Sample records for subsea hydrocarbon formation

  1. Implementation of subsea system to monitor in-situ temperature and formation pressure in methane hydrates sediments for the production test in 2017, offshore Japan (United States)

    Nishimoto, K.


    The methane hydrates phase changes, from solid to fluid, is governed by pressure drop and heat transportation through a geological formation. For the world's first offshore production test of methane hydrates conducted in 2013, the MH21 research team installed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) cables and array type resistance temperature devices (RTD) behind the casings of the monitoring wells. The temperature monitoring was continued over the period of 18 months. As a result, the thermal response of the methane hydrate-bearing sediment during depressurization was observed, and the obtained data was used to evaluate the methane dissociation behavior and to estimate the dissociation front radius from a producer well. The second offshore production test is planned in the same area in 2017 with the extended period up to one month. Two sets of a pair of monitoring and producer well were drilled in 2016. A pair of monitoring and producer wells is only 20m apart. An improved monitoring system is prepared for the second test with additional pressure measurement capability with new features of subsea system. The planed formation pressure measurement is expected to contribute not only for the evaluation of methane hydrate phase changes and estimation of its areal distribution but also the analyzing the interference in the vicinity of the producer wells from the geo-mechanical point of view. The DTS resolution was improved with longer averaging time than the previously utilized system. To accomplish the continuous acquisition up running over longer than 18 months to cover pre-flow and post-flow periods, the subsea acquisition system was equipped with an exchangeable subsea batteries by ROV. As for the surface communication method, the acoustic transponder was added in the subsea system. In this technical presentation, the improvements on the monitoring system are discussed and the scientific objectives for new measurements such as formation pressure are presented.

  2. Subsea technology 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference focuses on Subsea problems and requirements and contains 18 presentation on the topics: Flow management, autonomous underwater vehicles, risers and other technologies, installation of offshore production and exploitation units, management and maintenance of Subsea installations, design, production and functionality aspects of the Subsea structures and equipment, simulation aspects and oil and gas exploitation and production. (tk)

  3. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.


    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  4. Droplet and bubble formation of combined oil and gas releases in subsea blowouts. (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Gao, Feng; Socolofsky, Scott A; Lee, Kenneth


    Underwater blowouts from gas and oil operations often involve the simultaneous release of oil and gas. Presence of gas bubbles in jets/plumes could greatly influence oil droplet formation. With the aim of understanding and quantifying the droplet formation from Deepwater Horizon blowout (DWH) we developed a new formulation for gas-oil interaction with jets/plumes. We used the jet-droplet formation model VDROP-J with the new module and the updated model was validated against laboratory and field experimental data. Application to DWH revealed that, in the absence of dispersant, gas input resulted in a reduction of d50 by up to 1.5mm, and maximum impact occurred at intermediate gas fractions (30-50%). In the presence of dispersant, reduction in d50 due to bubbles was small because of the promoted small sizes of both bubbles and droplets by surfactants. The new development could largely enhance the prediction and response to oil and gas blowouts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX


    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  6. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process (United States)

    Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX


    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  7. Grand Bank seabed and shallow subsurface geology in relation to subsea engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, G.V.; King, E.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada


    An overview of the surficial and subseabed geology of the northeastern section of the Newfoundland Grand Banks was presented with particular reference to the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. The stratigraphy of the upper 100 metres below seafloor has been interpreted from high-resolution seismic reflection data, surficial sediment samples and geotechnical borehole data. This paper described the character and strength properties of nearby seabed sediments and addressed the issue of seabed scour by icebergs, which is the main process threatening subsea facilities. Other potential geohazards such as shallow gas, buried channels and sediment mobility are not considered to be major barriers to offshore development in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. However, drifting icebergs with large drafts often impact the seabed, producing either linear furrows or circular pits. The constraints to subsea design and construction were identified. It was noted that regional geological characterization is needed to help select the location for offshore platforms as well as routes for excavating trenches for subsea installations for offshore hydrocarbon development. Updated regional surficial and near-seabed stratigraphy is needed to predict foundation conditions beyond ground truth from isolated geotechnical borehole investigations. This paper described the Grand Banks regional setting, regional geology, near-surface sediment in the northeastern Grand Banks, and Quaternary sediments in the northeastern Grand Banks with reference to the Grand Banks Drift, Adolphus Sand, and the Grand Banks Sand and Gravel Formation. Risk assessments have shown that well heads and manifolds should be installed below the seabed in order to avoid damage by seabed-scouring icebergs and that the design scour depth should be re-examined for future subsea development. It was suggested that more emphasis on gathering multibeam bathymetric data and repetitive mapping of the seabed will better define scour risk. 57 refs., 3

  8. Research on he Classification of Life-Cycle Safety Monitoring Levels of Subsea Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Junfu


    Full Text Available As a traffic engineering project across straits or gulfs, subsea tunnel is one of the oceaneering with great construction difficulties, and the key to the success of subsea tunnel engineering lies in timely and accurate assessment of the structure safety of subsea tunnel engineering construction and life-cycle. Xiang’an Xiamen subsea tunnel is China’s first subsea tunnel which crosses complex formation conditions, engineering accidents such as collapse, sudden inflow of water or mud might occur during tunnel construction and operation. Therefore, the concept of subsea tunnel life-cycle monitoring is proposed aiming at the particularity of subsea tunnels. The variation forms of subsea tunnel mainly include large deformation, collapse, primary support cracking, water leakage, water pressure increase, steel arch corrosion, concrete corrosion, longitudinal differential settlement, etc., and classification of the life-cycle safety monitoring levels of the subsea tunnel is conducted based on risk assessment theory and risk level management benchmark to determine the possible variation forms in the monitoring level segments. The research results will provide reference for the subsea tunnel life-cycle monitoring, disaster warning as well as risk management under construction or to be built at home and abroad.

  9. Formation of fatty acids in photochemical conversions of saturated hydrocarbons (United States)

    Telegina, T. A.; Pavlovskaya, T. Y.; Ladyzhenskaya, A. I.


    Abiogenic synthesis of fatty acids was studied in photochemical conversions of saturated hydrocarbons. It was shown that, in a hydrocarbon water CaCO3 suspension, the action of 254 nm UV rays caused the formation of fatty acids with a maximum number of carbon atoms in the chain not exceeding that in the initial hydrocarbon. Synthesis of acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, caproic, enanthic and caprylic (in the case of octane) acids occurs in heptane water CaCO3 and octane water CaCO3 systems.

  10. The formation of polycyclic hydrocarbons during smoking process of cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akpinar-Bayizit


    Full Text Available The smoking process determines the characteristic flavour, odour, colour and texture of several cheese varieties. Some smoke compounds are known to have bacteriostatic and antioxidant effects, and may act as preservatives. Smoked cheese is appreciated by consumers due to its sensorial properties. However, with smoking process there is a risk of formation of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. This review emphasises the occurrence of polycyclic hydrocarbons on smoked cheeses and their health impacts.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.


    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  12. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations (United States)

    Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX; Uwechue, Uzo Philip [Houston, TX


    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  13. Insights into hydrocarbon formation by nitrogenase cofactor homologs. (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W


    The L-cluster is an all-iron homolog of nitrogenase cofactors. Driven by europium(II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [Eu(II)-DTPA], the isolated L-cluster is capable of ATP-independent reduction of CO and CN(-) to C1 to C4 and C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, respectively. Compared to its cofactor homologs, the L-cluster generates considerably more CH4 from the reduction of CO and CN(-), which could be explained by the presence of a "free" Fe atom that is "unmasked" by homocitrate as an additional site for methanation. Moreover, the elevated CH4 formation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of longer hydrocarbons and/or the lengths of the hydrocarbon products, illustrating a competition between CH4 formation/release and C-C coupling/chain extension. These observations suggest the possibility of designing simpler synthetic clusters for hydrocarbon formation while establishing the L-cluster as a platform for mechanistic investigations of CO and CN(-) reduction without complications originating from the heterometal and homocitrate components. Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme that is highly complex in structure and uniquely versatile in function. It catalyzes two reactions that parallel two important industrial processes: the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia, which parallels the Haber-Bosch process in ammonia production, and the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons, which parallels the Fischer-Tropsch process in fuel production. Thus, the significance of nitrogenase can be appreciated from the perspective of the useful products it generates: (i) ammonia, the "fixed" nitrogen that is essential for the existence of the entire human population; and (ii) hydrocarbons, the "recycled" carbon fuel that could be used to directly address the worldwide energy shortage. This article provides initial insights into the catalytic characteristics of various nitrogenase cofactors in hydrocarbon formation. The reported assay system provides a useful tool for mechanistic

  14. Enhanced Subsea Acoustically Aided Inertial Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Juhl

    This thesis deals with enhancing state-of-the-art underwater acoustic–inertial navigation systems that are necessary for deep water robotic operations. Throughout the project intelligent and simple operational solutions to complex real-world problems was emphasized. Offshore hydrocarbon, oil...... and gas, exploration is advancing further into treacherous territories such as deeper waters and arctic region. Deep underwater navigation poses a deluge of challenges; there is no such luxury as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) underwater. Many of these challenges have been solved, but vessel...... time is expensive so lots of effort is put into cutting down on time spent on all tasks. Accuracy demanding tasks such as subsea construction and surveying are subject to strict quality control requirements taking up a lot of time. Offshore equipment is rugged and sturdy as the environmental conditions...

  15. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge


    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  16. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre [Rijswijk, NL; Schoeling, Lanny Gene [Katy, TX


    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  17. Communications systems and methods for subsea processors (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Pereira, Luis


    A subsea processor may be located near the seabed of a drilling site and used to coordinate operations of underwater drilling components. The subsea processor may be enclosed in a single interchangeable unit that fits a receptor on an underwater drilling component, such as a blow-out preventer (BOP). The subsea processor may issue commands to control the BOP and receive measurements from sensors located throughout the BOP. A shared communications bus may interconnect the subsea processor and underwater components and the subsea processor and a surface or onshore network. The shared communications bus may be operated according to a time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme.

  18. Sub-sea engineering course (offshore submarine systems); Subsea engineering course (systemes sous - marins offshore)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preedy, J.; Chasserot, J.L. [Azur Offshore Ltd (United Kingdom)


    This document gathers 770 pages of information about offshore submarine systems and 16 pages of appendix (glossary). Content: course introduction, introduction to sub-sea engineering, review of diver-assisted sub-sea production systems, sub-sea completion and christmas trees, basis of offshore exploration and production, sub-sea manifolds and templates, new technology for sub-sea production, flow-lines and pipelines, design of risers (flexible, towers, steel catenary and rigid), reliability, risks and human factors, review of deep-water (diver-less) sub-sea production systems, sub-sea control systems and chemical injection, case study - Malampaya Field Tie Back (Philippines), sub-sea systems inspection, maintenance and repair, cost evaluations, field assessments and cost data base, sub-sea well operations and flow assurance.

  19. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX


    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  20. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian


    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food. (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subsea equipment marriage is top ROV priority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redden, J.


    Interfacing subsea equipment with remotely operated vehicles (ROV's) and the further development of arctic-class units are the primary challenges facing manufacturers. Worldwide use of the ROV for drilling support has exploded during this decade as oil companies continue their search in deeper waters. If the unmanned vehicles are to become an even more integral tool of the oilman, experts say they must be able to perform more complex tasks. The evolution of more multi-purpose ROVs, however, hinges on the redesigning of subsea equipment. The severe limitations on subsea support (by ROVs) is the obsolete design associated with the subsea equipment itself. These limitations are discussed.

  3. Subsea pipeline operational risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.L.; Lanan, G.A.


    Resources used for inspection, maintenance, and repair of a subsea pipeline must be allocated efficiently in order to operate it in the most cost effective manner. Operational risk management aids in resource allocation through the use of risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses. It identifies those areas where attention must be focused in order to reduce risk. When they are identified, a company`s resources (i.e., personnel, equipment, money, and time) can then be used for inspection, maintenance, and/or repair of the pipeline. The results are cost effective risk reduction and pipeline operation with minimum expenditure.

  4. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation (United States)

    Goldberg, Bernard [Houston, TX; Hale, Arthur Herman [Houston, TX; Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX


    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  5. Development of a simulation method for the subsea production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hun Woo


    Full Text Available The failure of a subsea production plant could induce fatal hazards and enormous loss to human lives, environments, and properties. Thus, for securing integrated design safety, core source technologies include subsea system integration that has high safety and reliability and a technique for the subsea flow assurance of subsea production plant and subsea pipeline network fluids. The evaluation of subsea flow assurance needs to be performed considering the performance of a subsea production plant, reservoir production characteristics, and the flow characteristics of multiphase fluids. A subsea production plant is installed in the deep sea, and thus is exposed to a high-pressure/low-temperature environment. Accordingly, hydrates could be formed inside a subsea production plant or within a subsea pipeline network. These hydrates could induce serious damages by blocking the flow of subsea fluids. In this study, a simulation technology, which can visualize the system configuration of subsea production processes and can simulate stable flow of fluids, was introduced. Most existing subsea simulations have performed the analysis of dynamic behaviors for the installation of subsea facilities or the flow analysis of multiphase flow within pipes. The above studies occupy extensive research areas of the subsea field. In this study, with the goal of simulating the configuration of an entire deep sea production system compared to existing studies, a DES-based simulation technology, which can logically simulate oil production processes in the deep sea, was analyzed, and an implementation example of a simplified case was introduced.

  6. Subsea building blocks for slender wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabedotti, Sergio


    Reduce the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), IOR and improve HSE are fundamental aspects in future subsea field developments. The SBB (Subsea Building Blocks) is an R D effort from Statoil and Aker Solutions to investigate and develop new technology that can allow the industry to achieve these objectives. One important aspect of this initiative is well construction and reduced rig time for drilling, completion and intervention of subsea wells. To enable a slender system and increase the operational flexibility, well equipment (WH, XMT) has been analyzed and redesigned. (Author)

  7. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX


    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  8. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo


    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  9. In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX)


    Methods of treating a tar sands formation is described herein. The methods may include providing heat to a first section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the first section of the formation. Heat is transferred from the heaters so that at least a first section of the formation reaches a selected temperature. At least a portion of residual heat from the first section transfers from the first section to a second section of the formation. At least a portion of hydrocarbons in the second section are mobilized by providing a solvation fluid and/or a pressurizing fluid to the second section of the formation.


    AbstractExperimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane¯oxygen¯argon burner s...

  11. Indigo formation by aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, K.E.; Hartmans, S.


    A variety of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria expressing different oxygenases were tested for their ability to produce indigo from indole. Styrene-grown cells of Pseudomonas putida S12 and CA-3 expressing styrene mono-oxygenase produced indigo at rates of 4–8 nmol min–1 mg dry wt–1.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a tracer of star formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Spoon, HWW; Tielens, AGGM


    Infrared (IR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 mum are generally attributed to IR fluorescence from ( mainly) far-ultraviolet (FUV) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV stellar flux and are thus a measure of star

  13. Role of methyl group number on SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low NOx conditions (United States)

    Li, L.; Tang, P.; Nakao, S.; Chen, C.-L.; Cocker, D. R., III


    Substitution of methyl groups onto the aromatic ring determines the SOA formation from the aromatic hydrocarbon precursor. This study links the number of methyl groups on the aromatic ring to SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low NOx conditions (HC / NO > 10 ppb C : ppb). Aromatic hydrocarbons with increasing numbers of methyl groups are systematically studied. SOA formation from pentamethylbenzene and hexamethylbenzene are reported for the first time. A decreasing SOA yield with increasing number of methyl groups is observed. Linear trends are found in both f44 vs. f43 and O / C vs. H / C for SOA from aromatic hydrocarbons with zero to six methyl groups. An SOA oxidation state predictive method based on benzene is used to examine the effect of added methyl groups on aromatic oxidation under low NOx conditions. Further, the impact of methyl group number on density and volatility of SOA from aromatic hydrocarbons is explored. Finally, a mechanism for methyl group impact on SOA formation is suggested. Overall, this work suggests as more methyl groups are attached on the aromatic ring, SOA products from these aromatic hydrocarbons become less oxidized per mass/carbon.

  14. Formation of soot from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes in the combustion of hydrocarbon (United States)

    Mansurov, Z. A.


    The eightieth anniversary of Academician, Lenin Prize Winner Rem Ivanovich Soloukhin is an important event for the scientific association of investigators of combustion and detonation processes. R. I. Soloukhin has developed original gasdynamic laser systems based on the selective thermal excitation and mixing in a supersonic flow: efficient high-power gas-flow lasers of convective type with electric excitation and chemical lasers initiated by an electron beam. He proposed methods of measuring the rapidly changing pressure, density, temperature, and other parameters of processes occurring in shock waves. Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Journal "Fizika Goreniya Vzryva," Professor at Novosibirsk University R. I. Soloukhin trained a Pleiad of Doctors and Candidates of Sciences. His fundamental investigations form the basis for the development of new directions in the physics of combustion and explosion. In the present article, recent works on soot formation in the combustion of hydrocarbons are reviewed. The phenomenology, kinetics, and mechanism of soot formation, the influence of different factors on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and soot, low-temperature cold-flame soot formation, the combustion in an electric field, and the paramagnetism of soot particles were considered from the environmental standpoint.

  15. Hydrocarbon potential assessment of Ngimbang formation, Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin (United States)

    Pandito, R. H.; Haris, A.; Zainal, R. M.; Riyanto, A.


    The assessment of Ngimbang formation at Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin has been conducted to identify the hydrocarbon potential by analyzing the response of passive seismic on the proven reservoir zone and proposing a tectonic evolution model. In the case of petroleum exploration in Northeast Java basin, the Ngimbang formation cannot be simply overemphasized. East Java Basin has been well known as one of the mature basins producing hydrocarbons in Indonesia. This basin was stratigraphically composed of several formations from the old to the young i.e., the basement, Ngimbang, Kujung, Tuban, Ngerayong, Wonocolo, Kawengan and Lidah formation. All of these formations have proven to become hydrocarbon producer. The Ngrayong formation, which is geologically dominated by channels, has become a production formation. The Kujung formation that has been known with the reef build up has produced more than 102 million barrel of oil. The Ngimbang formation so far has not been comprehensively assessed in term its role as a source rock and a reservoir. In 2013, one exploratory well has been drilled at Ngimbang formation and shown a gas discovery, which is indicated on Drill Stem Test (DST) reading for more than 22 MMSCFD of gas. This discovery opens new prospect in exploring the Ngimbang formation.

  16. Atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons: Formation of hydroperoxides and peroxyacids (United States)

    Hanst, Philip L.; Gay, Bruch W.

    Hydrocarbons at ppm levels in air have been oxidized in the absence of nitrogen oxides. Chlorine atoms served as initiators of the oxidations. Infrared analysis showed alkyl hydroperoxides to be formed early in the oxidation sequences. Aldehydes and ketones were also formed, followed by the appearance of peroxyacids. Peroxyacetic acid was found to be an especially stable reaction product. Laboratory rate data and recent atmospheric measurements of NO, NO 2 and HO 2 indicate that hydroperoxides and peroxyacids are also formed in the real atmosphere.

  17. Tyrihans SRSWI (subsea raw seawater injection)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Time, Nils Petter


    By the summer of 2010, Statoil will have installed and commissioned a 2 x 2.5 MW electrical subsea pump system for injection of seawater on the Tyrihans field. Powered from the Kristin platform, the system will pump untreated water directly from the sea into one well at a rate of 14000 m3/day to achieve an Increased Oil Recovery of 10%. The pump system was designed and delivered by Aker Solutions and interfaces the Tyrihans subsea production system delivered by FMC, a power umbilical from Nexans as well as the Kristin topside facilities. In addition to qualification testing, the SRSWI system underwent extensive system testing, including performance- and long term testing, and function testing of the control system from FMC and Kongsberg Maritime. The subsea modules of the SRSWI system and the power umbilical were installed by Acergy's vessel Scandi Acergy, while the topside transformers and variable speed drives were installed on Kristin by Aker Reinertsen, the topside modifications and hook-up contractor. The many interfaces in this project required close and constructive cooperation between the parties in all phases of the development. This paper summarises the experiences from the project. (Author)

  18. Mechanistic study of hydrocarbon formation in photocatalytic CO2 reduction over Ti-SBA-15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Chieh-Chao; Vernimmen, Jarian; Meynen, Vera; Cool, Pegie; Mul, Guido


    Ti-SBA-15 was exposed to illumination in the presence of different gas mixtures containing CO or CO2, and H2O or H2, in order to clarify the route to hydrocarbon formation in photocatalytic CO2 reduction over this photocatalyst. A mixture of CO and H2O led to the highest quantities of CH4, C2H4, and

  19. Formation and transformation of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Zaciera


    Full Text Available Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs belong to this group of compounds which reveal mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds are persistent in the environment, and long time exposure even at low concentrations can cause health effect dangerous to a human. The paper describes formation of nitro-PAHs in the air which is a complex process, depending on many factors (weather conditions, presence of other pollutants in the ambient air. The sources of nitro-PAHs formation migration and their transformation in the environment are presented.

  20. Heterogeneities of hydrocarbon compositions in mudstones of a turbiditic sequence of the Miocene Kawabata Formation in Yubari, central Hokkaido, Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    Biomarker analyses of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted on the upper and lower parts of individual mudstones in a turbiditic sequence of the Miocene Kawabata Formation, Yubari, central Hokkaido, Japan...

  1. Accounting for water formation from hydrocarbon fuel combustion in life cycle analyses (United States)

    Belmont, E. L.; Davidson, F. T.; Glazer, Y. R.; Beagle, E. A.; Webber, M. E.


    Hydrocarbon fuel production and utilization are considered water intensive processes due to the high volumes of water used in source development and fuel processing. At the same time, there is significant water formed during combustion. However, this water is not currently widely harvested at the site of production. Instead, it is added to the hydrologic cycle, often in a different location from the fuel production site. This study quantifies the water formed from combustion of these fuels and analyzes the magnitudes of formation in the context of other hydrologic sources and sinks in order to facilitate future assessments of water harvesting technology and/or atmospheric impacts of combustion. Annual water formation from stoichiometric combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, oil- and natural gas liquid-derived products, and coal, in the United States and worldwide are presented and compared with quantities of water sequestered, evaporated, and stored in the atmosphere. Water production factors in terms of mass and energy of fuel consumed, WPFm and WPFe, respectively, are defined for the comparison of fuels and incorporation into future life cycle analyses (LCAs). Results show that water formation from combustion has increased worldwide from 2005 to 2015, with the largest increase coming from growth in combustion of natural gas. Water formation from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels equals or exceeds water sequestered from the hydrologic cycle through deep well injection in the US annually. Overall, water formation is deemed significant enough to warrant consideration by LCAs of water intensity in fuel production and use, and should be included in future analyses.

  2. Formation dynamics of subsurface hydrocarbon intrusions following the Deepwater Horizon blowout (United States)

    Socolofsky, Scott A.; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.


    Hydrocarbons released following the Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout were found in deep, subsurface horizontal intrusions, yet there has been little discussion about how these intrusions formed. We have combined measured (or estimated) observations from the DH release with empirical relationships developed from previous lab experiments to identify the mechanisms responsible for intrusion formation and to characterize the DH plume. Results indicate that the intrusions originate from a stratification-dominated multiphase plume characterized by multiple subsurface intrusions containing dissolved gas and oil along with small droplets of liquid oil. Unlike earlier lab measurements, where the potential density in ambient water decreased linearly with elevation, at the DH site it varied quadratically. We have modified our method for estimating intrusion elevation under these conditions and the resulting estimates agree with observations that the majority of the hydrocarbons were found between 800 and 1200 m.

  3. Chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formation from phenyl radical pyrolysis and reaction of phenyl and acetylene. (United States)

    Comandini, A; Malewicki, T; Brezinsky, K


    An experimental investigation of phenyl radical pyrolysis and the phenyl radical + acetylene reaction has been performed to clarify the role of different reaction mechanisms involved in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) serving as precursors for soot formation. Experiments were conducted using GC/GC-MS diagnostics coupled to the high-pressure single-pulse shock tube present at the University of Illinois at Chicago. For the first time, comprehensive speciation of the major stable products, including small hydrocarbons and large PAH intermediates, was obtained over a wide range of pressures (25-60 atm) and temperatures (900-1800 K) which encompass the typical conditions in modern combustion devices. The experimental results were used to validate a comprehensive chemical kinetic model which provides relevant information on the chemistry associated with the formation of PAH compounds. In particular, the modeling results indicate that the o-benzyne chemistry is a key factor in the formation of multi-ring intermediates in phenyl radical pyrolysis. On the other hand, the PAHs from the phenyl + acetylene reaction are formed mainly through recombination between single-ring aromatics and through the hydrogen abstraction/acetylene addition mechanism. Polymerization is the common dominant process at high temperature conditions.

