses a serious problem for the offshore petroleum production. Paraffins precipitate off oily solutions due to a temperature decrease according to the phase equilibrium conditions of the liquid-solid system. After some time, the continuous precipitation leads to deposits in the internal walls of the pipe, clogging the lines and promoting an increase in the head loss of the flow. Consequently, there is an increase in the pressure gradient required to maintain the flow, and the flow rate is reduced. A complete obstruction of the pipeline may occur. In the present work, this phenomenon was studied in a simulation of the subsea operational conditions, where the oil pipelines laying on the seabed are subjected to low temperatures, just a little above the freezing point of water. The pipeline behaves as a heat exchanger and the hot oil from the underground reservoir emerging from the wellhead is effectively cooled down to the point where paraffin precipitation occurs somewhere along the line. An experimental apparatus was built for a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter pipe-flow model with 13 m of length, submerged in a chilling bath of near frozen water. Stream wise pressure and temperature gradients were measured, in order to evaluate the differences in the behavior of paraffin deposition between one-phase oil flow and two-phase oil-water flow. (author)

  20. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  1. Web-based oil immersion whole slide imaging increases efficiency and clinical team satisfaction in hematopathology tumor board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchuan Will Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI is widely used for education and research, but is increasingly being used to streamline clinical workflow. We present our experience with regard to satisfaction and time utilization using oil immersion WSI for presentation of blood/marrow aspirate smears, core biopsies, and tissue sections in hematology/oncology tumor board/treatment planning conferences (TPC. Methods: Lymph nodes and bone marrow core biopsies were scanned at ×20 magnification and blood/marrow smears at 83X under oil immersion and uploaded to an online library with areas of interest to be displayed annotated digitally via web browser. Pathologist time required to prepare slides for scanning was compared to that required to prepare for microscope projection (MP. Time required to present cases during TPC was also compared. A 10-point evaluation survey was used to assess clinician satisfaction with each presentation method. Results: There was no significant difference in hematopathologist preparation time between WSI and MP. However, presentation time was significantly less for WSI compared to MP as selection and annotation of slides was done prior to TPC with WSI, enabling more efficient use of TPC presentation time. Survey results showed a significant increase in satisfaction by clinical attendees with regard to image quality, efficiency of presentation of pertinent findings, aid in clinical decision-making, and overall satisfaction regarding pathology presentation. A majority of respondents also noted decreased motion sickness with WSI. Conclusions: Whole slide imaging, particularly with the ability to use oil scanning, provides higher quality images compared to MP and significantly increases clinician satisfaction. WSI streamlines preparation for TPC by permitting prior slide selection, resulting in greater efficiency during TPC presentation.

  2. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  3. Dietary fish oil, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, increases astrocyte activation in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; James, Nicholas C E; Mohammad, Dana; Irfan, Maha; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-11-07

    Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocyte phenotype in the hippocampus was assessed at baseline and 10 days post-surgery using immunohistochemistry with various microscopy and image analysis techniques. GFAP increased in all groups in response to amyloid-β, with a greater increase in fish oil-fed mice than either fat-1 or wildtype safflower oil-fed mice. Astrocytes in this group were also more hypertrophic, suggesting increased activation. Both fat-1- and fish oil-fed mice had greater increases in branch number and length in response to amyloid-β infusion than wildtype safflower animals. Fish oil feeding, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, enhances the astrocyte activation phenotype in response to amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocytes in mice fed fish oil were more activated in response to amyloid-β than in fat-1 mice despite similar levels of hippocampal n-3 PUFA, which suggests that other fatty acids or dietary factors contribute to this effect.

  4. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports “A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015 [1] and “Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016 [2].

  5. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J E; Sánchez-García, L; van Dongen, B E; Alling, V; Kosmach, D; Charkin, A; Semiletov, I P; Dudarev, O V; Shakhova, N; Roos, P; Eglinton, T I; Andersson, A; Gustafsson, O

    2012-09-06

    The future trajectory of greenhouse gas concentrations depends on interactions between climate and the biogeosphere. Thawing of Arctic permafrost could release significant amounts of carbon into the atmosphere in this century. Ancient Ice Complex deposits outcropping along the ~7,000-kilometre-long coastline of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), and associated shallow subsea permafrost, are two large pools of permafrost carbon, yet their vulnerabilities towards thawing and decomposition are largely unknown. Recent Arctic warming is stronger than has been predicted by several degrees, and is particularly pronounced over the coastal ESAS region. There is thus a pressing need to improve our understanding of the links between permafrost carbon and climate in this relatively inaccessible region. Here we show that extensive release of carbon from these Ice Complex deposits dominates (57 ± 2 per cent) the sedimentary carbon budget of the ESAS, the world’s largest continental shelf, overwhelming the marine and topsoil terrestrial components. Inverse modelling of the dual-carbon isotope composition of organic carbon accumulating in ESAS surface sediments, using Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertainties, suggests that 44 ± 10 teragrams of old carbon is activated annually from Ice Complex permafrost, an order of magnitude more than has been suggested by previous studies. We estimate that about two-thirds (66 ± 16 per cent) of this old carbon escapes to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, with the remainder being re-buried in shelf sediments. Thermal collapse and erosion of these carbon-rich Pleistocene coastline and seafloor deposits may accelerate with Arctic amplification of climate warming.

  6. Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. L.; Partridge, J. C.; Bond, T.; Birt, M. J.; Bornt, K. R.; Langlois, T. J.

    2017-06-01

    Remote Operated Vehicles are routinely used to undertake inspection and maintenance activities of underwater pipelines in north-west Australia. In doing so, many terabytes of geo-referenced underwater video are collected at depths, and on a scale usually unobtainable for ecological research. We assessed fish diversity and abundance from existing ROV videos collected along 2-3 km sections of two pipelines in north-west Australia, one at 60-80 m water depth and the other at 120-130 m. A total of 5962 individual fish from 92 species and 42 families were observed. Both pipelines were characterised by a high abundance of commercially important fishes including: snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Epinephelidae). The presence of thousands of unidentifiable larval fish, in addition to juveniles, sub-adults and adults suggests that the pipelines may be enhancing, rather than simply attracting, fish stocks. The prevalence and high complexity of sponges on the shallower pipeline and of deepwater corals on the deeper pipeline had a strong positive correlation with the fish abundance. These habitats likely offer a significant food source and refuge for fish, but also for invertebrates upon which fish feed. A greater diversity on the shallower pipeline, and a higher abundance of fishes on both pipelines, were associated with unsupported pipeline sections (spans) and many species appeared to be utilising pipeline spans as refuges. This study is a first look at the potential value of subsea pipelines for fishes on the north-west shelf. While the results suggest that these sections of pipeline appear to offer significant habitat that supports diverse and important commercially fished species, further work, including off-pipeline surveys on the natural seafloor, are required to determine conclusively the ecological value of pipelines and thereby inform discussions regarding the ecological implications of pipeline decommissioning.

  7. White Rose Project : preparing for first oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoon, R. [Husky Energy Inc., East Coast Development, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    An update of Husky Energy's participation in the White Rose Project was presented with reference to the remaining steps to first oil, final development challenges, the lasting legacy of benefits and relevant issues beyond first oil. The White Rose Project is located 350 km southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland and has recoverable reserves of 200 to 250 million bbls. Production life is estimated to be 12 to 15 years with a total development cost of $2.35 billion. The project development schedule was included along with an update on the glory hole excavation, the floating production storage and off-loading (FPSO) system and subsea production system. Five of the 10 development wells have been completed. Completion of the subsea installation program involves the installation of the riser, flowline, buoy and glory hole tie-ins. The ongoing challenges include safety performance at work sites, final regulatory approvals, and offshore environmental conditions. The White Rose Project has demonstrated local capabilities in engineering, fabrication and research and development for the province of Newfoundland. Husky East Coast employment trends were illustrated. It was also noted that Husky Energy currently holds 15 significant discovery licenses and signed 3 new exploration blocks in 2004. The largest gas areas in Newfoundland and Labrador include the White Rose Project (2.7 Tcf); Hibernia (1.3 Tcf); and Terra Nova (0.5 Tcf). The Grand Banks total gas reserves are estimated at 5.4 Tcf. Potential gas markets include Nova Scotia and the New England States. An evaluation of gas development and gas export options were listed with reference to the technical and economic feasibility of compressed natural gas; subsea pipelines; onshore liquid natural gas; offshore liquid natural gas; onshore or offshore gas to liquid; and, onshore or offshore methanol conversion. figs.

  8. Impact of Oil Price Increases on U.S. Economic Growth:Causality Analysis and Study of the Weakening Effects in Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Farhani, Sahbi

    2012-01-01

    The two oil shocks of the 1970s reduced the GDP growth rate, and since that period, sudden oil price increases have been considered as a major source of economic slowdown in the world. We thus estimate simple linear regression model (SLRM), dynamic regression model (DRM) and VAR model to evaluate the impact of oil price increases on the U.S economic growth. Our results indicate strong weaknesses on the relation between these two factors in what way that the relation has had a low significant ...

  9. Impact of Oil Price Increases on U.S. Economic Growth: Causality Analysis and Study of the Weakening Effects on the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Farhani, Sahbi

    2012-01-01

    The two oil shocks of the 1970s reduced the GDP growth rate, and since that period, sudden oil price increases have been considered as a major source of economic slowdown in the world. We thus estimate simple linear regression model (SLRM), dynamic regression model (DRM) and VAR model to evaluate the impact of oil price increases on the U.S economic growth. Our results indicate strong weaknesses on the relation between these two factors in what way that the relation has had a low significant ...

  10. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  12. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10-5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10-3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10-6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BKCa) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  13. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Ozone oil promotes wound healing by increasing the migration of fibroblasts via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weirong; Tang, Hua; Wu, Meng; Liao, Yangying; Li, Ke; Li, Lan; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2017-12-22

    Skin injury affects millions of people via the uncontrolled inflammation and infection. Many cellular components including fibroblasts and signaling pathways such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were activated to facilitate the wound healing to repair injured tissues. C57BL/6 female mice were divided into control and ozone oil treated groups. Excisional wounds were made on the dorsal skin and the fibroblasts were isolated from granulation tissues. The skin injured mouse model revealed that ozone oil could significantly decrease the wound area and accelerate wound healing compared with control group. QPCR and Western blotting assays showed that ozone oil up-regulated collagen I, α-SMA, and TGF-β1 mRNA and protein levels in fibroblasts. Wound healing assay demonstrated that ozone oil could increase the migration of fibroblasts. Western blotting assay demonstrated that ozone oil increased the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in fibroblasts via up-regulating fibronectin, vimentin, N-cadherin, MMP-2, MMP-9, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3, IGFBP5, and IGFBP6, and decreasing epithelial protein E-cadherin and cellular senescence marker p16 expression. Mechanistically, Western blotting assay revealed that ozone oil increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR to regulate the EMT process, while inhibition of PI3K reversed this effect of ozone oil. At last, the results from Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) demonstrated ozone oil significantly decreased the inflammation in fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that ozone oil facilitated the wound healing via increasing fibroblast migration and EMT process via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro The cellular and molecular mechanisms we found here may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin injury. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. SWIMMER - subsea work, inspection, and maintenance with minimum environment ROV [remotely operated vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, P.

    2000-07-01

    With the increasing depth of offshore oil and gas exploitation fields, the cost of traditional ROV operations for IMR tasks will represent a growing part of the total field's operational expenditures. The main objective of the SWIMMER Project is to demonstrate that it is possible to operate a standard Work ROV for IMR tasks on ultra-deep water fields without the need for long and heavy umbilicals, special support vessels and their associated costs. After a presentation of the innovative concept introduced by SWIMMER (mainly based on AUV technology), this paper focuses on the sub-systems used to control the vehicle during the autonomous phases, i.e. the positioning systems and the auto-pilots. (author)

  16. Optimization of a blanching process to reduce the furan level of potato crisps without increasing their oil uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit

    Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be formed in foods processed at high temperatures such as coffee, baby foods, bread and crisps. Considering that crisps are characterized by their high worldwide consumption, we decided to improve the chemical food safety of these fried products. Thus, the objec......Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be formed in foods processed at high temperatures such as coffee, baby foods, bread and crisps. Considering that crisps are characterized by their high worldwide consumption, we decided to improve the chemical food safety of these fried products. Thus......, the objective of this work was to reduce the level of furan in crisps without increasing their oil uptake. To accomplish this purpose a central composite design was used to study the effect of blanching time and temperature on the reduction of reducing sugars, one of furan precursors, in potato slices. After...... the pre-treaments, potatoes slices were fried at 170°C until reach a 2% of moisture (w.b.) and the impact of both factors (blanching time and temperature) over furan content and oil uptake were evaluated. Although blanching pre-treatments performed at higher temperatures (80°C) resulted in the lowest...

  17. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeob Kwak

    Full Text Available Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM and peat mineral soil mix (PMM are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05 in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05 near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01 according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05 but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates in both cover soils (p<0.05 in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05 regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining.

  18. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin-Hyeob; Chang, Scott X.; Naeth, M. Anne; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM) and peat mineral soil mix (PMM) are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD) can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP) and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM) × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD) factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05) in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05) near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01) according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05) but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates) in both cover soils (p<0.05) in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05) regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining. PMID:26618605

  19. Peroxidized mineral oil increases the oxidant status of culture media and inhibits in vitro porcine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C A; Nohalez, A; Ceron, J J; Rubio, C P; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Martinez, E A; Gil, M A

    2017-11-01

    The use of oils with undetected alterations is a long-recognized problem for in vitro embryo production systems. Since peroxides in oils have been associated with reduced embryo production outcomes, our goals were (1) to evaluate the effects of a batch of mineral oil (MO) that was suspected to be altered on the in vitro production of pig embryos and (2) to determine oil peroxide values throughout culture and the transfer of oxidant agents from oil to culture media. Sunflower oil, which has a completely different chemical composition than MO but a higher oxidative status, and unaltered MO were used as controls. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development were affected differently depending on the oil overlay used. While the suspected MO was not able to sustain in vitro maturation and fertilization, the oocytes incubated in the presence of sunflower oil were matured and fertilized similarly to those of the unaltered MO group. Moreover, the cleavage rate of presumed zygotes cultured under the suspected MO was severely reduced compared with those cultured under the other oils, and none of the cleaved embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Although the cleavage rates in the sunflower oil and unaltered MO groups were similar, embryos cultured under sunflower oil also failed to develop to the blastocyst stage. Our results revealed that the suspected MO and sunflower oil had similar levels of peroxides and that these levels were much higher than those of the unaltered MO. The total oxidant status was higher in media incubated under peroxidized oils than in fresh media or media incubated without an oil overlay or under unaltered MO, indicating that oxidant agents were transferred to the incubation media. However, unlike the sunflower oil group, the culture media incubated under the suspected MO had high levels of total oxidant status and low levels of hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species, suggesting the presence of other unknown oxidant agents in

  20. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  1. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya Srirangan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0 into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis.

  2. 30 CFR 250.442 - What are the requirements for a subsea BOP stack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BOP system must include an operable dual-pod control system to ensure proper and independent operation... critical functions in case of a loss of the power fluid connection to the surface. The accumulator system... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

  3. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P ...: Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... grams of the fat content of the habitualdiets was replaced by either butter/grapeseed oil (90:10) (BG); butter oil and low erucic rapeseed oil (65:35) (BR) orbutter blended in a 1:1 ratio with a interesterified mixture of rapeseed oil and fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil (70: 30)(BS). SUBJECTS: Thirteen...

  4. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinwong, Surarong; Chinwong, Dujrudee; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2017-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results . Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL ( p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion . Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.

  7. Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surarong Chinwong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18–25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i 15 mL VCO or (ii 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC solution (as control, twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females, daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p=0.001 compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.

  8. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  9. Microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend raises plasma long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels compared to tuna oil with similar increases in ileal contractility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Glen S; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Bird, Anthony R; Patch, Craig S; Belobrajdic, Damien P

    2017-03-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0.3 or 2 g/100 g for 4 weeks. Final body and organ weights, feed intake and waste output were similar. ME-TOKO rats had higher plasma total LC n-3 PUFA levels compared to ME-TO, but liver LC n-3 PUFA levels and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in non-fasted rats. Diets containing 2% ME-TO and ME-TOKO also showed similar increases in ileal contractility. In summary, ME-TO bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA was similar to ME-TOKO.

  10. Behavioral responses of brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) to reduced seawater pH following simulated leakages from sub-sea geological storage of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Shaw D; Westerlund, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale storage of CO2 within sub-sea geological formations is a viable option for reducing the volume of this greenhouse gas released directly to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities. Risks to benthic marine life following possible leakage of gas through the seabed from this carbon capture and storage (CCS) initiative are not yet well established. This study examined behavior (activity patterns) in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), exposed to a range of reduced seawater pH conditions (7.6, 7, or 6.5) simulating leakage scenarios of varying scales. Brown shrimp have an endogenous rhythmicity associated with their activity, which dictates they are most active during hours of darkness, presumably as protection against vision-dependent predators. This endogenous rhythm in activity continues to be expressed when shrimp are held under constant low-light conditions in the lab and provides an ecologically relevant endpoint to measure when examining the influence of reduced pH on the behavior of these animals. No marked differences in activity pattern were observed between control shrimp maintained at pH 8.1 and those at pH 7.6. However, changes in activity were evident at pH 7 and pH 6.5, where significant shifts in timing and intensity of activity occurred. There was an unexpected increase in activity within periods of expected light, probably signaling efforts by shrimp to migrate away from reduced seawater pH conditions. The loss of this important member of the benthic community due to migration may have important consequences for many of the resilient species that remain.

  11. U.S. CH4 emissions from oil and gas production: Have recent large increases been detected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L. M.; Basu, S.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bousquet, P.; Dlugokencky, E.; Houweling, S.; Ishizawa, M.; Kim, H.-S.; Locatelli, R.; Maksyutov, S.; Montzka, S.; Pandey, S.; Patra, P. K.; Petron, G.; Saunois, M.; Sweeney, C.; Schwietzke, S.; Tans, P.; Weatherhead, E. C.

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have proposed significant increases in CH4 emissions possibly from oil and gas (O&G) production, especially for the U.S. where O&G production has reached historically high levels over the past decade. In this study, we show that an ensemble of time-dependent atmospheric inversions constrained by calibrated atmospheric observations of surface CH4 mole fraction, with some including space-based retrievals of column average CH4 mole fractions, suggests that North American CH4 emissions have been flat over years spanning 2000 through 2012. Estimates of emission trends using zonal gradients of column average CH4 calculated relative to an upstream background are not easy to make due to atmospheric variability, relative insensitivity of column average CH4 to surface emissions at regional scales, and fast zonal synoptic transport. In addition, any trends in continental enhancements of column average CH4 are sensitive to how the upstream background is chosen, and model simulations imply that short-term (4 years or less) trends in column average CH4 horizontal gradients of up to 1.5 ppb/yr can occur just from interannual transport variability acting on a strong latitudinal CH4 gradient. Finally, trends in spatial gradients calculated from space-based column average CH4 can be significantly biased (>2-3 ppb/yr) due to the nonuniform and seasonally varying temporal coverage of satellite retrievals.

  12. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerburg, Olaf; De Spirt, Silke; Mattern, Annett; Joachim, Cornelia; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Siems, Werner; Stahl, Wilhelm; Mall, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF. PMID:25688177

  13. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  14. Increased production of antioxidative sesaminol glucosides from sesame oil cake through fermentation by Bacillus circulans strain YUS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Akiyama, Junko; Shimoyama, Takao; Yazaki, Shin-Ichi; Ui, Sadaharu; Hirose, Yuko; Mimura, Akio

    2003-10-01

    Bacillus circulans strain YUS-2 was isolated as the strongest antioxidant-producer in fermentation of sesame oil cake (SOC, defatted residue yielded from sesame seed oil production). Two major strong antioxidants from fermented SOC were purified and identified as known sesaminol triglucoside and sesaminol diglucoside, however, our results demonstrated that the fermentation process with B. circulans YUS-2 was highly effective to gain the extraction efficiency of the sesaminol glucosides.

  15. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity.