  4. Chronology of trap formation and migration of hydrocarbons in Zagros sector of southwest Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, M.A.


    Sixty-three orogenically controlled oil and gas fields have been discovered in the Zagros sector of southwest Iran since teh turn of the present century. Most of the fields are giant, multi-reservoir accumulations producing from fractured carbonate pay zones ranging in age from permo-Triassic to Oligo-Miocene. The most prolific oil-producing zones are the Asmari formation (Oligo-Miocene( and the Bangestan Group (Upper Cretaceous). The available geochemical evidence indicates taht the major source of the oil is the underlying Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Kazhdumi Formation. It is argued that, in the main oil-producing area, the Kazhdumi source rock was not buried to the depth required for hydrocarbon generation until the Eocene, and that not significant oil explusion took place until the Miocene. entry of oil into the reservoirs is geologically a recent event; it postdates the late Miocene-Holocene Zagros orogeny that resulted in the formation of the present structural traps. It is suggested that the development of growth structures during the Late Cretaceous and Palogene could have contributed to some hydrocarbon localization prior to the formation of the late Tertiary traps.

  5. On the Role of Carbides in the Formation of Hydrocarbons from Deep Carbon (United States)

    Vecht, A.


    The origin of hydrocarbons found in rocks has been a matter of dispute for over a century. Scientists of the former Soviet Union favoured an inorganic origin, while in the west an organic origin was thought the most likely. Both hypotheses may be reconciled by considering the origin of carbon compounds from the core upwards or from the Earth surface downwards. Carbides are the key to understanding the development and distribution of global carbon compounds. They are precursors in the formation of hydrocarbons. It has been estimated that the Earth's core is composed of between 2-4% carbon. It is found in metallic form and is substantially denser that the surrounding mantle. Wood has proposed that the inner core is a carbide probably iron carbide(1). This conclusion is consistent with studies of meteorites, shock waves and densities Carbides can be divided into four groups:- (a) Interstitial: -Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta and W. (b) Covalent:- B and Si (c) Intermediate:- Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. (d) Salt like:- Groups I, II, and III. Groups (a) (b) and (c) should be included as candidates for carbides found in the inner core. Such carbides are stable at high temperature and will react with water and/or oxygen to form hydrocarbons and CO or CO2 respectively., carbides can be described as examples of a 'reactive minerals' as we suggested in 2007(2). Carbides which are stable at high temperatures react with water to yield hydrocarbons. This points to an abiotic origin for a range of natural hydrocarbons. A detailed review by Cataldo(3) analysed the relevant evidence for biological vs. inorganic origins. He suggests that metal carbides when hydrolysed yield organic 'matter'. Amongst the carbides suggested are (Cr, Fe, Ni, V, Mn and Co}. These carbides are correlated to the relative abundance of these elements in the solar system. We propose similar reactions based on carbides of calcium and aluminium for the formation of methane hydrate. The reactions are expected to

  6. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh


    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrower, John; Jørgensen, Bjarke; Friis, Emil Enderup


    Mass spectrometry measurements show the formation of highly superhydrogenated derivatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule coronene through H atom addition reactions. The observed product mass distribution provides evidence also for abstraction reactions resulting in H2 formation......, in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H2 loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H2 formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic...... hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that highly superhydrogenated PAHs could well be formed and could act as efficient catalysts for H2 formation in the interstellar medium in low UV flux regions....

  8. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt


    account for the observed abundances[1]. Therefore new formation routes are needed and lately attention has been drawn towards molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are believed to account for up to 20% of the available carbon in the ISM and have been observed, with significantly...... large abundances, alongside H2[2]. To investigate the the abstraction and adsoption patterns of hydrogen/deuterium on coronene, C24H12 (a PAH), we used temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000 K H or D atoms...

  9. Role of temperature and hydrochloric acid on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion of paraffin powder, polymers, and newspaper. (United States)

    Takasuga, Takumi; Umetsu, Norihito; Makino, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Katsuya; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil


    Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined using a laboratory-scale incinerator when combusting materials at different temperatures, different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and when combusting various types of polymers/newspaper. Polychlorobenzenes (PCBz), polychlorophenols (PCPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and their toxic equivalency (TEQ) and PAHs were highlighted and reported. Our results imply maximum formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at 400 degrees C in the following order; PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ on a parts-per-billion level. Similarly, a maximum concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was noticed with an HCl concentration at 1000 ppm with the presence of paraffin powder in the following order; PAHs>PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ an a parts-per-billion level. PAHs were not measured at different temperatures. Elevated PAHs were noticed with different HCl concentrations and paraffin powder combustion (range: 27-32 microg/g). While, different polymers and newspaper combusted, nylon and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced the maximum hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration, concentrations of PCDD/FS, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), and TEQ were in a decreasing order: polyvinylchloride (PVC)ABS = blank. Precursors of PCBs were in a decreasing order: PPABSABSABSABS< PET

  10. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  11. Modeling of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation and decay in the atmosphere (United States)

    Fan, Zhihua; Chen, Danhua; Birla, Parag; Kamens, Richard M.

    A reaction mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH (NPAH) in the gas and particle phase in the atmosphere has been further evaluated and modified using outdoor smog chamber experimental results. Diesel exhaust emissions were added to a 190 m 3 outdoor smog chamber and permitted to age under conditions of daylight and darkness. A sampling train consisting of an annular denuder, filter, and polyurethane foam (PUF) or XAD resin was used for the collection of gas and particle phase PAH and NPAH. On the basis of the results, the current denuder design has sufficient flow (20 ℓ min -1) and adsorption characteristics for collection of PAH and NPAH in the chamber studies. Outdoor smog chamber experiments with dilute diesel soot were conducted under different initial photochemical conditions. Ozone (0 3), nitrogen oxides (NO x), and volatile hydrocarbons in the gas phase were monitored. Simulations for fluoranthene (FL) and pyrene (PY) in the gas phase were close to chamber observations, but those for the particle behavior of FL and PY were not as good. This may occur because PAH and NPAH inside of the particle are not available for reaction in sunlight. Mono-nitro-pyrenes (NPYs) and nitro-fluoranthenes (NFLs) were almost exclusively found in particle associated extracts. This implied that no or non-detectable 2nitro-FL (2NF) or 2nitro-PY (2NP) distributed in the gas phase and that they deposited on particles immediately after formation in the gas phase by the photochemical processes. Formation of 2NF was observed in the chamber, but 2NP degraded rapidly under photochemical conditions. Reasonable simulation results were obtained for 2NP and 2NF. The addition of NO 2 to the gas phase adduct of FL + OH or PY + OH was the main reaction for NPAH formation. Photodecomposition was the main loss pathway for NPAH in the atmosphere.

  12. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.


    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  13. The Potential of Eocene Shale of Nanggulan Formation as a Hydrocarbon Source Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Winardi


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i1.152In western Indonesia, Eocene shale is generally considered as a potential source rock. The Nanggulan Formation outcropping at Kulonprogo Yogyakarta consists of a shale interval of Eocene in age. Analysis of its organic material content, kerogen type, and maturity level were conducted to know its potential. The laboratory analysis of eleven samples were done to measure its TOC content. Samples with TOC > 0.5% then were analyzed to measure its Rv and TAI. Maturity level was also calculated by TTI from burial history model. The result of analysis shows there are various TOC contents and seven samples of them are categorized into a good-excellent class (TOC > 1%. Kerogen content of those samples is type III (non fluorescene amorphous-humic kerogen. One sample has a good indication of hydrocarbon formation (PY = 9.0 mg HC/g rock. Unfortunately thermal maturity level of the samples is immature (highest Rv 0.39, Tmax 422oC, and TAI 2. Otherwise, TTI calculation result from subsurface burial history modelling indicates that some areas are mature having reached gas window since 0.4 mya, especially in the area which had been influenced by a volcanic intrusion at Oligocene (28.5 mya. Therefore, the Nanggulan Formation shale has a potential capacity as a source rock with some limitation in maturity level.

  14. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.


    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical......, and the model predicts inception of soot to occur approximately 100 K below experimental observations. Addition of water vapor has a considerable effect on the measured acetylene concentration and on soot formation at 1500 K and above. In this temperature regime, concentrations of both acetylene and soot...

  15. Oligomer Formation Reactions of Criegee Intermediates in the Ozonolysis of Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Inomata, S.; Hirokawa, J.


    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a substantial fraction of atmospheric fine particulate matters and has an effect on visibility, climate and human health. One of the major oxidizing processes leading to SOA formation is an ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons (UHCs).[1] Despite of its importance, the contribution of the ozonolysis of UHCs to the SOA formation in the troposphere is not sufficiently understood due to a lack of information on reaction pathways to produce low volatile compounds. While many studies have previously been focused on SOA formation from the ozonolysis of large UHCs, SOA formation from the ozonolysis of UHCs with less than six carbon atoms have been rarely investigated because their products are expected to be too volatile to contribute to the SOA formation. Very recently, a few studies have reported the SOA formation from the ozonolysis of such small UHCs but chemical mechanisms are still unclear. [2-4] In order to understand SOA formation from the ozonolysis of the small UHCs, this study investigated gas- and particle-phase products in laboratory experiments with a Teflon bag using a negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS) with chloride ion transfer for chemical ionization. This technique is suitable for analysis of compounds such as carboxylic acids and hydroperoxides expected to be produced in the ozonolysis of UHCs with less fragmentation, high selectivity, and high sensitivity. In the particle-phase analysis, SOAs collected on a PTFE filter were heated, and thermally desorbed compounds were analyzed. In the gas-phase analysis, series of peaks with an interval of a mass-to-charge ratio equal to the molecular weight of a Criegee intermediate formed in their ozonolysis were observed. These peaks were attributed to oligomeric hydroperoxides composed of Criegee intermediates as a chain unit. These oligomeric hydroperoxides were also observed in the particle-phase analysis, indicating that the oligomeric

  16. Direct hydrocarbons formation from CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} by non-thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, M.H.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Batiot-Dupeyrat, C. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique


    Methane (CH{sub 4}) is typically burned to produce heat, the most degraded form of energy. This paper presented a possible way to conserve fossil carbon resources and limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by transforming methane into a chemical feedstock. The Fischer-Tropsch process is one of the possible ways of producing hydrocarbons by reforming CH{sub 4} by CO{sub 2} to obtain a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). However, previous studies have shown that hydrocarbons can by produced directly from a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} mixture by non-thermal plasma, thereby avoiding the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This paper presented the results obtained in a coaxial dielectric discharge barrier (DBD) reactor for hydrocarbon formation by varying either the CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio or the input energy. The main products were C{sub 2} to C{sub 4} alkanes. The increasing hydrocarbons to CO ratio with the CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} initial ratio suggests a radical type mechanism. It was concluded that a 15 percent hydrocarbon yield can be obtained in a single pass with only a short loss of initial carbon. 1 ref.

  17. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    CERN Document Server

    Panahi, Hamed; Renard, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul


    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms for the transport of hydrocarbons from the source rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures have been proposed, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes it is imperative to use the ...

  18. Hydrocarbon sources and stages of reservoir formation in Kuqa depression, Tarim Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, D.G.; Zhang, S.C.; Zhao, M.J.; Wang, F.Y. [PetroChina, Beijing (China)


    AKuqa depression bears not only plenty of natural gas, but also a large amount of condensate and small quantity of crude oil. Based on the geochemical correlation between the Jurassic and Triassic terrestrial hydrocarbon source rock, this paper confirms that the natural gas in Kuqa depression belongs to coal-type gas and the main gas source rock is attributed to the middle to lower Jurassic coal series formation, while the main oil source rock is the upper Triassic lacustrine mudstone. The authors indicated that Kuqa depression was slowly subsided in Mesozoic, but rapidly went down in Late Tertiary. This paper presents a two-stage trapping and late gas trapping model in Kuqa depression whose characteristics are: The main oil and gas reservoirs have different sources. The oil reservoir is formed early while the gas reservoir is formed lately. During the early stage, it, mainly as oil, takes long distance lateral migration, while in the later stage, it, mainly as gas, takes the vertical migration and also has lateral migration. The trap formed in different time on the south and north sides of the depression and evolved into a distributional pattern with oil in the south part and gas in the north, also oil on the outer ring and gas on the inner ring. This paper points out that the late trapping of the natural gas in Kuqa depression is favorable for the preservation of large gas fields.

  19. On the formation of nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in circumstellar and interstellar environments. (United States)

    Parker, Dorian S N; Kaiser, Ralf I


    The chemical evolution of extraterrestrial environments leads to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via gas phase radical mediated aromatization reactions. We review that these de facto barrierless reactions are capable of forming prebiotic molecules such as nitrogen substituted PAHs (NPAHs), which represent the missing link between nitrogen bearing acyclic molecules and prebiotic nucleobases along with vitamins found in meteorites. Crucial routes leading to the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic ring have been exposed. Pyridine can be formed from the reaction of abundant vinyl cyanide and its radical or via cyano radicals reacting with 1,3-butadiene. The NPAHs 1,4-dihydro(iso)quinoline and (iso)quinoline can be synthesized through reaction of pyridyl radicals with 1,3-butadiene or sequentially with two acetylene molecules, respectively. The inclusion of nitrogen into an aromatic system and their growth can fill the mechanistic gaps missing leading from acyclic nitrogen-bearing molecules via pyridine to NPAH-type molecules in the interstellar medium.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions. (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T


    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimizing and Quantifying CO2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center


    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO2 storage efficiency. CO2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO2 storage in these types of systems. CO2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  2. Methane clumped isotopes in the Songliao Basin (China): New insights into abiotic vs. biotic hydrocarbon formation (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Etiope, Giuseppe; Zhang, Shuichang; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Huang, Ling; Eiler, John M.


    Abiotic hydrocarbon gas, typically generated in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and crystalline shields, has important implications for the deep biosphere, petroleum systems, the carbon cycle and astrobiology. Distinguishing abiotic gas (produced by chemical reactions like Sabatier synthesis) from biotic gas (produced from degradation of organic matter or microbial activity) is sometimes challenging because their isotopic and molecular composition may overlap. Abiotic gas has been recognized in numerous locations on the Earth, although there are no confirmed instances where it is the dominant source of commercially valuable quantities in reservoir rocks. The deep hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Xujiaweizi Depression in the Songliao Basin (China) have been considered to host significant amounts of abiotic methane. Here we report methane clumped-isotope values (Δ18) and the isotopic composition of C1-C3 alkanes, CO2 and helium of five gas samples collected from those Xujiaweizi deep reservoirs. Some geochemical features of these samples resemble previously suggested identifiers of abiotic gas (13C-enriched CH4; decrease in 13C/12C ratio with increasing carbon number for the C1-C4 alkanes; abundant, apparently non-biogenic CO2; and mantle-derived helium). However, combining these constraints with new measurements of the clumped-isotope composition of methane and careful consideration of the geological context, suggests that the Xujiaweizi depression gas is dominantly, if not exclusively, thermogenic and derived from over-mature source rocks, i.e., from catagenesis of buried organic matter at high temperatures. Methane formation temperatures suggested by clumped-isotopes (167-213 °C) are lower than magmatic gas generation processes and consistent with the maturity of local source rocks. Also, there are no geological conditions (e.g., serpentinized ultramafic rocks) that may lead to high production of H2 and thus abiotic production of CH4 via CO2 reduction. We propose

  3. Process for increasing the hydrocarbon yield from a subterranean formation. Verfahren zur steigerung der ausbeute an kohlenwasserstoffen aus einer unterirdischen formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, W.


    The yield of hydrocarbons during the recovery of heavy oil, bitumen, or tar from an underground formation is increased if the formation is first heated and then flooded with a cold aqueous solution containing a polymer additive which increases its viscosity. The formation is heated with hot water or steam to temperatures between 50 and 350 C, preferably between 100 and 250 C. The aqueous flooding solution contains polysaccharides, hydroxyethyl cellulose, or partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in amounts between 0.5 and 30%, preferably 1.0 to 30 kg/cu m at temperatures between 5 and 50 , especially between 15 and 30 C. 6 claims.

  4. Chemical Formation of Methanol and Hydrocarbon ("Organic") Derivatives from CO2 and H2-Carbon Sources for Subsequent Biological Cell Evolution and Life's Origin. (United States)

    Olah, George A; Mathew, Thomas; Prakash, G K Surya


    Formation of methanol and hydrocarbon derivatives from CO2 and H2, their simplest molecular building blocks, under biocompatible conditions is proposed. Alternate panspermia of similar extraterrestrially formed and observed hydrocarbons to earth is also discussed. The simple molecular building blocks derived from CO2 and H2 are carbon sources in the initial stage of biological evolution of cells leading to life's origin.

  5. Formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons in interstellar ice analogues by cosmic rays (United States)

    Pilling, S.; Andrade, D. P. P.; da Silveira, E. F.; Rothard, H.; Domaracka, A.; Boduch, P.


    The formation of C=C and C≡C bonds from the processing of pure c-C6H12 (cyclohexane) and mixed H2O:NH3:c-C6H12 (1:0.3:0.7) ices by highly charged and energetic ions (219-MeV 16O7 + and 632-MeV 58Ni24 +) is studied. The experiments simulate the physical chemistry induced by medium-mass and heavy-ion cosmic rays in interstellar ice analogues. The measurements were performed inside a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator Grand Accelératéur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) in Caen, France. The gas samples were deposited on to a polished CsI substrate previously cooled to 13 K. In situ analysis was performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at different ion fluences. Dissociation cross-section of cyclohexane and its half-life in astrophysical environments were determined. A comparison between spectra of bombarded ices and young stellar sources indicates that the initial composition of grains in these environments should contain a mixture of H2O, NH3, CO (or CO2), simple alkanes and CH3OH. Several species containing double or triple bounds were identified in the radiochemical products, such as hexene, cyclohexene, benzene, OCN-, CO, CO2, as well as several aliphatic and aromatic alkenes and alkynes. The results suggest an alternative scenario for the production of unsaturated hydrocarbons and possibly aromatic rings (via dehydrogenation processes) in interstellar ices induced by cosmic ray bombardment.

  6. Reservoir attributes of a hydrocarbon-prone sandstone complex: case of the Pab Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Southwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umar, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert


    Links between the architectural elements of major sand bodies and reservoir attributes have been explored in a field study of the hydrocarbon-yielding Late Cretaceous Pab Formation of southwest Pakistan. The lithofacies and facies associations represented in the Pab Formation are the main...... determinants of its reservoir properties. Thus, thick, vertically connected and laterally continuous sand packets have moderate-to-high mean porosities (10–13 %) in fluviodeltaic, shoreface, shelf delta, submarine channel, and fan-lobe facies associations while deeper shelf and basin floor sand bodies yield...

  7. Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.


    Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

  8. Direct Mechanism of the First Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation in the Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Process. (United States)

    Wu, Xinqiang; Xu, Shutao; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Jindou; Li, Jinzhe; Yu, Bowen; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin


    In the past two decades, the reaction mechanism of C-C bond formation from either methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) in the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) process has been a highly controversial issue. Described here is the first observation of a surface methyleneoxy analogue, originating from the surface-activated DME, by in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a species crucial to the first C-C bond formation in the MTH process. New insights into the first C-C bond formation were provided, thus suggesting DME/methanol activation and direct C-C bond formation by an interesting synergetic mechanism, involving C-H bond breakage and C-C bond coupling during the initial methanol reaction within the chemical environment of the zeolite catalyst. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Bayesian-network-based fault diagnosis methodology of subsea jumper (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Lei; Hu, Song; Xue, Haitao; Wang, Jiaxing


    The paper proposes a Bayesian-network-based real-time fault diagnosis methodology of M-shaped subsea jumper. Finite element models of a typical M-shaped subsea jumper system are built to get the data for diagnosis. Netica is Bayesian-network -based software and is used to construct diagnosis models of the jumper in two main loading conditions which are falling objects and seabed moving. The results show that the accuracy of falling objects diagnosis model with four faults is 100%, and the accuracy of seabed moving diagnosis model with two faults is also 100%. Combine the two models into one and the accuracy of combined model is 96.59%. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated.

  10. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin


    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust in regions of massive star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Els


    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known on earth as a large family of tarry materials naturally present in for example coal and crude oil. In addition, they are also formed in the combustion of all sorts of carbonaceous fuels and hence are found in auto exhaust, cigarette smoke, candle

  12. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)


    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain

  13. Evaluating the Role of Hydrocarbon Seepage in Carbonate Mound Formation (Offshore Ireland) using Basin Modelling (United States)

    Naeth, J.; di Primio, R.; Horsfield, B.; Shannon, P.; Bailey, W. R.; Henriet, J. P.


    The goal of this project was to assess whether deep water coral mound growth on the continental slope of the north Atlantic could be related to active hydrocarbon leakage. The objects of interest are numerous buried and non-buried carbonate mounds, consisting mainly of corals, carbonate crusts and fine grained clastic sediments in the Porcupine Basin, which is located on the eastern Atlantic continental slope 200 km offshore Ireland and contains the sub-commercial Connemara oil field. To evaluate the possible link between hydrocarbon leakage and mound growth we used 2D and 3D basin modelling in combination with geochemical analysis of sediments from gravity cores. A total of 5 intersecting seismic lines were used as a basis for 2D modelling of basin evolution, hydrocarbon generation and migration. Data from six exploration wells were used for calibration of the basin burial and thermal history using vitrinite reflectance, bottom hole temperatures and apatite fission track data. 3D basin modelling was performed using data provided by UCD in the northern part of the Porcupine Basin. The results of this study indicate that a link between modelled hydrocarbon leakage and carbonate mound growth is possible both in the Belgica mound province on the eastern flank of the basin where stratigraphic pinch outs of carrier beds can lead to the localised leakage of hydrocarbons to the seafloor, as well as in the Hovland Magellan mound area in the northern half of the Porcupine Basin, where small-scale structural closures mapped on the main Miocene surfaces correlate roughly to observed mound locations. This study demonstrates the applicability of basin modelling in testing and identifying geologic processes related to geosphere/biosphere interactions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States)


    Meteorites contain bio-relevant molecules such as vitamins and nucleobases, which consist of aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms. Questions remain over the chemical mechanisms responsible for the formation of nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) in extraterrestrial environments. By exploiting single collision conditions, we show that a radical mediated bimolecular collision between pyridyl radicals and 1,3-butadiene in the gas phase forms nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) 1,4-dihydroquinoline and to a minor amount 1,4-dihydroisoquinoline. The reaction proceeds through the formation of a van der Waals complex, which circumnavigates the entrance barrier implying it can operate at very low kinetic energy and therefore at low temperatures of 10 K as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1. The discovery of facile de facto barrierless exoergic reaction mechanisms leading to PANH formation could play an important role in providing a population of aromatic structures upon which further photo-processing of ice condensates could occur to form nucleobases.

  15. Method of increasing the yield of hydrocarbons from a subterranean formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, W.


    Heavy crude oil is recovered from a subterranean formation by a process comprising heating said formation, and subsequently flooding the formation with a cold aqueous solution containing a polymer additive which increases its viscosity.

  16. Graphene etching on SiC grains as a path to interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formation. (United States)

    Merino, P; Švec, M; Martinez, J I; Jelinek, P; Lacovig, P; Dalmiglio, M; Lizzit, S; Soukiassian, P; Cernicharo, J; Martin-Gago, J A


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as other organic molecules appear among the most abundant observed species in interstellar space and are key molecules to understanding the prebiotic roots of life. However, their existence and abundance in space remain a puzzle. Here we present a new top-down route to form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in large quantities in space. We show that aromatic species can be efficiently formed on the graphitized surface of the abundant silicon carbide stardust on exposure to atomic hydrogen under pressure and temperature conditions analogous to those of the interstellar medium. To this aim, we mimic the circumstellar environment using ultra-high vacuum chambers and investigate the SiC surface by in situ advanced characterization techniques combined with first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. These results suggest that top-down routes are crucial to astrochemistry to explain the abundance of organic species and to uncover the origin of unidentified infrared emission features from advanced observations.