  16. Little evidence for significant increases of methane emissions from oil and gas operations in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X.; Tans, P. P.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M.; Miller, B.; Kofler, J.; Newberger, T.; McKain, K.; Wolter, S.; Montzka, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies on whether methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas (ONG) operations in the U.S. have increased are still inconclusive. To provide observational evidence we carefully analyzed the in-situ CH4 measurements from the NOAA/ESRL Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN) for the best estimates of CH4 trends for 2006-2016. Methane data from more than 20 surface and aircraft sites across the U.S. were included in this study. Variations of sampling frequencies in different seasons were taken into account for accurate trend detection. Correlations among measurements within short sampling intervals were also considered for uncertainty estimates. We found that most of our sites had similar CH4 trends of 6 ppb/yr, which was comparable with the recent global background CH4 trend. Substantially higher growth rates were found at the Southern Great Plain site in Oklahoma (SGP, downwind of the Eagle Ford, Barnett Shale and Woodford ONG fields) and the Dahlen sites in North Dakota (DND, downwind of the Bakken ONG field), which indicated influences from regional ONG activities. Ethane (C2H6) measurements from SGP (C2H6 measurements were not available from DND) and propane (C3H8) measurements from both SPG and DND exhibited significant increasing trends, while trends at other sites were either non-significant (trend ONG emissions) on CH4 trend estimates, we would infer much larger surface CH4 trends than what we actually observed at these two sites. This discrepancy suggests that using enhancement ratios of C3H8 /CH4 is not likely a reliable approach to compute CH4 emission trends.

  17. Increasing oil prices promote sales. Tuebingen-based market leader introduced pellet heating systems in Germany; Steigender Oelpreis als Konjunkturprogramm. Tuebinger Marktfuehrer brachte Pelletheizung nach Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, B.

    2001-09-01

    It was a Tuebingen organisation that first introduced wood pellet heating systems in Germany. Sales were improved by the increasing oil price. [German] Ein Tuebinger Unternehmen brachte die Holzpellets-Heizung nach Deutschland. Ein steigender Oelpreis diente dabei als 'Konjunkturprogramm'. (orig.)

  18. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Borkowska, Alison G; Bernhard, Annette; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Lock, Erik-Jan; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Torstensen, Bente E; Liaset, Bjørn; Brattelid, Trond; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil or soybean oil in fish feed had distinct spillover effects in mice fed western diets containing the salmon. A reduced ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish feed, reflected in the salmon, and hence also in the mice diets, led to a selectively increased abundance of arachidonic acid in the phospholipid pool in the livers of the mice. This was accompanied by increased levels of hepatic ceramides and arachidonic acid-derived pro-inflammatory mediators and a reduced abundance of oxylipins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These changes were associated with increased whole body insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Our data suggest that an increased ratio between n-6 and n-3-derived oxylipins may underlie the observed marked metabolic differences between mice fed the different types of farmed salmon. These findings underpin the need for carefully considering the type of oil used for feed production in relation to salmon farming. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of composite materials increase the availability of oil and gas and reduce the cost of drilling and production operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, James C.

    2007-04-01

    Recognizing the potential benefits, the oil exploration and production industry began to experiment with the field use of composite materials in the last half of the 1900's. Gradually, the inherent reluctance to move "unproven materials" into full operational applications is being overcome. Now, the increased price of crude and the need to locate and produce more oil and gas and to reduce associated costs are forcing an accelerated acceptance and use of composite materials in these operations. As a result, the cost of building, servicing, and maintaining drilling rigs and pipe lines is being reduced. "Thought to be depleted" oil and gas deposits are being revitalized. Technology currently in development and/or in the process of field trial demonstration are showing promise to provide enabling capability for obtaining greater reach in both extended reach and deep water drilling. Smart drill pipes and coiled tubing, able to provide both real-time communication from well head to drill bit and to similarly provide down hole power, have been demonstrated. This paper presents a summary of the current state of the use of composites in the Oil Patch and discusses areas of technology development which must be brought to fruition in order for the oil industry the reap full benefit, such as has been accomplished by the aerospace industry.

  20. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, R.W.; Durham, E.N.; Watson, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    A conventional waterflood in the North Stanley Field, Osage County, Oklahoma, nearing the economic limit, was modified by substituting an aqueous solution of polyacrylamides for brine as the intected fluid. Remedial operations on existing facilities were performed before polymer injection began. Positive oil production response was achieved from this 1000-acre project, a maximum EOR production rate of about 200 barrels per day being achieved within 1-1/2 years after the start of polymer injection. Based on performance to January 1979, ultimate EOR recovery is estimated at 500,000 barrels.

  1. Garlic essential oil increases rates of eggs fertilization and hatching of Rhamdia quelen larvae in an artificial incubation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Garcia Marengoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum essential oil on the rates of eggs fertilization and hatching and on the normal development of larvae of artificially incubated silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of introducing garlic essential oil into the incubators, which used a closed system of water recirculation, at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5mg L-1. Rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching were determined at 10 and 24h after the beginning of eggs hydration. Morphology of larvae was assessed with the aid of a stereo microscope to determine the rate of normal development. The concentration of 5mg L-1 promoted better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching. Concentrations of garlic essential oil had a linear effect on eggs fertilization rates and larval hatching. Garlic oil did not influence the morphology of the larvae (P>0.05. It is recommended to use 5mg L-1 of garlic essential oil to promote better rates of eggs fertilization and larval hatching of artificially incubated silver catfish.

  2. Increase base oil production using new technology for dewaxing aid; Desenvolvimento de novo aditivo para o processo de desparafinacao promove aumento da producao de oleos lubrificantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Anita E.F.; Lima, Anie D. M.; Parauta, Cintia C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Freitas, Luis F.; Pires, Felipe de F.; Junior, Adalberto F.; Santos, Claudio A.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria Duque de Caxias (REDUC)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS produces simultaneously lubricant base oils and waxes in two of its refineries: Duque de Caxias (REDUC) and Landulpho Alves (RLAM). REDUC is the biggest in terms of volume output, contributing approximately with 78% of the national base oil production and 20% of wax. Unlike the RLAM refinery, which processes only Brazilian national crude, REDUC refinery processes imported paraffinic crude in a conventional refining scheme known as solvent route. Dewaxing is one of the most expensive steps in the solvent route used for the paraffin and oil separation. With the objective of improving the performance of this stage, traditionally high molecular weight polymer additives are mixed to the feedstock. This study presents the results that prove that investments in the development of new additives, which promote increases in the unit's production rate and enhance operational flexibility compared to tests without additives. One of these new additives also provides environmental benefits because it is made without aggressive products such as toluene. A modest investment in research studies increased production of base oil with existing plant and significantly increased the profitability of the REDUC lubricant unit. (author)

  3. Implementation of subsea system to monitor in-situ temperature and formation pressure in methane hydrates sediments for the production test in 2017, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, K.

    2016-12-01

    The methane hydrates phase changes, from solid to fluid, is governed by pressure drop and heat transportation through a geological formation. For the world's first offshore production test of methane hydrates conducted in 2013, the MH21 research team installed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) cables and array type resistance temperature devices (RTD) behind the casings of the monitoring wells. The temperature monitoring was continued over the period of 18 months. As a result, the thermal response of the methane hydrate-bearing sediment during depressurization was observed, and the obtained data was used to evaluate the methane dissociation behavior and to estimate the dissociation front radius from a producer well. The second offshore production test is planned in the same area in 2017 with the extended period up to one month. Two sets of a pair of monitoring and producer well were drilled in 2016. A pair of monitoring and producer wells is only 20m apart. An improved monitoring system is prepared for the second test with additional pressure measurement capability with new features of subsea system. The planed formation pressure measurement is expected to contribute not only for the evaluation of methane hydrate phase changes and estimation of its areal distribution but also the analyzing the interference in the vicinity of the producer wells from the geo-mechanical point of view. The DTS resolution was improved with longer averaging time than the previously utilized system. To accomplish the continuous acquisition up running over longer than 18 months to cover pre-flow and post-flow periods, the subsea acquisition system was equipped with an exchangeable subsea batteries by ROV. As for the surface communication method, the acoustic transponder was added in the subsea system. In this technical presentation, the improvements on the monitoring system are discussed and the scientific objectives for new measurements such as formation pressure are presented.

  4. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  5. The multiple gas-liquid subsea separation system: development and qualification of a novel solution for deep water field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie; Butin, Nicolas; Shaiek, Sadia; Hallot, Raymond [Saipem S.p.A., Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Subsea processing is more and more considered as a viable solution for the development of deep and ultra deep water fields. SAIPEM has developed a deep water gas separation and liquid boosting system, based on its proprietary 'Multi pipe' separator concept, providing a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and un-steady multiphase input streams using a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The Multi pipe Concept features an array of vertical pipes for gas/liquid separation by gravity and adequate liquid hold up volumes. The operating principle is the same as standard gravity vessels. Specific inlet pipe arrangements have been worked out to enhance the separation efficiency and internals can be implemented to further optimize the performances. The limited diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes make the Multi pipe Concept particularly suited for deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure conditions where the selection of a single separator vessel could lead to unpractical wall thicknesses. In most cases, standard API or ASME pipes can be utilized for the Multi pipe Separator, thus enabling conventional fabrication methods, and in turn reducing cost and delivery time and opening opportunities for local content. The qualification testing program has seen two subsequent phases. The first qualification phase aimed at the confirmation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the system. In particular, the homogeneous distribution of the multiphase stream into the pipes and the stability of the liquid levels under un-steady inlet conditions were continuously assessed during the tests. This first qualification phase gave confidence in the viability of the Multi pipe and in its good hydrodynamic behavior under the different inlet conditions that can be encountered during field production. It proved that, having the same liquid level in all the separator pipes, whatever the inlet conditions are, the Multi pipe separator can be

  6. Simulating the effect of hydrate dissociation on wellhead stability during oil and gas development in deepwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingchao; Cheng, Yuanfang; Zhang, Huaiwen; Yan, Chuanliang; Liu, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that methane hydrate has been identified as an alternative resource due to its massive reserves and clean property. However, hydrate dissociation during oil and gas development (OGD) process in deep water can affect the stability of subsea equipment and formation. Currently, there is a serious lack of studies over quantitative assessment on the effects of hydrate dissociation on wellhead stability. In order to solve this problem, ABAQUS finite element software was used to develop a model and to evaluate the behavior of wellhead caused by hydrate dissociation. The factors that affect the wellhead stability include dissociation range, depth of hydrate formation and mechanical properties of dissociated hydrate region. Based on these, series of simulations were carried out to determine the wellhead displacement. The results revealed that, continuous dissociation of hydrate in homogeneous and isotropic formations can causes the non-linear increment in vertical displacement of wellhead. The displacement of wellhead showed good agreement with the settlement of overlying formations under the same conditions. In addition, the shallower and thicker hydrate formation can aggravate the influence of hydrate dissociation on the wellhead stability. Further, it was observed that with the declining elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio, the wellhead displacement increases. Hence, these findings not only confirm the effect of hydrate dissociation on the wellhead stability, but also lend support to the actions, such as cooling the drilling fluid, which can reduce the hydrate dissociation range and further make deepwater operations safer and more efficient.

  7. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R.; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account. PMID:27736913

  8. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(−)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(−)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  9. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-08-27

    The chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L(-1)), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(-)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(-)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  10. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-08-01

    Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. We compared the effects of moderate butter intake, moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m²) of 40.4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P butter resulted in increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum, whereas moderate butter intake may be considered part of the diet in the normocholesterolemic population. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Fiber-Optic Monitoring System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin H.; Tang, Henry H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system capable of measuring pressure, strain, and temperature that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. A summary is provided of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and subsequent design refinements of the device. The results of laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are also included. Limitations of the initial concept were identified during testing and future design improvements were proposed and later implemented. These new features enhance the coupling of the sensor device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on flowlines, risers, and other subsea structures. The work described in this paper investigates the design and test of a friction-based coupling device (herein referred to as a friction clamp) which is suitable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column as well as for those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiberoptic sensors that are bonded to a stainless steel clamshell assembly with a high-friction surface coating. The friction clamp incorporates a single hinge design to facilitate installation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force along the structure. The friction clamp can be modified to be installed by commercial divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating

  12. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin H.; Tang, Henry H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  13. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole; Brower, David; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin; Tang, Henry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  14. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died

  15. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. CP survey of deep water structures and subsea installations using an ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leask, L.J. (Oceans Technology, Inc., Harvey, LA (US))

    1989-01-01

    The successful and efficient CP survey of a deep water structure using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) has remained an enigma to many corrosion engineers in oil companies. The location of the corrosion group within the company structure often plays a major role in the success of the project. Operators locate their corrosion departments in different groups, some in the offshore/onshore operations and others in the design group. This location often has a bearing on the financial and operational approach to the project. This paper discusses how a successful CP survey is both an achievable and exciting project with experienced pre- planning and selection of the correct equipment.

  17. Possible Molecular Mechanisms by Which an Essential Oil Blend from Star Anise, Rosemary, Thyme, and Oregano and Saponins Increase the Performance and Ileal Protein Digestibility of Growing Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Henry; Zentek, Jürgen; Männer, Klaus; Youssef, Ibrahim M I; Aumiller, Tobias; Weghuber, Julian; Wimmers, Klaus; Mueller, Andreas S

    2017-08-16

    Phytogenic feed additives represent a potential alternative to antibiotics with attributed health and growth-promoting effects. Chickens supplemented with an essential oil blend, a Quillaja saponin blend, or a combination of both phytogenic preparations showed a comprehensively and significantly improved apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids compared to control birds. Accordingly, holistic transcriptomic analyses of jejunum and liver samples indicated alterations of macromolecule transporters and processing pathways likely culminating in an increased uptake and metabolizing of carbohydrates and fatty acids. Complementary analyses in Caco-2 showed a significant increase in transporter recruitment to the membrane (SGLT1 and PEPT1) after addition of essential oils and saponins. Although the penetrance of effects differed for the used phytogenic feed additives, the results indicate for an overlapping mode of action including local effects at the intestinal border and systemic alterations of macronutrient metabolism resulting in an improved performance of broilers.

  18. Dry hyperbaric gas metal arc welding of subsea pipelines: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Amin S.

    2012-07-01

    Ambitions in exploration of oil and gas fields at deeper water depth require continuous investigation and maintenance. The transportation pipelines laid in deep waters are both subjected to corrosion and buckling due to environmental phenomena. They may also often undergo branching (namely hot tapping) to redirect (or add to) the transportation paths. Mechanical joints and welding are both considered as available alternatives when sectioning and replacement of the pipes at shallow waters is necessary, yet, welding is more promising for deep waters where remote operation is central. Fusion welding on the other hand comprises several technological detractions for sound operations under high ambient pressures disregarding its low cost and flexibility. The foremost detracting phenomenon in the arc welding is called 'arc root constriction', which is defined as arc geometry shrinkage under the increased pressure. Consequently, the power delivery to the weld pool at different pressure levels is a major worry. Effects of ionization and dissociation energies of different gases and mixtures, partial pressure of environmental gases including hydrogen and oxygen, gasification and degasification of the weld metal, inclusions that affect the phase transformation, absorption and desorption kinetics, oxidation and deoxidation reactions and many more are the phenomena that can possibly be altered by the gas type and ambient pressure level. Spattering and fume generation is a problematic issue since the arc is rather unstable under high pressure. Thus, seeking the effect of different chamber gas mixtures on welding parameters, final microstructure and mechanical properties is the main objective of this work.Statistical analysis of the collected voltage and current waveforms is carried out to identify the source of arc misbehavior and instability (discussed in Paper I). The stochastic parameters is related to the electrical stability and resolved into a number of varying

  19. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding, Class 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, James O.; Brown, Lewis R.; Vadie, A. Alex

    2000-02-02

    The objectives of this project were (1) to demonstrate the in situ microbial population in a fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir could be induced to proliferate to such an extent that they will selectively restrict flow in the more porous zones in the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through previously unswept areas thus improving the sweep efficiency of the waterflood and (2) to obtain scientific validation that microorganisms are indeed responsible for the increased oil recovery. One expected outcome of this new technology was the prolongation of economical life of the reservoir, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in areas of the reservoir subjected to the MPPM technology than it would if it followed its historic trend.

  20. Potential physicochemical basis of Mediterranean diet effect: Ability of emulsified olive oil to increase carotenoid bioaccessibility in raw and cooked tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Ti; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Ruojie; Zhang, Zipei; Dai, Taotao; McClements, David Julian

    2016-11-01

    Excipient emulsions have compositions and structures specifically designed to increase the bioavailability of nutraceuticals in foods that they are co-ingested with. In this study, olive oil excipient emulsions were shown to significantly increase the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from tomatoes using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model (praw tomato-buffer mixture, and cooked tomato-buffer mixture; While being 32.3±2.60%, 55.7±3.28% and 42.6±3.75% for raw tomato-emulsion mixture, cooked tomato-emulsion mixture (boiled together) and cooked tomato- emulsion mixture (tomato boiled alone). These effects were attributed to: (i) the ability of digested olive oil droplets to form mixed micelles in the small intestine that solubilized the carotenoids; and, (ii) the ability of natural antioxidants (phenolics) in the olive oil to protect the carotenoids from oxidation. Thermal treatment (boiling) significantly increased carotenoid bioaccessibility from the tomatoes digested with emulsion, which was attributed to plant tissue disruption at elevated temperatures facilitating carotenoid release (pdiet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Walnut oil increases cholesterol efflux through inhibition of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillies Peter J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walnuts significantly decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normo- and hypercholesterolemic individuals. No study to date has evaluated the effects of walnuts on cholesterol efflux, the initial step in reverse cholesterol transport, in macrophage-derived foam cells (MDFC. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which walnut oil affects cholesterol efflux. Methods The extract of English walnuts (walnut oil was dissolved in DMSO and applied to cultured THP-1 MDFC cells (0.5 mg/mL. THP-1 MDFC also were treated with human sera (10%, v:v taken from subjects in a walnut feeding study. Cholesterol efflux was examined by liquid scintillation counting. Changes in gene expression were quantified by real time PCR. Results Walnut oil treatment significantly increased cholesterol efflux through decreasing the expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 in MDFC. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in walnuts, recaptured SCD1 reduction in MDFC, a mechanism mediated through activation of nuclear receptor farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR. Postprandial serum treatment also increased cholesterol efflux in MDFC. When categorized by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP; cut point of 2 mg/L, subjects in the lower CRP sub-group benefited more from dietary intervention, including a more increase in cholesterol efflux, a greater reduction in SCD1, and a blunted postprandial lipemia. Conclusion In conclusion, walnut oil contains bioactive molecules that significantly improve cholesterol efflux in MDFC. However, the beneficial effects of walnut intake may be reduced by the presence of a pro-inflammatory state. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00938340

  2. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Assessment of environmental problems associated with increased enhanced oil recovery in the United States: 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Garrell, M.; Royce, B.; Riedel, E.F.; Sathaye, J.

    1983-01-01

    Water requirements and uncontrolled air emissions from well vents and steam generators were estimated for each technology based upon available literature. Estimates of best air emission control technologies were made using data for EOR steam generators actually in use, as well as control technologies presently available but used by other industries. Amounts of solid wastes were calculated for each air emission control technology. Estimates were also made of the heavy metal content of these solid wastes. The study also included environmental residuals which may be expected should coal be used instead of lean crude to produce steam for thermal EOR. It was concluded that from an environmental prospective tertiary oil is preferable in many respects to shale oil, coal and synfuels. Alternative sources of oil such as syncrude, new exploration, and primary production could cause far more environmental damage than incremental EOR. Future EOR in specific regions may be constrained because of environmental issues: air emissions, solid waste disposal, water availability, and aquifer contaminators. Competition for water and the scarcity of surface water or groundwater which are low in total diminutive solids will impede some EOR projects. Risks of groundwater contamination should be minimized particularly because of requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new underground injection control program. A quantitative environmental assessment will require a complete and consistent data base for all fields for which EOR is planned out in which tertiary production is taking place. This is particularly true for EOR which will occur in Alaska or in offshore areas, where environments are fragile and where operating conditions are severe. 147 references, 29 figures, 46 tables.