  17. Hydrocarbon potential of the Devonian coal formations of the Dnepr-Donetsk trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Fadeeva


    Full Text Available Providing the oil and gas industry of Ukraine with explored reserves is one of the most important tasks of applied oil and gas prospecting and exploration. Discovery of new hydrocarbon deposits primarily depends on the presence of deposits with high reservoir properties, traps and seals. However, this is not enough. It is not by chance that among the main factors taken into account in assessing the geological risk of exploration and prospecting, conditions for generation and migration of hydrocarbons are necessarily considered. The object, which may be associated with an increase in hydrocarbon resources, are the domanikoid deposits – bituminous rocks enriched with organic matter (black shales. Within the Dnepr-Donetsk basin, the main oil-and-gas-bearing region of Ukraine, domanikoid deposits are poorly studied. The main attention is paid to quantitative and qualitative characteristics of source rocksbased on pyrolysis, gas chromatography and vitrinite reflectance data as well as the history of their catagenetic transformation, which allowed to localize the search zones for further geological exploration and significantly improve the efficiency of geological exploration when selecting and installing new objects for further drilling.

  18. Permian-Triassic maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons in the Assistência Formation (Irati Subgroup), Paraná Basin, Brazil: implications for the exploration model


    António Mateus; Claudio Riccomini; Ezequiel J. E. C. B. Ferreira; Colombo C. G. Tassinari


    New lines of geological evidence strongly suggest that the main period of hydrocarbon maturation within Assistência Formation should be Permian-Triassic, stimulated by a high geothermal gradient that also sustained various manifestations of hydrothermal activity. Three main stages of fluid/hydrocarbon migration can also be inferred on the basis of multiscale observations: confined flow in late Permian to Triassic times, depending on the local build-up of fluid pressures; heterogeneous flow in...

  19. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang


    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  20. Evaluating vibration performance of a subsea pump module by full-scale testing and numerical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Pereboom, H.P.; Slot, H.J.


    Prior to subsea installation, a subsea system has to be tested to verify whether it performs in accordance with specifications and component specific performance evaluation criteria. It is important to verify that the assembled components work in accordance with the assumptions and design criteria

  1. Use of hazardous event frequency to evaluate safety integrity level of subsea blowout preventer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Chung


    Full Text Available Generally, the Safety Integrity Level (SIL of a subsea Blowout Preventer (BOP is evaluated by determining the Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD, a low demand mode evaluation indicator. However, some SIL results are above the PFD's effective area despite the subsea BOP's demand rate being within the PFD's effective range. Determining a Hazardous Event Frequency (HEF that can cover all demand rates could be useful when establishing the effective BOP SIL. This study focused on subsea BOP functions that follow guideline 070 of the Norwegian Oil and Gas. Events that control subsea well kicks are defined. The HEF of each BOP function is analyzed and compared with the PFD by investigating the frequency for each event and the demand rate for the components. In addition, risk control options related to PFD and HEF improvements are compared, and the effectiveness of HEF as a SIL verification for subsea BOP is assessed.

  2. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli Zhang


    Full Text Available One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illustrated by introducing a typical grouting process. Then the site-specific grouting techniques employed in the Xiang'an subsea tunnel are elaborated. By using this ground reinforcement technique, the tunneling safety of the Xiang'an subsea tunnel was guaranteed.

  3. Estimation of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China: implications for hydrocarbon generation and preservation (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan


    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China, is vital for assessment of hydrocarbon generation and preservation, and of geothermal energy potential. However, it has not previously been well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data with drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime and estimate the subsurface formation temperature at depth in the range of 1000-5000 m, together with temperatures at the lower boundary of each of four major Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks buried in this basin. Results show that heat flow of the Tarim Basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5 ± 7.6 mW/m2; the geothermal gradient at depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7 ± 2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature estimated at the depth of 1000 m is between 29 and 41 °C, with a mean of 35 °C, while 63-100 °C is for the temperature at the depth of 3000 m with a mean of 82 °C. Temperature at 5000 m ranges from 97 to 160 °C, with a mean of 129 °C. Generally spatial patterns of the subsurface formation temperature at depth are basically similar, characterized by higher temperatures in the uplift areas and lower temperatures in the sags, which indicates the influence of basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties on the geotemperature field. Using temperature to identify the oil window in the source rocks, most of the uplifted areas in the basin are under favorable condition for oil generation and/or preservation, whereas the sags with thick sediments are favorable for gas generation and/or preservation. We conclude that relatively low present-day geothermal regime and large burial depth of the source rocks in the Tarim Basin are favorable for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. In addition, it is found that the

  4. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are believed to account for up to 20% of the available carbon in the ISM and have been observed, with significantly large abundances, alongside H2 [2]. Here we investigate the adsorption pattern of hydrogen/deuterium on coronene, C24H12. Both scanning tunneling microscopy...... (STM) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques have been used. Coronene monolayers were prepared on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and exposed to different fluences of hot (2300K) or cold (1000K) H or D atoms. STM images show bright spots on the coronene monolayers after...

  5. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on HOPG and their catalytic abilities of H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are believed to account for up to 20% of the available carbon in the ISM and have been observed, with significantly large abundances, alongside H2[2]. Here we investigate the adsorption pattern of hydrogen/deuterium on coronene, C24H12 (a PAH......). Both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques have been used. Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000K H or D atoms. STM images show brigth spots on the coronene monolayers after hydrogenation indicating...

  6. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E.


    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  7. Emerging Subsea Networks: SMART Cable Systems for Science and Society (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Butler, R.; Joint Task Force, U.


    The subsea telecommunications cable industry is approaching a prospective new era: deploying SMART subsea cable systems (SMART = Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunication). The current global, commercial cable infrastructure consists of 1 Gm of cable, being refreshed now and expanding in the future. The SMART concept is to add a small external sensor package along the cable system at its optical repeaters to transmit important real-time environmental data via a dedicated wavelength or overhead channel in the transmission system, avoiding any impact on the commercial traffic. These small, reliable, existing sensors would precisely measure temperature, pressure and three-axis acceleration across the world's ocean floor over an extended period of time, being deployed using standard cable-laying procedures on new or refurbished cables, but not requiring maintenance through the 2-3 decade life of the cable systems. The game-changing factor is the urgent international need for ocean environmental data related to mitigating climate and sea-level change and improving tsunami and slope failure hazard warnings. Societal costs incurred by these are reaching billions of dollars and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Pressures for new and urgent public policies are evident from the 5th IPCC Assessment, USA-China agreement on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, clear evidence for rapid global warming, 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (December 2015, Paris), and the scale of the costs of inaction. To support revised public policies and actions, decision-makers, industry leaders, and the public are seeking key scientific data, which will necessitate new sources of funding. Hence, the emergence of new SMART cable systems offered by the subsea telecommunications industry will provide new market opportunities, engage additional non-traditional users, and make profound societal contributions. The Joint Task Force (JTF) on SMART Subsea Cable Systems

  8. Formation of Combustible Hydrocarbons and H2 during Photocatalytic Decomposition of Various Organic Compounds under Aerated and Deaerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mozia


    Full Text Available A possibility of photocatalytic production of useful aliphatic hydrocarbons and H2 from various organic compounds, including acetic acid, methanol, ethanol and glucose, over Fe-modified TiO2 is discussed. In particular, the influence of the reaction atmosphere (N2, air was investigated. Different gases were identified in the headspace volume of the reactor depending on the substrate. In general, the evolution of the gases was more effective in air compared to a N2 atmosphere. In the presence of air, the gaseous phase contained CO2, CH4 and H2, regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, formation of C2H6 and C3H8 in the case of acetic acid and C2H6 in the case of ethanol was observed. In case of acetic acid and methanol an increase in H2 evolution under aerated conditions was observed. It was concluded that the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds with simultaneous generation of combustible hydrocarbons and hydrogen could be a promising method of “green energy” production.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on a sandbank plant formation: ecology and potential for hydrocarbon oil mycorrhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocimar Ferreira de Andrade


    Full Text Available The sources of contamination related to the exploration, production, storage, transport, distribution and disposal of petroleum, and its products, carry risks that threaten fragile coastal environments, little studied and, thus, in need of attention from the scientific community. On the other hand, symbiont mechanisms essential for the very existence of many plant species, and their relation to contaminated soils, remain unknown. Despite the identification of several species of AMF halophytes soil communities in sandbanks, one can infer their bioremediation potential from studies in other types of soil, which, however, report the same genera of fungi as participants in mycorrhizoremediation processes of polluted soil. This study focuses on the application of biotechnology using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF in soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  10. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study. (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H


    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  11. The mechanism of hydrocarbon oxygenate reforming: C-C bond scission, carbon formation, and noble-metal-free oxide catalysts. (United States)

    Lykhach, Yaroslava; Neitzel, Armin; Ševčíková, Klára; Johánek, Viktor; Tsud, Nataliya; Skála, Tomáš; Prince, Kevin C; Matolín, Vladimír; Libuda, Jörg


    Towards a molecular understanding of the mechanism behind catalytic reforming of bioderived hydrocarbon oxygenates, we explore the C-C bond scission of C2 model compounds (acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol) on ceria model catalysts of different complexity, with and without platinum. Synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the reaction pathway depends very specifically on both the reactant molecule and the catalyst surface. Whereas C-C bond scission on Pt sites and on oxygen vacancies involves intermittent surface carbon species, the reaction occurs without any carbon formation and deposition for ethylene glycol on CeO2(111). Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Passive sampling coupled to ultraviolet irradiation: a useful analytical approach for studying oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in bioavailable mixtures. (United States)

    Forsberg, Norman D; O'Connell, Steven G; Allan, Sarah E; Anderson, Kim A


    The authors investigated coupling passive sampling technologies with ultraviolet irradiation experiments to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH transformation processes in real-world bioavailable mixtures. Passive sampling device (PSD) extracts were obtained from coastal waters impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Superfund sites in Portland, Oregon, USA. Oxygenated PAHs were found in the contaminated waters with our PSDs. All mixtures were subsequently exposed to a mild dose of ultraviolet B (UVB). A reduction in PAH levels and simultaneous formation of several oxygenated PAHs were measured. Site-specific differences were observed with UVB-exposed PSD mixtures. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  13. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Subsea Multiphase Pump Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Shobowale Kafayat


    Full Text Available Finding oil and gas reserves in deep/harsh environment with challenging reservoir and field conditions, subsea multiphase pumping benefits has found its way to provide solutions to these issues. Challenges such as failure issues that are still surging the industry and with the current practice of information hiding, this issues becomes even more difficult to tackle. Although, there are some joint industry projects which are only accessible to its members, still there is a need to have a clear understanding of these equipment groups so as to know which issues to focus attention on. A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a potential first aid in understanding this equipment groups. A survey questionnaire/interview was conducted with the oil and gas operating company and equipment manufacturer based on the literature review. The results indicates that these equipment’s group are similar with its onshore counterpart, but the difference is the robustness built into the equipment internal subsystems for subsea applications. The results from the manufacturer perspectives indicates that Helico-axial multiphase pump have a mean time to failure of more than 10 years, twin-screw and electrical submersible pumps are still struggling with a mean time to failure of less than 5 years.

  14. Surface films of short fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon diblocks studied by molecular dynamics simulations: Spontaneous formation of elongated hemimicelles. (United States)

    Piñeiro, Angel; Prieto, Gerardo; Ruso, Juan M; Verdes, Pedro V; Sarmiento, Félix


    Using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) it has been recently demonstrated that linear fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon diblocks (FnHm) self-assemble in water/air interfaces forming elongated and circular hemimicelles. Those structures have been observed for diblocks with at least eight fluorinated carbons. Based on the lack of a collapse pressure for F6H16, and due to the fact that no stable surface pressure values are reached under compression, it has been concluded that these molecules do not form stable monolayers. It has been also suggested that F6H16 and shorter diblocks desorb from the water surface under compression. It is not easy to accept that a significant concentration of so hydrophobic molecules can be stable in aqueous solution even when the employed experimental techniques were not able to clearly detect a well defined structure on the interface. In the present work the adsorption and arrangement of F6H16 and F6H10 at the water surface are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a function of the available area per molecule. Starting from a random mixture, the spontaneous formation of elongated hemimicelles is observed for both systems when the area per molecule is higher than approximately 50 A(2). For intermediate areas two pseudo-phases, one rich in hydrocarbons and the other with higher fluorocarbon concentration, are formed. For the systems with less than approximately 30 A(2) available per molecule the formation of multilayers is observed. This is the first time that the dynamics and structure of perfluoroalkane (PFA) films, and in particular of hemimicelles on a liquid surface, are observed and characterized at atomic level.

  15. Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium (United States)

    Zhang, Fangtong; Kim, Y. Seol; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Landera, Alexander; Kislov, Vadim V.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are regarded as key molecules in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest prototype—naphthalene (C10H8)—has remained an open question. Here, we show in a combined crossed beam and theoretical study that naphthalene can be formed in the gas phase via a barrierless and exoergic reaction between the phenyl radical (C6H5) and vinylacetylene (CH2 = CH-C ≡ CH) involving a van-der-Waals complex and submerged barrier in the entrance channel. Our finding challenges conventional wisdom that PAH-formation only occurs at high temperatures such as in combustion systems and implies that low temperature chemistry can initiate the synthesis of the very first PAH in the interstellar medium. In cold molecular clouds, barrierless phenyl-type radical reactions could propagate the vinylacetylene-mediated formation of PAHs leading to more complex structures like phenanthrene and anthracene at temperatures down to 10 K. PMID:22198769

  16. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)


    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  17. Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, J.R.


    The report is divided into: vibrational models for surface ethylidenes (on catalyst surfaces); alpha vs beta hydrogen elimination in formation of propene from an osmacyclobutane; mechanism of formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes; reaction of dienes and allenes with diosmacyclobutanes; structure of Os(CO)[sub 4](C[sub 2]H[sub 4]), an osmacyclopropane; and reaction of [mu]-oxobis [(trifluoromethanesulfanato) (phenyl)iodine(III)] with Group 14 propargyl derivatives and a propargyl ether. 16 refs, figs.

  18. Pompano subsea development: Template/manifold, tree and ROV intervention systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.M.; Byrd, M.L.; Holt, J.; Riley, J.W.; Snell, C.K.; Tyer, C.; Brewster, D.


    BP Exploration`s Pompano Subsea Development, in 1,865 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico, uses a subsea production system to produce oil to a host platform 4{1/2} miles away. The 10-slot subsea template/manifold supports Through FlowLine (TFL) wells, which are controlled by means of an electrohydraulic control system. All process components of the system are retrievable with ROV intervention. This paper describes the template/manifold system, TFL tree system and ROV intervention systems.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation during the gasification of sewage sludge in sub- and supercritical water: Effect of reaction parameters and reaction pathways. (United States)

    Gong, Miao; Wang, Yulan; Fan, Yujie; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Huiwen; Su, Ying


    The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is a widespread issue during the supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge, which directly reduces the gasification efficiency and restricts the technology practical application. The changes of the concentrations and forms as well as the synthesis rate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the residues from supercritical water gasification of dewatered sewage sludge were investigated to understand influence factors and the reaction pathways. Results showed that the increase of reaction temperature during the heating period favours directly concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (especially higher-molecular-weight), especially when it raise above 300 °C. Lower heating and cooling rate essentially extend the total reaction time. Higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration and higher number of rings were generally promoted by lower heating and cooling rate, longer reaction time and higher reaction temperature. The lower-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be directly generated through the decomposition of aromatic-containing compounds in sewage sludge, as well as 3-ring and 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be formed by aromatization of steroids. Possible mechanisms of reaction pathways of supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge were also proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of Organic Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Ice Formation via Contact Freezing. (United States)

    Collier, Kristen N; Brooks, Sarah D


    An optical ice microscope apparatus equipped with a sealed cooling stage and a CCD camera was used to examine contact freezing events between a water droplet and ice nucleating particles (INP) containing organic hydrocarbons including octacosane, squalane, and squalene. Sample viscosities were measured with a capillary viscometer and compositions were characterized using Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy with horizontal attenuated total reflectance and Raman microspectroscopy. All of the samples proved to be moderately efficient ice nuclei that induced freezing between -23 and -26 °C, regardless of whether the INP was solid or liquid. At their ice nucleating temperatures, the viscosity of the liquid samples (squalane and squalene) was 0.6 P or greater. Oxidation increased the viscosity of squalene to over 1330 P, but decreased the viscosity of squalane to 0.07 P at room temperature. Most importantly, our results demonstrate that even moderately viscous liquids in contact with water droplets can act to catalyze freezing, plausibly by providing a flexible template which decreases the energy barrier to ice nucleation. The simple soccer ball model of nucleation theory was used to derive the probability of freezing and nucleation rate coefficients as a function of temperature for each type of INP.

  1. Influence of process conditions on the formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of polyvinyl chloride


    Zhou, H; Wu, C; Onwudili, JA; Meng, A; Zhang, Y; Williams, PT


    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains significant amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The reactivity of PVC may form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the pyrolysis of MSW, which can become a key challenge during the development of pyrolysis technologies. However, there is very limited work in relation to the influence of pyrolysis process conditions in terms of temperature and heating rate on PAHs formation during pyrolysis of PVC. In this work, the formation of 2-4-ring PAHs fr...

  2. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University


    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  3. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks


    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  4. Hydrocarbon origin and reservoir forming model research of Longwangmiao Formation, Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindong Jin


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Longwangmiao gas reservoir in Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan Basin. Starting from the tectonic evolution perspective, though comparing biological marker compound and analyzing fluid inclusions, the oil & gas origin and accumulation evolution of Longwangmiao Formation are systematic studied with reference to the burial-thermal evolution of single well geological history in the study area. It is suggested that the oil & gas reservoir is generally characterized by early accumulation, multi-stage filling, late cracking and later adjustment. The oil and gas were mainly sourced from lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation, partly from the Permian source rock. During the geological period, 3 major oil & gas fillings occurred in the Longwangmiao Formation, namely Caledonian-Hercynian filling that was small in scale and produced the first phase of paleo-oil reservoir that soon destroyed by Caledonian movement uplift, large-scale Permian filling that gave rise to the second-phase of paleo-oil reservoir and the Triassic-Jurassic filling that enriched the second phase of paleo-oil reservoir. Finally, the paleo-oil reservoir experienced an in-situ cracking during the cretaceous period that gave rise to a natural gas reservoir and left behind carbonaceous bitumen and oily bitumen in the holes of the Longwangmiao Formation.

  5. Development of a subsea system for water separation; Desenvolvimento de sistema submarino de separacao de agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Mauricio W. de; Ramalho, Joao Batista V.S.; Souza, Antonio Luiz S. de; Gomes, Jose Adilson T.; Burmann, Clovis P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Oil production is normally followed by water production in increasing rates, mostly when waterflooding is used as oil recovery mechanism. In order to minimize the impact that high rates of produced water causes to the topside facilities , PETROBRAS is working on the development of a subsea system for oil-water separation, so that most of the produced water on the mud line can be removed and reinjected in the reservoir or in a bearing formation. The article shows how this development has been carried, the scenario definition for the pilot, the problems associated to an installation in a system already operating and the oil characteristics determination. These data constitute the base for the survey to define the technologies with potential application on the separation system to be developed. The special characteristic of the oil, with high tendency to form stable emulsions with water, are also analyzed, as well as the difficulties it brings to the process in the subsea environment, where there are vessel size and fluid heating limitations. (author)

  6. Surface towed electromagnetic system for mapping of subsea Arctic permafrost (United States)

    Sherman, Dallas; Kannberg, Peter; Constable, Steven


    Sea level has risen globally since the late Pleistocene, resulting in permafrost-bearing coastal zones in the Arctic being submerged and subjected to temperature induced degradation. Knowing the extent of permafrost and how it changes over time is important for climate change predictions and for planning engineering activities in the Arctic environment. We developed a controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method to obtain information on the depth, thickness, and lateral extent of marine permafrost. To operate in shallow water we used a surface towed electric dipole-dipole CSEM system suitable for deployment from small boats. This system was used to map permafrost on the Arctic shelf offshore Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Our results show significant lateral variability in the presence of permafrost, with the thickest layers associated with a large river outflow where freshwater influx seems to have a preserving effect on relict subsea permafrost.

  7. En-Tegrity - Advanced subsea well control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Jeff


    Shear Seal Valve: En-Tegrity - Advanced subsea well control technology. With the growing complexity of well interventions operations such as zone isolations, chemical treatment, sand removal and side track re-completion drilling, there is an increasing demand for an efficient light well intervention service equipment. This paper details the design, development and qualification program undertaken to introduce a new technology for well interventions operations. The Shear Seal Valve provides dual barrier sealing integrity that is capable of cutting large diameter coiled tubing, drill pipe and intervention tooling within a single compact housing. The hydraulic design of the valve minimizes operating volumes and negates the requirement for mechanical ram locks therefore greatly simplifying control system complexity. Utilizing dual metal to metal sealing technology and a fail safe close rational the system is ideally suited to HPHT applications providing optimum operational integrity. (Author)

  8. An experimental study on the internal corrosion of a subsea multiphase pipeline


    Shangbi Peng; Zhaoxiong Zeng


    Based on the actual operational parameters of a subsea multiphase pipeline, an experimental study on the internal corrosion of a subsea multiphase pipeline was conducted in a dynamic, high-temperature autoclave, which had a similar environment to an actual field environment, using the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), velocity of the corrosion medium, temperature, corrosion time, and corrosion inhibitor as variables. The results show that CO2 resulted in severe localized corrosion and that the ...

  9. Technology for Subsea 3D Printing Structures for Oil and Gas Production in Arctic Region (United States)

    Musipov, H. N.; Nikitin, V. S.; Bakanovskaya, L. N.


    The article considers an unconventional technology of offshore oil production and the prospects for its further development. The complexity of Arctic shelf development and the use of subsea production units have been analyzed. An issue of the subsea drilling unit construction technology with the help of 3D printers has been considered. An approximate economic efficiency calculation of the 3D printer technology introduction has been given.

  10. Permian-Triassic maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons in the Assistência Formation (Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil: implications for the exploration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Mateus

    Full Text Available New lines of geological evidence strongly suggest that the main period of hydrocarbon maturation within Assistência Formation should be Permian-Triassic, stimulated by a high geothermal gradient that also sustained various manifestations of hydrothermal activity. Three main stages of fluid/hydrocarbon migration can also be inferred on the basis of multiscale observations: confined flow in late Permian to Triassic times, depending on the local build-up of fluid pressures; heterogeneous flow in Lower Cretaceous, triggered by a rejuvenated temperature gradient assisted by the early developed permeability conditions; and a late flow possibly driven by local pressure gradients, after complete cooling of dolerite dykes/sills. The early maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons have significant consequences in the design of exploration models to be applied in Paraná Basin.

  11. Standardized ROV and diver interfaces will bring surge in subsea capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baugh, B.F.


    Standardization and new developments in subsea interfaces, or profiles, for remotely operated vehicles (ROV's) or divers promise a new generation of subsea capabilities. Progress in subsea systems comes from the development of several individual components. ROV/diver interface profiles are a critical component in this chain of developments. ROV's are also of particular importance because these unmanned submarines provide low-cost flexibility in deep water applications. The development of standardized profiles, which means basic size and shapes, for intervention will affect subsea completion and drilling systems, emergency safety valves (ESV), and any other subsea installation. As an example of their importance, standardized profiles could help keep some offshore fires from becoming full-fledged disasters, such as the one at the Piper-Alpha platform in the North Sea. Pipeline riser valves in such cases could be closed by ROV's to prevent the pipelines from feeding the fire. Standardized profiles to accomplish this and other subsea tasks are available in the public domain for immediate application.

  12. Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, J.R.