  4. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  5. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  6. Activation of Aspen Wood with Carbon Dioxide and Phosphoric Acid for Removal of Total Organic Carbon from Oil Sands Produced Water: Increasing the Yield with Bio-Oil Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksha, Andrei; Bhuiyan, Tazul I.; Hill, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Several samples of activated carbon were prepared by physical (CO2) and chemical (H3PO4) activation of aspen wood and tested for the adsorption of organic compounds from water generated during the recovery of bitumen using steam assisted gravity drainage. Total organic carbon removal by the carbon samples increased proportionally with total pore volume as determined from N2 adsorption isotherms at −196 °C. The activated carbon produced by CO2 activation had similar removal levels for total organic carbon from the water (up to 70%) to those samples activated with H3PO4, but lower yields, due to losses during pyrolysis and activation. A method to increase the yield when using CO2 activation was proposed and consisted of recycling bio-oil produced from previous runs to the aspen wood feed, followed by either KOH addition (0.48%) or air pretreatment (220 °C for 3 h) before pyrolysis and activation. By recycling the bio-oil, the yield of CO2 activated carbon (after air pretreatment of the mixture) was increased by a factor of 1.3. Due to the higher carbon yield, the corresponding total organic carbon removal, per mass of wood feed, increased by a factor of 1.2 thus improving the overall process efficiency. PMID:28787817

  7. Activation of Aspen Wood with Carbon Dioxide and Phosphoric Acid for Removal of Total Organic Carbon from Oil Sands Produced Water: Increasing the Yield with Bio-Oil Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Veksha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several samples of activated carbon were prepared by physical (CO2 and chemical (H3PO4 activation of aspen wood and tested for the adsorption of organic compounds from water generated during the recovery of bitumen using steam assisted gravity drainage. Total organic carbon removal by the carbon samples increased proportionally with total pore volume as determined from N2 adsorption isotherms at −196 °C. The activated carbon produced by CO2 activation had similar removal levels for total organic carbon from the water (up to 70% to those samples activated with H3PO4, but lower yields, due to losses during pyrolysis and activation. A method to increase the yield when using CO2 activation was proposed and consisted of recycling bio-oil produced from previous runs to the aspen wood feed, followed by either KOH addition (0.48% or air pretreatment (220 °C for 3 h before pyrolysis and activation. By recycling the bio-oil, the yield of CO2 activated carbon (after air pretreatment of the mixture was increased by a factor of 1.3. Due to the higher carbon yield, the corresponding total organic carbon removal, per mass of wood feed, increased by a factor of 1.2 thus improving the overall process efficiency.

  8. DHA-rich Fish Oil Increases the Omega-3 Index and Lowers the Oxygen Cost of Physiologically Stressful Cycling in Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingley, Lachlan; Macartney, Michael J; Brown, Marc A; McLennan, Peter L; Peoples, Gregory E

    2017-08-01

    Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modulates oxygen consumption and fatigue in animal models. However, in humans predominately supplemented with high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), there is no evidence of endurance performance enhancement. Therefore, this study examined if DHA-rich fish oil could improve repeated bouts of physiologically stressful cycling and a subsequent time trial in a state of fatigue. Twenty-six trained males took part in a double-blind study and were supplemented with either 2 × 1g/day soy oil, Control) or DHA-rich tuna fish oil (Nu-Mega) (FO) (560mg DHA / 140mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), for 8 weeks. Maximal cycling power (3 × 6s), isometric quadriceps strength (MVC), Wingate cycling protocol (6 × 30s) and a 5min cycling time-trial were assessed at baseline and eight weeks. The Omega-3 Index was not different at baseline (Control: 4.2 ± 0.2; FO: 4.7 ± 0.2%) and increased in the FO group after eight weeks (Control: 3.9 ± 0.2; FO: 6.3 ± 0.3%, p < .01). There was no effect of DHA-rich fish oil on power output of maximal 6s cycle sprinting (Control: Pre 1100 ± 49 Post 1067 ± 51; FO: Pre 1070 ± 46 Post 1042 ± 46W), during 5min time trail (Control: Pre 267 ± 19 Post 278 ± 20; FO: Pre 253 ± 16 Post 265 ± 16 W) or maximal voluntary contraction force (Control: Pre 273 ± 19 Post 251 ± 19; FO: Pre 287 ± 17 Post 283 ± 16 Nm). Nevertheless, relative oxygen consumption was reduced the FO group during the cycling time trial (Control: -23 ± 26; FO: -154 ± 59ml O2/min/100W p < .05) suggesting improved economy of cycling. We conclude that DHA-rich fish oil, successful at elevating the Omega-3 Index, and reflective of skeletal muscle membrane incorporation, can modulate oxygen consumption during intense exercise.

  9. Program changes are effective and cost-effective in increasing the amount of oil used in preparing corn soy blend porridge for treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Beatrice Lorge; Wilner, Lauren B; Maganga, Gray; Walton, Shelley Marcus; Suri, Devika J; Langlois, Breanne K; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho; Boiteau, Jocelyn M; Vosti, Stephen A; Webb, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Corn Soy Blend (CSB) porridge is commonly prepared with oil for treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). A recent review recommended that 30 g of oil be used with 100 g of CSB to increase energy density and micronutrient absorption. This study assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of program changes aimed at achieving that target oil:CSB ratio in prepared porridge. Caregivers of children in MAM supplementary feeding programs were assigned to three groups: a control group received monthly rations of 1 L oil, 8 kg CSB in bulk, and social and behavior change communication (SBCC); intervention groups received 2.6 L oil, 8 kg CSB provided either in bulk (Group 1) or four 2-kg packages with printed messages (Group 2), and enhanced SBCC emphasizing the target oil:CSB ratio. Compared to the control, both intervention groups had higher mean added oil per 100 g CSB (18 g, p oil ration resulted in increased use of oil in CSB porridge in a supplementary feeding program. Modified packaging did not improve effectiveness. However, both interventions were more cost-effective than standard programming. © 2017 The Authors Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The role of heat transfer time scale in the evolution of the subsea permafrost and associated methane hydrates stability zone during glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, Valentina V.; Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming may lead to degradation of the subsea permafrost developed during Pleistocene glaciations and release methane from the hydrates, which are stored in this permafrost. It is important to quantify time scales at which this release is plausible. While, in principle, such time scale might be inferred from paleoarchives, this is hampered by considerable uncertainty associated with paleodata. In the present paper, to reduce such uncertainty, one-dimensional simulations with a model for thermal state of subsea sediments forced by the data obtained from the ice core reconstructions are performed. It is shown that heat propagates in the sediments with a time scale of ∼ 10-20 kyr. This time scale is longer than the present interglacial and is determined by the time needed for heat penetration in the unfrozen part of thick sediments. We highlight also that timings of shelf exposure during oceanic regressions and flooding during transgressions are important for simulating thermal state of the sediments and methane hydrates stability zone (HSZ). These timings should be resolved with respect to the contemporary shelf depth (SD). During glacial cycles, the temperature at the top of the sediments is a major driver for moving the HSZ vertical boundaries irrespective of SD. In turn, pressure due to oceanic water is additionally important for SD ≥ 50 m. Thus, oceanic transgressions and regressions do not instantly determine onsets of HSZ and/or its disappearance. Finally, impact of initial conditions in the subsea sediments is lost after ∼ 100 kyr. Our results are moderately sensitive to intensity of geothermal heat flux.

  11. Bayesian Multi-Trait Analysis Reveals a Useful Tool to Increase Oil Concentration and to Decrease Toxicity in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Silva Junqueira

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for jatropha breeding is to identify superior genotypes that present high seed yield and seed oil content with reduced toxicity levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for three important traits (weight of 100 seed, oil seed content, and phorbol ester concentration, and to select superior genotypes to be used as progenitors in jatropha breeding. Additionally, the genotypic values and the genetic parameters estimated under the Bayesian multi-trait approach were used to evaluate different selection indices scenarios of 179 half-sib families. Three different scenarios and economic weights were considered. It was possible to simultaneously reduce toxicity and increase seed oil content and weight of 100 seed by using index selection based on genotypic value estimated by the Bayesian multi-trait approach. Indeed, we identified two families that present these characteristics by evaluating genetic diversity using the Ward clustering method, which suggested nine homogenous clusters. Future researches must integrate the Bayesian multi-trait methods with realized relationship matrix, aiming to build accurate selection indices models.

  12. Conventional oil and natural gas infrastructure increases brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) relative abundance and parasitism in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath-Plaisted, Jacy; Nenninger, Heather; Koper, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    The rapid expansion of oil and natural gas development across the Northern Great Plains has contributed to habitat fragmentation, which may facilitate brood parasitism of ground-nesting grassland songbird nests by brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), an obligate brood parasite, through the introduction of perches and anthropogenic edges. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brown-headed cowbird relative abundance and brood parasitism rates of Savannah sparrow ( Passerculus sandwichensis ) nests in relation to the presence of infrastructure features and proximity to potential perches and edge habitat. The presence of oil and natural gas infrastructure increased brown-headed cowbird relative abundance by a magnitude of four times, which resulted in four times greater brood parasitism rates at infrastructure sites. While the presence of infrastructure and the proximity to roads were influential in predicting brood parasitism rates, the proximity of perch sites was not. This suggests that brood parasitism associated with oil and natural gas infrastructure may result in additional pressures that reduce productivity of this declining grassland songbird.

  13. Bayesian Multi-Trait Analysis Reveals a Useful Tool to Increase Oil Concentration and to Decrease Toxicity in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junqueira, Vinícius; Azevedo Peixoto, Leonardo de; Galvêas Laviola, Bruno; Lopes Bhering, Leonardo; Mendonça, Simone; Agostini Costa, Tania da Silveira; Antoniassi, Rosemar

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for jatropha breeding is to identify superior genotypes that present high seed yield and seed oil content with reduced toxicity levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for three important traits (weight of 100 seed, oil seed content, and phorbol ester concentration), and to select superior genotypes to be used as progenitors in jatropha breeding. Additionally, the genotypic values and the genetic parameters estimated under the Bayesian multi-trait approach were used to evaluate different selection indices scenarios of 179 half-sib families. Three different scenarios and economic weights were considered. It was possible to simultaneously reduce toxicity and increase seed oil content and weight of 100 seed by using index selection based on genotypic value estimated by the Bayesian multi-trait approach. Indeed, we identified two families that present these characteristics by evaluating genetic diversity using the Ward clustering method, which suggested nine homogenous clusters. Future researches must integrate the Bayesian multi-trait methods with realized relationship matrix, aiming to build accurate selection indices models.

  14. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Parks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium oil (EO, which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3, reduces plasma triglyceride (TG concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%, EO (10% EO + 10% PO, or FO (10% FO + 10% PO. Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm > EO (55 ± 3 nm > FO (40 ± 2 nm. Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model.

  15. New solids control system reduced oil on cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, T.P. [Oiltools Europe Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-08

    A new solids control system, consisting of four new shakers and a dryer in parallel all discharging into another dryer, significantly reduced the oil on the cuttings in a nine-well offshore drilling program. Cleaned, slurrified cuttings were then discharged overboard. In November 1994, Oiltools (Europe) Ltd. received contracts to upgrade the solids control systems on Sedco Forex`s Sedco 711 and Sovereign Explorer semisubmersible drilling vessels. Sedco Forex required systems that would meet the reduced oil-on-cuttings (OOC) disposal limit of less than 80 g/kg set by the operator, while staying efficient and economical to operate and maintain. In addition, all solids were required to be slurrified for pumping overboard to ensure dispersal away from the subsea center. This article highlights the equipment used and the savings realized on the Sovereign Explorer after the first three wells of a nine-well program.

  16. Asian tigers slip their leashes[SE Asia oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Roger

    2000-11-01

    An overview of the economic revival in South East Asia offshore oil and gas industries is presented, and details of the total numbers of offshore greenfield developments by country and by operator as well as the total reserves of offshore development being planned or considered for the years 2000-2005 are tabulated. The situation in the industries in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the South China Sea, and Vietnam are described, and information on estimated subsea completions, fixed and floating offshore production facilities, offshore wellhead platforms planned or considered, and the total length of flowlines in the countries for 2000-2005 are listed.

  17. Expansion of oil palm and other cash crops causes an increase of the land surface temperature in the Jambi province in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton R.; le Maire, Guerric; June, Tania; Meijide, Ana; Roupsard, Olivier; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is currently one of the regions with the highest transformation rate of land surface worldwide related to the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops replacing forests on large scales. Land cover changes, which modify land surface properties, have a direct effect on the land surface temperature (LST), a key driver for many ecological functions. Despite the large historic land transformation in Indonesia toward oil palm and other cash crops and governmental plans for future expansion, this is the first study so far to quantify the impacts of land transformation on the LST in Indonesia. We analyze LST from the thermal band of a Landsat image and produce a high-resolution surface temperature map (30 m) for the lowlands of the Jambi province in Sumatra (Indonesia), a region which suffered large land transformation towards oil palm and other cash crops over the past decades. The comparison of LST, albedo, normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) between seven different land cover types (forest, urban areas, clear-cut land, young and mature oil palm plantations, acacia and rubber plantations) shows that forests have lower surface temperatures than the other land cover types, indicating a local warming effect after forest conversion. LST differences were up to 10.1 ± 2.6 °C (mean ± SD) between forest and clear-cut land. The differences in surface temperatures are explained by an evaporative cooling effect, which offsets the albedo warming effect. Our analysis of the LST trend of the past 16 years based on MODIS data shows that the average daytime surface temperature in the Jambi province increased by 1.05 °C, which followed the trend of observed land cover changes and exceeded the effects of climate warming. This study provides evidence that the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops leads to changes in biophysical variables, warming the land surface and thus enhancing the increase of the air

  18. Expansion of oil palm and other cash crops causes an increase of the land surface temperature in the Jambi province in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sabajo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is currently one of the regions with the highest transformation rate of land surface worldwide related to the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops replacing forests on large scales. Land cover changes, which modify land surface properties, have a direct effect on the land surface temperature (LST, a key driver for many ecological functions. Despite the large historic land transformation in Indonesia toward oil palm and other cash crops and governmental plans for future expansion, this is the first study so far to quantify the impacts of land transformation on the LST in Indonesia. We analyze LST from the thermal band of a Landsat image and produce a high-resolution surface temperature map (30 m for the lowlands of the Jambi province in Sumatra (Indonesia, a region which suffered large land transformation towards oil palm and other cash crops over the past decades. The comparison of LST, albedo, normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI and evapotranspiration (ET between seven different land cover types (forest, urban areas, clear-cut land, young and mature oil palm plantations, acacia and rubber plantations shows that forests have lower surface temperatures than the other land cover types, indicating a local warming effect after forest conversion. LST differences were up to 10.1 ± 2.6 °C (mean ± SD between forest and clear-cut land. The differences in surface temperatures are explained by an evaporative cooling effect, which offsets the albedo warming effect. Our analysis of the LST trend of the past 16 years based on MODIS data shows that the average daytime surface temperature in the Jambi province increased by 1.05 °C, which followed the trend of observed land cover changes and exceeded the effects of climate warming. This study provides evidence that the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops leads to changes in biophysical variables, warming the land surface and thus

  19. Foliar spraying of salicylic acid induced accumulation of phenolics, increased radical scavenging activity and modified the composition of the essential oil of water stressed Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Noha; Fekry, Mostafa; Bishr, Mokhtar; El-Zalabani, Soheir; Salama, Osama

    2018-02-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are considered valuable secondary plant metabolites owing to the myriad of biological activities they exert. This study aimed to investigate the effect of applying various concentrations of the plant growth regulator, salicylic acid (SA), on Thymus vulgaris L. while subjecting the plant to decreasing amounts of irrigation water. The following parameters were monitored; total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield and composition of the essential oil, and antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts. Drought alone significantly (P < 0.05) increased the polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield of the essential oil and antioxidant activity. The total flavonoid content in control plants was 6.1 ± 0.3 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. However, in drought stressed plants, (irrigated at 25% of the field capacity) sprayed with 3 mM SA, the flavonoid content increased to 32.1 ± 0.1 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. Moreover, the total phenolic content increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 to 68.5 ± 1.2 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of gallic acid in the same test plants. Radical scavenging activity, using DPPH assay, was measured for the different plant treatments. A decrease from 74.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml to 36.6 ± 0.9 μg/ml of IC 50 was recorded in the drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 3 mM SA compared with the control plants. The variability in polyphenolic composition between the control plants and plants with the highest total polyphenolic content was investigated by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was detected as the major component in samples from both treatments, with a higher percentage observed upon subjecting the plant to the test conditions (25% FC and sprayed with 3 mM SA). The highest yield of the essential oil (1 ± 0.06 %v/w) was obtained from drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 2 mM SA. GC/MS analysis of oil samples revealed that the Thymol

  20. Potential for oil and gas projects in the new oil and gas province shared between Russia and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmestad, Ove T. [University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Bulakh, Maria; Zolotukhin, Anatoly B. [Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The grey zone area in the Barents Sea represents around 1 % of the world's undeveloped oil reserves. This key zone was disputed between Russia and Norway. This paper investigated the opportunities for gas and oils projects following recently agreed state borders between Russia and Norway in the grey zone. First, the study presented a review of the physical and climate conditions in the grey zone. It was found that there was a lack of available data on conditions in the Barents Sea area. The polar low pressure system needs to be better understood to ensure efficient forecasts. This preliminary work provided a basis on which to develop possible grey zone planning and development schemes. It was proposed that the Fedynskoe field be developed by a system of subsea complexes. The study discussed the possibility of a joint development between Russia and Norway in developing the Fedynskoe and Shtokmanovskoe fields.

  1. Base Oils from Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  2. Tyrosol, a main phenol present in extra virgin olive oil, increases lifespan and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañuelo, Ana; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Pacheco-Liñán, Pedro; Martínez-Lara, Esther; Siles, Eva; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has been traditionally related to a higher longevity in the human population. EVOO effects on health are often attributed to its unique mixture of phenolic compounds with tyrosol and hydroxityrosol being the most biologically active. Although these compounds have been extensively studied in terms of their antioxidant potential and its role in different pathologies, their actual connection with longevity remains unexplored. This study utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible effects of tyrosol in metazoan longevity. Significant lifespan extension was observed at one specific tyrosol concentration, which also induced a higher resistance to thermal and oxidative stress and delayed the appearance of a biomarker of ageing. We also report that, although tyrosol was efficiently taken up by these nematodes, it did not induce changes in development, body length or reproduction. In addition, lifespan experiments with several mutant strains revealed that components of the heat shock response (HSF-1) and the insulin pathway (DAF-2 and DAF-16) might be implicated in mediating tyrosol effects in lifespan, while caloric restriction and sirtuins do not seem to mediate its effects. Together, our results point to hormesis as a possible mechanism to explain the effects of tyrosol on longevity in C. elegans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of oil and natural gas production to renewed increase in atmospheric methane (2007–2014: top–down estimate from ethane and methane column observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hausmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmonized time series of column-averaged mole fractions of atmospheric methane and ethane over the period 1999–2014 are derived from solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR measurements at the Zugspitze summit (47° N, 11° E; 2964 m a.s.l. and at Lauder (45° S, 170° E; 370 m a.s.l.. Long-term trend analysis reveals a consistent renewed methane increase since 2007 of 6.2 [5.6, 6.9] ppb yr−1 (parts-per-billion per year at the Zugspitze and 6.0 [5.3, 6.7] ppb yr−1 at Lauder (95 % confidence intervals. Several recent studies provide pieces of evidence that the renewed methane increase is most likely driven by two main factors: (i increased methane emissions from tropical wetlands, followed by (ii increased thermogenic methane emissions due to growing oil and natural gas production. Here, we quantify the magnitude of the second class of sources, using long-term measurements of atmospheric ethane as a tracer for thermogenic methane emissions. In 2007, after years of weak decline, the Zugspitze ethane time series shows the sudden onset of a significant positive trend (2.3 [1.8, 2.8]  ×  10−2 ppb yr−1 for 2007–2014, while a negative trend persists at Lauder after 2007 (−0.4 [−0.6, −0.1]  ×  10−2 ppb yr−1. Zugspitze methane and ethane time series are significantly correlated for the period 2007–2014 and can be assigned to thermogenic methane emissions with an ethane-to-methane ratio (EMR of 12–19 %. We present optimized emission scenarios for 2007–2014 derived from an atmospheric two-box model. From our trend observations we infer a total ethane emission increase over the period 2007–2014 from oil and natural gas sources of 1–11 Tg yr−1 along with an overall methane emission increase of 24–45 Tg yr−1. Based on these results, the oil and natural gas emission contribution (C to the renewed methane increase is deduced using three different emission scenarios with dedicated EMR ranges

  5. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

    2001-06-01

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A

  6. Study of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Increase in oil yield with suppression of retrogressive reaction during initial stage; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, K.; Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the coal liquefaction, improvement of liquefaction conditions and increase of liquefied oil yield are expected by suppressing the recombination through rapid stabilization of pyrolytic radicals which are formed at the initial stage of liquefaction. Two-stage liquefaction combining prethermal treatment and liquefaction was performed under various conditions, to investigate the effects of reaction conditions on the yields and properties of products as well as to increase liquefied oil yield. Consequently, it was found that the catalyst contributes greatly to the hydrogen transfer to coal at the prethermal treatment. High yield of n-hexane soluble fraction with products having low condensation degree could be obtained by combining the prethermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst with the concentration of slurry after the treatment. This was considered to be caused by the synergetic effect between the improvement of liquefaction by suppressing polymerization/condensation at the initial stage of reaction through the prethermal treatment and the effective hydrogen transfer accompanied with the improvement of contact efficiency of coal/catalyst by the concentration of slurry at the stage of liquefaction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Olive oil bioactive compounds increase body weight, and improve gut health and integrity in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Enric; Andree, Karl B; Quintela, José C; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2017-02-01

    An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary. There were no differences in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the intestine and liver, although there was a tendency of lower intestinal and hepatic LPO levels in fish fed OBE diets. No differences in villus size were found among treatments, whereas goblet cell density in the control group was on average14·3 % lower than in fish fed OBE diets. The transcriptomic profiling of intestinal markers, covering different biological functions like (i) cell differentiation and proliferation, (ii) intestinal permeability, (iii) enterocyte mass and epithelial damage, (iv) IL and cytokines, (v) pathogen recognition receptors and (vi) mitochondria function, indicated that among the eighty-eight evaluated genes, twenty-nine were differentially expressed (0·17 % OBE diet), suggesting that the additive has the potential of improving the condition and defensive role of the intestine by enhancing the maturation of enterocytes, reducing oxidative stress, improving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and enhancing the intestinal innate immune function, as gene expression data indicated.

  8. The formulation of the essential oil of Piper aduncum Linnaeus (Piperales: Piperaceae) increases its efficacy as an insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamood, S N H; Hidayatulfathi, O; Budin, S B; Ahmad Rohi, G; Zulfakar, M H

    2017-02-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of 10% P. aduncum EO in ethanol and in three different semisolid formulations: ointment, cream and gel. These formulations were tested on Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Each formulation was applied to the subject's hands, which were then inserted into a cage containing 25 nulliparous A. aegypti. The number of mosquitoes landing on or biting each subject's hand was recorded, and the repellency percentage, landing/biting percentage and protection time for each of the formulations were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the semisolid EO formulations with regards to the repellency percentage and the landing/biting percentage at 4 h post-application. All three semisolid EO formulations were able to repel >65% of the A. aegypti at 4 h post-application. The EO ointment formulation provided a protection time (182.5 ± 16.01 min) that was statistically significantly longer than that associated with the EO gel formulation (97.5 ± 14.93 min). Meanwhile, the EO cream formulation provided a protection time of 162.5 ± 6.29 min. As the EO cream and ointment formulations displayed better repellent properties than the EO gel formulation, they appear to be the most promising P. aduncum EO formulations to be developed and commercialized as alternatives to synthetic repellents.

  9. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be over...

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  11. Implications of the IMCO proposed pollution-prevention regulations to existing oil tankers and the consequential increase in unit transportation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, B.S.; Rowden, S.C.

    1979-05-01

    According to studies by Cinco Marine Services Ltd., compliance of owners of existing crude oil tankers with the IMCO pollution prevention regulations proposed in the 1978 convention will require selecting one of three types of conversion. The first, the CBT conversion, requires ballast water to be carried in cargo tanks designated solely for carrying clean ballast, and for tankers over 40,000 dwt, it is intended as an interim measure only; these requirements are in Regulation 13A and Resolution 14 of the MARPOL Protocol. The second type, the SBT conversion, embraces the segregation of ballast tanks and their piping and pumping systems from cargo and fuel tanks and systems; certain requirements for this conversion are in Regulation 13. The third conversion, providing for tank washing with crude oil and the basic requirements, are in Regulation 13B and Resolution 15 of the MARPOL Protocol. The conversions, the associated requirements, their economic and other implications, the increased transportation cost that will result, and the requirements of MARPOL 1973 and SOLAS 1974 and their respective protocols are discussed.

  12. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  13. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown sp......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming.......The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown spot...... disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts...

  14. Petroleum dynamics in the sea and influence of subsea dispersant injection duringDeepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jonas; Socolofsky, Scott A; Dissanayake, Anusha L; Jun, Inok; Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel

    2017-09-19

    During the Deepwater Horizon disaster, a substantial fraction of the 600,000-900,000 tons of released petroleum liquid and natural gas became entrapped below the sea surface, but the quantity entrapped and the sequestration mechanisms have remained unclear. We modeled the buoyant jet of petroleum liquid droplets, gas bubbles, and entrained seawater, using 279 simulated chemical components, for a representative day (June 8, 2010) of the period after the sunken platform's riser pipe was pared at the wellhead (June 4-July 15). The model predicts that 27% of the released mass of petroleum fluids dissolved into the sea during ascent from the pared wellhead (1,505 m depth) to the sea surface, thereby matching observed volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. Based on combined results from model simulation and water column measurements, 24% of released petroleum fluid mass became channeled into a stable deep-water intrusion at 900- to 1,300-m depth, as aqueously dissolved compounds (∼23%) and suspended petroleum liquid microdroplets (∼0.8%). Dispersant injection at the wellhead decreased the median initial diameters of simulated petroleum liquid droplets and gas bubbles by 3.2-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively, which increased dissolution of ascending petroleum fluids by 25%. Faster dissolution increased the simulated flows of water-soluble compounds into biologically sparse deep water by 55%, while decreasing the flows of several harmful compounds into biologically rich surface water. Dispersant injection also decreased the simulated emissions of VOCs to the atmosphere by 28%, including a 2,000-fold decrease in emissions of benzene, which lowered health risks for response workers.

  15. Periconceptional maternal 'high fish and olive oil, low meat' dietary pattern is associated with increased embryonic growth: The Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort (Predict) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, F; Rousian, M; Huijgen, N A; Koning, A H J; Willemsen, S P; de Vries, J H M; Cetin, I; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the association between periconceptional maternal dietary pattern and first-trimester embryonic growth. This was a prospective cohort study of 228 women with a singleton ongoing pregnancy, of which 135 were strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies and 93 were pregnancies achieved after in-vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). All women underwent serial transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) examinations from 6 + 0 to 13 + 0 weeks' gestation. Crown-rump length (CRL) and embryonic volume (EV) measurements were performed using a virtual reality system. Information on periconceptional maternal dietary intake was collected via food frequency questionnaires. Principal component analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. Associations between dietary patterns and CRL and EV trajectories were investigated using linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders. A median of five (range, one to seven) 3D-US scans per pregnancy were performed. Of 1162 datasets, quality was sufficient to perform CRL measurements in 991 (85.3%) and EV measurements in 899 (77.4%). A dietary pattern comprising high intake of fish and olive oil and a very low intake of meat was identified as beneficial for embryonic growth. In strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies, strong adherence to the 'high fish and olive oil, low meat' dietary pattern was associated with a 1.9 mm (95% CI, 0.1-3.63 mm) increase in CRL (+14.6%) at 7 weeks and a 3.4 mm (95% CI, 0.2-7.81 mm) increase (+6.9%) at 11 weeks, whereas EV increased by 0.06 cm3 (95% CI, 0.01-0.13 cm3 ) (+20.4%) at 7 weeks and 1.43 cm3 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87 cm3 ) (+14.4%) at 11 weeks. No significant association was observed in the total study population or in the IVF/ICSI subgroup. Periconceptional maternal adherence to a high fish and olive oil, low meat dietary pattern is positively associated with embryonic growth in spontaneously conceived pregnancies

  16. A Thorough Analysis of the Engineering Solutions Deployed to Stop the Oil Spill Following the Deepwater Horizon Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Eude, Thibaut; Napoli, Aldo; Guarnieri, Franck

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Deepwater Horizon drilling accident that occurred on 20 April 2010 was a two-fold catastrophe. The initial total loss of the drilling rig was followed by one of the worst environmental disasters in recent history. The four million barrels of oil that were released into the Gulf of Mexico continue to impact human activities in the area. The Macondo well incident (Mississippi Canyon 252-1, leased by BP as the primary operator) was the first deep subsea blowout in the...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    as soybean oil, canola oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, linseed oil and nahar seed oil7–9 have been exten- sively studied as bases for various polyols used for the manufacture of PUs for different applications. The preparation of polymers from vegetable oils is currently receiving increasing attention because of the.

  18. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  19. New method for the detection and monitoring of subsea power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philipp; Schneider, Jens; Feldens, Peter; Wilken, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy farms, no matter what kind of, have in common that they need a connection with the onshore power grid. Thus, not only their offshore generation facilities could have impacts on the surrounding environment, but also associated submarine power cables. These cables have to be buried in the seabed - at least in coastal heavy shipping environments - for safety reasons. Cable laying disturbs the local seafloor and the sub-bottom. Refillment of dredged sediments are expected softer than the original material and could be washed away by currents. Therefore, buried cables have to be repeatedly monitored to ensure their burial depth. This study presents a new method for efficient cable detection. A parametric echosounder system using 15 kHz as secondary frequency was adapted to investigate the angular response of sub-bottom backscatter strength of layered mud and to introduce a new method for enhanced acoustic detection of buried targets. Adaptations to achieve both vertical (0°) and non-vertical inclination of incident sound on the seabed (1-15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) comprise mechanical tilting of the acoustic transducer and electronic beam steering. A sample data set was acquired at a study site at 18 m water depth and a flat and muddy seafloor. At this site, a 0.1 m diameter power cable is buried 1-2 m below the sea floor. Surveying the cable with vertical incidence revealed that the buried cable can hardly be discriminated against the backscatter strength of the layered mud. However, the backscatter strength of layered mud was found to strongly decrease at >3±0.5° incidence and the layered mud echo pattern vanished beyond 5°. As a consequence the visual recognition of the cable echo in acoustic images improves for higher incidence angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Data analysis support this visual impression. The size of the cable echo pattern was found to linearly increase with incidence, whereas the signal-to-noise ratio peaks at about

  20. Improvement of liquefaction solvent. Increase of light oil yield with a reduction in catalyst addition; Ekika yozai no kairyo kenkyu. Sekitan ekikayu no keishitsuka to shokubai tenkaryo no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, N.; Yasumuro, M.; Sato, K.; Komatsu, N.; Okui, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For developing coal liquefaction processes, it is an important problem to improve the light oil yield with increased oil yield. It was previously reported that distillate mainly containing lighter fraction can be produced with high oil yield by reducing the iron/sulfur catalyst addition in slurry, by recycling gas in the process operation, by utilizing these effects, and by using heavy oil as recycling solvent. In this study, the maximum distillate yield of Victorian brown coal was investigated through continuous liquefaction using a bench scale unit. In addition, operation conditions for obtaining sufficient oil yield were investigated under the reduced catalyst addition into one-third. Consequently, it was confirmed that the maximum content of lighter fraction in distillate product was obtained with reduced catalyst addition by using heavy oil as recycling solvent, by adopting new catalyst, and by utilizing effects of CLB recycling and gas recycling in maximum. It was also revealed that lighter distillate can be produced compared with the oil product obtained by recycling conventional solvent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid or fish oil is associated with increased cardiac content of n-3 fatty acids in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strand Elin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR stimulation has been associated with detrimental health effects including impaired myocardial function. Recently, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA has been associated with improved left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the long-term effects of the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA and/or high-dose fish oil (FO on cardiac fatty acid (FA composition and lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats were given one out of four different 25% (w/v fat diets: control diet; TTA diet; FO diet; or diet containing both TTA and FO. Results After 50 weeks n-3 PUFA levels were increased by TTA and FO in the heart, whereas liver levels were reduced following TTA administration. TTA was associated with a decrease in arachidonic acid, increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase in the heart. Furthermore, cardiac Ucp3 and Cact mRNA was upregulated. Conclusions Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist TTA or high-dose FO induced marked changes in PUFA composition and enzymatic activity involved in FA metabolism in the heart, different from liver. Changes included increased FA oxidation and a selective increase in cardiac n-3 PUFA.

  2. The antisense expression of AhPEPC1 increases seed oil production in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Zhang, J.; Chi, X.; Chen, N.; Chen, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Wan, Y.; Yu, S.; Liu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Although phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) are reported to be involved in fatty acid accumulation, nitrogen assimilation, and salt and drought stresses, knowledge regarding PEPC gene functions is still limited, particularly in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). In this study, the antisense expression of the peanut PEPC isoform 1 (AhPEPC1) gene increased the lipid content by 5.7%–10.3%. This indicated that AhPEPC1 might be related to plant lipid accumulation. The transgenic plants underwent more root elongation than the wild-type under salinity stress. Additionally, the specific down regulation of the AhPEPC1 gene improved the salt tolerance in peanuts. This is the first report on the role of PEPC in lipid accumulation and salt tolerance in peanuts.

  3. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  4. Potential interactions between diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance and the electromagnetic fields and subsea noise from marine renewable energy developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A B; Bartlett, M; Thomsen, F

    2012-07-01

    The considerable extent of construction and operation of marine renewable energy developments (MRED) within U.K. and adjacent waters will lead, among other things, to the emission of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and subsea sounds into the marine environment. Migratory fishes that respond to natural environmental cues, such as the Earth's geomagnetic field or underwater sounds, move through the same waters that the MRED occupy, thereby raising the question of whether there are any effects of MRED on migratory fishes. Diadromous species, such as the Salmonidae and Anguillidae, which undertake large-scale migrations through coastal and offshore waters, are already significantly affected by other human activities leading to national and international conservation efforts to manage any existing threats and to minimize future concerns, including the potential effect of MRED. Here, the current state of knowledge with regard to the potential for diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance to be affected by MRED is reviewed. The information on which to base the review was found to be limited with respect to all aspects of these fishes' migratory behaviour and activity, especially with regards to MRED deployment, making it difficult to establish cause and effect relationships. The main findings, however, were that diadromous species can use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and direction finding during migrations. Juveniles of anadromous brown trout (sea trout) Salmo trutta and close relatives of S. trutta respond to both the Earth's magnetic field and artificial magnetic fields. Current knowledge suggests that EMFs from subsea cables may interact with migrating Anguilla sp. (and possibly other diadromous fishes) if their movement routes take them over the cables, particularly in shallow water (fishes are likely to encounter EMFs from subsea cables either during the adult movement phases of life or their early life stages during migration within shallow

  5. Subsea Infrastructure Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Pedersen, Simon; Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    of the offshore pipeline inspections are currently committed using Towed or Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) systems. It is well-known that the ROVs are very time-consuming and expensive to operate, with respect to the fact that they require a relatively large support ship to accommodate the equipment as well...

  6. Subsea pipeline engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, Andrew C; King, Roger A

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Motivation...

  7. Atmospheric dispersion of natural gas from a rupture in a pressurized and valved subsea pipeline; Dispersao atmosferica de gas natural por ruptura em duto submarino pressurizado e valvulado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fabio Coimbra Moreira de Macedo; Medeiros, Jose Luiz de; Araujo, Ofelia de Queiroz Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a simplified approach to the problem of transient atmospheric dispersion of natural gas released accidentally under the ocean, caused by leaks in pressurized subsea pipelines. The model aims to estimate the transient spatial distribution of gas concentration in the atmosphere for subsequent risk analysis. In this scenario, shut-off valves are used to rapidly isolate the damaged stretch of the gas pipeline (pipeline shutdown). The analysis considers the transient behavior of the remaining inventory inside the pipes through a release-by-leakage model, and the subsequent effect on the atmosphere surrounding the epicenter of release. There are also scenarios formulated with occurrences of numerous ruptures, synchronized or not, with known spatial distribution. The spatial-temporal model of atmospheric dispersion employed is based on the resolution of the tridimensional diffusion equation under turbulence in semi-infinite domains. The model includes appropriate resources to deal with: an ample range of atmospheric conditions; different wind velocities; transient conditions of gas released into the atmosphere (i.e., outflow, pressure, and temperature); many depths of emission; multi-source configuration of release. In this work a simulation tool in MATLAB environment was developed for the analyses of scenarios of transient dispersion of gas into the atmosphere. In the case of ruptures in subsea gas lines, this tool is useful to determine the conditions of maximum risk on production platforms situated close to the occurrence, as well as the impact of the localization of the shut-off valves in the release transient behavior. (author)

  8. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach evaluating oil spill conditions. You are here Home | Oil and Chemical Spills | Oil Spills On Our Radar ... US Department of Commerce | USA.gov Main menu Home Oil and Chemical Spills Environmental Restoration Marine Debris Training ...

  10. Extra-virgin olive oil consumption improves the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux and increases ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Olfa; Berrougui, Hicham; Loued, Soumaya; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-05-28

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption on the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux (CE) and to determine which CE pathways are modulated by EVOO consumption. Whole HDL and HDL₂/HDL₃ subclasses were isolated from the plasma of twenty-six healthy volunteers before and after 12 weeks of EVOO consumption (25 ml/d). EVOO consumption increased the capacity of serum and HDL to mediate CE from THP-1, J774 macrophages and Fu5AH cells by 9·8-24·57 %, depending on the cell type. The increase in CE was independent of both HDL concentration and subclass distribution. The three HDL-mediated CE pathways (ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1, ABCG1 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)) were modulated by EVOO consumption. The fluidity of the phospholipidic layer of HDL increased by 13 % (PEVOO consumption compared with baseline. EVOO consumption also increased the release of excess cholesterol from human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) by 44 % (PEVOO consumption. In contrast, SR-BI mRNA and protein expression in HMDM were significantly lower after 12 weeks of EVOO consumption. Incubating J774 macrophages with EVOO polyphenol extracts induced a concentration-dependent up-regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression in macrophages. After 12 weeks of EVOO consumption, the capacity of HDL to mediate CE was improved and the ability of HMDM to release excess cholesterol was enhanced by increasing the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transporters.

  11. Overexpressing Ferredoxins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Increase Starch and Oil Yields and Enhance Electric Power Production in a Photo Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferredoxins (FDX are final electron carrier proteins in the plant photosynthetic pathway, and function as major electron donors in diverse redox-driven metabolic pathways. We previously showed that overexpression of a major constitutively expressed ferredoxin gene PETF in Chlamydomonas decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS level and enhanced tolerance to heat stress. In addition to PETF, an endogenous anaerobic induced FDX5 was overexpressed in transgenic Chlamydomonas lines here to address the possible functions of FDX5. All the independent FDX transgenic lines showed decreased cellular ROS levels and enhanced tolerance to heat and salt stresses. The transgenic Chlamydomonas lines accumulated more starch than the wild-type line and this effect increased almost three-fold in conditions of nitrogen depletion. Furthermore, the lipid content was higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild-type line, both with and without nitrogen depletion. Two FDX-overexpressing Chlamydomonas lines were assessed in a photo microbial fuel cell (PMFC; power density production by the transgenic lines was higher than that of the wild-type cells. These findings suggest that overexpression of either PETF or FDX5 can confer tolerance against heat and salt stresses, increase starch and oil production, and raise electric power density in a PMFC.