    Assignment of the vibrational modes Of Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}(CHCH{sub 3}) and Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4)} has given fingerprint vibrational spectra for the following species when chemisorbed on metal catalyst surfaces: ethylidene and ethylene bound in a metallacyclopropane mode. The formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes have been shown to involve slippage of the outgoing olefin onto a single osmium, and associative exchange of the olefin from that site. The incorporation of vinylcyclopropane without rearrangement has confirmed the absence of a diradical intermediate. The anomalous stability of the diosmacyclobutane derived from trans-2-butene has proven due to greater destabilization (by the substituent methyls) of the slipped intermediate than of the ground state. Reaction of an osmacyclobutane with 1,3- or 1,2-dienes (allenes) gives 1,2 rather than 1,4 addition to the diosmium unit. Treatment of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) with triflic acid results in the formation of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})OTf. The authors have found that the reaction of an aryl iodine(III) reagent with propargyl stannanes or silanes results in o-iodo propargyl arenes.

  13. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.


    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  14. (Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, J.R.


    We have developed a method for the preparation of CH{sub 3}CD(OTf){sub 2} and CD{sub 3}CD(OTf){sub 2}, and have used them for the preparation of Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}({mu}-CDCH{sub 3}) and Os{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}({mu}-CDCD{sub 3}). We have examined the mechanism of the extrusion of propene from a diosmacyclobutane. It is clear that the majority of the product is formed by the expected {beta} elimination. However, the formation of a significant amount of CH{sub 3}CD=CHD shows that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, some {alpha} elimination is occurring. We investigating the mechanism of olefin and acetylene exchange with diosmacyclobutanes. We have also discovered a novel allenyl Claisen'' rearrangement while exploring the reactions of an 1(3) reagent with triple bonds. Finally, we have learned that a side chain ether oxygen can control the regioselectivity with which the reagent adds to triple bonds. 2 refs.

  15. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.


    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  16. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong


    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  17. Influence of in situ steam formation by radio frequency heating on thermodesorption of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. (United States)

    Roland, Ulf; Bergmann, Sabine; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter


    Thermal desorption of a wide spectrum of organic contaminants, initiated by radio frequency (RF) heating, was studied at laboratory and pilot-plant scales for an artificially contaminated soil and for an originally contaminated soil from an industrial site. Up to 100 °C, moderate desorption rates were observed for light aromatics such as toluene, chlorobenzene, and ethylbenzene. Desorption of the less volatile contaminants was greatly enhanced above 100 °C, when fast evaporation of soil-water produced steam for hydrocarbon stripping (steam-distillation, desorption rates increased by more than 1 order of magnitude). For hydrocarbons with low water solubility (e.g., aliphatic hydrocarbons), the temperature increase above 100 °C after desiccation of soil again led to a significant increase of the removal rates, thus showing the impact of hydrocarbon partial pressure. RF heating was shown to be an appropriate option for thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, leading to efficient cleaning of contaminated soils.

  18. Seismic stability of subsea tunnels subjected to seepage. (United States)

    Cheng, Xuansheng; Ren, Yi; Du, Xiuli; Zhang, Yida


    Strength reduction method and ADINA software are adopted to study the stability of submarine tunnel structures subjected to seepage and earthquake under different seawater depths and overlying rock strata thicknesses. First, the excess pore water pressure in the rock mass is eliminated through consolidation calculation. Second, dynamic time-history analysis is performed by inputting the seismic wave to obtain the maximum horizontal displacement at the model top. Finally, static analysis is conducted by inputting the gravity and the lateral border node horizontal displacement when the horizontal displacement is the largest on the top border. The safety factor of a subsea tunnel structure subjected to seepage and earthquake is obtained by continuously reducing the shear strength parameters until the calculation is not convergent. The results show that the plastic zone initially appears at a small scope on the arch feet close to the lining structure and at both sides of the vault. Moreover, the safety factor decreases with increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness. With increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness, maximum main stress, effective stress, and maximum displacement increase, whereas displacement amplitude slightly decreases.

  19. Seismic Stability of Subsea Tunnels Subjected to Seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuansheng Cheng


    Full Text Available Strength reduction method and ADINA software are adopted to study the stability of submarine tunnel structures subjected to seepage and earthquake under different seawater depths and overlying rock strata thicknesses. First, the excess pore water pressure in the rock mass is eliminated through consolidation calculation. Second, dynamic time-history analysis is performed by inputting the seismic wave to obtain the maximum horizontal displacement at the model top. Finally, static analysis is conducted by inputting the gravity and the lateral border node horizontal displacement when the horizontal displacement is the largest on the top border. The safety factor of a subsea tunnel structure subjected to seepage and earthquake is obtained by continuously reducing the shear strength parameters until the calculation is not convergent. The results show that the plastic zone initially appears at a small scope on the arch feet close to the lining structure and at both sides of the vault. Moreover, the safety factor decreases with increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness. With increasing seawater depth and overlying rock strata thickness, maximum main stress, effective stress, and maximum displacement increase, whereas displacement amplitude slightly decreases.

  20. The Development of a Mechanism to Model the Formation and Decay of Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. (United States)

    Fan, Zhihua


    The overall purpose of this work is to develop a mechanism to model the formation and degradation of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) in the atmosphere. This work developed the processes relevant to the formation and degradation of NPAH, specially for fluoranthene (FL), pyrene (PY), and their derivatives, such as 1-nitropyrene (1NP), 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NF). Photostability of particle associated NPAH was investigated under sunlight on diesel exhaust or wood smoke particles in our 190 m^3 outdoor smog chamber in cold and warm temperatures. Rapid degradation of deuterated and native NPAH was observed in sunlight, even in cold temperatures (temperatures ranged between rm-18.6^circ C and -5.6^circ C). The photolysis rate of NPAH was referenced to the NO_2 photolysis rate in order to relate the observed decay of NPAH to the changing solar radiation. Based on the known chemistry of PAH and NPAH, a reaction mechanism for PAH and NPAH in the gas and particle phase in the atmosphere was proposed. The mechanism was evaluated with outdoor smog chamber experiments with diluted diesel exhaust under different initial photochemical conditions. Simulations for FL and PY in both gas and particle phase were close to chamber observations. Formation of 2NF was observed in the chamber, but 2NP degraded rapidly under photochemical conditions. Mono- nitro-pyrenes (NPs) and nitro-fluoranthenes (NFs) were almost exclusively found in particle associated extracts. This implied that no or non-detectable 2NF or 2NP were distributed in the gas phase and that they were deposited on particles immediately after formation in the gas phase by the photochemical processes. To model the decay of NPAH on diesel particles, a rate Of k _{rm NPAH} = (0.04+/-0.01)times k_{NO2} was used for the decay of NPs, and a rate of rm k_{NPAH } = (0.025+/-0.005)times k_{NO2 } was needed to model the behavior of NFs. A higher rate, rm k_{NPAH} = (0.050+/-0.005)times k_{NO2} was needed to model NFs and

  1. Structural contours of the Upper Campanian through Paleocene Ghory formation of northern Afghanistan (ghorydpafg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines that describe structural contours of subsea elevation of the top of the Upper Campanian through Paleocene Ghory formation in...

  2. Structural contours of the Hauterivian Qezeltash formation of northern Afghanistan (qezeldpafg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines that describe structural contours (subsea elevation) of the Hauterivian Qezeltash formation in northern Afghanistan. Hauterivian...

  3. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA. (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen


    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluids in the Palaeogene Formation of Gaoyou Sag in the Southern Part of North Jiangsu Basin, China: Evidence for Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation (United States)

    LI, M.; Lou, Z.; Zhu, R.; Jin, A.


    Gaoyou Sag, lying in the middle of the Dongtai Depression in the North Jiangsu basin, China, has a well developed fault system and is characterised by structurally complicated oil and gas fields. Its oil-water relationship is very complicated. In the present study, we present the distribution of formation water chemistry, crude oil density, formation pressures and fluid potential in the Palaeogene formation of the Gaoyou Sag . The purpose of this article is to: (1) analyse the cause of hydrochemical diversity; (2) identify the flow pattern and evolution; and (3) understand the interplay between the flow of formation water and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. The results showed that large variances in formation water chemistry occur in different oilfields of the Gaoyou Sag (Figure 1) due to dilution by meteoric water recharge, concentration by membrane filtration and complexity of geological structure. The low salinity (mean values from 8.53 g/L to 9.67 g/L) of the formation water and heavy crude oil density (up to 0.94g/cm3) in the Xuchuang oilfield indicate influence from meteoric water infiltration; the deep depression areas are mainly of connate origin. Geofluids in the Xuchuang, Zhenwu and Yang'an oilfields mainly flow vertically through the Zhenwu and Hanliu faults, while geofluids in the Shanian oilfield mainly migrate laterally through the reservoirs and are adjusted vertically along some cutting faults. Palaeo-hydrodynamic evolution had an affinity with the generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. In the depositional stages of the Dainan and Sanduo formations, formation water was expelled outward and upward from lacustrine mudstones of the deep depression into shallow sands of nearby oilfields, driven by compaction and overpressure. Hydrocarbon migrated with formation water and gathered in appropriate traps, forming primary reservoirs. During the Zhenwu and Sanduo movements, there were tectonic uplifts and the strata

  5. SUBMATIC - Remotely Operated Subsea Machine Tool and Inspection CNC-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerke, Oe.; Husebye, R.E. (Statoil (NO)); Jenssen, H.P.


    The Norwegian oil company STATOIL and the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the University of Trondheim (SINTEF) have jointly developed a remotely operated subsea machine tool system for deepwater machining and inspection of subsea wellheads and multibore connectors. The system is designed for water depths down to 400 meters. The project has been initiated and funded by STATOIL, while the project work has been carried out by SINTEF. The system will provide a number of optional machining operation together with specific inspection systems for dimension and surface roughness documentation both before and after machining. 11 refs.

  6. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems (United States)

    Howe, B. M.


    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  7. Installation of deep water sub-sea equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Jack; Demian, Nabil [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)


    Offshore oil developments are being planned in water depths exceeding 2000 m. Lowering and positioning large, heavy sub sea hardware, using conventional methods, presents new technical challenges in these ultra deep waters. In 3000 m a safe lift using conventional steel cables will require more capacity to support the cable self weight than the static payload. Adding dynamic loads caused by the motions of the surface vessel can quickly cause the safe capacity of the wire to be exceeded. Synthetic ropes now exist to greatly reduce the lowering line weight. The lower stiffness of these synthetic ropes aggravate the dynamic line tensions due to vessel motions and relatively little is known about the interaction of these ropes on the winches and sheaves required for pay-out and haul-in of these lines under dynamic load. Usage of conventional winches would damage the synthetic rope and risk the hardware being deployed. Reliable and economic installation systems that can operate from existing installation vessels are considered vital for ultra deep-water oil development. The paper describes a Deep Water Sub-Sea Hardware Deployment system consisting of a buoy with variable, pressure-balanced buoyancy, which is used to offset most of the payload weight as it is lowered. The buoyant capacity is controlled by air pumped into the tank from the surface vessel through a reinforced hose. The buoy and payload motion are isolated from the deployment line surface dynamics using a simple passive heave compensator mounted between the buoy and the bottom of the deployment rope. The system components, functionality and dynamic behavior are presented in the paper. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangi, Beni B.; Kim, Yong S.; Krasnokutski, Serge A.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bauschlicher Jr, Charles W. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    We report on laboratory simulation experiments mimicking the chemical processing of model atmospheres of exoplanets containing C3 and C4 hydrocarbons at moderate temperatures of 400 K upon interaction of catalytic surfaces of micrometeoroids. By utilizing an ultrasonic levitator device and heating singly levitated particles under simulated microgravity conditions, Raman spectroscopy is utilized as a non-invasive tool to probe on line and in situ the conversion of C3 and C4 hydrocarbons to refractory carbonaceous matter on the surfaces of levitated particles. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and electron microscopic imaging were also conducted to gain further insight into the elementary composition and structures of the refractories formed. Our results provide compelling evidence that in the presence of a catalytic surface, which can be supplied in the form of micrometeoroids and atmospheric dust particles, hydrocarbon gases present in the atmospheres of exoplanets can be converted to refractory, carbon-rich carbonaceous matter of mainly graphitic structure with a carbon content of at least 90% at elevated temperatures. This finding might explain the low methane to carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}–CO) ratio in the hot Neptune GJ 436b, where the abundant methane photochemically converts to higher order hydrocarbons and ultimately to refractory graphite-like carbon in the presence of a silicon surface.

  9. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Fiber-Optic Monitoring System for Subsea Applications (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin H.; Tang, Henry H.


    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system capable of measuring pressure, strain, and temperature that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. A summary is provided of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and subsequent design refinements of the device. The results of laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are also included. Limitations of the initial concept were identified during testing and future design improvements were proposed and later implemented. These new features enhance the coupling of the sensor device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on flowlines, risers, and other subsea structures. The work described in this paper investigates the design and test of a friction-based coupling device (herein referred to as a friction clamp) which is suitable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column as well as for those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiberoptic sensors that are bonded to a stainless steel clamshell assembly with a high-friction surface coating. The friction clamp incorporates a single hinge design to facilitate installation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force along the structure. The friction clamp can be modified to be installed by commercial divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating

  10. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring System (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin H.; Tang, Henry H.


    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  11. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring Systems (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole; Brower, David; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin; Tang, Henry


    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  12. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production systems caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.


    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design

  13. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production system caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.


    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design

  14. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)


    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  15. Systems for nuclear auxiliary power. Annual report, government fiscal year 1975. [Space and subsea systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    For the past two decades, programs have been conducted to develop ZrH reactor space power systems. Present development plans for reactor space system components are geared to the development of off-the-shelf standardized reactor components which can be used without modification in either Brayton, thermoelectric (TE), or organic Rankine power systems over a power range of 3 to 15 kW(e). In recent years, national energy programs have highlighted the need to increase production of oil and gas from domestic sources. The US oil and ocean engineering industries are developing subsea production methods and equipment for recovering petroleum from deep water and ice-covered regions. There is the need for a subsea power source for highly reliable, unattended operation. Preliminary studies indicate that ZrH reactor subsea power systems may offer advantages in deep water sites remote from surface support facilities, in regions of severe surface or icing conditions, and in areas of critical environmental problems. A number of major US oil companies have indicated a potential need for a subsea nuclear power system for future offshore operations and have expressed their interest in a concept based on the ZrH reactor and an organic Rankine power conversion system (PCS). Work pursued during FY 1975 were to: (1) investigate standardized ZrH reactor-TE, -Brayton, and -organic Rankine space power systems and components; (2) perform conceptual analysis and design of ZrH reactor-organic Rankine power systems for subsea applications; (3) perform tests on key space system components; (4) conduct fuel hydriding and hydrogen barrier investigations; and (5) perform support system studies. This report describes the activities conducted and results obtained during FY 1975. (DLC)

  16. Formation and Growth of Sulfate Aerosols in the Presence of Hydrocarbons: Results from the 2013 Summer Oil Sands FOSSILs Field Campaign, Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Amiri, N.; Ghahremaninezhad, R.; Rempillo, O. T.; Norman, A. L.


    Sulfur dioxide oxidation and the effect of oxidation products in formation and growth of aerosols have been studied widely. Despite this, significant gaps still exist in understanding the role of organic matter in SO2 oxidation. Organic molecules, such as Criegee radicals originating from biogenic sources, are expected to be important for SO2 oxidation in addition to organic molecules of anthropogenic origin. A study of SO2 and aerosol sulfate downwind of the oil sands region was conducted as part of the FOSSILS campaign in the summer of 2013 to better understand aerosol growth from SO2 oxidation in the presence of hydrocarbons and the distribution of sulfate in size-segregated aerosols. Hydrocarbons present in the atmosphere during the sampling campaign, collected using evacuated canisters, were characterized using a pre-concentration trap coupled to a GC-FID. The results from this campaign will be explored to determine SO2 oxidation pathways and the effects of oxidation products to aerosol formation and growth.

  17. The regularities of the formation of carbon nanostructures from hydrocarbons based on the composition of the reaction mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya V. Mishakov


    The decisive factor in the decomposition of hydrocarbons yielding carbon materials is the degree of deviation of the methanation reaction from equilibrium which can be influenced in two ways. The addition of hydrogen to the reaction gas promotes the driving force of the carbon hydrogenation reaction, resulting in defective high-surface carbon fibres. Increasing the concentration of methane in the reaction gas composition, in contrast, reduces the driving force of methanation until the process is suppressed, which promotes a more structured form of the CNF, without defects.

  18. Oil source rock potential of the lacustrine Jurassic Sim Uuju formation, West Korea Bay Basin. Pt. 2; Nature of the organic matter and hydrocarbon-generation history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoud, M.S.; Scott, A.C.; Killops, S.D.; Mattey, D. (Royal Holloway and Bedford New Coll., Egham (United Kingdom)); Keeley, M.L. (Intera Information Technologies, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom))


    The offshore West Korea Bay (WKB) Basin is one of a series of NE-SW rift basins which formed in Korea and eastern China over thin continental crust during the Late Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic, and is characterised by a two-layered structure - a Cenozoic basin is superposed on a pre-Tertiary basin. In the earlier Part I of this paper paraffinic oils recovered from Mesozoic and Tertiary sandstone intervals were found to have been generated from different source beds. Also, a probable thick (400-500 m) Jurassic source bed for the Mesozoic oil was geochemically identified in the basinal offshore area of the lacustrine Sim Uuju sequence penetrated by Well 606. In this paper, the authors complete the hydrocarbons survey on the formation by studying the type, amount and maturity of organic matter present, and the history of hydrocarbon generation. They conclude that the Jurassic bed could be considered as a major source for the Mesozoic oil in the WKB Basin, provided that it is of a sufficient extent to have produced large volumes of oil. (Author)

  19. Leadership Redundancy in Subsea Operations: Documentation of a Study Utilizing Stimulus Case Interviews


    Johannessen, Idar Alfred; McArthur, Philip,; Jonassen, Jan R.; Leirbæk, Eva


    Complex and tightly coupled operations, despite having clear command lines and rigorous procedures, may be vulnerable to unexpected events that threaten their operations. To succeed, they need the capacity to respond flexibly and swiftly. In subsea operations, it has been proposed that when disruptive events occur while the formal leader is focused on task coordination, others with sufficient time, competence and standing step in and exercise informal leadership. This ...

  20. Subsea Cable Tracking by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Magnetic Sensing Guidance. (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Yu, Caoyang; Niu, Zemin; Zhang, Qin


    The changes of the seabed environment caused by a natural disaster or human activities dramatically affect the life span of the subsea buried cable. It is essential to track the cable route in order to inspect the condition of the buried cable and protect its surviving seabed environment. The magnetic sensor is instrumental in guiding the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to track and inspect the buried cable underseas. In this paper, a novel framework integrating the underwater cable localization method with the magnetic guidance and control algorithm is proposed, in order to enable the automatic cable tracking by a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) under-actuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) without human beings in the loop. The work relies on the passive magnetic sensing method to localize the subsea cable by using two tri-axial magnetometers, and a new analytic formulation is presented to compute the heading deviation, horizontal offset and buried depth of the cable. With the magnetic localization, the cable tracking and inspection mission is elaborately constructed as a straight-line path following control problem in the horizontal plane. A dedicated magnetic line-of-sight (LOS) guidance is built based on the relative geometric relationship between the vehicle and the cable, and the feedback linearizing technique is adopted to design a simplified cable tracking controller considering the side-slip effects, such that the under-actuated vehicle is able to move towards the subsea cable and then inspect its buried environment, which further guides the environmental protection of the cable by setting prohibited fishing/anchoring zones and increasing the buried depth. Finally, numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed magnetic guidance and control algorithm on the envisioned subsea cable tracking and the potential protection of the seabed environment along the cable route.

  1. Subsea Cable Tracking by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Magnetic Sensing Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang


    Full Text Available The changes of the seabed environment caused by a natural disaster or human activities dramatically affect the life span of the subsea buried cable. It is essential to track the cable route in order to inspect the condition of the buried cable and protect its surviving seabed environment. The magnetic sensor is instrumental in guiding the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV to track and inspect the buried cable underseas. In this paper, a novel framework integrating the underwater cable localization method with the magnetic guidance and control algorithm is proposed, in order to enable the automatic cable tracking by a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF under-actuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV without human beings in the loop. The work relies on the passive magnetic sensing method to localize the subsea cable by using two tri-axial magnetometers, and a new analytic formulation is presented to compute the heading deviation, horizontal offset and buried depth of the cable. With the magnetic localization, the cable tracking and inspection mission is elaborately constructed as a straight-line path following control problem in the horizontal plane. A dedicated magnetic line-of-sight (LOS guidance is built based on the relative geometric relationship between the vehicle and the cable, and the feedback linearizing technique is adopted to design a simplified cable tracking controller considering the side-slip effects, such that the under-actuated vehicle is able to move towards the subsea cable and then inspect its buried environment, which further guides the environmental protection of the cable by setting prohibited fishing/anchoring zones and increasing the buried depth. Finally, numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed magnetic guidance and control algorithm on the envisioned subsea cable tracking and the potential protection of the seabed environment along the cable route.

  2. Geochemical monitoring for detection of CO_{2} leakage from subsea storage sites (United States)

    García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Johannessen, Truls


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in subsea geological formations is a promising large-scale technology for mitigating the increases of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. However, detection and quantification of potential leakage of the stored CO2 remains as one of the main challenges of this technology. Geochemical monitoring of the water column is specially demanding because the leakage CO2 once in the seawater may be rapidly dispersed by dissolution, dilution and currents. In situ sensors capture CO2 leakage signal if they are deployed very close to the leakage point. For regions with vigorous mixing and/or deep water column, and for areas far away from the leakage point, a highly sensitive carbon tracer (Cseep tracer) was developed based on the back-calculation techniques used to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the water column. Originally, the Cseep tracer was computed using accurate discrete measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT) in the Norwegian Sea to isolate the effect of natural submarine vents in the water column. In this work we assess the effect of measurement variables on the performance of the method by computing the Cseep tracer twice: first using DIC and AT, and second using partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and pH. The assessment was performed through the calculation of the signal to noise ratios (STNR). We found that the use of the Cseep tracer increases the STNR ten times compared to the raw measurement data, regardless of the variables used. Thus, while traditionally the pH-pCO2 pair generates the greatest uncertainties in the oceanic CO2 system, it seems that the Cseep technique is insensitive to that issue. On the contrary, the use of the pCO2-pH pair has the highest CO2 leakage detection and localization potential due to the fact that both pCO2 and pH can currently be measured at high frequency and in an autonomous mode.

  3. Assessing drivers of export orientation in the subsea oil and gas industry. (United States)

    Aarstad, Jarle; Pettersen, Inger Beate; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik


    The purpose of this short study was to identify the drivers of export orientation of firms in the subsea oil and gas industry in Western Norway. As the oil fields in the North Sea are approaching a stage of maturity, gaining knowledge of these drivers is crucial. An online survey was conducted of firms operating in the subsea oil and gas industry in the region. Consistent with previous research, the data reveal that product innovation and a majority share of international ownership increase firms' export rates. The use of instrumental variables indicates that both product innovation and international ownership are causes of subsea petroleum exports. The study moreover finds that subcontractors have a lower rate of direct exports than system providers, but international ownership in particular boosts subcontractors' export rates, probably by decreasing their market dependency on regional system providers. A clear recommendation for managers and stakeholders is that they should encourage foreign investments throughout the value chain. The results of such a strategy appear to be especially positive for subcontractors.

  4. Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, J.R.


    The report is divided into: vibrational models for surface ethylidenes (on catalyst surfaces); alpha vs beta hydrogen elimination in formation of propene from an osmacyclobutane; mechanism of formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes; reaction of dienes and allenes with diosmacyclobutanes; structure of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), an osmacyclopropane; and reaction of {mu}-oxobis [(trifluoromethanesulfanato) (phenyl)iodine(III)] with Group 14 propargyl derivatives and a propargyl ether. 16 refs, figs.