  12. PhaseWatcher Vx subsea for HPHT - a new deepwater multiphase and wet gas flowmeter for HPHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustad, Rolf

    2010-07-01

    A new deepwater multiphase and wet gas flowmeter for HPHT applications has been developed. The flowmeter covers all multiphase and wet gas applications from heavy oil to lean and dry gas. Key features include a pressure rating of 15,000psi, a maximum process temperature of 205 C (400F) and a maximum water depth of 3500m (11500feet). This paper will discuss the design, the qualification program and the application of industry standards and codes in the qualification program. The qualification philosophy and the selected standards and codes may be applied in qualification of most types of equipment for the deepwater HPHT oil and gas industry. (Author)

  13. In-situ bitumen extraction associated with increased petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds in lake sediments from the Cold Lake heavy oil fields (Alberta, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Cooke, Colin A; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2016-11-01

    Most future growth in the Alberta bituminous sands will be based on thermal in-situ recovery technologies. To date, however, most attention on the environmental effects of bitumen recovery has focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. Recent uncontrolled bitumen flow-to-surface incidents (FTS; appearance at the surface of bitumen emulsions from deep subsurface recovery zones) reported at the Cold Lake heavy oil fields highlight the need to better understand the potential role of in-situ extraction as a source of contaminants to landscapes and surface waters. We analyzed sediment cores from a lake located ∼2 km away from a recent bitumen FTS incident to provide a long-term perspective on the delivery of metals, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to surface freshwaters, and to assess whether the onset of local in-situ bitumen extraction can be linked to contaminant increases in nearby lakes. An increase in alkyl PACs coincided with the onset and expansion of commercial in-situ bitumen extraction, and multiple lines of evidence indicate a petrogenic source for recent alkyl PAC enrichment. However, no coincident increase in vanadium (enriched in bitumen) occurred that would suggest the source of petrogenic PAC enrichment is direct input of bituminous particles. Our results show that, similar to surface mining in the Athabasca region, activities associated with in-situ extraction can increase the burden of petrogenic PACs in nearby lakes, but many questions still remain regarding the exact sources and pathways of PACs into the environment. Given that more than 80% of Alberta's bitumen reserves can only be accessed using in-situ technologies, we recommend that this be made a research priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Raff, Marianne; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    . The plasma cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a were not affected by the treatments, nor were any of the other variables measured. In conclusion, oil containing trans-10,cis-12 CLA has several adverse effects on classical and novel markers of coronary vascular disease, whereas the c9, t11 CLA...... was lower in women supplemented with the CLA mixture than with olive oil. Both CLA supplements increased lipid peroxidation, a marker of in vivo oxidative stress measured as urinary free 8-iso-prbstaglandin F-2 alpha. However, the CLA mixture increased lipid peroxidation more than the CLA milk did...

  15. Cyclodextrin-Complexed Ocimum basilicum Leaves Essential Oil Increases Fos Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System and Produce an Antihyperalgesic Effect in Animal Models for Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone S. Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD, on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o., LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle (saline, and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey, motor coordination (Rota-rod and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  16. Cyclodextrin-complexed Ocimum basilicum leaves essential oil increases Fos protein expression in the central nervous system and produce an antihyperalgesic effect in animal models for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Simone S; Araújo, Adriano A S; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; DeSantana, Josimari M; Lucca, Waldecy; Alves, Pericles B; Blank, Arie F; Oliveira, Rita C M; Oliveira, Aldeidia P; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Quintans, Lucindo J

    2014-12-29

    O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO) rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD), on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (saline), and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey), motor coordination (Rota-rod) and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter) in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  17. Combination of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil increases the hepatic detoxification by GST mediated GSH conjugation in a lipidic postprandial state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Quesada, Helena; Díaz, Sabina; Pajuelo, David; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Salvadó, M Josepa; Mulero, Miquel

    2014-12-15

    The ingestion of dietary lipids leads to oxidative stress. This postprandial oxidative stress may potentiate the adverse effects of postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Proanthocyanidins have been shown to alleviate oxidative stress and hypertriglyceridaemia associated with the postprandial state. Additionally, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) also have beneficial effects on lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the possible additive effects in liver of an acute dose of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) and oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-OR) on lipidic postprandial oxidative stress in Wistar rats. GSPE+DHA-OR modifies the hepatic antioxidant enzymatic activities (GST and GPx), clearly showing that this combination increases the detoxification of postprandial xenobiotics via the GST action mediated hepatic GSH conjugation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the combination of GSPE and DHA-OR ameliorate the transient imbalance between the lipid hydroperoxide level and antioxidant status related to a lipidic postprandial state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preexposure to Olive Oil Polyphenols Extract Increases Oxidative Load and Improves Liver Mass Restoration after Hepatectomy in Mice via Stress-Sensitive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Marinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols can act as oxidants in some conditions, inducing redox-sensitive genes. We investigated the effect of preexposure to the olive oil polyphenols extract (PFE on time-dependent changes in the hepatic oxidative state in a model of liver regeneration—a process in which oxidative stress associated with the metabolic overload accounts for the early events that contribute to the onset of liver self-repair. Liver regeneration was induced by one-third hepatectomy in mice. Prior to hepatectomy, mice were intraperitoneally given either PFE (50 mg/kg body weight or saline for seven consecutive days, while respective controls received vehicle alone. Redox state-regulating enzymes and thiol proteins along with the mRNA levels of Nrf2 gene and its targets γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and heme oxygenase-1 were determined at different time intervals after hepatectomy. The liver mass restoration was calculated to assess hepatic regeneration. The resulting data demonstrate the effectiveness of preexposure to PFE in stimulating liver regeneration in a model of a small tissue loss which may be ascribed to the transient increase in oxidant load during the first hours after hepatectomy and associated induction of stress response gene-profiles under the control of Nrf2.

  19. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and industrial starch quantities during ...

  20. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  1. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  2. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.

  3. Prevention of adhesion formation in Wistar-albino rats by increased bowel movements achieved with oral Ricinus oil use for 8 days postoperatively: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Timur, Hakan; Kaba, Metin; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Sirvan, Levent; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2012-12-01

    Adhesion formation frequently occurs after abdominopelvic surgery and can cause significant morbidity for patients. Meticulous hemostasis, minimal access surgery and utilization of surgical adjuvants intraoperatively are clinically useful measures to minimize adhesion formation. We investigated the clinical efficiency of oral Ricinus oil treatment for 8 days postoperatively to decrease adhesion formation in this case-control study in a rat model. Following computer-generated randomization, 24 female Wistar-albino rats were operated on, with 10 standard cautery lesions on the right uterine horn and two simple suture lesions on left uterine horn generated with absorbable material. Half (n=12) the rats received 0.13 g (0.2 ml) Ricinus oil emulsion (40 g/60 ml) via the oral route during the first 8 days postoperatively, and the remaining rats (n=11) were considered as controls. The extent, severity, degree, total adhesion scores and histopathological features of the adhesions were the main outcome measures. The degree and total adhesion formation scores in the Ricinus oil group and control group revealed significant differences in adhesion extent and severity. The total adhesion scores of the Ricinus oil and control groups were 3.00 ± 2.21 and 5.18 ± 2.78 respectively (P0.05). Ricinus oil treatment following abdominopelvic surgery for the 8-day period that covers the completion of tissue healing process may be a promising, cheap and cost-effective treatment strategy for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Roles of Kermanshahi Oil, Animal Fat, Dietary and Non- Dietary Vitamin D and other Nutrients in Increased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarabadi, Asadollah; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Madani, Sayed Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Kermanshahi oil is one the most favorable oils in Iran especially in Kermanshah province. We aimed to evaluate the role of usual intake of Kermanshahi oil and other kinds of dietary fats as well as different meats, vegetables and fruits, carbohydrates, cereals, grains, sweets, candy and lifestyle habits in risk of breast cancer. A case-control study with 47 consecutive, newly diagnosed premenopausal breast- cancer patients and 105 age and socioeconomic matched healthy women was conducted from 2013-2014 in Imam Reza hospital of Kermanshah using a standardized, validated questionnaire assessing various anthropometric, socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics. Kermanshahi oil intake was associated with a 2.1-fold (OR= 2.123, 95% CI 1.332- 3.38) (p= 0.002) higher likelihood of having breast cancer, while daily intake of other solid animal fats also increased the likelihood by 2.8-fold (OR = 2.754, 95% CI 1.43- 5.273) (p cancer risk in this region. This study suggested that animal fat increases the risk of premenopausal breast cancer but many other dietary and non-dietary factors including calcium and vitamin D deficiency are consistently associated with increased odds of breast cancer in this region.

  5. Removing heavy fuel oil from the submerged wreck of the Jacob Luckenbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, C. [PCCI Inc./GPC, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Beaver, T. [Global Diving and Salvage Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Snyder, B. [PCCI Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Jacob Luckenbach cargo carrier sank in July 1953 just west of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California after being struck by another vessel. It was carrying a cargo of military vehicles and railroad parts and was topped with heavy No.6 residual oil in deep and double bottom tanks. In 2002, the sunken ship was named as the source of mystery oil spills along the California coast. In response, the United States Coast Guard contracted Titan Maritime LLC and PCCI Inc. to conduct a vessel assessment and removal available oil. Diving services were provided by Seattle-based Global Diving and Salvage. The recovery operation proved difficult due to cold-water saturation diving at depths to 55 metres, strong currents, bad weather and poor subsea visibility. Pumping the heavy residual oil from the tanks also proved to be difficult because some tanks contained oil that was much more viscous than normal No.6 fuel oil, and the tanks had to be heated to more than 78 degrees C to allow for better fluid flow. Some of the abnormal differences in fuel oil rheologies were described along with the tools used to find and recover the oil and to minimize leaks in the wreck. The project, although more difficult than expected, was successful in removing all accessible oil and mitigating the potential for a catastrophic oil release. More than 460 metric tons of heavy fuel oil and emulsified water-in-oil product was removed from the wreck. One of the most important lessons learned was that cohesiveness and a united front are very much needed when a diverse group of salvage personnel are brought together. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Supplementation of arachidonic acid-enriched oil increases arachidonic acid contents in plasma phospholipids, but does not increase their metabolites and clinical parameters in Japanese healthy elderly individuals: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakutani Saki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of arachidonic acid (ARA among the elderly has recently gained increased attention. The effects of ARA supplementation in the elderly are not fully understood, although ARA is considered to be associated with various diseases. We investigate whether ARA supplementation to Japanese elderly subjects affects clinical parameters involved in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. We also examine the levels of ARA metabolites such as prostanoids during intervention. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group intervention trial. ARA-enriched oil (240 or 720 mg ARA per day or placebo was administered to Japanese healthy men and women aged 55-70 years for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The fatty acid contents of plasma phospholipids, clinical parameters, and ARA metabolites were determined at baseline, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results The ARA content in plasma phospholipids in the ARA-administrated groups increased dose-dependently and was almost the same at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks. The elevated ARA content decreased to nearly baseline during a 4-week washout period. During the supplementation and washout periods, no changes were observed in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. There were no changes in clinical blood parameters related to cardiovascular, inflammatory and allergic diseases. ARA supplementation did not alter the level of ARA metabolites such as urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin (PG F1α and 9,15-dioxo-11α-hydroxy-13,14-dihydro-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostan-1,20-dioic acid (tetranor-PGEM, and plasma PGE2 and lipoxin A4. ARA in plasma phospholipids was not correlated with ARA metabolite levels in the blood or urine. Conclusion These results indicate that ARA supplementation, even at a relatively high dose, does not increase ARA metabolites, and suggest that it does not induce cardiovascular

  7. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p cholesterol or type of fat). The dietary cholesterol dependent-elevation of serum cholesterol in the SD rats was less than 1.5-fold (poil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (pcholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (pcholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  8. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  9. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers work performed in the area related to the physicochemical factors for the improvement of the oil recovery efficiency in steamfloods. In this context, three general areas are studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes). (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems and long and narrow reservoirs (which are typical of oil reservoirs). (3) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the properties of foams.

  10. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  11. Fish oil feeding is associated with an increased accumulation of dietary lipids in enterocytes: Results from an in vivo study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Marckmann, P.; Hansen, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    contents of enterocytes were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Two other groups of rats (2 x 6) fed the experimental diets were given an oral fat load and fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken. Results: The accumulation of H-3-lipids in enterocytes was higher in rats fed fish oil...

  12. Increased EPA levels in serum phospholipids of humans after four weeks daily ingestion of one portion chicken fed linseed and rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the amounts of arachidonic acid (AA and EPA in food may have implications for human health, we investigated whether a small change in chicken feed influenced the blood lipid concentration in humans ingesting the chicken. Forty-six young healthy volunteers (age 20–29 were randomly allocated into two groups in a double-blind dietary intervention trial, involving ingestion of about 160 g chicken meat per day for 4 weeks. The ingested meat was either from chickens given a feed concentrate resembling the commercial chicken feed, containing 4% soybean oil (SO, or the meat was from chickens given a feed where the soybean oil had been replaced by 2% rapeseed oil plus 2% linseed oil (RLO. Serum total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, serum phospholipid fatty acid concentration, blood pressure, body weight and C-reactive protein were determined at baseline and post-intervention. In subjects consuming chicken meat from the RLO group there was a significantly (p

  13. Effects of long-term price increases for oil; Auswirkungen langfristig hoher Oelpreise. Einfluss eines hohen langfristigen Oelpreises auf Wirtschaftswachstum, Strukturwandel sowie Energieangebot und -nachfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voehringer, F.; Mueller, A. [Ecoplan, Berne (Switzerland); Boehringer, C. [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung ZEW, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the effects of higher oil prices in the long-term. Scenarios examined include those with high oil prices of 80 to 140 dollars per barrel and those with drastic shortages resulting from peak extraction in the years 2010 and 2020. Long-term economic balances form the basis of the report, short-term influences and psychological effects are not addressed. The possible dangers for the earth's climate caused by the substitution of oil by coal-based products are discussed, as well as the sequestration of carbon dioxide. Ethanol and the associated conflicts of land use are examined and the decreasing cost-effectiveness of co-generation power generation is looked at. Alternatives such as atomic power, hydropower, solar energy, geothermal energy, biogas and wind power are discussed. The effect of the changing energy scene on economic growth and welfare aspects in Switzerland are examined. The authors conclude that high oil prices have considerable impacts on the economy and are not a substitute for an internationally co-ordinated climate policy.

  14. Getting Over the Barrel- Achieving Independence from Foreign Oil in 2018

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haigh, Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    The United States can achieve independence from foreign oil in 2018. Increasing production from current oil fields, developing untapped oil resources, converting coal to oil and oil shale extraction can produce an additional...

  15. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  16. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  17. Palm olein and olive oil cause a higher increase in postprandial lipemia compared with lard but had no effect on plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Nagapan, Gowri; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-04-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs insulin sensitivity and triggers the pro-inflammatory state which may lead to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. A randomized, crossover single-blind study (n = 10 healthy men) was designed to compare the effects of a high-fat load (50 g fat), rich in palmitic acid from both plant (palm olein) or animal source (lard) versus an oleic acid-rich fat (virgin olive oil) on lipemia, plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were significantly lower after the lard meal than after the olive oil and palm olein meals (meal effect P = 0.003; time effect P lipemia compared with palm olein. A high fat load but not the type of fats influences concentrations of plasma IL-1β over time but had no effect on other pro-inflammatory markers tested in the postprandial state.

  18. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  19. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  20. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  1. Immiscible foam for enhancing oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simjoo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growing worldwide oil demand increased the need of new and efficient oil recovery methods. Gas injection in oil reservoirs is deemed one of the most widely used methods to increase oil recovery. However, the full potential of gas injection is often not realized due to poor vertical and areal sweep

  2. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) from Rosa canina, sacha inchi and chia oils may increase ALA accretion and its conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in diverse tissues of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela B, Rodrigo; Barrera R, Cynthia; González-Astorga, Marcela; Sanhueza C, Julio; Valenzuela B, Alfonso

    2014-07-25

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential n-3 PUFA; its n-3 LCPUFA derivatives EPA and DHA, which have diverse beneficial effects, are scarce in the human diet. In recent years nontraditional vegetable oils rich in ALA (up to 45%) have been developed as new alternatives to increase ALA consumption. This work evaluated the accretion of ALA, EPA and DHA into the phospholipids extracted from erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, quadriceps and the brain in rats fed sunflower (SFO), canola (CO), Rosa canina (RCO), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, SIO) and chia (Salvia hispánica, ChO) oils. Five experimental groups (n = 12 per group) were fed for 21 days with SFO (1% ALA), CO (10% ALA), RCO (33% ALA), SIO (49% ALA), and ChO (64% ALA). SIO and ChO allowed higher ALA accretion in all tissues, except the brain, and a reduction in the content of arachidonic acid in all tissues except the brain. EPA was increased in erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart and quadriceps, but not in the brain. DHA was increased in the liver, small intestine and brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that ALA, when provided in significant amounts, can be converted into n-3 LCPUFA, mostly DHA in the liver and brain. It is suggested that oils rich in ALA, such as SIO and ChO, are good sources for obtaining higher tissue levels of ALA, also allowing its selective conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in some tissues of the rat.

  3. The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils – A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Canola oil is a type of rapeseed oil with reduced erucic acid content (Applewhite, 1978). It is a stable oil used in salad dressings, margarine and shortenings. Soybean oil is an important oil with numerous increasing applications in the modern day world. It is classed as a linolenic acid oil since it contains.

  4. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  5. 78 FR 54417 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... safety devices in injection wells--dry trees. Sec. 250.817 Temporary removal of subsurface safety devices...--subsea trees. Sec. 250.830 Subsurface safety devices in injection wells--subsea trees. Sec. 250.832.... Sec. 250.860 Chemical firefighting system. Sec. 250.861 Foam firefighting system. Sec. 250.865 Surface...

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Kai Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-12-27

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  8. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  9. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users.

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1996--February 8, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The Anasazi field was selected for the initial geostatistical modeling and reservoir simulation. A compositional simulation approach is being used to model primary depletion, waterflood, and CO{sub 2}-flood processes. During this second year of the project, team members performed the following reservoir-engineering analysis of Anasazi field: (1) relative permeability measurements of the supra-mound and mound-core intervals, (2) completion of geologic model development of the Anasazi reservoir units for use in reservoir simulation studies including completion of a series of one-dimensional, carbon dioxide-displacement simulations to analyze the carbon dioxide-displacement mechanism that could operate in the Paradox basin system of reservoirs, and (3) completion of the first phase of the full-field, three-dimensional Anasazi reservoir simulation model, and the start of the history matching and reservoir performance prediction phase of the simulation study.

  11. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah. Annual report, February 9, 1997--February 8, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr. [ed.] [comp.

    1998-03-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil are at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. This study utilized representative core and modern geophysical logs to characterize and grade each of the five fields for suitability of enhanced recovery projects. The typical vertical sequence or cycle of lithofacies from each field, as determined from conventional core, was tied to its corresponding log response. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found in the various hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of each field can be an indicator of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for water- and/or CO{sub 2}-flooding. Diagenetic histories of the various Desert Creek reservoirs were determined from 50 representative samples selected from the conventional cores of each field. Thin sections were also made of each sample for petrographic description.

  12. First oil expected at White Rose in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, A.

    2002-04-01

    Husky Oil received approval from the government to begin development of its White Rose properties located in the Jean d'Arc Basin, 350 km east of St. John's, offshore Newfoundland and Labrador. First oil is expected by the end of 2005. The South Avalon Pool was discovered in 1988 and is estimated to contain approximately 200-250 million barrels of oil. Husky Oil and Petro-Canada filed a development application with the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board in January 2001. Approval of the $2.35 billion project was received in December 2001. The development plan is based on a newly-built floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel. Initial development will focus on the South Avalon Pool that has been tested in excess of 5,000 barrels per day. The pool will be developed using eight production wells, 11 water injection wells and two gas injection wells. An estimated 150 million cubic feet per day of gas will also be produced from the field. It will be used to fuel production facilities and as an artificial lift into production wells when required. Any excess gas will be preserved by injection into two wells in the North Avalon field. Peak production rates of 100,000 bbl/d of 30 degree API oil is expected for a four-year period. Estimated total production life of the field is 15 years. Aker Maritime Kiewit Contractors landed the contract to complete topside fabrication, with Samsung supplying the hull. Other key contracts will be confirmed shortly with SM/Imodco lined up for the turret and mooring system, Technip-Coflexip for the subsea production system and Boskalis for glory hole excavation.

  13. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut oil is high in monounsaturated “good” fat, and low in saturated “bad” fat, which is believed to help prevent heart disease and lower cholesterol. However, in animal studies, peanut oil has been shown to ...

  14. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  15. The world's most spectacular marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California): Quantification of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornafius, J. Scott; Quigley, Derek; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    1999-09-01

    We used 50 kHz sonar data to estimate natural hydrocarbon emission rates from the 18 km2 marine seep field offshore from Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California. The hydrocarbon gas emission rate is 1.7 ± 0.3 × 105 m3 d-1 (including gas captured by a subsea seep containment device) and the associated oil emission rate is 1.6 ± 0.2 × 104 Ld-1 (100 barrels d-1). The nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rate from the gas seepage is 35±7 td-1 and a large source of air pollution in Santa Barbara County. Our estimate is equal to twice the emission rate from all the on-road vehicle traffic in the county. Our estimated methane emission rate for the Coal Oil Point seeps (80±12 td-1) is 4 times higher than previous estimates. The most intense areas of seepage correspond to structural culminations along anticlinal axes. Seep locations are mostly unchanged from those documented in 1946, 1953, and 1973. An exception is the seepage field that once existed near offshore oil platform Holly. A reduction in seepage within a 1 km radius around this offshore platform is correlated with reduced reservoir pressure beneath the natural seeps due to oil production. Our findings suggest that global emissions of methane from natural marine seepage have been underestimated and may be decreasing because of oil production.

  16. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element.

  18. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  19. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  20. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  1. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  2. Near infrared spectroscopic determination of olive oil adulteration with sunflower and corn oil

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Durmuş; Öztürk, Betül

    2007-01-01

    Determination of authenticity of extra virgin olive oils has become very important in recent years due to the increasing public concerns about possible adulterations with relatively cheap vegetable oils such as sunflower oil. This study was focused on the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate calibration to identify the adulteration of olive oils. NIR transmittance measurements were made on pure olive oil and olive oil adulterated with varying concen...

  3. Prospects for Non-OPEC Oil Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seán O'Dell

    1995-01-01

    .... But this is likely to occur only if the price of oil rises enough to justify the needed investment in the exploration for and the development of increasingly more expensive oil found in increasingly...

  4. Interesterified fat or palm oil as substitutes for partially hydrogenated fat during the perinatal period produces changes in the brain fatty acids profile and increases leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral microcirculation from the male offspring in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Vanessa; Estato, Vanessa; de Velasco, Patricia Coelho; Spreafico, Flavia Brasil; Magri, Tatiana; Dos Santos, Raísa Magno de Araújo Ramos; Fragoso, Thaiza; Souza, Amanda S; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Bonomo, Isabela T; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Oyama, Lila M; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2015-08-07

    We investigated whether maternal intake of normolipidic diets with distinct fatty acid (FA) compositions alters the lipidic profile and influences the inflammatory status of the adult offsprings׳ brains. C57BL/6 female mice during pregnancy and lactation received diets containing either soybean oil (CG), partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), or interesterified fat (IG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received control diet. The FA profile was measured in the offspring׳s brains at post-natal days 21 and 90. Brain functional capillary density as well as leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral post-capillary venules was assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy at post-natal day 90. Inflammation signaling was evaluated through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) content in brain of the adult offspring. In the 21-day old offspring, the brains of the TG showed higher levels of trans FA and reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). At post-natal day 90, TG and IG groups showed reduced levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 PUFA tended to be lower compared to CG. The offspring׳s brains exhibited an altered microcirculation with increased leukocyte rolling in groups TG, PG and IG and in TG group increased leukocyte adhesion. The TLR4 content of TG, IG and PG groups only tended to increase (23%; 20% and 35%, respectively). Maternal consumption of trans FA, palm oil or interesterified fat during pregnancy and lactation can trigger the initial steps of inflammatory pathways in the brain of offspring in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  6. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  7. Constitutive or seed-specific overexpression of Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) results in increased seed and oil production and improved stress tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Riesselman, Adam J; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits play an integral role in mediating multiple signalling pathways in plants. A novel, recently identified plant-specific Gγ protein, AGG3, has been proposed to be an important regulator of organ size and mediator of stress responses in Arabidopsis, whereas its potential homologs in rice are major quantitative trait loci for seed size and panicle branching. To evaluate the role of AGG3 towards seed and oil yield improvement, the gene was overexpressed in Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop of the Brassicaceae family. Analysis of multiple homozygous T4 transgenic Camelina lines showed that constitutive overexpression of AGG3 resulted in faster vegetative as well as reproductive growth accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, when expressed constitutively or specifically in seed tissue, AGG3 was found to increase seed size, seed mass and seed number per plant by 15%-40%, effectively resulting in significantly higher oil yield per plant. AGG3 overexpressing Camelina plants also exhibited improved stress tolerance. These observations draw a strong link between the roles of AGG3 in regulating two critical yield parameters, seed traits and plant stress responses, and reveal an effective biotechnological tool to dramatically increase yield in agricultural crops. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-07-01

    This report covers work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context, three general areas were studied: (i) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes); (ii) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems; (iii) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the injection of caustic and foams. The studies completed under this contract involved ap three research tools, analysis, computation and experiments. We have focused on pore level modeling using pore networks and on flow visualization using Hele-Shaw cells. Experiments involving core samples were conducted for the chemical additives investigation. Finally, simulation at the pore scale, pore network scale and reservoir scale were also undertaken. Part of the work has been detailed in five DOE Technical Reports as shown at the end of this report.

  9. Engine bearing oil film thickness measurement and oil rheologh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cryvoff, S.A.; Spearot, J.A.; Bates, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Task Force was formed in 1984 to: (1) establish a series of reference oils, (2) measure the minimum bearing oil film thicknesses provided by the oils in fired engine, and (3) interpret the results in terms of oil rheological properties. Minimum oil film thickness (MOFT) measurement and analysis techniques using a capacitance method were developed. At steady-state operating conditions, laboratories evaluated a matrix of eighteen monograde and multigrade oils, blended with four widely-used viscosity index improves (VIIs). Analyses showed increasingly better correlations between MOFTs and viscosities of both single grade and multigrade oils as temperatures and shear rates used to calculate viscosities more-closely approximated in-bearing conditions.

  10. Oil droplets as light absorbents in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otremba, Zbigniew

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents spectra of light absorption coefficient of oil-in-water emulsion, derived using the Mie theory. In order to achieve that concentration of oil, degree of oil dispersion in seawater as well as spectra of light absorption coefficient and refractive index of chosen oils must be known. A significant role of the size distribution of oil droplets has been revealed: light absorption coefficient of emulsion increases with the rate of dispersion.

  11. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. Results: Heating the oil caused extensive chemical variations both oils. The acidity index increased over time (p<0.05, there were fluctuations inperoxide value, and anisidine and Totox values also increased during thermal processes (p<0.05. Conclusion: Grape seed oil showed more resistance to heat than sesame oil.

  12. Remote erosion and corrosion monitoring of subsea pipelines using acoustic telemetry and wet-mate connector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Howard; Barlow, Stewart [Teledyne ODI, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Clarke, Daniel [Teledyne Cormon, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Green, Dale [Teledyne Benthos, North Falmouth, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper will present a novel approach for monitoring erosion and corrosion using proven sub sea technologies: intrusive erosion and corrosion monitoring, acoustic telemetry and wet-mateable connector technology. Intrusive metal loss based monitoring systems on sub sea pipelines are increasingly being used because of their ability to directly measure erosion and corrosion. These systems are integrated with the sub sea production control system or located close to the platform and hard-wired. However, locations remote from a sub sea control system or platform requires a dedicated communication system and long lengths of cable that can be cost prohibitive to procure and install. The system presented consists of an intrusive erosion or corrosion monitor with pressure and temperature transmitters, a retrievable electronics module with an acoustic modem, a data storage module, and a replaceable power module. Time-stamped erosion and corrosion data can be transmitted via an acoustic link to a surface platform, a vessel of opportunity or to a relaying modem. Acoustic signals can be transmitted up to 6 km from the monitoring location. The power module along with data module and acoustic modem are mounted on the erosion and corrosion module using wet-mateable connectors, allowing retrieval by remotely operated vehicles. The collected data can be used to assess the cumulative erosion and corrosion as well as use the real-time metal loss rate data to correlate with operational parameters. Benefits include optimization of corrosion inhibitor dosage rates, mitigation of damage caused by solids production, and increased flow assurance. (author)

  13. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  14. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  15. Algeria's New Oil Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Addi, Lahouari

    1995-01-01

    Since the collapse of oil prices in the mid-1980s, Algeria has attempted to modify its national petroleum strategy in order to encourage foreign investment in oil and gas production. This effort was justified by a con stantly growing need for external resources to meet internal demands created by a growing population and to defray the increasing budgetary deficit in the public sector. In this chapter I will attempt to show that the contradictions of the Algerian economy and the rentier state ...

  16. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

  17. Use of red palm oil in local snacks can increase intake of provitamin A carotenoids in young aborigines children: a Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T K W; Low, C X; Kong, J P; Cho, Y L

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid-rich red palm oil (RPO)-based snacks have been provided to children in impoverished communities to improve their vitamin A status. The non-availabilty of information on the acceptability of RPO-based snacks by Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) children forms the basis of this study. Twenty-one Orang Asli children, majority of whom had normal body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) and aged 4.73 +/- 0.92 years in Sungai Tekir, Negeri Sembilan were provided with three freshly-prepared snacks (springroll, curry puff or doughnut) each containing one teaspoon or 5 ml of RPO per serving, on separate mornings. On the fourth morning, one serving each of all 3 different snacks was provided together on a plate to every child for consumption and preference for the snacks recorded. The children's habitual vitamin A intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid retention tests for the prepared snacks were performed by column chromatography. Fifty-four percent of the children did not meet their RNI for vitamin A. Based on acceptance criterion of consuming at least one-half serving of the snacks provided, springroll and curry puff recorded 100% acceptability while doughnut had 82% acceptability. Preference of snack was in the order, springroll (47%) > doughtnut (35%) > curry puff (18%), but a Z-test test for proportions showed no statistical significance. Carotenoid retention tests showed great variation between snacks namely, doughnut (100%) > springroll (84%) > curry puff (45%). The overall findings indicate that the RPO-based snacks are highly acceptable and can be used to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids of Malaysian Orang Asli children.

  18. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  19. Aumento do nível de óleo em dietas isoenergéticas para cavalos submetidos a exercício Increase of oil level in isoenergetic diets of exercising horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Marqueze

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da inclusão de óleo de soja na dieta foi avaliado em 4 cavalos machos castrados, mestiços Quarto de Milha, com idade aproximada de 42 meses e peso médio inicial de 382kg. Os cavalos foram submetidos a exercício de intensidade e duração média e receberam a dieta controle (sem óleo de soja e a dieta com óleo de soja (4,7% de óleo duas vezes ao dia, por 3 períodos de 21 dias, num delineamento do tipo Reversão Simples. A ração foi fornecida de modo a proporcionar uma ingestão diária isoprotéica e isoenergética para os dois tratamentos. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: freqüência cardíaca (FC, freqüência respiratória (FR e a concentração de glicogênio muscular, antes do exercício e 20 minutos após o término do exercício, e os níveis plasmáticos de glicose e de lactato, antes do exercício e aos 10, 20, 30 e 50 minutos após o exercício. O aumento do nível de óleo na dieta não influenciou significativamente (P>0,05 a FC, a FR, os níveis de glicose e de lactato, antes e após o exercício. A concentração de glicogênio muscular foi maior (PThe effect of soybean oil inclusion in the diet of four mature Quarter horse cross geldings, having approximately 42 months of age and averaging 382kg was evaluated. The horses were submitted to a moderate intensity exercise, and received the control diet (without soybean oil and the diet containing soybean oil (4.7% twice a day for three periods of 21 days in a Switch-back design. The amount of ration was offered in a way to achieve a daily isoproteic and isoenergetic intake for both treatments. The following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR and muscle glycogen concentration, before and 20 minutes after the end of the exercise, and glucose and lactate plasma levels before the exercise and at 10, 20, 30 and 50 minutes after the exercise. The increase of oil level in the diet did not affect significantly (P>0.05 the HR, the RR

  20. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  1. Role of Horizontal Wells and Hydraulic Fracturing in Increasing the Efficiency of Oilfield Development Using the Example of Oil and Gas Production Department «Aznakayevskneft» Tatneft PJSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Taipova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At a late stage of development, with deterioration in the structure of reserves, the use of advanced technologies and development principles helps to maintain the level of oil production and fully develop reserves. Technologies such as drilling horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing are undoubtedly technologies with a wide range of applicability at various sites and in different mining conditions. It is especially important to use development systems with horizontal wells in fields with high geological heterogeneity, stratification, presence of numerous replacement zones of reservoirs, zones of wedging, sections of thin reservoirs. Such complex objects include terrigenous sediments of the Bobrikovian horizon of deposits No. 2,3,33 and carbonate sediments of the Kizelian horizon of deposits No 281, 292 of the Romashkino field. Horizontal technologies for the purpose of involving reservoirs of the Bobrikovian horizon have been actively used since 2015. More than 40 wells with an average increase of more than 15 tons per day have been drilled, this is one of the main factors of production growth in the upper horizons. In 2016, a horizontal well No. 3745G with an input rate of 10.9 tons per day was built on the Kizelian horizon, which is 7 times higher than the production rate of vertical wells. Main results and achievements of Oil and Gas Production Department «Aznakayevskneft» Tatneft PJSC in the field of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are considered. According to the strategy of Oil and Gas Production Department, it is projected to drill 55-60 horizontal wells and carry out 20-30 fracturing processes in horizontal wells every year until 2025.

  2. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    The foam height of the soap was found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled ...

  3. Oiling accelerates loss of salt marshes, southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Michael; Biggs, Trent W.; Roberts, Dar A.; Peterson, Seth H.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Piazza, Sarai

    2017-01-01

    The 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill damaged thousands of km2 of intertidal marsh along shorelines that had been experiencing elevated rates of erosion for decades. Yet, the contribution of marsh oiling to landscape-scale degradation and subsequent land loss has been difficult to quantify. Here, we applied advanced remote sensing techniques to map changes in marsh land cover and open water before and after oiling. We segmented the marsh shorelines into non-oiled and oiled reaches and calculated the land loss rates for each 10% increase in oil cover (e.g. 0% to >70%), to determine if land loss rates for each reach oiling category were significantly different before and after oiling. Finally, we calculated background land-loss rates to separate natural and oil-related erosion and land loss. Oiling caused significant increases in land losses, particularly along reaches of heavy oiling (>20% oil cover). For reaches with ≥20% oiling, land loss rates increased abruptly during the 2010–2013 period, and the loss rates during this period are significantly different from both the pre-oiling (p loss rates across oiled and non-oiled reaches (p = 0.557). We conclude that oiling increased land loss by more than 50%, but that land loss rates returned to background levels within 3–6 years after oiling, suggesting that oiling results in a large but temporary increase in land loss rates along the shoreline.

  4. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  5. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...... oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  6. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}-)flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals.

  7. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    ABSTRACT. Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly soap products. The chemical analysis of seed oil was carried out using the methods reported by AOAC (1998), Akpan et al., (2006) and Bassir, (1978) which revealed that it had.

  8. Gene expression analysis among rainbow trout selected for increased biosynthesis and muscle deposition of omega-3 fatty acids when fed plant protein and plant oil formulated feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonids are piscivorous fish. In aquaculture, fish-based feed ingredients are rapidly becoming unsustainable due to increased demand and diminishing supply. Total replacement of fishmeal with plant proteins has been shown to cause severe intestinal ent...

  9. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    -, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation...... mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions....... During emulsion formation the relative interactions at the oil-water interface are proved to follow the Hofmeister series: K+

  10. Large scale fuel oil production experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-08-04

    The effect of the coal throughput and the composition of the pasting oil, in particular the effect of different middle oil contents in the pasting oil, was previously tested in small scale experiments of hydrogenation of coal. Possibilities of increasing the throughput through the converter when producing heavy oil together with middle oil is shown in this work. The proper industrial detail for the production of heavy oil had to be developed first on a semi-commercial plant. The Upper Silesian coal was used to study the production of gasoline, middle oil, and heavy oil at 700 atm in a 1.6 m/sup 3/ converter and to relate the results with the small scale experiments (10-liter converter). Paste heat exchange was carried out successfully. The following experiments, among others, were carried out: mixed coals were hydrogenated to 100% gasoline plus middle oil, to 65% gasoline and middle oil and 35% heavy oil, as well as 50% gasoline and middle oil plus 50% heavy oil, in part with the usual iron catalyst combination and in part with the sulfurated Bayer mass together with the iron sulfate and sulfigran. The Heinity coal had been hydrogenated with the usual iron catalyst to 65% gasoline and middle oil plus 35% heavy oil. The important results were summarized in a table. Details of the experiments and processes used were given in 3 graphs and 42 tables.

  11. Towards improving sterile insect technique: Exposure to orange oil compounds increases sexual signalling and longevity in Ceratitis capitata males of the Vienna 8 GSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Iliadis, Ioannis V.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Koveos, Dimitris S.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a notorious insect pest causing huge economic losses worldwide. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for its control. Using sexually mature sterilized males of the Vienna 8 (tsl) strain in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of males to citrus compounds (separately or in a mixture) affects their sexual behaviour and if nutritional conditions and age modulate those effects. Exposed males exhibited increased sexual signalling compared to unexposed ones, particularly when fed a rich adult diet. Interestingly, and for the first time reported in medfly, exposure of Vienna 8 males to a mixture of citrus compounds increases longevity under poor adult diet conditions. We discuss the possible associated mechanisms and provide some practical implications of our results towards improving the effectiveness of SIT. PMID:29190755

  12. Towards improving sterile insect technique: Exposure to orange oil compounds increases sexual signalling and longevity in Ceratitis capitata males of the Vienna 8 GSS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos A Kouloussis

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a notorious insect pest causing huge economic losses worldwide. The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely used for its control. Using sexually mature sterilized males of the Vienna 8 (tsl strain in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of males to citrus compounds (separately or in a mixture affects their sexual behaviour and if nutritional conditions and age modulate those effects. Exposed males exhibited increased sexual signalling compared to unexposed ones, particularly when fed a rich adult diet. Interestingly, and for the first time reported in medfly, exposure of Vienna 8 males to a mixture of citrus compounds increases longevity under poor adult diet conditions. We discuss the possible associated mechanisms and provide some practical implications of our results towards improving the effectiveness of SIT.

  13. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( AEE intake. Endogenous losses of AEE were greater ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( AEE than CO. Dietary fat source did not affect endogenous losses of AEE. The lower digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  14. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  15. Atlantic Canada: third catch --White Rose keeps bloom on Grand Banks oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2001-02-05

    Subject to receiving regulatory approvals, Husky Oil expects to drill and trench subsea lines during summer 2001 and build a floating production, storage and off-loading (FPSO) vessel by the end of the year at its White Rose oilfield, covering about 40 square kilometres of the northern edge of Newfoundland's Grand Banks, about 350 km east of St. John's. Despite heated demands by local politicians for Husky to deploy a gravity-based structure and exploit the field's two trillion cubic feet of natural gas by building a 650 km pipeline system, Husky Oil and its partner PetroCanada, consider the FPSO to be the safest and most reliable production facility considering the location in the Iceberg Alley corridor of spring icebergs, pack ice, water depth and climate. Oil price hovering at US$30 per barrel and development costs within the economic framework of the project contributed to launching the project. According to current estimates the White Rose field will earn a return on investment as long as oil prices stay above US$15. The White Rose field has about 230 million barrels of recoverable reserves, compared to the Terra Nova field at 400 million barrels and the Hibernia at 600 to 700 million barrels. The smaller size of the field presents a different economic prospect and requires close attention to costs, say Husky Oil officials. In reviewing the Husky Oil application, the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board plans to conduct public hearings, promising to pay close attention to the company's proposals regarding its efforts to foster Canadian participation.