  5. Formation of isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons from aromatization-rearrangement of terpenoids in the sedimentary environment: A new class of biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Singh, R.K.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia)


    Seven alkylaromatic hydrocarbons with an isohexyl and a methyl substituent group on adjacent ring carbons have been identified in a suite of crude oils derived from a range of locations, source types, palaeoenvironments, and ages. Hitherto unidentified series of isohexylalkylbenzenes and isohexylalkylnaphthalenes have been observed with concentrations ranging from 10 to 565 {mu}g/g. Isohexy1alkylbenzenes occur in crude oils ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary suggesting both a bacterial/ algal and higher plant origin, whereas isohexylalkylnaphthalenes were restricted to crude oils of Permian to Tertiary age and are exclusively associated with specific higher plant precursors. The unique structure of these compounds has been shown to result from rearrangement and A-ring opening of diterpenoid and triterpenoid natural products during aromatization. The structural features that are necessary for this process to occur are a terpenoid A-B ring system with a gem-dimethyl group at C-4 and an angular methyl at C-10. Support for a ring opening process concomitant with aromatization was provided by laboratory experiments involving dehydrogenation of terpenoid natural products. Analysis of these reaction products showed that isohexyl alkylaromatic compounds, along with fully aromatized compounds with intact carbon skeletons were formed. 57 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Modeling the formation, decay, and partitioning of semivolatile nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitronaphthalenes) in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Kamens, R.M.; Strommen, M.R.


    A nitronaphthalene kinetics mechanism has been implemented and added to the photochemical smog mechanism, Carbon Bond-4. This mechanism was used to simulate the formation, decay, and partitioning of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and compare it to outdoor smog chamber data. The results suggest...... degradation pathway for 1-nitronaphthalene, whereas for 2-nitronaphthalene other pathways may also be important. The photochemical formation of nitronaphthalenes was studied using a mixture of naphthalene, propylene, NOx, and diesel particles. 2-nitronaphthalene was observed to build up to higher levels than...

  7. Coke Formation in a Zeolite Crystal During the Methanol-to- Hydrocarbons Reaction as Studied with Atom Probe Tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Joel E; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Attila, Özgün; Fu, Donglong; Winter, D A Matthijs De; Meirer, Florian; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M


    Understanding the formation of carbon deposits in zeolites is vital to developing new,superior materials for various applications,including oil and gas conversion pro- cesses.Herein, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to spatially resolve the 3D compositional changes at the sub- nm length


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    e trapping configurations of the faults mbedding shale were presumed to be the creation of multiple reservoir of hydrocarbon bearing formations one horizon to the other and. (Figure 2). The vertical f the major and subsidiary growth t the amount of throw of both major s are small and varied from line to line survey but ...

  9. Geological Investigation and Tunnel Excavation Aspects of the Weakness Zones of Xiang'an Subsea Tunnels in China (United States)

    Shi, Peixin; Zhang, Dingli; Pan, Jianli; Liu, Wei


    Tunneling through weakness zones under deep seawater involves significant risks and may have disastrous consequences. This paper presents a case study of geological investigation and excavation aspects of subsea tunnels in major weakness zones. The subject is the Xiang'an subsea tunnels, the first subsea tunnel project in mainland China. The Xiang'an subsea tunnels passed through four major weakness zones, mainly consisting of highly to completely weathered rock mass. The weakness zones were characterized by a combination of long-distance and short-distance, destructive and nondestructive methods, which supplement and verify information with each other. The weakness zones were treated by full-face curtain grouting, using both cementitious and chemical grouts. The interrelationship between the settlement at tunnel crown and ground surface, as well as the interrelationship between ground settlement and ground cracking, were explored based on instrumentation data recorded during tunneling on land. The pre-warning, warning, and limiting values of tunnel crown settlement during excavation of each heading of subsea sections were established to protect the seabed against cracking. Engineering means and methods were developed to control the ground deformation during excavation.

  10. Effect of SO2 concentration on SOA formation in a photorreactor from a mixture of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and HONO (United States)

    García Vivanco, Marta; Santiago, Manuel; García Diego, Cristina; Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Martínez-Tarifa, Adela


    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important urban atmospheric pollutant, mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels containing sulfur. In the atmosphere, SO2 can react with OH radicals to form sulfuric acid, which can condense to form acidic aerosol. Sulfuric acid particles act as an acid catalyst for some heterogeneous carbonyl reactions like hydration, polymerization or acetals formation, which may lead to a large increase on SOA mass. In order to evaluate the effect of the SO2 concentration on SOA formation, 3 experiments were performed during the campaign carried out by CIEMAT on the EUPHORE facility (CEAM, Valencia, Spain) during June- July 2008. The objective of the campaign was to evaluate the effect of different experimental conditions on SOA formation from the photooxidation of some anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs using HONO as oxidant. Experiment on 6/17/08 was selected as base case (no SO2 was introduced) and experiments 6/26/08 and 7/1/08 were selected as high SO2 (2600 ug/m3) and low SO2 (60 ug/m3) concentration experiments respectively. In the three experiments a mixture of toluene, 1,3,5-TMB (trimethylbenzene), o-xylene and octane was selected as the parent VOCs. Single and coupled to mass spectroscopy gas cromatography (GC and GC/MS), as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to measure the initial VOCs and oxidant concentrations decay and the formation of gas phase oxidation products through the experiments. Aerosol size distribution and concentration were measured with SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer) and TEOM (tapered element oscillating monitor) respectively. In addition, analysis of the organic and inorganic aerosol content was also performed via filter sampling followed by GC/MS and ionic chromatography (for organic and inrganic content respectively). Comparing the filters collected in the three experiments, clearly the largest mass aerosol formation is observed

  11. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology (United States)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.


    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  12. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.


    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  13. Hydrocarbon source potential of the Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq Basin, south-west Libya: An organic geochemical approach (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Anwari, T. A.; Batten, D. J.


    A detailed organic geochemical study of 20 core and cuttings samples collected from the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq Basin, in the south-western part of Libya has demonstrated the advantages of pyrolysis geochemical methods for evaluating the source-rock potential of this geological unit. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results indicate a wide variation in source richness and quality. The basal Hot Shale samples proved to contain abundant immature to early mature kerogen type II/III (oil-gas prone) that had been deposited in a marine environment under terrigenous influence, implying good to excellent source rocks. Strata above the Hot Shale yielded a mixture of terrigenous and marine type III/II kerogen (gas-oil prone) at the same maturity level as the Hot Shale, indicating the presence of only poor to fair source rocks.

  14. Modeling and Control of Industrial ROV’s for Semi-Autonomous Subsea Maintenance Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Pedersen, Simon; Hansen, Leif


    Remotely Operated Vechicles (ROV’s) takes a big part in the installation, maintenance and inspection of offshore subsea energy activities, such as inspections of Oil & Gas and wind energy pipelines and cables. By improving the ROV automation the operational cost can be significantly decreased...... as well as improving the inspection quality. This study examines an industrial ROV, where the investigations include modeling of a real industrial prototype, which is then linearized and used for Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) development. The results are validated both based on non-linear model...

  15. Liuhua 11-1 development -- Subsea conductor installation in the South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, R.P.; Coleman, R.A.; Hughes, J.D.; Mu, H.C.; Jiang, Z.M.; Macfarlane, A.M.; Mohr, H.O.


    This paper describes the initial phase of a multi-well subsea development using a building block technique. This phase included the setting of the conductors for all 20 wells, manifold piles and pipeline bases and the drilling of 15 wells to various stages of completion. Offshore operations were conducted in batches to maximize efficiencies and economies of scale. The emphasis of this paper is on the jetting operation of the conductors and the positioning techniques used to meet the requirements of the later phases of the building block process.

  16. VORTEX: Versatile and open subsea robot for technical experiment: Prototyping software architecture for the next AUV and ROV generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, V. [IFREMER, Toulon (France); Le Rest, E.; Marce, L. [UBO Limi Lab., Brest (France); Coste Maniere, E.; Simon, D. [INRIA Icare Project, Nice (France); Peuch, A.; Perrier, M. [IFREMER, Toulon (France)


    This paper describes a new experimental vehicle named V.O.R.T.E.X. (Versatile and Open subsea Robot for Technical EXperiment) built by the Subsea Robotics Laboratory at the French institute for Sea exploitation (Ifremer). The aim of this project is to work out the metamorphosis of a classical ROV architecture into an AUV architecture in particular for the control and programming architecture design. This vehicle is also designed to emulate the new IFREMER ROV6000 and the future Abyssal Survey Vehicle AUV, from a functional point of view.

  17. Employing CO2as reaction medium for in-situ suppression of the formation of benzene derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of simulated municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Choi, Dongho; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kwon, Eilhann E


    This study proposes a strategic principle to enhance the thermal efficiency of pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW). An environmentally sound energy recovery platform was established by suppressing the formation of harmful organic compounds evolved from pyrolysis of MSW. Using CO 2 as reaction medium/feedstock, CO generation was enhanced through the following: 1) expediting the thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of the MSWs and 2) directly reacting VOCs with CO 2 . This particular influence of CO 2 on pyrolysis of the MSWs also led to the in-situ mitigation of harmful organic compounds (e.g., benzene derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) considering that CO 2 acted as a carbon scavenger to block reaction pathways toward benzenes and PAHs in pyrolysis. To understand the fundamental influence of CO 2 , simulated MSWs (i.e., various ratios of biomass to polymer) were used to avoid any complexities arising from the heterogeneous matrix of MSW. All experimental findings in this study suggested the foreseeable environmental application of CO 2 to energy recovery from MSW together with disposal of MSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of charcoal types and grilling conditions on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled muscle foods. (United States)

    Viegas, O; Novo, P; Pinto, E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O


    Grilling muscle foods involves high temperatures that lead to production of cooking toxicants, such as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To obtain realistic exposure levels of these two groups of mutagens analyses of the same samples using similar separation/detection techniques were performed. HAs and PAHs were quantified in well-done meat and fish samples grilled with wood and coconut shell charcoal at 200°C. Quantitative HAs and PAHs profiles were different for beef and salmon using the same type of charcoal. Higher levels of HAs and PAHs were found in salmon samples. No significant differences were observed for HAs and PAHs in beef samples grilled with both charcoal types, whereas salmon grilled with coconut shell charcoal presented significantly lower amounts of HAs and PAHs than salmon grilled with usual wood charcoal. Continuous barbecuing with the same charcoal shown that combustion of fat that dropped along the grilling period contributed to higher formation of HAs and PAHs. Special attention must be given to the intake of barbecued foods since high amounts of HAs and PAHs can be taken in a single meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Approach to Recover Hydrocarbons from Currently Off-Limit Areas of the Antrim Formation, MI Using Low-Impact Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Wood; William Quinlan


    The goal of this project was to develop and execute a novel drilling and completion program in the Antrim Shale near the western shoreline of Northern Michigan. The target was the gas in the Lower Antrim Formation (Upper Devonian). Another goal was to see if drilling permits could be obtained from the Michigan DNR that would allow exploitation of reserves currently off-limits to exploration. This project met both of these goals: the DNR (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) issued permits that allow drilling the shallow subsurface for exploration and production. This project obtained drilling permits for the original demonstration well AG-A-MING 4-12 HD (API: 21-009-58153-0000) and AG-A-MING 4-12 HD1 (API: 21-009-58153-0100) as well as for similar Antrim wells in Benzie County, MI, the Colfax 3-28 HD and nearby Colfax 2-28 HD which were substituted for the AG-A-MING well. This project also developed successful techniques and strategies for producing the shallow gas. In addition to the project demonstration well over 20 wells have been drilled to date into the shallow Antrim as a result of this project's findings. Further, fracture stimulation has proven to be a vital step in improving the deliverability of wells to deem them commercial. Our initial plan was very simple; the 'J-well' design. We proposed to drill a vertical or slant well 30.48 meters (100 feet) below the glacial drift, set required casing, then angle back up to tap the resource lying between the base to the drift and the conventional vertical well. The 'J'-well design was tested at Mancelona Township in Antrim County in February of 2007 with the St. Mancelona 2-12 HD 3.

  20. Distributed multiple-anodes benthic microbial fuel cell as reliable power source for subsea sensors (United States)

    Liu, Bingchuan; Weinstein, Alyssa; Kolln, Michael; Garrett, Caleb; Wang, Lei; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Karra, Udayarka; Li, Yan; Li, Baikun


    A new type distributed benthic microbial fuel cell (MFC) (DBMFC) consisting of 18 MFC arrays was developed to enhance the robustness and stability of the power source for subsea sensor networks. A power management system (PMS) was integrated into the DBMFC system to boost the power output for two temperature sensors. The PMS was specifically designed with 18 charge pumps capable of simultaneously harvesting energy from 6 MFC units (18 anodes total) in the DBMFC system. The pilot scale DBMFC (total sediment volume: 1 m3) with continuous ocean water supply showed that the power outputs of individual MFC units were affected by the organic carbon and nitrogen contents in the sediment pore water. The MFC units with higher power output resulted in faster charging/discharging rate of the PMS supercapacitor. Manual disconnection of anodes from the PMS was conducted to simulate the anode malfunction caused by bioturbation. Fewer functional anodes (e.g. 12 out of 18 anodes were disconnected) slowed the charging/discharging rate of the PMS supercapacitor but still supported the PMS to regularly power two sensors. This scale-up DBMFC/PMS/sensor study demonstrated that multiple MFC units with multiple PMS substantially enhanced the stability and robustness of power supply to subsea sensors.

  1. Chloride waters of Great Britain revisited: from subsea formation waters to onshore geothermal fluids


    Younger, Paul L.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Waring, Andrew J.


    It has long been known that chloride-dominated saline ground waters occur at depth in the UK, not only beneath the sea but also onshore at depths of a few hundred metres. In a few places in northern England, these saline waters discharge naturally at surface in the form of springs. In recent years, however, these saline ground waters have come to be regarded as resources: as potential geothermal fluids intercepted in deep boreholes. Comparisons of the major ions and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O...

  2. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.


    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  3. Geochemistry of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in core samples of lower foarcian age (posidonia shale) in the Hils syncline area. Hydrocarbon formation and maturity. Zur Geochemie niedrigmolekularer Kohlenwasserstoffe im Posidonienschiefer der Hilsmulde. Kohlenwasserstoffbildung und Reifeaspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, R.G. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und Organische Geochemie)


    Compositional changes in the light hydrocarbon fraction of sedimentary rocks and petroleum are known to reflect their maturation history. The present contribution comprises the analysis of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in core samples of Lower Toarcian age ('Posidonia Shale', Lias {epsilon}). The sample series, obtained by shallow-borehole drilling in the Hils syncline area, Lower Saxony Basin, northern Germany, represents an exceptionally organic matter rich petroleum source rock (type-II kerogen) of a wide maturity range (mean vitrinite reflectance, R{sub r} between 0.5 and 1.5%). About 30 compounds in the C{sub 2}-C{sub 7} molecular range, including benzene and toluene, were determined by means of a combined thermovapourization/capillary GC method. Both, quantity and composition are discussed in relation to maturity at seven locations. Correlations between R{sub r} and 'chemical' maturity parameters based on compositional changes of acyclic and alicyclic C{sub 7}-hydrocarbons as well as indications of migration processes are presented. (orig.).

  4. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)


    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  5. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge


    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e. g. depressurization and/or carbon dioxide injection) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR - Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs«. In order to simulate the exploitation of hydrate-bearing sediments in the subsea, an in-house simulation model HyReS which is implemented in the general-purpose software COMSOL Multiphysics is used. This tool turned out to be especially suited for the flexible implementation of non-standard correlations concerning heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate kinetics, and other relevant model data. Partially based on the simulation results, the development of a technical concept and its evaluation are the subject of ongoing investigations, whereby geological and ecological criteria are to be considered. The results illustrate the processes and effects occurring during the gas production from a subsea gas hydrate deposit by depressurization. The simulation results from a case study for a deposit located in the Black Sea reveal that the production of natural gas by simple depressurization is possible but with quite low rates. It can be shown that the hydrate decomposition and thus the gas production strongly depend on the geophysical properties of the reservoir, the mass and heat transport within the reservoir, and

  6. Variations in vitrinite reflectance values for the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation, southeastern Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado; implications for burial history and potential hydrocarbon generation. The Frying Pan Member of the Maroon Formation; a lower Permian( ) basin-margin dune field in northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuccio, V.F.; Johnson, R.C.; Johnson, S.Y.


    Most of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation in the southeastern Piceance basin is thermally mature enough to have produced hydrocarbons by thermal generation, but only part of the Mesaverde is thermally mature enough to have expelled significant amounts of natural gas. The Early Permian( ) Frying pan Member of the Maroon Formation consists of quartz rich, very fine to fine-grained sandstone deposited in eolian dune and interdune environments. The Frying pan Member (formerly called the sandstone of the Frying pan River) is removed from the State Bridge Formation and assigned to the Maroon Formation.

  7. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo


    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  8. RTS-ROV operated tie-in system for low cost subsea developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, P.O.


    A new type pull-in and connection system is developed for very deep waters. The system is called ROV-operated Tie-in System (RTS). Main objectives during the development phase was to make a tool system more or less independent of water depth, use of simple low cost installation vessels, minimum equipment left subsea, minimum support structure sizes, simple control system, various launching methods possible and use of field proven clamp hub and seal assemblies. The result has been a very cost effective tie-in system which is a key factor for reduction of total field development costs. The capacity for the tool is 10 inch 3,000 psi flexible flow lines or alternatively 9 inch 5,000 psi. The RTS replaces divers during tie-in operations and can be used down to at least 1500 m water depth.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator


    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  10. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - gas-particle partitioning, mass size distribution, and formation along transport in marine and continental background air (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Mulder, Marie D.; Shahpoury, Pourya; Kukučka, Petr; Lišková, Hana; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Wotawa, Gerhard


    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) are ubiquitous in polluted air but little is known about their abundance in background air. NPAHs were studied at one marine and one continental background site, i.e. a coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea (summer 2012) and a site in the central Great Hungarian Plain (summer 2013), together with the parent compounds, PAHs. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to track air mass history. Based on Lagrangian particle statistics, the urban influence on samples was quantified for the first time as a fractional dose to which the collected volume of air had been exposed. At the remote marine site, the 3-4-ring NPAH (sum of 11 targeted species) concentration was 23.7 pg m-3 while the concentration of 4-ring PAHs (6 species) was 426 pg m-3. The most abundant NPAHs were 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFLT) and 3-nitrophenanthrene. Urban fractional doses in the range of < 0.002-5.4 % were calculated. At the continental site, the Σ11 3-4-ring NPAH and Σ6 4-ring PAH were 58 and 663 pg m-3, respectively, with 9-nitroanthracene and 2NFLT being the most concentrated amongst the targeted NPAHs. The NPAH levels observed in the marine background air are the lowest ever reported and remarkably lower, by more than 1 order of magnitude, than 1 decade before. Day-night variation of NPAHs at the continental site reflected shorter lifetime during the day, possibly because of photolysis of some NPAHs. The yields of formation of 2NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2NPYR) in marine air seem to be close to the yields for OH-initiated photochemistry observed in laboratory experiments under high NOx conditions. Good agreement is found for the prediction of NPAH gas-particle partitioning using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship. Sorption to soot is found to be less significant for gas-particle partitioning of NPAHs than for PAHs. The NPAH levels determined in the south-eastern outflow of Europe confirm intercontinental transport

  11. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.


    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  12. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Subathu Formation exposed at Marhighat on Sarahan–Narag road in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Hydrocarbon potential of these sediments is estimated on the basis of palynofacies analysis and thermal alteration index (TAI) values based on the ...

  13. AMOCO Liuhua Triton{trademark} ROV(s)/AROWs -- Pre-planned remote intervention for subsea production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud-Perry, D.


    This paper discusses the development and design of two (2) Advanced Remotely Operated Heavy Work (AROW) systems which have been designed specifically to support the AMOCO Liuhua FPSO and Subsea Production system remote intervention tasks in the South China Sea. The two ROV systems (Portable and Permanent) incorporate features and tools which have been pre-planned and designed to perform all aspects of the remote intervention requirements of the Liuhua project. This paper will address the design, coordination and planning performed to ensure that all phases of the subsea intervention were achievable in a cost effective, reliable and innovative manner. The emphasis is on the design solutions selected in relation to the project application requirements. The importance of early coordination between the client(s), operator and manufacturer to optimize the required system is also addressed.

  14. Get smart, go optical: example uses of optical fibre sensing technology for production optimisation and subsea asset monitoring (United States)

    Staveley, Chris


    With the growth in deep-water oil and gas production, condition monitoring of high-value subsea assets to give early warning of developing problems is vital. Offshore operators can then transport and deploy spare parts before a failure occurs, so minimizing equipment down-time, and the significant costs associated with unscheduled maintenance. Results are presented from a suite of tests in which multiple elements of a subsea twin-screw pump and associated electric motor were monitored using a fibre optic sensing system based on fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) that simultaneously measured dynamic strain on the main rotor bearings, pressure and temperature of the lubricating oil, distributed temperature through the motor stator windings and vibration of the pump and motor housings.

  15. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst (United States)

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.


    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  16. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. (United States)

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis


    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting scour beneath subsea pipelines from existing small free span depths under steady currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Y. Lee


    Full Text Available An equation was developed to predict current-induced scour beneath subsea pipelines in areas with small span depths, S. Current equations for scour prediction are only applicable to partially buried pipelines. The existence of small span depths (i.e. S/D < 0.3 are of concern because the capacity for scour is higher at smaller span depths. Furthermore, it is impractical to perform rectification works, such as installing grout bags, under a pipeline with a small S/D. Full-scale two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and the Shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model. To predict the occurrence of scour, the computed maximum bed shear stress beneath the pipe was converted to the dimensionless Shields parameter, and compared with the critical Shields parameter based on the mean sediment grain size. The numerical setup was verified, and a good agreement was found between model-scale CFD data and experimental data. Field data were obtained to determine the mean grain size, far field current velocity and to measure the span depths along the surveyed pipe length. A trend line equation was fitted to the full-scale CFD data, whereby the maximum Shields parameter beneath the pipe can be calculated based on the undisturbed Shields parameter and S/D.

  18. SeeStar: an open-source, low-cost imaging system for subsea observations (United States)

    Cazenave, F.; Kecy, C. D.; Haddock, S.


    Scientists and engineers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have collaborated to develop SeeStar, a modular, light weight, self-contained, low-cost subsea imaging system for short- to long-term monitoring of marine ecosystems. SeeStar is composed of separate camera, battery, and LED lighting modules. Two versions of the system exist: one rated to 300 meters depth, the other rated to 1500 meters. Users can download plans and instructions from an online repository and build the system using low-cost off-the-shelf components. The system utilizes an easily programmable Arduino based controller, and the widely distributed GoPro camera. The system can be deployed in a variety of scenarios taking still images and video and can be operated either autonomously or tethered on a range of platforms, including ROVs, AUVs, landers, piers, and moorings. Several Seestar systems have been built and used for scientific studies and engineering tests. The long-term goal of this project is to have a widely distributed marine imaging network across thousands of locations, to develop baselines of biological information.

  19. Microscale Modelling of Water and Gas-Water Flows in Subsea Sand Sediment (United States)

    Sato, T.; Sugita, T.; Hirabayashi, S.; Nagao, J.; Jin, Y.; Kiyono, F.


    Methane hydrate is a promising energy resource in the near future. Its production is a current hot topic and flow of methane gas with water in sediment sand layer is very important to predict the production rate. In this study, permeability of microscale sand layer was numerically simulated by a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method. Shapes of real sands were extracted by series expansion of spherical harmonics using CT-scan images of real subsea core samples. These extracted sands were located in a cubic lattice domain by a simulated annealing method to fit to given porosities. Pressure difference was imposed at the both end faces of the domain to flow water and methane gas. By this simulation, permeability of water phase and water-gas two-phase flow were analysed and compared well with existing models. This work was financially supported by Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program planned by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). 3D image of an extracted frame-sand grain Distribution of gas and water phases in computational domain for Sw=0.80

  20. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich


    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  1. Process for increasing the yield of hydrocarbons from an underground deposit. Verfahren zur Steigerung der Ausbeute an Kohlenwasserstoffen aus einer unterirdischen Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, W.


    The yield of hydrocarbons from an underground deposit, particularly of heavy oil, bitumen or tar, is increased by the deposit first being heated and then flooded with a cold aqueous solution which contains a polymer additive raising its viscosity. In order to heat the deposit, hot water or steam are used. The deposit is heated to temperatures between 50 and 350/sup 0/C, preferably between 100 and 250/sup 0/C. The aqueous solution contains polysaccharide, hydroxy-ethyl cellulose or particularly not hydrolyzed or partially hydrolyed polyacryl amide in quantities of 0.5 to 30 kg/m/sup 3/, preferably 1 to 30 kg/m/sup 3/ and is used for flooding at temperatures between 5 and 50, particularly between 15 and 30/sup 0/C.