  16. Extended oil spill spreading with Langmuir circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Lehr, William J

    2017-09-15

    When spilled in the ocean, most crude oils quickly spread into a thin film that ruptures into smaller slicks distributed over a larger area. Observers have also reported the film tearing apart into streaks that eventually merge forming fewer but longer bands of floating oil. Understanding this process is important to model oil spill transport. First, slick area is calculated using a spreading model. Next, Langmuir circulation models are used to approximate the merging of oiled bands. Calculations are performed on Troll blended and Alaska North Slope crude oils and results compared with measurements from the 1990s North Sea field experiments. Langmuir circulation increases the oil area but decreases the surface coverage of oil. This work modifies existing oil spreading formulas by providing a surface area correction due to the effects of Langmuir circulation. The model's simplicity is advantageous in situations with limited data, such as emergency oil spill response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Efficacy of experimental Newcastle disease water-in-oil oil-emulsion vaccines formulated from squalane and squalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H D; Xie, Z X

    1990-01-01

    Water-in-oil inactivated Newcastle disease oil-emulsion vaccines were formulated with the terpene oils squalane or squalene, or mixtures thereof, and injected into 4-week-old broilers. Vaccine efficacy based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers was comparable to that of control mineral oil vaccines. Tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of the terpene oil emulsion vaccines was greatly reduced 3 weeks post-vaccination compared with that of mineral oil-based vaccine. Viscosity of the terpene oil vaccines was satisfactory but increased three to four times that of mineral oil vaccine when the antigen phase volume increased from 5% to 20%.

  18. Biodegradation of dispersed oil in seawater is not inhibited by a commercial oil spill dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Ribicic, Deni; Winkler, Anika; Netzer, Roman

    2017-10-24

    Chemical dispersants are well-established as oil spill response tools. Several studies have emphasized their positive effects on oil biodegradation, but recent studies have claimed that dispersants may actually inhibit the oil biodegradation process. In this study, biodegradation of oil dispersions in natural seawater at low temperature (5°C) was compared, using oil without dispersant, and oil premixed with different concentrations of Slickgone NS, a widely used oil spill dispersant in Europe. Saturates (nC10-nC36 alkanes), naphthalenes and 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were biotransformed at comparable rates in all dispersions, both with and without dispersant. Microbial communities differed primarily between samples with or without oil, and they were not significantly affected by increasing dispersant concentrations. Our data therefore showed that a common oil spill dispersant did not inhibit biodegradation of oil at dispersant concentrations relevant for response operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.

    1995-07-01

    The Bluebell field produces from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated deltaic lacustrine environment, sandstones deposited in fluvial-dominated deltas; and carbonates and some interbedded sandstones of the lower Wasatch transition deposited in mud flats. Bluebell project personnel are studying ways to improve completion techniques used in the field to increase primary production in both new wells and recompletions. The study includes detailed petrographic examination of the different lithologic reservoir types in both the outcrop and core. Outcrop, core, and geophysical logs are being used to identify and map important depositional cycles. Petrographic detail will be used to improve log calculation methods which are currently highly questionable due to varying water chemistry and clay content in the Green River and Wasatch Formations. Field mapping of fractures and their relationship to basin tectonics helps predict the orientation of open fractures in the subsurface. The project includes acquiring bore-hole imaging logs from new wells in the Bluebell field thereby obtaining detailed subsurface fracture data previously not available. Reservoir simulation models are being constructed to improve the understanding of pressure and fluid flow within the reservoir. A detailed database of well completion histories has been compiled and will be studied to determine which were the most and the least effective methods used in the past.

  20. The essential oils from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarp induce apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatoma cells through increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Soon-Young; Koh, Kyung-Hee; Beak, Sung-Mok; Paek, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2005-05-01

    The volatile extract from dried pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium that was obtained by simultaneous distillation with dichloromethane and water was composed of 29.9% geranyl acetate, 15.8% citronella, 15.4% sabinene and the minor volatile components included beta-myrcene, linalool, (-)-isopulegol, citronellyl acetate, 1,4-dimethyl pyrazole, alpha-terpinene, 3-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclo-hexene-1-o1 and trans-geraniol. The volatile extract decreased the cell viability and induced apoptotic death in HepG2 human hepatoma cells in a concentration- and time-related manner. In addition, the volatile extract increased the production of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with Trolox, a well-known antioxidant, significantly suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death induced by the extract. However, caspase-3 activity was not changed in the extract-treated cells, suggesting that the extract-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells is caspase-3 independent. Furthermore, in nude mice inoculated with Huh-7 human hepatoma cells, the extract significantly inhibited tumor development. These results suggest that the volatile extract from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarpium is a good candidate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy and that reactive oxygen species are the key signaling molecules in the volatile extract-induced cell death in HepG2 cells.

  1. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  2. The combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and extra virgin olive oil increases mitochondrial and body metabolism and prevents CLA-associated insulin resistance and liver hypertrophy in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Flávia G; Vicentini, Tatiane M; Teodoro, Bruno G; Dalalio, Felipe M; Dechandt, Carlos R P; Prado, Ieda M R; Curti, Carlos; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Uyemura, Sergio A; Alberici, Luciane C

    2016-02-01

    Clinical conditions associated with obesity can be improved by daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with CLA and EVOO, either alone or in combination, changes body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energetics. Male C57Bl/6 mice were divided into one of four groups: CLA (1:1 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12; 18:2 isomers), EVOO, CLA plus EVOO or control (linoleic acid). Each mouse received 3 g/kg body weight of the stated oil by gavage on alternating days for 60 days. Dietary supplementation with CLA, alone or in combination with EVOO: (a) reduced the white adipose tissue gain; (b) increased body VO2 consumption, VCO2 production and energy expenditure; (c) elevated uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression and UCP activity in isolated liver mitochondria. This organelle, when energized with NAD(+)-linked substrates, produced high amounts of H2O2 without inducing oxidative damage. Dietary supplementation with EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameter, but supplementation with CLA itself promoted insulin resistance and elevated weight, lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 expression in liver. Interestingly, the in vivo antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine abolished the CLA-induced rise of body metabolism and liver UCP expression and activity, while the in vitro antioxidant treatment with catalase mitigated the CLA-dependent UCP-2 expression in hepatocytes; these findings suggest the participation of an oxidative-dependent pathway. Therefore, this study clarifies the mechanisms by which CLA induces liver UCP expression and activity, and demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effects of combined CLA and EVOO supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  4. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe MC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michaela C Pascoe,1 David W Howells, 2David P Crewther,1 Leeanne M Carey,2,3 Sheila G Crewther4 1Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University, ²Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health La Trobe University, 4School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo–associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. Keywords: apoptosis, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  5. The time course of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid concentrations during and after treatment of non-human primates with increasing doses of an omega-3 rich phospholipid preparation derived from krill-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, Petter-Arnt; Wang, Xiaoli; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Xiao, Yong-Fu

    2017-01-21

    A commonly used measure to reflect the intake of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA is the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA + DHA as % of total fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane. When the omega-3 index changes it follows that the relative fractions of other fatty acids in the membrane are also changed. In the present study, increasing doses of a preparation of omega-3 rich phospholipids extracted from krill oil were administered orally to non-human primates for 12 weeks and the time course of EPA, DHA and 22 other fatty acids in erythrocytes was determined bi-weekly during treatment and for 8 weeks after cessation of treatment. Plasma concentrations of six endocannabinoid-type mediators being downstream metabolites of some fatty acids analyzed in erythrocytes were also determined. Six diabetic, dyslipidemic non-human primates were included, three in a vehicle control group and three being treated with the omega-3 rich phospholipid preparation. The vehicle control and test items were given daily by gavage and the test item doses were 50, 150 and 450 mg phospholipids/kg/day. Each dose level was given for four weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline and thereafter bi-weekly. Fatty acids were determined in erythrocytes by methylation followed by gas-chromatography. Endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like mediators were analyzed in plasma by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. The treatment resulted in a dose-related increase in the fraction of EPA and DHA in erythrocyte membranes and a dose-related decrease of other poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in particular omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Erythrocyte concentrations of saturated fatty acids remained unchanged throughout the experiment. Plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like mediators changed accordingly as those being downstream arachidonic acid decreased, downstream of the saturated palmitic and oleic acids

  6. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  7. The importance of the global oils and fats supply and the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, James; Fitton, Claire

    2010-06-01

    This article highlights the importance of the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide for food. On top of this food demand, the demand for vegetable oils for biofuels, which now absorb over 10% of world oil and fat supplies, has rapidly increased.

  8. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  9. Experimental Study on Hydrate Induction Time of Gas-Saturated Water-in-Oil Emulsion using a High-Pressure Flow Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv X.F.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrate is one of the critical precipitates which have to be controlled for subsea flow assurance. The induction time of hydrate is therefore a significant parameter. However, there have been few studies on the induction time of the natural gas hydrate formation in a flow loop system. Consequently, a series of experiments were firstly performed, including water, natural gas and Diesel oil, on the hydrate induction time under various conditions such as the supercooling and supersaturation degree, water cut, anti-agglomerant dosage, etc. The experiments were conducted in a high-pressure hydrate flow loop newly constructed in the China University of Petroleum (Beijing, and dedicated to flow assurance studies. Then, based on previous research, this study puts forward a method for induction time, which is characterized by clear definition, convenient measurement and good generality. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of the experimental parameters and analyzed the experimental phenomena for the hydrate induction time in a flowing system.

  10. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  11. Nonsymbiotic Hemoglobin-2 Leads to an Elevated Energy State and to a Combined Increase in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Total Oil Content When Overexpressed in Developing Seeds of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeolas, Helene; Hühn, Daniela; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins are ubiquitously expressed in plants and divided into two different classes based on gene expression pattern and oxygen-binding properties. Most of the published research has been on the function of class 1 hemoglobins. To investigate the role of class 2 hemoglobins, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were generated overexpressing Arabidopsis hemoglobin-2 (AHb2) under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Overexpression of AHb2 led to a 40% increase in the total fatty acid content of developing and mature seeds in three subsequent generations. This was mainly due to an increase in the polyunsaturated C18:2 (ω-6) linoleic and C18:3 (ω-3) α-linolenic acids. Moreover, AHb2 overexpression led to an increase in the C18:2/C18:1 and C18:3/C18:2 ratios as well as in the C18:3 content in mol % of total fatty acids and in the unsaturation/saturation index of total seed lipids. The increase in fatty acid content was mainly due to a stimulation of the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis, which was attributable to a 3-fold higher energy state and a 2-fold higher sucrose content of the seeds. Under low external oxygen, AHb2 overexpression maintained an up to 5-fold higher energy state and prevented fermentation. This is consistent with AHb2 overexpression results in improved oxygen availability within developing seeds. In contrast to this, overexpression of class 1 hemoglobin did not lead to any significant increase in the metabolic performance of the seeds. These results provide evidence for a specific function of class 2 hemoglobin in seed oil production and in promoting the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by facilitating oxygen supply in developing seeds. PMID:21205621

  12. Nonsymbiotic hemoglobin-2 leads to an elevated energy state and to a combined increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and total oil content when overexpressed in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeolas, Helene; Hühn, Daniela; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins are ubiquitously expressed in plants and divided into two different classes based on gene expression pattern and oxygen-binding properties. Most of the published research has been on the function of class 1 hemoglobins. To investigate the role of class 2 hemoglobins, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were generated overexpressing Arabidopsis hemoglobin-2 (AHb2) under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Overexpression of AHb2 led to a 40% increase in the total fatty acid content of developing and mature seeds in three subsequent generations. This was mainly due to an increase in the polyunsaturated C18:2 (ω-6) linoleic and C18:3 (ω-3) α-linolenic acids. Moreover, AHb2 overexpression led to an increase in the C18:2/C18:1 and C18:3/C18:2 ratios as well as in the C18:3 content in mol % of total fatty acids and in the unsaturation/saturation index of total seed lipids. The increase in fatty acid content was mainly due to a stimulation of the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis, which was attributable to a 3-fold higher energy state and a 2-fold higher sucrose content of the seeds. Under low external oxygen, AHb2 overexpression maintained an up to 5-fold higher energy state and prevented fermentation. This is consistent with AHb2 overexpression results in improved oxygen availability within developing seeds. In contrast to this, overexpression of class 1 hemoglobin did not lead to any significant increase in the metabolic performance of the seeds. These results provide evidence for a specific function of class 2 hemoglobin in seed oil production and in promoting the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by facilitating oxygen supply in developing seeds.

  13. Effect of traditional Chinese cooking methods on fatty acid profiles of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yamin; Hao, Pengfei; Liu, Bingjie; Meng, Xianghong

    2017-10-15

    The effect of four frying processes (vegetable salad, stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying) on fatty acid composition of ten vegetable oils (peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower seed oil, rice bran oil, olive oil, sesame oil, linseed oil, and peony seed oil) was investigated using GC-MS. The result showed that trans-fatty acid (TFA) was produced during all processes. Rapeseed oil had the highest TFA content in vegetable salad oil with 2.88% of total fatty acid. The TFA content of sunflower seed oil was 0.00% in vegetable salad oil, however, after stir frying and pan frying, it increased to 1.53% and 1.29%, respectively. Peanut oil had the lowest TFA content after deep frying for 12h with 0.74mg/g. It was concluded that a healthy cooking process could be acquired by a scientific collocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  15. Oiling accelerates loss of salt marshes, southeastern Louisiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Beland

    Full Text Available The 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill damaged thousands of km2 of intertidal marsh along shorelines that had been experiencing elevated rates of erosion for decades. Yet, the contribution of marsh oiling to landscape-scale degradation and subsequent land loss has been difficult to quantify. Here, we applied advanced remote sensing techniques to map changes in marsh land cover and open water before and after oiling. We segmented the marsh shorelines into non-oiled and oiled reaches and calculated the land loss rates for each 10% increase in oil cover (e.g. 0% to >70%, to determine if land loss rates for each reach oiling category were significantly different before and after oiling. Finally, we calculated background land-loss rates to separate natural and oil-related erosion and land loss. Oiling caused significant increases in land losses, particularly along reaches of heavy oiling (>20% oil cover. For reaches with ≥20% oiling, land loss rates increased abruptly during the 2010-2013 period, and the loss rates during this period are significantly different from both the pre-oiling (p < 0.0001 and 2013-2016 post-oiling periods (p < 0.0001. The pre-oiling and 2013-2016 post-oiling periods exhibit no significant differences in land loss rates across oiled and non-oiled reaches (p = 0.557. We conclude that oiling increased land loss by more than 50%, but that land loss rates returned to background levels within 3-6 years after oiling, suggesting that oiling results in a large but temporary increase in land loss rates along the shoreline.

  16. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  17. Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mirnezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The data shows that oil-producing countries have low oil retail prices and low economic growth compared with other countries. Considering that oil-producing countries experience high oil consumption and low economic growth, it is possible to argue that economic growth is not an appropriate justification for oil consumption and that the main cause for high oil consumption is the low retail price. In addition, it should be noted that the global environmental movement against increasing greenhouse gas emissions—for example, the Kyoto 1998 agreement—seems to have had no effect on oil consumption in oil-producing countries.

  18. Response to commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-01-22

    Nichols et al. (Lipids Health Dis13:2, 2014) raised concern about the higher n-6 concentration in fish oil used in our recent study which is different from typical commercial fish oils (Ramprasath et al. Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013). The aim of our study was to compare the effect of consumption of similar amount of n-3 PUFA from krill and fish oil with placebo on plasma and RBC fatty acids. As the concentration of n-3 PUFA in the fish oil utilised was higher than that in krill oil, we deemed it important to keep consistent the concentration of n-3 PUFA and volumes to be administered to participants between krill versus fish oils. As such, the fish oil used in the study was diluted with corn oil. Although the n-6 PUFA concentration in fish oil was higher compared to traditionally used fish oil, consumption of the fish oil used in our study actually reduced the total n-6 PUFA in plasma and RBC to a similar extent as did krill oil. Overall, our conclusion was that the increases in plasma and RBC concentrations of EPA and DHA along with improvement in the omega-3 index observed with consumption of krill oil compared with fish oil are due to differences in absorption and bioavailability based on the structural difference of the two oils rather than their n-6 PUFA content.

  19. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  20. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  1. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  2. Les encroûtements sous-marins de Méditerranée orientale : une explication génétique Subsea Incrustations in the Eastern Mediterranean: a Genetic Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allouc J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les encroûtements sous-marins ou fonds durcis ne sont pas spécifiques à la Méditerranée, mais ils y sont particulièrement abondants, notamment dans le bassin oriental. Ils tapissent les pentes de reliefs sous-marins et représentent un exemple de diagenèse superficielle liée aux périodes de vacuité sédimentaire. Il existe divers types d'encroûtements qui peuvent être distingués en fonction principalement de l'épaisseur de la partie indurée (appelée calcaire et de la teinte générale du matériau. Le plus souvent le calcaire surmonte une boue encore plus ou moins meuble. L'induration (ou lithification de cette dernière résulte de l'introduction d'un ciment de calcite magnésienne et on peut distinguer différentes étapes du processus d'après la nannostructure du calcaire. Le phénomène semble purement physico-chimique et résulterait de la conjonction de plusieurs facteurs : - présence de courants profonds; - sursaturation suffisamment élevée par rapport à la calcite non magnésienne; - très faibles concentrations en inhibiteurs de croissance cristalline autres que le magnésium. Bien qu'affectant des matériaux d'âges variés, cette forme de diagenèse sous-marine paraît essentiellement quaternaire. D'après les échantillons examinés, les conditions les plus favorables à la genèse des encroûtements apparaîtraient lors des stades climatiques froids (notamment le dernier et plus particulièrement durant leur phase terminale. Subsea incrustations or hardened sea floors are not specific to the Mediterranean, but they are particularly abundant there, especially in the eastern basin. They cover the slopes of subsea relief features and represent an example of surface diagenesis linked to periods of absence of sedimentation. Several types of incrustations can be distinguished, mainly as a function of the thickness of the indurated part (called limestone and the general color of the material. Such limestone usually

  3. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira; Larissa Canhadas Bertan; Christiane Maciel Vasconcellos Barros De Rensis; Ana Paula Bilck; Priscila Cristina Bizam Vianna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, res...

  4. Shape memory alloy actuated accumulator for ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    As offshore oil and gas exploration moves further offshore and into deeper waters to reach hydrocarbon reserves, it is becoming essential for the industry to develop more reliable and efficient hydraulic accumulators to supply pressured hydraulic fluid for various control and actuation operations, such as closing rams of blowout preventers and controlling subsea valves on the seafloor. By utilizing the shape memory effect property of nitinol, which is a type of shape memory alloy (SMA), an innovative SMA actuated hydraulic accumulator prototype has been developed and successfully tested at Smart Materials and Structure Laboratory at the University of Houston. Absence of gas in the developed SMA accumulator prototype makes it immune to hydrostatic head loss caused by water depth and thus reduces the number of accumulators required in deep water operations. Experiments with a feedback control have demonstrated that the proposed SMA actuated accumulator can provide precisely regulated pressurized fluids. Furthermore the potential use of ultracapacitors along with an embedded system to control the electric power supplied to SMA allows this accumulator to be an autonomous device for deployment. The developed SMA accumulator will make deepwater oil extraction systems more compact and cost effective.

  5. Oil spills abatement: factors affecting oil uptake by cellulosic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Katharine C; Jackson, Colby D; Aizpurua, Carlos E; Rojas, Orlando J; Hubbe, Martin A

    2012-07-17

    Wood-derived cellulosic fibers prepared in different ways were successfully employed to absorb simulated crude oil, demonstrating their possible use as absorbents in the case of oil spills. When dry fibers were used, the highest sorption capacity (six parts of oil per unit mass of fiber) was shown by bleached softwood kraft fibers, compared to hardwood bleached kraft and softwood chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) fibers. Increased refining of CTMP fibers decreased their oil uptake capacity. When the fibers were soaked in water before exposure to the oil, the ability of the unmodified kraft fibers to sorb oil was markedly reduced, whereas the wet CTMP fibers were generally more effective than the wet kraft fibers. Predeposition of lignin onto the surfaces of the bleached kraft fibers improved their ability to take up oil when wet. Superior ability to sorb oil in the wet state was achieved by pretreating the kraft fibers with a hydrophobic sizing agent, alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Contact angle tests on a model cellulose surface showed that some of the sorption results onto wetted fibers could be attributed to the more hydrophobic nature of the fibers after treatment with either lignin or ASA.