  2. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia. (United States)

    Vonk, J E; Sánchez-García, L; van Dongen, B E; Alling, V; Kosmach, D; Charkin, A; Semiletov, I P; Dudarev, O V; Shakhova, N; Roos, P; Eglinton, T I; Andersson, A; Gustafsson, O


    The future trajectory of greenhouse gas concentrations depends on interactions between climate and the biogeosphere. Thawing of Arctic permafrost could release significant amounts of carbon into the atmosphere in this century. Ancient Ice Complex deposits outcropping along the ~7,000-kilometre-long coastline of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), and associated shallow subsea permafrost, are two large pools of permafrost carbon, yet their vulnerabilities towards thawing and decomposition are largely unknown. Recent Arctic warming is stronger than has been predicted by several degrees, and is particularly pronounced over the coastal ESAS region. There is thus a pressing need to improve our understanding of the links between permafrost carbon and climate in this relatively inaccessible region. Here we show that extensive release of carbon from these Ice Complex deposits dominates (57 ± 2 per cent) the sedimentary carbon budget of the ESAS, the world’s largest continental shelf, overwhelming the marine and topsoil terrestrial components. Inverse modelling of the dual-carbon isotope composition of organic carbon accumulating in ESAS surface sediments, using Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertainties, suggests that 44 ± 10 teragrams of old carbon is activated annually from Ice Complex permafrost, an order of magnitude more than has been suggested by previous studies. We estimate that about two-thirds (66 ± 16 per cent) of this old carbon escapes to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, with the remainder being re-buried in shelf sediments. Thermal collapse and erosion of these carbon-rich Pleistocene coastline and seafloor deposits may accelerate with Arctic amplification of climate warming.

  3. Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines (United States)

    McLean, D. L.; Partridge, J. C.; Bond, T.; Birt, M. J.; Bornt, K. R.; Langlois, T. J.


    Remote Operated Vehicles are routinely used to undertake inspection and maintenance activities of underwater pipelines in north-west Australia. In doing so, many terabytes of geo-referenced underwater video are collected at depths, and on a scale usually unobtainable for ecological research. We assessed fish diversity and abundance from existing ROV videos collected along 2-3 km sections of two pipelines in north-west Australia, one at 60-80 m water depth and the other at 120-130 m. A total of 5962 individual fish from 92 species and 42 families were observed. Both pipelines were characterised by a high abundance of commercially important fishes including: snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Epinephelidae). The presence of thousands of unidentifiable larval fish, in addition to juveniles, sub-adults and adults suggests that the pipelines may be enhancing, rather than simply attracting, fish stocks. The prevalence and high complexity of sponges on the shallower pipeline and of deepwater corals on the deeper pipeline had a strong positive correlation with the fish abundance. These habitats likely offer a significant food source and refuge for fish, but also for invertebrates upon which fish feed. A greater diversity on the shallower pipeline, and a higher abundance of fishes on both pipelines, were associated with unsupported pipeline sections (spans) and many species appeared to be utilising pipeline spans as refuges. This study is a first look at the potential value of subsea pipelines for fishes on the north-west shelf. While the results suggest that these sections of pipeline appear to offer significant habitat that supports diverse and important commercially fished species, further work, including off-pipeline surveys on the natural seafloor, are required to determine conclusively the ecological value of pipelines and thereby inform discussions regarding the ecological implications of pipeline decommissioning.

  4. Formation and destruction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the flaring of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni


    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of the combustion in an enclosed flare of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill. The results demonstrate that at 1,000°C and long combustion, several synthesis reactions lead to the formation of 4 to 6 rings of PAHs. This formation also involves the formation of compounds such as benzo(g,h,iperylene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene and dibenzo(a,hanthracene not present in raw biogas. However, the compounds most likely to form in combustion are benzo (a anthracene and benzo (b fluoranthene. The only exception is chrysene which is significantly destroyed. The experience has proved the total lack of formation of PAHs with only 2 and 3 aromatic rings.

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation. (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano


    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral responses of brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) to reduced seawater pH following simulated leakages from sub-sea geological storage of CO2. (United States)

    Bamber, Shaw D; Westerlund, Stig


    Large-scale storage of CO2 within sub-sea geological formations is a viable option for reducing the volume of this greenhouse gas released directly to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities. Risks to benthic marine life following possible leakage of gas through the seabed from this carbon capture and storage (CCS) initiative are not yet well established. This study examined behavior (activity patterns) in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), exposed to a range of reduced seawater pH conditions (7.6, 7, or 6.5) simulating leakage scenarios of varying scales. Brown shrimp have an endogenous rhythmicity associated with their activity, which dictates they are most active during hours of darkness, presumably as protection against vision-dependent predators. This endogenous rhythm in activity continues to be expressed when shrimp are held under constant low-light conditions in the lab and provides an ecologically relevant endpoint to measure when examining the influence of reduced pH on the behavior of these animals. No marked differences in activity pattern were observed between control shrimp maintained at pH 8.1 and those at pH 7.6. However, changes in activity were evident at pH 7 and pH 6.5, where significant shifts in timing and intensity of activity occurred. There was an unexpected increase in activity within periods of expected light, probably signaling efforts by shrimp to migrate away from reduced seawater pH conditions. The loss of this important member of the benthic community due to migration may have important consequences for many of the resilient species that remain.

  7. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.


    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  8. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting


    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  9. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area. (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui


    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  11. Hydrocarbon utilization by Brevibacterium, Azotomonas, Protaminobacterium, Mycococcus and Aeromonas spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonsane, B.K.; Vadalkar, K.; Singh, H.D.; Baruah, J.N.


    Morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics of 7 bacterial isolates, capable of utilizing hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon, reveal that 3 isolates belong to genus Aeromonas and one each to genera Brevibacterium, Protaminobacter, Mycococcus and Azotomonas. The isolates are studied for biomass formation on gas oil, substrate specificities for petroleum hydrocarbons and fermentation of gas oil by Brevibacterium sp. The hydrocarbon utilizing abilities of the strains of Protaminobacter, Azotomonas and Aeromonas are not known previously.

  12. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  13. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamber, Shaw D., E-mail:; Westerlund, Stig, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Valve pumping activity in A. islandica significantly increased at pH 6.2 seawater. • Changes in valve movements were not related to attempted burrowing activities. • Valve activity returned to control levels after 5 days of continuous exposure. • A. islandica tolerate pH reductions likely to follow leakage of sub-sea stored CO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO{sub 2}. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9 pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO{sub 2} from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40 h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity

  14. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    that thraustochytrids have the capability to utilize a wide range of organic nitrogen and carbon compounds for their nutrition. However, the capability of these protists to degrade hydrocarbons has not been examined so far. Hydrocarbons occur in seawater either... chromatography. (1) Gravimetry: Tarballs were extracted from experimental flasks with 10 ml of carbon tetrachloride, the extract transferred to pre- weighed Petri dish and the solvent allowed to RAIKAR et al.: THRAUSTOCHYTRID PROTISTS DEGRADE HYDROCARBONS...

  15. The Gothic shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation Greater Aneth Field (Aneth Unit) Southeastern Utah U.S.A.: Seal for Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chidsey, Thomas C. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Carney, Stephanie M. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bereskin, S. R. [Bereskin and Associates, Salt Lake City (United States)


    Greater Aneth oil field, Utah’s largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 483 million barrels of oil. Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. Because Greater Aneth is a mature, major oil field in the western U.S., and has a large carbonate reservoir, it was selected to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage. The Aneth Unit in the northwestern part of the field has produced over 160 million barrels of the estimated 386 million barrels of original oil in place—a 42% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil made the Aneth Unit ideal to enhance oil recovery by carbon dioxide flooding and demonstrate carbon dioxide storage capacity.

  16. Novel CO2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Quoc [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering; Hirasaki, George [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Johnston, Keith [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering


    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  17. Les encroûtements sous-marins de Méditerranée orientale : une explication génétique Subsea Incrustations in the Eastern Mediterranean: a Genetic Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allouc J.


    overlies a more or less soft mud. The induration (or lithification of this mud results from the formation of a magnesian calcite cement, and different phases of the process can be distinguished by the nannostructure of the limestone. The phenomenon seems to be purely physicochemical and probably results from the combination of several factors such as the presence of deep currents, sufficiently high oversaturation with regard to nonmagnesian calcite, and very small concentrations of crystal growth inhibitors other than magnesium. Although it affects materials of varying ages, this form of subsea diagenesis seems to be mainly Quaternary. According to the samples examined, the most favorable conditions for the formation of incrustations seem to appear during cold climatic periods (especially the most recent one and particularly during their terminal phase.

  18. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  19. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao


    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  20. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  1. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.


    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  2. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk


    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  3. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag


    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong; FRIIS, Henrik; Haile, Beyene Girma; Xi, Ke-Lai; Zhang, Hu-Na


    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeabilityof low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag has been investigated by detailed core descriptions, thin section analyses, fluid inclusion analyses, carbon and oxygen isotope analyses, mercury injection, po...

  4. Assuring asset integrity through improving the accuracy of leakage source identification of a permanently installed subsea leak detection system using artificial neural networks


    Poungkrajorn, Tawan


    Master's thesis in Offshore technology : industrial asset management Environmental concerns and regulatory controls for oil and gas exploration and production activities have been increasing with the prospecting of deep-water fields and sensitive areas, such as the artic seas. To stop any incidents developing into critical events, subsea leak detection systems are required for a fast, cost-effective, and reasonable accurate method to not only detect the leakage substance (in this case meth...

  5. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayah, Zaid H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ghebeh, Hazem [Stem Cell & Tissue Re-Engineering, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Alhaider, Abdulqader A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Camel Biomedical Research Unit, College of Pharmacy and Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S. [Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Korashy, Hesham M., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)


    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  6. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Microorganisms play diverse roles in biotechnology; one of such roles is ... hydrocarbon polluted sites using vapour phase transfer technique with ... The purified fungal isolates were identified based on .... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase systems which incorporate molecular .... substrate specificity on marine bacteria.

  7. The multiple gas-liquid subsea separation system: development and qualification of a novel solution for deep water field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie; Butin, Nicolas; Shaiek, Sadia; Hallot, Raymond [Saipem S.p.A., Milano (Italy)


    Subsea processing is more and more considered as a viable solution for the development of deep and ultra deep water fields. SAIPEM has developed a deep water gas separation and liquid boosting system, based on its proprietary 'Multi pipe' separator concept, providing a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and un-steady multiphase input streams using a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The Multi pipe Concept features an array of vertical pipes for gas/liquid separation by gravity and adequate liquid hold up volumes. The operating principle is the same as standard gravity vessels. Specific inlet pipe arrangements have been worked out to enhance the separation efficiency and internals can be implemented to further optimize the performances. The limited diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes make the Multi pipe Concept particularly suited for deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure conditions where the selection of a single separator vessel could lead to unpractical wall thicknesses. In most cases, standard API or ASME pipes can be utilized for the Multi pipe Separator, thus enabling conventional fabrication methods, and in turn reducing cost and delivery time and opening opportunities for local content. The qualification testing program has seen two subsequent phases. The first qualification phase aimed at the confirmation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the system. In particular, the homogeneous distribution of the multiphase stream into the pipes and the stability of the liquid levels under un-steady inlet conditions were continuously assessed during the tests. This first qualification phase gave confidence in the viability of the Multi pipe and in its good hydrodynamic behavior under the different inlet conditions that can be encountered during field production. It proved that, having the same liquid level in all the separator pipes, whatever the inlet conditions are, the Multi pipe separator can be

  8. Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review. (United States)

    Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A


    Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Salama, Farid


    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  10. Integrity management of deepwater subsea flow system; Gerenciamento de integridade de sistema de escoamento submarino em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, Helio A. de; Oliveira, Luiz F.S.; Cardoso, Cassia O.; Cabete, Ricardo; Matos, Barbara; Alvarenga, Tobias V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Wallace B. e; Bessa, Guilherme S.; Divenyi, Sandor; Gomes, Andre L.C [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios Rio


    Deep and ultra-deepwater Exploration and Production activities offshore Brazil have become a reality, corresponding nowadays to the majority of the national production. In order to make oil and gas production viable in this kind of environment, complex systems are used, requiring very strong investments, as well as equipment with high reliability requirements, to assure the benefits of the high productivity of the fields. The production flow systems comprise rigid and flexible pipelines, umbilicals and subsea equipment, to which high costs are associated regarding inspection, maintenance and intervention activities. Besides this, social claims through actions by regulatory agencies are getting stricter with time, as they increase their control of aspects related to safety and environmental impact aspects. In this scenario, PETROBRAS, through its Exploration and Production Business Unit in Rio de Janeiro (UN-RIO), signed a service contract with Det Norske Veritas (DNV). The development and application of specific methodologies for risk and reliability analysis, as well as the development of a specific software, are included in this project. (author)

  11. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John


    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  12. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.


    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate.

  13. The world's most spectacular marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California): Quantification of emissions (United States)

    Hornafius, J. Scott; Quigley, Derek; Luyendyk, Bruce P.


    We used 50 kHz sonar data to estimate natural hydrocarbon emission rates from the 18 km2 marine seep field offshore from Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California. The hydrocarbon gas emission rate is 1.7 ± 0.3 × 105 m3 d-1 (including gas captured by a subsea seep containment device) and the associated oil emission rate is 1.6 ± 0.2 × 104 Ld-1 (100 barrels d-1). The nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rate from the gas seepage is 35±7 td-1 and a large source of air pollution in Santa Barbara County. Our estimate is equal to twice the emission rate from all the on-road vehicle traffic in the county. Our estimated methane emission rate for the Coal Oil Point seeps (80±12 td-1) is 4 times higher than previous estimates. The most intense areas of seepage correspond to structural culminations along anticlinal axes. Seep locations are mostly unchanged from those documented in 1946, 1953, and 1973. An exception is the seepage field that once existed near offshore oil platform Holly. A reduction in seepage within a 1 km radius around this offshore platform is correlated with reduced reservoir pressure beneath the natural seeps due to oil production. Our findings suggest that global emissions of methane from natural marine seepage have been underestimated and may be decreasing because of oil production.

  14. The role of heat transfer time scale in the evolution of the subsea permafrost and associated methane hydrates stability zone during glacial cycles (United States)

    Malakhova, Valentina V.; Eliseev, Alexey V.


    Climate warming may lead to degradation of the subsea permafrost developed during Pleistocene glaciations and release methane from the hydrates, which are stored in this permafrost. It is important to quantify time scales at which this release is plausible. While, in principle, such time scale might be inferred from paleoarchives, this is hampered by considerable uncertainty associated with paleodata. In the present paper, to reduce such uncertainty, one-dimensional simulations with a model for thermal state of subsea sediments forced by the data obtained from the ice core reconstructions are performed. It is shown that heat propagates in the sediments with a time scale of ∼ 10-20 kyr. This time scale is longer than the present interglacial and is determined by the time needed for heat penetration in the unfrozen part of thick sediments. We highlight also that timings of shelf exposure during oceanic regressions and flooding during transgressions are important for simulating thermal state of the sediments and methane hydrates stability zone (HSZ). These timings should be resolved with respect to the contemporary shelf depth (SD). During glacial cycles, the temperature at the top of the sediments is a major driver for moving the HSZ vertical boundaries irrespective of SD. In turn, pressure due to oceanic water is additionally important for SD ≥ 50 m. Thus, oceanic transgressions and regressions do not instantly determine onsets of HSZ and/or its disappearance. Finally, impact of initial conditions in the subsea sediments is lost after ∼ 100 kyr. Our results are moderately sensitive to intensity of geothermal heat flux.

  15. A year in hypoxia: epibenthic community responses to severe oxygen deficit at a subsea observatory in a coastal inlet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Matabos

    Full Text Available Changes in ocean ventilation driven by climate change result in loss of oxygen in the open ocean that, in turn, affects coastal areas in upwelling zones such as the northeast Pacific. Saanich Inlet, on the west coast of Canada, is a natural seasonally hypoxic fjord where certain continental shelf species occur in extreme hypoxia. One study site on the VENUS cabled subsea network is located in the hypoxic zone at 104 m depth. Photographs of the same 5 m(2 area were taken with a remotely-controlled still camera every 2/3 days between October 6(th 2009 and October 18(th 2010 and examined for community composition, species behaviour and microbial mat features. Instruments located on a near-by platform provided high-resolution measurements of environmental variables. We applied multivariate ordination methods and a principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices to determine temporal structures in our dataset. Responses to seasonal hypoxia (0.1-1.27 ml/l and its high variability on short time-scale (hours varied among species, and their life stages. During extreme hypoxia, microbial mats developed then disappeared as a hippolytid shrimp, Spirontocaris sica, appeared in high densities (200 m(-2 despite oxygen below 0.2 ml/l. The slender sole Lyopsetta exilis was abundant in severe hypoxia and diminished as oxygen increased in the summer. This planktivore may be responding to changes in the depth of the diurnal migration of zooplankton. While the squat lobster Munida quadrispina was common at all times, juveniles disappeared in fluctuating conditions. Despite low oxygen conditions, animal densities were high indicating that the risk from hypoxia is balanced by factors such as food availability and escape from less tolerant predators. As hypoxia increases on the continental shelf, we expect benthic communities to become dominated by low diversity, hypoxia-tolerant species of low commercial significance.

  16. A year in hypoxia: epibenthic community responses to severe oxygen deficit at a subsea observatory in a coastal inlet. (United States)

    Matabos, Marjolaine; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Juniper, S Kim; Dean, Courtney


    Changes in ocean ventilation driven by climate change result in loss of oxygen in the open ocean that, in turn, affects coastal areas in upwelling zones such as the northeast Pacific. Saanich Inlet, on the west coast of Canada, is a natural seasonally hypoxic fjord where certain continental shelf species occur in extreme hypoxia. One study site on the VENUS cabled subsea network is located in the hypoxic zone at 104 m depth. Photographs of the same 5 m(2) area were taken with a remotely-controlled still camera every 2/3 days between October 6(th) 2009 and October 18(th) 2010 and examined for community composition, species behaviour and microbial mat features. Instruments located on a near-by platform provided high-resolution measurements of environmental variables. We applied multivariate ordination methods and a principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices to determine temporal structures in our dataset. Responses to seasonal hypoxia (0.1-1.27 ml/l) and its high variability on short time-scale (hours) varied among species, and their life stages. During extreme hypoxia, microbial mats developed then disappeared as a hippolytid shrimp, Spirontocaris sica, appeared in high densities (200 m(-2)) despite oxygen below 0.2 ml/l. The slender sole Lyopsetta exilis was abundant in severe hypoxia and diminished as oxygen increased in the summer. This planktivore may be responding to changes in the depth of the diurnal migration of zooplankton. While the squat lobster Munida quadrispina was common at all times, juveniles disappeared in fluctuating conditions. Despite low oxygen conditions, animal densities were high indicating that the risk from hypoxia is balanced by factors such as food availability and escape from less tolerant predators. As hypoxia increases on the continental shelf, we expect benthic communities to become dominated by low diversity, hypoxia-tolerant species of low commercial significance.

  17. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento


    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  18. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.


    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  19. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica


    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Effect of flow and physical parameters on the wax deposition of Middle East crude oil under subsea condition: heat transfer viewpoint (United States)

    Gooya, Reza; Gooya, Mehdy; Dabir, Bahram


    Change in pressure, temperature, flow rate and concentration of oil causes precipitation and deposition of wax particles in the pipelines which has become a major problem for oil industries. By decreasing the capacity and economic efficiency of land oil reserves, demand for offshore reserves increases. Change in temperature in subsea pipelines is more possible and so the wax deposition happens under this condition more. Low water temperature and subsea condition change overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate in pipe cross-section which affects the wax transportation from bulk fluid to the wall. In this study, the effects of temperature, flow rate and oil characteristic in different pipeline diameters on Middle East oil which covers the most oil reserves of the world have been investigated under Persian Gulf water condition. Higher inlet temperature postpone the wax deposition to far locations and higher flow rate causes lower wax thickness in first stages of pipe and higher wax thickness after passing the first stage.

  1. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J


    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX


    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang


    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. The effect of electrically conductive additives on the plasma pyrolysis of heavy hydrocarbons (United States)

    Sadikov, K. G.; Sofronitskiy, A. O.; Larionov, V. M.


    It’s shown that the electric discharge initiation of in-situ combustion can be executed by entering conductive additives to hydrocarbon raw materials. It is observed, that the most of all the soot is formed from aromatic hydrocarbons during the plasma pyrolysis. Cracking of hydrocarbons by electric discharge, with conducting additives and precursors of catalysts, leads to formation of carbon and metal nanoparticles.

  5. Relevance and Significance of Extraterrestrial Abiological Hydrocarbon Chemistry. (United States)

    Olah, George A; Mathew, Thomas; Prakash, G K Surya


    Astrophysical observations show similarity of observed abiological "organics"-i.e., hydrocarbons, their derivatives, and ions (carbocations and carbanions)-with studied terrestrial chemistry. Their formation pathways, their related extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry originating from carbon and other elements after the Big Bang, their parent hydrocarbon and derivative (methane and methanol, respectively), and transportation of derived building blocks of life by meteorites or comets to planet Earth are discussed in this Perspective. Their subsequent evolution on Earth under favorable "Goldilocks" conditions led to more complex molecules and biological systems, and eventually to humans. The relevance and significance of extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry to the limits of science in relation to the physical aspects of evolution on our planet Earth are also discussed.

  6. An AVAF inversion method for detecting hydrocarbons (United States)

    Luo, Chunmei; Sen, Mrinal K.; Wang, Shangxu; Yuan, Sanyi


    Rock physics studies have shown that velocity dispersion is often associated with hydrocarbon deposit, which results in P-wave reflection coefficients varying with frequency. This effect is often neglected in the conventional amplitude versus angle or offset inversion, and thus error is introduced. Here we propose a method for inverting for dispersive velocity from the frequency-dependent P-wave reflection coefficients; the method is called amplitude variation with angle and frequency AVAF inversion. We employ forward modeling based on propagator matrices that include frequency-dependent elastic coefficients and a variant of the simulated annealing method called the heat-bath algorithm for inversion of layer parameters. In our application, the thickness of the dispersive layer is inverted for simultaneously. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate the ability and usefulness of this method for detecting hydrocarbon bearing formations.

  7. Potential interactions between diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance and the electromagnetic fields and subsea noise from marine renewable energy developments. (United States)

    Gill, A B; Bartlett, M; Thomsen, F


    The considerable extent of construction and operation of marine renewable energy developments (MRED) within U.K. and adjacent waters will lead, among other things, to the emission of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and subsea sounds into the marine environment. Migratory fishes that respond to natural environmental cues, such as the Earth's geomagnetic field or underwater sounds, move through the same waters that the MRED occupy, thereby raising the question of whether there are any effects of MRED on migratory fishes. Diadromous species, such as the Salmonidae and Anguillidae, which undertake large-scale migrations through coastal and offshore waters, are already significantly affected by other human activities leading to national and international conservation efforts to manage any existing threats and to minimize future concerns, including the potential effect of MRED. Here, the current state of knowledge with regard to the potential for diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance to be affected by MRED is reviewed. The information on which to base the review was found to be limited with respect to all aspects of these fishes' migratory behaviour and activity, especially with regards to MRED deployment, making it difficult to establish cause and effect relationships. The main findings, however, were that diadromous species can use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and direction finding during migrations. Juveniles of anadromous brown trout (sea trout) Salmo trutta and close relatives of S. trutta respond to both the Earth's magnetic field and artificial magnetic fields. Current knowledge suggests that EMFs from subsea cables may interact with migrating Anguilla sp. (and possibly other diadromous fishes) if their movement routes take them over the cables, particularly in shallow water (fishes are likely to encounter EMFs from subsea cables either during the adult movement phases of life or their early life stages during migration within shallow

  8. Subsea Infrastructure Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Pedersen, Simon; Hansen, Leif


    of the offshore pipeline inspections are currently committed using Towed or Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) systems. It is well-known that the ROVs are very time-consuming and expensive to operate, with respect to the fact that they require a relatively large support ship to accommodate the equipment as well...

  9. Subsea pipeline engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, Andrew C; King, Roger A


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Motivation...

  10. Atmospheric dispersion of natural gas from a rupture in a pressurized and valved subsea pipeline; Dispersao atmosferica de gas natural por ruptura em duto submarino pressurizado e valvulado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fabio Coimbra Moreira de Macedo; Medeiros, Jose Luiz de; Araujo, Ofelia de Queiroz Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica


    This paper presents a simplified approach to the problem of transient atmospheric dispersion of natural gas released accidentally under the ocean, caused by leaks in pressurized subsea pipelines. The model aims to estimate the transient spatial distribution of gas concentration in the atmosphere for subsequent risk analysis. In this scenario, shut-off valves are used to rapidly isolate the damaged stretch of the gas pipeline (pipeline shutdown). The analysis considers the transient behavior of the remaining inventory inside the pipes through a release-by-leakage model, and the subsequent effect on the atmosphere surrounding the epicenter of release. There are also scenarios formulated with occurrences of numerous ruptures, synchronized or not, with known spatial distribution. The spatial-temporal model of atmospheric dispersion employed is based on the resolution of the tridimensional diffusion equation under turbulence in semi-infinite domains. The model includes appropriate resources to deal with: an ample range of atmospheric conditions; different wind velocities; transient conditions of gas released into the atmosphere (i.e., outflow, pressure, and temperature); many depths of emission; multi-source configuration of release. In this work a simulation tool in MATLAB environment was developed for the analyses of scenarios of transient dispersion of gas into the atmosphere. In the case of ruptures in subsea gas lines, this tool is useful to determine the conditions of maximum risk on production platforms situated close to the occurrence, as well as the impact of the localization of the shut-off valves in the release transient behavior. (author)

  11. Hydrocarbon Deposition Attenuates Osteoblast Activity on Titanium (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ueno, T.; Migita, S.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Doi, H.; Ogawa, T.; Hanawa, T.; Wakabayashi, N.


    Although the reported percentage of bone-implant contact is far lower than 100%, the cause of such low levels of bone formation has rarely been investigated. This study tested the negative biological effect of hydrocarbon deposition onto titanium surfaces, which has been reported to be inevitable. Osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on titanium disks on which the carbon concentration was experimentally regulated to achieve carbon/titanium (C/Ti) ratios of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0. Initial cellular activities such as cell attachment and cell spreading were concentration-dependently suppressed by the amount of carbon on the titanium surface. The osteoblastic functions of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were also reduced by more than 40% on the C/Ti (1.0) surface. These results indicate that osteoblast activity is influenced by the degree of hydrocarbon contamination on titanium implants and suggest that hydrocarbon decomposition before implant placement may increase the biocompatibility of titanium. PMID:24868012

  12. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.


    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  13. Chemical and carbon isotopic evolution of hydrocarbons during prograde metamorphism from 100°C to 550°C: Case study in the Liassic black shale formation of Central Swiss Alps (United States)

    Schwab, Valérie; Spangenberg, Jorge. E.; Grimalt, Joan O.


    Hydrocarbon distributions and stable isotope ratios of carbonates (δ 13C car, δ 18O car), kerogen (δ 13C ker), extractable organic matter (δ 13C EOM) and individual hydrocarbons of Liassic black shale samples from a prograde metamorphic sequence in the Swiss Alps were used to identify the major organic reactions with increasing metamorphic grade. The studied samples range from the diagenetic zone (17n-alkanes suggests the occurrence of cracking reactions of high molecular weight compounds. The isotopically heavier (up to 5.6 ‰) C 13n-alkanes with metamorphism suggests progressive thermal release of kerogen-linked fatty acid precursors and degradation of n-alkanes. Changes of the steroid and terpenoid distributions are clearly related to increasing metamorphic temperatures. The absence of 18α(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane (Ts), the occurrence of 17β(H)-trisnorhopane, 17β(H), 21α(H)-hopanes in the C 29 to C 31 range and 5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-20R C 27, C 29 steranes in the low diagenetic samples (bitumens. The higher thermal stress within the upper diagenetic zone (150°C) is marked by the presence of Ts, the disappearance of 17β(H)-trisnorhopane and thermodynamic equilibrium of the 22S/(22S + 22R) homohopane ratios. The increase of the ααα-sterane 20S/(20S + 20R) and 20R ββ/(ββ + αα) ratios (from 0.0 to 0.55 and from 0.0 to 0.40, respectively) in the upper diagenetic zone indicates the occurrence of isomerization reactions already at carbon isotopic compositions of n-alkanes related to metamorphism suggest that the organic geochemistry may help to evaluate the lowest grades of prograde metamorphism.

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  15. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    , when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...... higher stratigraphic levels. The second migration phase is suggested to have been much more complex including lateral, vertical and even downwards migration to basement. The occurrence of pyrobitumen in basement rocks outside the Oslo Graben, where no Palaeozoic rocks have been preserved, indicates...

  16. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire


    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  17. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing (United States)

    Moos, Daniel


    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  18. Hydrocarbon source rock potential evaluation of the Late Paleocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Hydrocarbon source rock potential evaluation of the Late Paleocene. Patala Formation, Salt Range, Pakistan: Organic geochemical and palynofacies approach. NASAR KHAN1 & *, NAVEED ANJUM1, MANSOOR AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD AWAIS2,. NAQIB ULLAH3. 1Department of Geology, University of Malakand, Pakistan.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene


    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  20. Zeolite deactivation during hydrocarbon reactions: characterisation of coke precursors and acidity, product distribution


    Wang, B.


    The catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons over zeolites has been applied in large scale petroleum-refining processes. However, there is always formation and retention of heavy by-products, called coke, which causes catalyst deactivation. This deactivation is due to the poisoning of the acid sites and/or pore blockage. The formation of coke on hydrocarbon processing catalysts is of considerable technological and economic importance and a great deal of work has been carried out to this study. Th...

  1. In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)


    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

  2. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced by thermal alteration of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Brown, S.; Calvin, M.


    The potential of algae and photosynthetic bacteria to serve as precursors of kerogen was studied to determine what factors affect the relative rates of formation of precursor hydrocarbons. Cells of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides were subjected to thermal alteration (by heating samples in glass tubes sealed under nitrogen) for two, four, and twelve weeks. Both unextracted and extracted cells in the absence and presence of montmorillonite were investigated, and the isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced in these experiments were determined. Phytane and five isomeric phytenes were the main hydrocarbons observed; their relative rates of formation in the different experimental conditions are described. No phytadienes, pristane, or pristenes were detected.

  3. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX


    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  4. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter


    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Scomber scombrus), suya beef and plantain (Musa paradiasca) sold and consumed in Amassoma town were screened for the presence of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentration of chromium, lead and cadmium were also ...

  6. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  7. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  8. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi. (United States)

    Weete, J. D.


    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  9. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.


    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  10. Mathematical approaches in deriving hydrocarbons expressions from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Yoon-Geun [Geophysical Prospecting Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hwan [Petroleum Engineering & Reservoir Simulation Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Defining and understanding hydrocarbon expressions in seismic expression is main concern of geoscientists in oil and gas exploration and production. Over the last decades several mathematical approaches have been developed in this regard. Most of approaches have addressed information in amplitude of seismic data. Recently, more attention has been drawn towards frequency related information in order to extract frequency behaviors of hydrocarbons bearing sediments. Spectrally decomposing seismic data into individual frequencies found to be an excellent tool for investigating geological formations and their pore fluids. To accomplish this, several mathematical approaches have been invoked. Continuous wavelet transform and Short Time Window Fourier transform are widely used techniques for this purpose. This paper gives an overview of some widely used mathematical technique in hydrocarbon reservoir detection and mapping. This is followed by an application on real data from Boonsville field.

  11. Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, N.F.; Yablochkina, M.N.; Shapiro, L.P.; Rogozkin, V.A.


    An optimal system of extraction has been developed making it possible to produce benzene, toluene and xylenes economically and with high efficiency.The raw material used for catalytic reforming consists of narrow-boiling-range gasoline fractiions at 62 to 85, 62 to 105 and 105 to 140/sup 0/C. Processing of the first fraction makes it possible to produce benzene; the second, benzene and toluene; and the third, toluene and xylenes. The addition of reforming extraction units has made it possible to produce aromatic hydrocarbons suitable for any specialized application. At the current time the output of benzene with extraction plants is about 60 percent of the total output, of toluene more than 80 percent and of xylene more than 50 percent. The key technological indicators are given for the processes of extraction with hydrous polyglycols. For new higher-capacity plants, in addition to extraction with tetraethylene glycol, the 'Ekstars' process has been developed for extraction with a hybrid solvent based on propylene carbonate. For eliminating the presence of unsaturated compounds, a process has been developed for the selective hydrogenation of reforming catalysis products. The process is carried out in an additional reactor included in the catalytic reforming system, at 160 to 250/sup 0/C with an aluminoplatinic catalyst in a combined steam and gas mixture flow at a pressure of 1.5 to 3.5 MPa. (JMT)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.


    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  13. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.


    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  14. Reaction of hydrocarbons on fly ash with special consideration of the formation of aromatic chlorinated compounds; Umsetzung von Kohlenwasserstoffen an Flugaschen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Bildung von aromatischen Chlorverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Leal, P.


    This paper deals with the formation of chlorinated organic compounds, especially of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF), in catalytic reactions on fly ash in incineration plants. The formation of these toxic compounds via de-novo-synthesis (formation from residual carbon, inorganic chloride and oxygen) and from several precursors (n-hexane, naphthaline, benzene, toluene, benzaldehyde, 2-chlorophenol and fluorene) on fly ash and model fly ash was investigated. The results show that in incineration plants PCDD/F can be formed de-novo as well as from precursors. The most efficient precursors of PCDD were benzaldehyde and 2-chlorophenol. The highest yield of PCDF were found for fluorene. The pathways of the formation of PCDD and PCDF are different. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins are partly formed by reactions between C{sub 6}-precursors, especially by condensation of chlorophenols. Such reactions between C{sub 6}-precursors do not play an important role in the formation of PCDF. These compounds are formed from structures of the residual carbon of the fly ash or from precursors which have two benzene rings bounded. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Bildung chlorierter organischer Verbindungen, insbesondere polychlorierter Dibenzodioxine (PCDD) und Dibenzofurane (PCDF) bei katalytischen Reaktionen auf Flugaschen in Muellverbrennungsanlagen. Untersucht wurde die Bildung dieser Schadstoffe bei der de-novo-Synthese (Neubildung aus Restkohlenstoff, anorganischem Chlorid und Sauerstoff), sowie aus verschiedenen Vorlaeuferverbindungen (n-Hexan, Naphthalin, Benzol, Toluol, Benzaldehyd, 2-Chlorphenol und Fluoren) auf Flugaschen und Modellflugaschen. Die Ergebnisse haben gezeigt, dass in Muellverbrennungsanlagen PCDD/F sowohl aus dem Restkohlenstoff als auch aus Vorlaeuferverbindungen gebildet werden koennen. Unter den untersuchten Vorlaeuferverbindungen zeigten Benzaldehyd und 2-Chlorphenol die hoechste Umsetzung in

  15. Evaluation report on research and development of a subsea petroleum production system; Kaitei sekiyu seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to assure stable supply of oil and natural gas resources, and achieve enhancement in ocean development technologies in general, development has been made on the subsea petroleum production system (SBPPS), which is effective in ocean floor petroleum production from oil fields at great depths (300 m or deeper), and can be applicable to continental shelves and continental slopes around Japan. The SBPPS consists of four sub-systems of shafts, pipelines, manifolds, and riser and oil storage, whose basic development targets were established for the total system. The system was given a conceptual design for the total system, and the above four sub-systems were designed according to the conceptual design. The experimenting devices of each system were fabricated on a trial basis while fundamental studies are being made on component technologies, and experiments were performed to verify basic functions of the sub-systems. Developments were made on such operation technologies as the system operation technology, production control technology, safety control technology, and maintenance and repair technology required to operate the SBPPS. On-shore and general off-shore experiments were carried out to verify the functions of the experimenting devices of each system, the comprehensive functions and the operation technology. Comprehensive evaluation was given on the above achievements from the technical, economic and social viewpoints. (NEDO)

  16. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old. (United States)

    Allen, R. L.


    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  17. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture (United States)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL


    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  18. Phase behaviour in water/hydrocarbon mixtures involved in gas production systems; etude des equilibres des systemes: eau-hydrocarbures-gaz acides dans le cadre de la production de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapoy, A.


    Inside wells, natural gases frequently coexist with water. The gases are in equilibrium with the sub-adjacent aquifer. Many problems are associated with the presence of water during the production, transport and processing of natural gases. Accurate knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the water/hydrocarbon and water-inhibitor/hydrocarbon equilibria near the hydrate forming conditions, at sub-sea pipeline conditions and during the transport is crucial for the petroleum industry. An apparatus based on a static/analytic method combined with a dilutor apparatus to calibrate on the gas chromatograph (GC) detectors with water was used to measure the water content of binary systems (i.e.: water - methane, ethane - water, nitrogen - water...) as well of a synthetic hydrocarbon gas mixture (i.e.: 94% methane, 4% ethane and 2% n-butane) with and without inhibitor. This same apparatus was also used generate data of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and nitrogen solubility in water and also the solubilities of a synthetic mixture in water. In-house software has been developed in order to fit and model the experimental data. (author)

  19. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental


    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  20. Electron microscopy of hydrocarbon production in parthenium argentatum (guayule)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The electron microscope was used to study the biological processes involved in hydrocarbon production. The little desert shrub Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) was selected for study. This shrub can produce hydrocarbons (rubber) in concentrations up to 1/4 of its dry weight. It grows on semi-arid land and has been extensively studied. The potential of Guayule is described in detail. Results of an investigation into the morphology of Guayule at the electron microscope level are given. Experiments, which would allow the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon in Guayule to be followed, were designed. In order to do this, knowledge of the biochemistry of rubber formation was used to select a tracer, mevalonic acid. Mevalonic acid is the precursor of all the terpenoids, a large class of hydrocarbons which includes rubber. It was found that when high enough concentrations of mevalonic acid are administered to seedling Guayule plants, build-ups of metabolized products are found within the chloroplasts of the seedlings. Also, tritium labeled mevalonic acid was used as a precursor, and its metabolic progress was followed by using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. The results of these experiments also implicated chloroplasts of the Guayule plant in hydrocarbon production. The final task was the development of a system to produce three-dimensional stereo reconstructions of organelles suspected of involvement in hydrocarbon biosynthesis in Guayule. The techniques are designed to reconstruct an object from serial sections of that object. The techniques use stereo imaging both to abstract information for computer processing, and also in the computer produced reconstruction.

  1. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs (United States)

    ... state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On This ... get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August 1999 ...

  2. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale


    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S.; Cuss, Robert J.; Cordell, Rebecca L.; Jon F. Harrington; White, Iain R.; Monks, Paul S.


    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, ...

  3. Distribution of hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Ostrovskaya, E. V.


    A study of two classes of hydrocarbons (HCs)—aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic—in suspended matter of the surface waters and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea (R/V Nikifor Shurekov, October 2015) is described. It has been determined that oil pollution transported by river runoff and fluid streams flowing from sedimentary formations in the northeastern part are the main sources of hydrocarbons in the river-sea boundaries of the Volga, Terek, and Sulak rivers.

  4. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance


    Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhang, Bin; He, Kun; Wang, Xiaomei


    The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency...

  5. Chemistry and photophysics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Leon


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, and it is thought that they are a key factor in the formation of molecular hydrogen at high gas and dust grain temperatures. We have explored how PAHs can contribute to the formation of H2 by taking a small PAH

  6. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  7. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132. Note...

  8. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hydrocarbon occurred between the 8th and 14th day. It was therefore concluded that bacteria with ability to utilize hydrocarbons could be obtained from leaf surfaces. Such organisms could serve as seeds for bioaugmentation during remediation of polluted environments. Keywords: Phylloplane, bacteria, hydrocarbon, ...

  9. Extractive distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.M.; Brown, R.E.; Johnson, M.M.


    This patent describes a process for separating at least one aromatic hydrocarbon containing 6-12 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extractive distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfolane compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds; wherein the extractive distillation process produces an overhead distillate product which contains a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed, and a bottoms product which contains the solvent and a larger volume percentage of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed; and wherein the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon is separated from the solvent and recovered from the bottoms product. This patent also describes a process for separating at least one cycloalkane containing 5-10 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extracting distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one cycloalkane and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfone compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds.

  10. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  11. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming (United States)

    Golombok, Michael


    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  12. Deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Allamandola, LJ; Bauschlicher, CW; Hudgins, DM; Sandford, SA; Tielens, AGGM


    We report infrared spectral evidence of deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two bands are detected in the infrared emission from the ionization bar in Orion at 4.4 and 4.65 mum. The one at 4.65 mum is present at the 4.4 sigma level, while the one at 4.4 mum is more

  13. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael


    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  14. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: a systematic review. (United States)

    Ravnskov, Uffe


    Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most models a causal role of glomerular immune complex formation was

  15. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe


    models a causal role of glomerular immune complex formation was unlikely, but may rather have been a secondary phenomenon. As most glomerulonephritis subgroups were seen and as some of the hydrocarbons produced more than one subgroup, the microscopic findings in a patient cannot be used as a clue to the causation of his disease. By the same reason, the lack of a specific histological pattern in patients with glomerulonephritis assumed to have been caused by hydrocarbon exposure is not contradictive.

  16. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  17. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins


    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  18. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.


    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  19. Noble gas partitioning behavior in the Sleipner Vest hydrocarbon field (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Lawson, M.; Warr, O.; Mabry, J.; Byrne, D. J.; Meurer, W. P.; Ballentine, C. J.


    Noble gases are chemically inert and variably soluble in crustal fluids. They are primarily introduced into hydrocarbon reservoirs through exchange with formation waters, and can be used to assess migration pathways, mechanisms and reservoir storage. Of particular interest is the role groundwater plays in hydrocarbon transport, which is reflected in hydrocarbon-water volume ratios. We present compositional, stable isotope and noble gas isotope and abundance data from the Sleipner Vest field, in the Norwegian North Sea. Sleipner gases are generated from primary cracking of kerogen and the thermal cracking of oil, sourced from type II marine source, with relatively homogeneous maturities and a range in vitrinite reflectance (1.2-1.7%). Gases are hosted in the lower shoreface sandstones of the Jurassic Hugin formation, which is sealed by the Jurassic Upper Draupne and Heather formations. Gases are composed of N2 (0.6-0.9%), CO2 (5.4-15.3%) and hydrocarbons (69-80%). Helium isotopes (3He/4He) are radiogenic and range from 0.065 to 0.116 RA, showing a small mantle contribution, consistent with Ne isotopes (20Ne/22Ne from 9.70-9.91; 21Ne/22Ne from 0.0290-0.0344) and Ar isotopes (40Ar/36Ar from 315-489). 20Ne/36Ar, 84Kr/36Ar and 132Xe/36Ar values are systematically higher relative to air saturated water ratios. These data are discussed within the framework of several conceptual models: i) Total gas-stripping model, which defines the minimum volume of water to have interacted with the hydrocarbon phase; ii) Equilibrium model, assuming simple equilibration between groundwater and hydrocarbon phase at reservoir P,T and salinity; and iii) Open and closed system gas-stripping models. Using Ne-Ar, we estimate gas-water ratios for the Sleipner system of 0.02-0.09, which compare with geologic gas-water estimates of ~0.24, and suggest more groundwater interaction than a static system estimate. Kr and Xe show evidence for an additional source or process involving oil or sediments.

  20. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)


    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  1. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.


    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  2. Mediterranean hydrocarbons pollution from Landsat


    Wald, Lucien; Monget, Jean-Marie; Albuisson, Michel


    Previous studies have shown that oil spills have been viewed by Landsat . The setection of oil is mainly due to the variations of reflectance between the sea and the oil spill. This result is used in the framework of the European Project "ARCHIMEDES", lead by the Joint Research Center (Ispra, Italy), which purpose is the study of the pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. 800 Landsat images obtained from 1972 to 1975 were examined. The cumulative area covered by the hydrocarbons spread each year...

  3. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA


    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  4. Land subsidence associated with hydrocarbon production, Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.; White, W.A.; Akhter, M.S.


    Although ground-water withdrawal has been the predominant cause of land subsidence in the Texas Gulf Coast, localized subsidence and faulting have also resulted from hydrocarbon production. Subsidence was documented as early as the 1920s over the Goose Creek field. Since then, subsidence and/or faulting have been identified over the Saxet, South Houston, Chocolate Bayou, Hastings, Alco-Mag, Clinton, Mykawa, Blue Ridge, Webster, and Caplen oil fields. Oil-production-related subsidence over these fields generally creates few environmental or engineering problems. One exception is the subsidence and faulting over the Caplen oil field on Bolivar Peninsula, where more than 1,000 ac of saltwater marsh has been replaced by subaqueous flats. Subsidence may be occurring over other fields but has not been identified because of limited releveled benchmark data. An evaluation of drill-stem and bottom-hole pressure data for the Frio Formation in Texas indicates extensive depressurization presumably from hydrocarbon production. Nearly 12,000 measurements from a pressure data base of 17,000 measurements indicate some depressurization. Some of the Frio zones have pressure declines of more than 1,500 psi from original hydrostatic conditions. Subsidence and faulting may be associated with these fields in the Frio as well as other Tertiary formations where extensive hydrocarbon production and subsequent depressurization have occurred.

  5. Shale characterization on Barito field, Southeast Kalimantan for shale hydrocarbon exploration (United States)

    Sumotarto, T. A.; Haris, A.; Riyanto, A.; Usman, A.


    Exploration and exploitation in Indonesia now are still focused on conventional hydrocarbon energy than unconventional hydrocarbon energy such as shale gas. Tanjung Formation is a source rock of Barito Basin located in South Kalimantan that potentially as shale hydrocarbon. In this research, integrated methods using geochemical analysis, mineralogy, petrophysical analysis and seismic interpretation has been applied to explore the shale hydrocarbon potential in Barito Field for Tanjung formation. The first step is conducting geochemical and mineralogy analysis to the shale rock sample. Our analysis shows that the organic richness is ranging from 1.26-5.98 wt.% (good to excellent) with the depth of early mature window of 2170 m. The brittleness index is in an average of 0.44-0.56 (less Brittle) and Kerogen type is classified into II/III type that potentially produces oil and gas. The second step is continued by performing petrophysical analysis, which includes Total Organic Carbon (TOC) calculation and brittleness index continuously. The result has been validated with a laboratory measurement that obtained a good correlation. In addition, seismic interpretation based on inverted acoustic impedance is applied to map the distributions of shale hydrocarbon potential. Our interpretation shows that shale hydrocarbon potential is localized in the eastern and southeastern part of the study area.

  6. Importance of fundamental sp, sp2, and sp3 hydrocarbon radicals in the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo


    The most basic chemistry of products formation in hydrocarbons pyrolysis has been explored via a comparative experimental study on the roles of fundamental sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hydrocarbon radicals/intermediates such as ethyne/ethynyl (C(2)H(2)/C(2)H), ethene/ethenyl (C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(3)), and methane/methyl (CH(4)/CH(3)) in products formations. By using an in situ time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique, gas-phase products of pyrolysis of acetylene (ethyne, C(2)H(2)), ethylene (ethene, C(2)H(4)), and acetone (propanone, CH(3)COCH(3)) were detected and found to include small aliphatic products to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 324 amu. Observed products mass spectra showed a remarkable sequence of mass peaks at regular mass number intervals of 24, 26, or 14 indicating the role of the particular corresponding radicals, ethynyl (C(2)H), ethenyl (C(2)H(3)), or methyl (CH(3)), in products formation. The analysis of results revealed the following: (a) product formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis is dominated by hydrogen abstraction and a vinyl (ethenyl, C(2)H(3)) radical addition (HAVA) mechanism, (b) contrary to the existing concept of termination of products mass growth at cyclopenta fused species like acenaphthylene, novel pathways forming large PAHs were found succeeding beyond such cyclopenta fused species by the further addition of C(2)H(x) or CH(3) radicals, (c) production of cyclopenta ring-fused PAHs (CP-PAHs) such as fluoranthene/corannulene appeared as a preferred route over benzenoid species like pyrene/coronene, (d) because of the high reactivity of the CH(3) radical, it readily converts unbranched products into products with aliphatic chains (branched product), and (e) some interesting novel products such as dicarbon monoxide (C(2)O), tricarbon monoxide (C(3)O), and cyclic ketones were detected especially in acetone pyrolysis. These results finally suggest that existing kinetic models of product formation should be modified to include

  7. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid (United States)

    Lambirth, Gene Richard [Houston, TX


    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  8. Novel C-ring cleaved triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals (United States)

    de las Heras, F. X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Albaigés, J.