  6. Oil and geopolitics: the oil crises of the 1970s and the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of the geopolitics of oil in the 1970s provides important insights into the nature and dynamics of the Cold War. Possession of ample domestic oil supplies and the ability to ensure access to foreign oil reserves were significant elements in the power position of the United States in its Cold War competition with the Soviet Union. U.S. oil production peaked in 1970,however, making the United States increasingly dependent on oil imports and ending its ability to provide oil to it...

  7. Evolutionary responses to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill by the copepod Eurytemora affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Remfert, Jane Louise; Opgenorth, Taylor; Lee, Kristin M; Stanford, Elizabeth; Connolly, Joseph William; Kim, Jinwoo; Tomke, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Disaster was the most catastrophic offshore oil spill in U.S. history, yet we still have a poor understanding of how organisms could evolve in response to the toxic effects of crude oil. This study offers a rare analysis of how fitness-related traits could evolve rapidly in response to crude oil toxicity. We examined evolutionary responses of populations of the common copepod Eurytemora affinis residing in the Gulf of Mexico, by comparing crude oil tolerance of populations collected before versus after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010. In addition, we imposed laboratory selection for crude oil tolerance for ~8 generations, using an E. affinis population collected from before the oil spill. We found evolutionary increases in crude oil tolerance in the wild population following the oil spill, relative to the population collected before the oil spill. The post-oil spill population showed increased survival and rapid development time in the presence of crude oil. In contrast, evolutionary responses following laboratory selection were less clear; though, development time from metamorphosis to adult in the presence of crude oil did become more rapid after selection. We did find that the wild population, used in both experiments, harbored significant genetic variation in crude oil tolerance, upon which selection could act. Thus, our study indicated that crude oil tolerance could evolve, but perhaps not on the relatively short time scale of the laboratory selection experiment. This study contributes novel insights into evolutionary responses to crude oil, in directly examining fitness-related traits before and after an oil spill, and in observing evolutionary responses following laboratory selection.

  8. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from waste marble. The barium enhanced waste m methods and showed high performance to methyl activity of the solid oxide catalyst resulted from th with high dispersion of .... RANSESTERIFICATION OF CRUDE JATROPHA OIL USING WASTE MARBLE CATALYST ..... methanol will interfere with the glycerin separation.

  9. Oil price and the dollar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, V. [Banque de France, Paris (France); Mignon, V. [Paris Univ., Paris (France). Economix-CNRS; Penot, A. [Lyon Univ., Lyon (France). CNRS

    2007-10-01

    Oil prices and the United States (US) dollar exchange rate are driving the evolution of the world economy. This paper investigated long-term relationships between oil prices and the US effective exchange rate. An empirical study was performed on oil prices and the dollar real effective exchange rate between 1974 to 2004. The impact of the dollar exchange rate was also explored, and the effects of oil prices on supply and demand were considered. A dynamic partial equilibrium framework study was evaluated in order to compare how other countries used revenues from oil exports in dollars. The study showed that both variables had similar evolutions when price fluctuations were low. Strong increases in the dollar were associated with lower oil prices. However, adjustment speeds of the dollar real effective exchange rate was slow. Co-integration and causality tests showed that oil prices influenced the exchange rate, and that the link between the 2 variables was transmitted through the country's net foreign asset position. It was concluded that higher oil prices improved US net foreign asset position in relation to other countries, and had a positive impact on dollar appreciation. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. Development of recommended practices and guidance documents for upstream oil and gas flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Eivind; Scheers, Lex; Ting, Frank; Letton, Chip

    2005-07-01

    As first stated in the Introduction, improvements in multiphase flow meters during the last 15 years have resulted in their increased usage in upstream oil and gas applications, especially in difficult offshore locations both topside and deep subsea. To address user needs for information and standardization in the area, documentation has recently been created under the auspices of the NFOGM, API, and ISO. Our intent here was to familiarize potential users with the three new documents, which should be helpful in a number of respects, e.g., (a) distribution of best knowledge and operational practices on the subject, (b) provision of a common language for discussing multiphase flow, and (c) accounting for the requirements of governing regulatory authorities. At this stage of completion of NFOGM, API, and ISO reports, a natural question arises as to what the future holds for another round of flow measurement documentation. Candidate areas include: 1) In Situ Verification of Multiphase Flow Meters. 2) Wet Gas Flow Measurement. 3) Flare Gas Meters. 4) Virtual Metering. 5) Composition and Phase Behavior Issues In Measurement. 6) Flow Measurement Uncertainty. Addressing certain of these is already being proposed in several possible venues, among which are (1) the DeepStar Consortium, (2) a JIP for investigating total system (meter + flowline + separator) uncertainty organized by a group at Tulsa University, and (3) a program for development of drilling and production capabilities in ultradeep water to be sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The creation of the three documents discussed in this paper demonstrates the benefits that strong international cooperation can achieve in producing standardization documents, ensuring their true global input and acceptance. On the other hand, it should also be questioned why two or more documents are required, which are the result of much duplication of effort. For example, although there are differences between API RP86 and the

  11. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  12. Effects of oil and drug concentrations on droplets size of palm oil esters (POEs) nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakeena, M H F; Elrashid, S M; Munavvar, A S; Azmin, M N

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the present work is to study the effects of oil and drug concentrations on droplets size of a nanoemulsion. Newly introduced oil, palm oil esters (POEs) by Universiti Putra Malaysia researchers was selected for the oil phase of the nanoemulsion, because the oil was reported to be a good vehicle for pharmaceutical use. Nanoemulsions were prepared with different concentrations of oil and drug and their effects on droplets size were studied by laser scattering spectroscopy (Nanophox). The results of droplets size analysis shows the droplets size increase with increasing concentration of oil and drug concentrations. It can be concluded from this study, that oil and drug concentrations have an effect on the droplets size of POEs nanoemulsion system.

  13. White oil production from western Siberian petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenkov, L.A.; Potanina, V.A.; Popova, L.V.; Marcheva, Y.N.; Radchenko, K.A.

    1981-08-01

    The technology of producing white oils was investigated in multistage sulfonization of the initial raw material by oleum or gaseous sulphuranhydride (SO/sub 3/) with subsequent neutralization and contact prepurification. The use of gaseous sulphuranhydride instead of oleum has the advantage of lower consumption of the sulfonating agent, lower volume of acid tar formed and an increase of the yield of sulfonic acids which are used as a raw material to produce sulfonate additives. White oils are used to produce medical vaseline, perfume bases, a solvent of the ethylene polymerization reaction initiator, lubricating oil for high-pressure compressors and as cable lubricant. The technology of producing a variety of white oils based on neutral oil from a mixture of low-sulphur Fergana and Turkemen oils from sulfonate additive production was developed to expand the raw material resources produced from other oil fields. The yield of low-soluble sulfonic acids increases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases in sulphurization of the fourth oil fraction of Western Siberian oils; yield decreases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases during sulphurization of neutral oil of first degree of sulphurization, while the yield of acid tar increases. (JMT)

  14. Effect of strong electrolytes on Edible oil Part II, Viscosity of maize oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paras

    fatty acids are pivotal in preventing heart disease, cancer and many other diseases. For people who cannot contemplate eating fish, the Omega-3 must come from alpha-linolenic acid. This can be achieved by increasing intake of Omega-3 rich food such as flaxseed (linseed oil), rapeseed (canola) oil, China seed, Walnut oil ...

  15. Feeding sunflower oil to partially defaunate the rumen increases nitrogen retention, urea-nitrogen recycling to the gastrointestinal tract and the anabolic use of recycled urea-nitrogen in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doranalli, Kiran; Mutsvangwa, Timothy

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to delineate how interactions between feeding sunflower oil (SFO) to partially defaunate the rumen and altering dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate may alter urea-N kinetics and N metabolism in lambs. In a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, four Suffolk ram lambs (61·5 (se 4·0) kg) were used. Treatments were 0 ( - SFO) v. 6 % (+SFO) SFO and dry-rolled barley (DRB) v. pelleted barley (PB). N balance was measured over 4 d, with concurrent measurement of urea-N kinetics using continuous intra-jugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Feeding SFO decreased (P = 0·001) ruminal protozoa and NH3-N concentrations. Urinary N excretion was lower (P = 0·003), and retained N was higher (P = 0·002) in +SFO lambs compared with - SFO lambs. Endogenous production of urea-N (urea-N entry rate; UER) was similar across treatments. Urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (GIT entry rate; GER), expressed as absolute amounts (16·4 v. 13·1 g/d) or as a proportion of the UER (0·693 v. 0·570), its anabolic use (9·0 v. 6·0 g/d) and microbial N supply (14·6 v. 10·9 g/d) were higher (P ≤ 0·001) in +SFO lambs compared with -SFO lambs. As a proportion of the UER, GER was higher, whereas urinary urea-N loss was lower, in lambs fed PB compared with those fed DRB (P = 0·01). In summary, feeding SFO increased urea-N recycling to the GIT and microbial non-NH(3)-N supply, thus providing new evidence that the improved efficiency of N utilization in partially defaunated ruminants could be partly mediated by an increase in urea-N recycling.

  16. How to increase and renew the oil and gas reserves? Technology advances and research strategy of IFP; Comment accroitre et renouveler les reserves de petrole et de gaz? Avancees de la technologie et strategie de recherche de l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Technology progresses made to reach new oil and gas resources (heavy crudes, buried deposits, ultra-deep offshore), to better exploit the available reserves (increase of the recovery ratio) and to reduce the costs will allow to enhance the hydrocarbon reserves and to durably extend the limits of the world energy supply. In a context where geopolitical uncertainties, high price rates and pessimistic declarations increase once again the public fear about petroleum reserves, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) wanted to make a status about the essential role that technology can play in this challenge. This document gathers the transparencies and articles presented at this press conference: how to increase and renew oil and gas reserves, technology advances and research strategy of IFP (O. Appert, J. Lecourtier, G. Fries); how to enhance oil recovery from deposits (primary, secondary and tertiary recovery: polymers injection, CO{sub 2} injection, steam injection, in-situ oxidation and combustion, reservoir modeling, monitoring of uncertainties); the heavy crudes (the Orenoque extra-heavy oil, the tar sands of Alberta, the heavy and extra-heavy crudes of Canada, IFP's research); ultra-deep offshore (the weight challenge: mooring lines and risers, the temperature challenge: paraffins and hydrates deposition, immersion of the treatment unit: economical profitability of satellite fields); fields buried beyond 5000 m (technological challenges: seismic surveys, drilling equipment, well logging, drilling mud; prospects of these fields); oil reserves: data that change with technique and economy (proven, probable and possible reserves, proven and declared reserves, three converging evaluations about the world proven reserves, reserves to be discovered, non-conventional petroleum resources, technical progress and oil prices, production depletion at the end of the century). (J.S.)

  17. Seed structure characteristics to form ultrahigh oil content in rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Hu

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop in the world, and increasing its oil content is a major breeding goal. The studies on seed structure and characteristics of different oil content rapeseed could help us to understand the biological mechanism of lipid accumulation, and be helpful for rapeseed breeding.Here we report on the seed ultrastructure of an ultrahigh oil content rapeseed line YN171, whose oil content is 64.8%, and compared with other high and low oil content rapeseed lines. The results indicated that the cytoplasms of cotyledon, radicle, and aleuronic cells were completely filled with oil and protein bodies, and YN171 had a high oil body organelle to cell area ratio for all cell types. In the cotyledon cells, oil body organelles comprised 81% of the total cell area in YN171, but only 53 to 58% in three high oil content lines and 33 to 38% in three low oil content lines. The high oil body organelle to cotyledon cell area ratio and the cotyledon ratio in seed were the main reasons for the ultrahigh oil content of YN171. The correlation analysis indicated that oil content is significantly negatively correlated with protein content, but is not correlated with fatty acid composition.Our results indicate that the oil content of YN171 could be enhanced by increasing the oil body organelle to cell ratio for some cell types. The oil body organelle to seed ratio significantly highly positively correlates with oil content, and could be used to predict seed oil content. Based on the structural analysis of different oil content rapeseed lines, we estimate the maximum of rapeseed oil content could reach 75%. Our results will help us to screen and identify high oil content lines in rapeseed breeding.

  18. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  19. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  20. Manitoba 2004 oil activity review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.N. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented data on oil and gas activities in Manitoba during 2004, the busiest year in Manitoba's oil patch since the mid 1980s. Increases in the leasing of Crown and freehold acreage were also noted, with accompanying increases in drilling activity for the latter part of 2004. Details of Crown land sales were presented, with a total of 43,725 hectares of crown oil and gas rights under lease. During 2004, over 15,000 hectares of Crown oil and gas leases were sold, the highest figures since 1997. More wells were licensed and drilled in 2004 than in any year since 1986. Overall drilling success rate was 96.7 per cent. Details of top drillers in Manitoba were presented, with drilling activity focused in Waskada and Daly fields and the Sinclair area. Oil production increased by 0.7 per cent, with 1474 wells in production. Daily oil production statistics were presented, with the total value of Manitoba's oil production being $196 million. Details of the top 5 producers were provided, in addition to details of horizontal well production. Recent developments in Sinclair Field, Pierson L. Amaranth MC 3b A Pool, Waskada L. Amaranth I Pool and Virden Lodgepole D Pool were reviewed. The Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program was discussed with reference to the following enhancements: new well incentives, horizontal well incentives; holiday oil volume accounts; and marginal well major workover programs. Various Oil and Gas Act amendments were reviewed. In addition, the Williston Basin Architecture and Hydrocarbon Potential Project was discussed. 3 figs.

  1. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Rodrigo, Ana P.

    Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients, temperat......Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients...... have been made with excavated oil-contaminated soil from the Greenlandic town Sisimiut to study different low-tech and low-cost solutions for remediation of oil-contamination....

  2. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Rodrigo, Ana

    Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients, temperat......Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients....... Experiments have been made with excavated oil-contaminated soil from the Greenlandic town Sisimiut to study different low-tech and low-cost solutions for remediation of oil-contamination...

  3. Oxygen content and oxidation in frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G

    2013-01-01

    The relation between oxygen content and oxidation was investigated in frying oils. When canola oil, a canola-soybean oil blend or a trioctanoylglycerol (glycerol tricaprate) sample were heated with stirring, their dissolved oxygen content decreased abruptly at about 120°C and the carbonyl values (CV) increased gradually with heating and reached values of 6-7 at 180°C in the blended and canola oils, while the CV of trioctanoylglycerol was zero up to 150°C. Probably this abrupt decrease in oxygen content above 120°C can be attributed to the solubility of oxygen in oil rather than because of oxidative reactions. The oxygen content of oil that has been stripped of part of its oxygen, increased at temperatures between 25 and 120°C. In oils that have lost their oxygen by being heated to 180°C, standing at room temperature will slowly restore their oxygen content as the oil cools. Intermittent simple heating of oil promoted oxygen absorbance during cooling periods and standing times, and it resulted in an elevated content of polar compounds (PC). Domestic deep-frying conditions also favor the presence of oxygen in oil below 120°C and during the oil's long standing at room temperature. The oxygen content in oil was low during deep-frying, but oxidation was active at the oil/air interface of bubbles generated by foods being fried. Repeated use of oil at temperatures between 25-180°C resulted in oil with low oxygen values.

  4. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  5. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  6. Olive Oil and Healthy Life

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZATA, Esra; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2016-01-01

    The demand for food that is produced naturally by being conscious and healthy people in the world are increasing rapidly. Consumers are turning to food produced in high quality and natural conditions as possible. In this respect, olives and olive oil is having a significant market share. Olive oil that combines health and taste, creating a source of vitamin E, which is soluble in fat and is a unique oil with a high calorific value. Natural juice can be consumed as has the distinction of being...

  7. Research on Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis M. Castanier; William E. Brigham

    1998-03-31

    The goal of this project is to increase recovery of heavy oils. Towards that goal studies are being conducted in how to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the absolute and relative permeability to oil and water and on capillary pressure; to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the in site combustion process; to develop and understand mechanisms of surfactants on for the reduction of gravity override and channeling of steam; and to improve techniques of formation evaluation.

  8. Supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Alice dos Santos; Bandeira, Luana Graziella; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation with olive and fish oils reverses the effects of stress on behavioral activities and adrenal activation. However, previous studies have not shown whether supplementation with olive and fish oil could inhibit the effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of supplementation with fish or olive oil on cutaneous healing in stressed mice. Mice were subjected to rotational stress and treated with olive or fish oil daily until euthanasia. An excisional lesion was created on each mouse, and 14 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus olive oil, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo studies, administration of olive oil, but not fish oil, inhibited stress-induced reduction in wound contraction, reepithelialization, hydroxyproline levels, and blood vessel density. Stress-induced increases in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils were reversed only by olive oil. Both oils reversed stress-induced increase in catecholamine levels and oxidative damage. In in vitro studies, olive oil treatment reversed the reduction in fibroblast migration and collagen deposition and the increase in lipid peroxidation induced by epinephrine. In conclusion, supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  9. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kaempferia parviflora rhizome extract and Myristica fragrans volatile oil increase the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and impact the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus: Mechanistic insights into their neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluga Plaingam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentially useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, Kaempferia parviflora and Myristica fragrans have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of neuropharmacological activities and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we determined whether and how K. parviflora ethanolic extract and M. fragrans volatile oil could influence the levels of neurotransmitters and the whole proteomic profile in the hippocampus of Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The effects of K. parviflora and M. fragrans on protein changes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel, and proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The target proteins were then confirmed by Western blot. The levels of neurotransmitters were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The results showed that K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine (the control drug for this study increased serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the rat hippocampus compared to that of the vehicle-treated group. Our proteomic data showed that 37 proteins in the K. parviflora group were up-regulated, while 14 were down-regulated, and 27 proteins in the M. fragrans group were up-regulated, while 16 were down-regulated. In the fluoxetine treatment group, we found 29 proteins up-regulated, whereas 14 proteins were down-regulated. In line with the proteomic data, the levels of GFAP, PDIA3, DPYSL2 and p-DPYSL2 were modified in the SD rat groups treated with K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine as confirmed by Western blot. K. parviflora and M. fragrans mediated not only the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters but also the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus, thus shedding light on the mechanisms targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  12. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  13. Efficacy of Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Soybean oil and Palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potentials of four different vegetable oils (olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil) for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus. Ife-brown seeds (a susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to the different ...

  14. Slick oil advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Technological innovations in oil and gas exploration and production during the past 30 years have led to increased efficiency and environmental benefits, according to an October 5 report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy.With these innovations, it now takes 22,000 fewer wells annually to develop the same amount of oil and gas reserves as it did in 1985, according to the report. In addition, fewer wells translate into less drilling waste. As much as 148 million barrels of drilling wastes annually are avoided due to increased well productivity at fewer sites, the report estimates. Industry advances also are leading to a reduction in the “footprint” of well pads and in the area cleared for drilling operations.

  15. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  16. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored

  17. The Effect of Oil Prices on Unemployment: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Fawad

    2013-01-01

    A developing country like Pakistan is heavily dependent on the oil as inputs for almost every industrial sector therefore increase in oil prices, increases inputs cost, consequently increasing production costs and unemployment rate. Existing literature has mostly focused on the relationship between unemployment and oil prices of developed countries, the current study used the data from developing country Pakistan to investigate the relationship between oil prices and unemployment. The current...

  18. effects of various oil source on performance, egg quality, fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esmedd

    Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of eggs and blood lipids ... weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 ...... lipoprotein levels in broiler chickens.

  19. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor oil, the DC conduction current increased approximately linearly with the applied DC voltage. In nanomodified linseed oil, the characteristic curve showed two distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage and a saturation region (at slightly higher voltage. Conversely, in nanomodified castor oil, the characteristic curve showed three distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage, a saturation region (at intermediate applied voltage and an exponential growth region (at higher applied voltage. The nanomodified linseed oil exhibited a better dielectric performance than the nanomodified castor oil. Overall, the addition of nanodielectrics to vegetable oils decreased the dielectric performance of the vegetable oils. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the pre-breakdown phenomenon in liquid nanocomposite dielectrics.

  20. Briefing : West Africa and its oil