    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl/naphthyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C 8(14) bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings.

  9. Novel C-ring triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Las Heras, F.X. (Escola Univ. Politecnia de Manresa, Catalonia (Spain)); Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J.


    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C{sub 8(14)} bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings.

  10. Novel C-ring cleaved triterpenoid-derived aromatic hydrocarbons in Tertiary brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, F.X. de las; Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. (Escola Universitaria Politecnica de Manresa (U.P.C.), Manresa (Spain))


    Five novel ethylene-linked polymethyl-substituted phenyl/naphthyl or naphthyl/naphthyl hydrocarbons have been identified in aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of immature Tertiary coals using liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (GC), and GC coupled to mass spectrometry. These compounds are produced during coalification through triterpenoid aromatization processes that involve C-ring opening (C{sub 8(14)} bond cleavage) and preservation or loss of the A-ring. This second type of reaction is illustrated here for the first time. Structures corresponding to various degrees of aromatization have been found, indicating that these hydrocarbons undergo further aromatization after C-ring cleavage. All these compounds are observed to occur only in coals corresponding to diagenetic conditions that have also resulted in the formation of C-ring preserved triterpenoid-derived hydrocarbons containing more than two aromatic rings. 38 refs.

  11. Method for determining the coking of different types of pyrolysed hydrocarbon crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Galeeva, E.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Lobanova, E.E.


    An express method has been developed for determining coking and the nature of burnout of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbon crude. A new, hitherto unknown effect of non-uniform burnout of the carbon deposits (coke) formed during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons has been established. Although the air pulse selected is sufficient to burn out the entire quantity of coke, it is not burnt out uniformly from pulse to pulse, but spasmodically, creating an individual characteristic of the burnout capacity of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbon fractions. The opportunities provided by the method in studying additives that inhibit coke deposition, the rate of formation and burnout of coke in different temperature zones of the pyrolysis coil, and also the nature of burnout of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons and their mixtures can be broadened significantly, 7 references, 2 figures.

  12. Carbon nanowires generated by ion irradiation of hydrocarbon ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, O., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Compagnini, G.; D’Urso, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Baratta, G.A.; Palumbo, M.E.; Strazzulla, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, Catania 95123 (Italy)


    In this paper we present the formation of carbon nanowires (polyynes and polycumulenes) in the solid state by ion irradiation of frozen hydrocarbons (C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). Irradiations have been performed using H{sup +} ions in the 100’s keV energy regime using fluences up to 5 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Beyond the intrinsic significance of these results in the field of material science, this work has been motivated by the fact that ion beam irradiation of hydrocarbon ices is one of the most important process thought to happen in several extraterrestrial environments where many spectroscopic features of polyyne molecules have been identified.

  13. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  14. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens


    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  15. An Investigation of Model Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Formation Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tysoe, W. T.


    Work was focused on two areas aimed at understanding the chemistry of realistic catalytic systems: (1) The synthesis and characterization of model supported olefin metathesis catalysts. (2) Understanding the role of the carbonaceous layer present on Pd(111) single crystal model catalysts during reaction.

  16. Before the Bonanza: Hydrocarbons in Greenland


    Meinild, Ebbe Dam


    The issue of Greenlandic hydrocarbons gradually moved towards the centre of the creation of autonomous Greenland. Hydrocarbons in Greenland and the Greenlandic nation were co-produced in the same process. Thus, when hydrocarbons were connected to an ecological modernisation it allowed the newly formed Home Rule administration, in a joint Danish-Greenlandic effort, to adopt this, not only as a road to independence, but as something giving credibility to Greenland as a distinct society.

  17. Comparing hydrogen and hydrocarbon booster fuels (United States)

    Martin, James A.


    The present evaluation of the consequences of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as the basis of launch vehicle booster rocket-stage performance notes that hydrocarbon fuels lead to lower vehicle dry mass, for low-velocity requirements, while hydrogen fuel furnishes lower dry mass. Vehicles employing both types of fuel attempt to take advantage of the low intercept and slope of hydrocarbon fuel at low velocity, and subsequently, of the slope of the hydrogen curves at higher velocities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz


    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  19. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao


    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  20. 40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified in...

  1. 40 CFR 89.319 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.319 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall... and at least annually thereafter, adjust the FID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response...

  2. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment


    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  3. Effect of hydrocarbon to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging in tight sandstone reservoirs and method for hydrocarbon correction (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong


    It is crucial to understand the behavior of the T2 distribution in the presence of hydrocarbon to properly interpret pore size distribution from NMR logging. The NMR T2 spectrum is associated with pore throat radius distribution under fully brine saturated. However, when the pore space occupied by hydrocarbon, the shape of NMR spectrum is changed due to the bulk relaxation of hydrocarbon. In this study, to understand the effect of hydrocarbon to NMR logging, the kerosene and transformer oil are used to simulate borehole crude oils with different viscosity. 20 core samples, which were separately drilled from conventional, medium porosity and permeability and tight sands are saturated with four conditions of irreducible water saturation, fully saturated with brine, hydrocarbon-bearing condition and residual oil saturation, and the corresponding NMR experiments are applied to acquire NMR measurements. The residual oil saturation is used to simulate field NMR logging due to the shallow investigation depth of NMR logging. The NMR spectra with these conditions are compared, the results illustrate that for core samples drilled from tight sandstone reservoirs, the shape of NMR spectra have much change once they pore space occupied by hydrocarbon. The T2 distributions are wide, and they are bimodal due to the effect of bulk relaxation of hydrocarbon, even though the NMR spectra are unimodal under fully brine saturated. The location of the first peaks are similar with those of the irreducible water, and the second peaks are close to the bulk relaxation of viscosity oils. While for core samples drilled from conventional formations, the shape of T2 spectra have little changes. The T2 distributions overlap with each other under these three conditions of fully brine saturated, hydrocarbon-bearing and residual oil. Hence, in tight sandstone reservoirs, the shape of NMR logging should be corrected. In this study, based on the lab experiments, seven T2 times of 1ms, 3ms, 10ms, 33ms

  4. A remote and autonomous continuous monitoring ultrasonic system for flood detection in sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijarez-Castro, Rito


    This thesis presents a novel and autonomous continuous monitoring system for flood detection in the hollow sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs. The technique offers an alternative to underwater nondestructive testing methods based on ultrasound and x-rays, which have been used to detect the presence of seawater in these applications, often with divers or remote operating vehicles. The research consists of theoretical and experimental work necessary for the development of an integral system that can be used in new fixed offshore oil rig designs. The system employs a single piezoelectric transducer which can be permanently attached to the inner wall of every sub-sea structure and which is powered by a normally inert seawater battery. Upon activation, the sensor transmits ultrasonic chirp or tone encoded pulses in the range of 21 k Hz to 42 k Hz, to a monitoring system at deck level for decoding and identifying flooded members. Two approaches to the system were considered during the investigation, depending on the communication channel exploited. These were based on either using the seawater as a propagation medium or using the steel structure as a wave-guide. A system based on theoretical models was built and field experiments were conducted using a purpose built jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m in length, 0.5 m in diameter and 16 mm in thickness. This structure was flooded by complete immersion in seawater. Results obtained using water as communication medium and a frequency in the order of 38 k Hz yielded an attenuation figure of 0.4 d B m{sub -}1 over 100 m, since losses were predominantly geometric. In contrast, using the tubular structure as a wave-guide and axis symmetric guided waves as the excitation, a gross attenuation figure of 1.3 d B m{sub -}1 was attained. In the straight parts of the structure, the attenuation ranged from 0.3 d B m{sub -} 1 to 0.6 d B m{sub -}1. The modes most likely to have been excited within the structure were L(0,5) - L(0

  5. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID


    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  6. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID


    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  7. Anionic clusters in dusty hydrocarbon and silane plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenstein, C.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Courteille, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Sansonnens, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)


    Measurements of anions and cations are reported for hydrocarbon and silane rf capacitive glow discharges. Series of anions were observed by quadrupole mass spectrometry using power-modulated plasmas and their structures are interpreted from the form of the mass spectra. Various experiments in silane plasmas show that anion confinement results in particles and conversely, anion de-trapping can inhibit particle formation. In contrast, the polymerized neutral flux magnitudes, mass spectra and dynamics are independent of the powder formation. Powder is known to form readily in deposition plasmas containing electronegative free radicals, and the general role of anions in particle formation is discussed in the light of these experiments. (author) 6 figs., 21 refs.

  8. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (United States)


    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati interstate...

  9. Hydrogen bond dynamics at the water/hydrocarbon interface. (United States)

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka M


    The dynamics of hydrogen bond formation and breakage for water in the vicinity of water/hydrocarbon liquid interfaces is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Several liquid alkanes are considered as the hydrocarbon phase in order to determine the effects of their chain length and extent of branching on the properties of the adjacent water phase. In addition to defining the interface location in terms of the laboratory-frame density profiles, the effects of interfacial fluctuations are considered by locating the interface in terms of the proximity of the molecules of the other phase. We find that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water is weakly influenced by the identity of the hydrocarbon phase and by capillary waves. In addition to calculating hydrogen bond time correlations, we examine how the hydrogen bond dynamics depend on local coordination and determine the extent of cooperativity in the population relaxation of the hydrogen bonds that a given molecule participates in. The contributions of translational diffusion and reorientation of molecular O-H bonds to the mechanism of hydrogen bond breakage and reformation are investigated. In previous work, we have shown that rotation of the principal axes of water is anisotropic at the interface and depends on the initial orientation of the molecule relative to the interface. Here, we extend this analysis to the reorientation of the O-H vector and to hydrogen bond time correlation. We find that hydrogen bond dynamics are also sensitive to the initial orientation of the molecules participating in the hydrogen bond.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the bakery chain. (United States)

    Ciecierska, M; Obiedziński, M W


    The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurrence and the possibility of their formation in the bakery chain, its raw materials and final products, were examined. Experimental bread baking, with different baking temperatures, was performed in the Warsaw bakery, using cyclothermic deck ovens. PAHs determination was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescent and diode array detectors (HPLC-FLD/DAD) and confirmed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Total content of 19 PAHs in the grain, flour and bran varied from 1.07 to 3.65 μg/kg and, in bread, from 1.59 to 13.6 μg/kg depending on the part of bread and baking temperature. Based on the dough's contamination level and the influence of the baking temperature on the bread's PAHs content, it was confirmed that PAHs are formed during baking. Considering the results of the average dietary exposure to PAHs and the MOE (Margin of Exposure) analysis, it could be concluded that analysed bread and cereal products constitute little concern for consumer health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng


    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  12. short communication aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The compositional pattern of the photo-modified bitumen samples suggests that there was initial cracking of large molecular mass hydrocarbons in the bitumen, followed by recombination after long periods of exposure to sunlight. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profile of the Agbabu natural bitumen as a function of.

  13. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations (United States)

    Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Li, Busheng [Houston, TX; Shen, Chonghui [Calgary, CA


    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  14. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential, Task 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States)


    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vicinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the Nevada Test Site (NTS) area in southern Nevada. In order to reconstruct the Paleozoic stratigraphy, we are also studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS. A thorough understanding of the structure will also be essential to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We are now provisionally limiting the name {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} to the rocks that make up the Eleana Range - i.e., the rocks that we have been calling {open_quotes}western Eleana{close_quotes}. The mudstone section (which we have until now called {open_quotes}eastern Eleana{close_quotes}) we are provisionally calling the {open_quotes}Chainman Shale{close_quotes}, in keeping with regional lithostratigraphic nomenclature. We continue to work out the internal stratigraphies and basin histories of both units; XRD (r-ray diffraction) determinations of clay mineralogy are an addition to our understanding of the Chainman. The basin histories place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. This year we have hired a consulting petroleum geologist for two jobs: (1) to review drillhole data from southern Nevada on file at NBMG and make recommendations about more detailed study of any interesting drillholes; and (2) to log the UE17e core (in the Chainman) and evaluate source rock potential. The results of these studies have been incorporated into this report, and the consultant`s reports.

  15. Detection and quantification of hydrocarbons in sediments (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Williamson, Mike; Frank, Jeff


    A new technology developed by the US Geological Survey now allows for fast, direct detection of hydrocarbon plumes both in rivers and drifting in the deep ocean. Recent experiments show that the method can also detect and quantify hydrocarbons buried in river sediments and estuaries. This approach uses a variant of induced polarization, a surface-sensitive physical property of certain polarizable materials immersed in an electrolyte that can accept and adsorb charge under an inducing voltage. Known polarizable materials include most sulfides, ilmenite (FeTiO3), metallic objects such as buried wrecks and pipelines, and now hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon-in-water response to induced polarization is in fact nearly two orders of magnitude greater than the IP response of any of the hard minerals. The oil:water detection limit for hydrocarbons so far is down to 0.0002% in the laboratory.

  16. "Super-Reducing" Photocatalysis: Consecutive Energy and Electron Transfers with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Brasholz, Malte


    Donation welcome: Recent developments in visible-light photocatalysis allow the utilization of increasingly negative reduction potentials. Successive energy and electron transfer with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons enables the catalytic formation of strongly reducing arene radical anions, classical stoichiometric reagents for one-electron reduction in organic synthesis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S.S.


    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  18. First principles based group additive values for the gas phase standard entropy and heat capacity of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals. (United States)

    Sabbe, Maarten K; De Vleeschouwer, Freija; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B


    In this work a complete and consistent set of 95 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for standard entropies S(o) and heat capacities C(p)(o) of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals is presented. These GAVs include 46 groups, among which 25 radical groups, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. The GAVs have been determined from a set of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) ideal gas statistical thermodynamics values for 265 species, consistently with previously reported GAVs for standard enthalpies of formation. One-dimensional hindered rotor corrections for all internal rotations are included. The computational methodology has been compared to experimental entropies (298 K) for 39 species, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between experiment and calculation of 1.2 J mol(-1) K(-1), and to 46 experimental heat capacities (298 K) with a resulting MAD = 1.8 J mol(-1) K(-1). The constructed database allowed evaluation of corrections on S(o) and C(p)(o) for non-nearest-neighbor effects, which have not been determined previously. The group additive model predicts the S(o) and C(p)(o) within approximately 5 J mol(-1) K(-1) of the ab initio values for 11 of the 14 molecules of the test set, corresponding to an acceptable maximal deviation of a factor of 1.6 on the equilibrium coefficient. The obtained GAVs can be applied for the prediction of S(o) and C(p)(o) for a wide range of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals. The constructed database also allowed determination of a large set of hydrogen bond increments, which can be useful for the prediction of radical thermochemistry.

  19. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments (United States)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.


    compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from

  20. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong


    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeability of low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member of t...

  1. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee


    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  2. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad


    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  3. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons from a refinery spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro-Lopez, J.R.; Serra-Socias, F.; Moreno-Garcia-Luengo, S.; Morales-Correas, N.; Dominguez-Laseca, F. [Universidad de las Islas Baleares (Spain)


    The biodegradation of several crude oil wastes from an oil refinery spill, was studied. Crude oil was spilled onto soil; with time, only the higher boiling point hydrocarbons remained as residue. Samples of this highly weathered hydrocarbon mixture were suspended in water to which Finasol OSR 51 dispersant was added in order to enhance dispersion. Also, certain microorganisms and a degradation accelerator, were both added to accelerate degradation. Each compound was identified by CG/FID. Daily records were kept of the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the percent degradation. Tables showing the degradation percentages achieved by each compound of the crude left over after several days, are included. 4 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard


    A promising way to store wind and solar electricity is by electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing fuel infrastructure. Pressurized operation decreases the cell internal resistance and enables...... hydrocarbon fuel and avoiding damage to the cells. The main parameters of cell operating temperature, pressure, inlet gas composition and reactant utilization are varied to examine how they influence cell thermoneutral and reversible potentials, in situ formation of methane and carbon at the Ni–YSZ electrode...

  5. The geological effect of direct exploring the hydrocarbon reservoir in Chaidamu basin using airborne magnetic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luling, L.; Yongxia, Z.; Fuhong, Z.


    There are good geological and geophysical conditions for airborne magnetic survey in Chaidamu basin because there is no igneous rock in sedimentary formation, and a little civilization interference in the basin. The upmigrated hydrocarbon from reservoir caused chemical reaction in overburden to form magnetite, which results in magnetic anomaly. The minimum altitude airborne magnetic survey (with large scale and high accuracy) mapped weak magnetic anomaly which covers a large area. It has been proved that the weak magnetic anomaly is related to hydrocarbon accumulation. This experience can also be used in other sedimentary basins in Northwest China which have analogous geological and geophysical conditions.

  6. Pyrolysis of heavy hydrocarbons under microwave heating of catalysts and adsorbents. (United States)

    Bolotov, Vasily A; Udalov, Evgeny I; Parmon, Valentin N; Tanashev, Yuriy Yu; Chernousov, Yuriy D


    The main features of high temperature chemical reactions under microwave (MW) heating have been considered. The efficiency of the MW power to heat conversion in a MW cavity is estimated, theoretically and experimentally, for different substances and conditions. The new approaches for MW processing of high-molecular hydrocarbons are proposed: (i) thermal decomposition in contact with microwave absorbing catalyst particles placed into liquid substrate; (ii) cracking of hydrocarbons pre-absorbed inside porous granules under rapid MW heating of adsorbent. It has been experimentally found that these approaches provide non-traditional conditions of reaction and can lead to the formation of valuable chemical products.

  7. Remote carboxylation of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons with carbon dioxide (United States)

    Juliá-Hernández, Francisco; Moragas, Toni; Cornella, Josep; Martin, Ruben


    Catalytic carbon-carbon bond formation has enabled the streamlining of synthetic routes when assembling complex molecules. It is particularly important when incorporating saturated hydrocarbons, which are common motifs in petrochemicals and biologically relevant molecules. However, cross-coupling methods that involve alkyl electrophiles result in catalytic bond formation only at specific and previously functionalized sites. Here we describe a catalytic method that is capable of promoting carboxylation reactions at remote and unfunctionalized aliphatic sites with carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. The reaction occurs via selective migration of the catalyst along the hydrocarbon side-chain with excellent regio- and chemoselectivity, representing a remarkable reactivity relay when compared with classical cross-coupling reactions. Our results demonstrate that site-selectivity can be switched and controlled, enabling the functionalization of less-reactive positions in the presence of a priori more reactive ones. Furthermore, we show that raw materials obtained in bulk from petroleum processing, such as alkanes and unrefined mixtures of olefins, can be used as substrates. This offers an opportunity to integrate a catalytic platform en route to valuable fatty acids by transforming petroleum-derived feedstocks directly.

  8. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)


    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of liquid...

  10. 40 CFR 503.44 - Operational standard-total hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. 503.44 Section 503.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... standard—total hydrocarbons. (a) The total hydrocarbons concentration in the exit gas from a sewage sludge incinerator shall be corrected for zero percent moisture by multiplying the measured total hydrocarbons...

  11. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. 172... hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the... liquid hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 93-260 °C as determined by ASTM...

  12. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided, That...

  13. Cuticular Hydrocarbons: Species and Population-Level Discrimination in Termites (United States)

    Michael I. Haverty; Marion Page; Barbara L. Thorne; Pierre Escoubas


    Hydrocarbons in the cuticle of insects are essential in protecting them from desiccation. The vast variety of hydrocarbons synthesized by insects and the apparent species-specificity of cuticular hydrocarbon mixtures make them excellent taxonomic characters for separating species within termite genera. Hydrocarbon phenotypes of dampwood termites, Zootermopsis...

  14. Petrophysics and hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic rocks in Kuwait (United States)

    Abdullah, Fowzia; Shaaban, Fouad; Khalaf, Fikry; Bahaman, Fatma; Akbar, Bibi; Al-Khamiss, Awatif


    Well logs from nine deep exploratory and development wells in Kuwaiti oil fields have been used to study petrophysical characteristics and their effect on the reservoir quality of the subsurface Paleozoic Khuff and Unayzah formations. Petrophysical log data have been calibrated with core analysis available at some intervals. The study indicates a complex lithological facies of the Khuff Formation that is composed mainly of dolomite and anhydrite interbeds with dispersed argillaceous materials and few limestone intercalations. This facies greatly lowered the formation matrix porosity and permeability index. The porosity is fully saturated with water, which is reflected by the low resistivity logs responses, except at some intervals where few hydrocarbon shows are recorded. The impermeable anhydrites, massive (low-permeability) carbonate rock and shale at the lower part of the formation combine to form intraformational seals for the clastic reservoirs of the underlying Unayzah Formation. By contrast, the log interpretation revealed clastic lithological nature of the Unayzah Formation with cycles of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and shales. The recorded argillaceous materials are mainly of disseminated habit, which control, for some extent, the matrix porosity, that ranges from 2% to 15% with water saturation ranges from 65% to 100%. Cementation, dissolution, compaction and clay mineral authigenesis are the most significant diagenetic processes affecting the reservoir quality. Calibration with the available core analysis at some intervals of the formation indicates that the siliciclastic sequence is a fluvial with more than one climatic cycle changes from humid, semi-arid to arid condition and displays the impact of both physical and chemical diagenesis. In general, the study revealed that the Unyazah Formation has a better reservoir quality than the Khuff Formation and possible gas bearing zones.

  15. Carbon deposition model for oxygen-hydrocarbon combustion. Task 6: Data analysis and formulation of an empirical model (United States)

    Makel, Darby B.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.


    The formation and deposition of carbon (soot) was studied in the Carbon Deposition Model for Oxygen-Hydrocarbon Combustion Program. An empirical, 1-D model for predicting soot formation and deposition in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generators/preburners was derived. The experimental data required to anchor the model were identified and a test program to obtain the data was defined. In support of the model development, cold flow mixing experiments using a high injection density injector were performed. The purpose of this investigation was to advance the state-of-the-art in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generator design by developing a reliable engineering model of gas generator operation. The model was formulated to account for the influences of fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, and gas generator hardware design on soot formation and deposition.

  16. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.


    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  17. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J. (Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro (United States))


    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

  18. Photocatalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolite cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    Oxidation of hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen is a key process in chemical industry. But reactions that use O{sub 2} as the primary oxidant often produce large amounts of unwanted byproducts. One major reason that selectivities are low is that the desired products (such as alcohols or carbonyls) are more easily oxidized by O{sub 2} than the parent hydrocarbon. The authors recently discovered a simple method that gives partial oxidation of small alkenes, alkanes, and alkyl-substituted benzenes by O{sub 2} at unprecedented selectivity, even at high conversion of the hydrocarbon. The approach is based on visible light-induced chemistry of hydrocarbon-O{sub 2} collisional pairs in the cages of large-pore zeolites. Reactions are conducted at ambient temperature in the absence of solvent or photosensitizer. Here the authors describe the most interesting reactions established thus far and define issues that pertain to scale-up of the method.

  19. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), anthracene in different variety of fish samples in the Bangsai river of Bangladesh. F Yeasmin, SMM Rahman, S Rana, KJ Fatema, MA Hossain ...

  20. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.


    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  1. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H


    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in

  2. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Argentine Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, M.P.R.; Keeley M.L.; Maslanyj, M.P.; Urien, C.M.; Hoggs, S.L.


    A rift basin containing stratigraphic and structural closures is developed along the Argentine slope over a distance of some 1000 km and area of 50,000 km[sup 2] in potentially exploitable water depths of 200 to 1500 m. No wells exist on this part of the continental margin. Rifting began during the Late Triassic/Jurassic and ended in Early Cretaceous. The first marine seaways flooded the Rift alluvial plains and lake. In Hauterian-Barrenian time, low circulation marine conditions with oxygen deficiency prevailed up to Rio Grande/Walvis Ridge flooding in part the coastal pull-apart basins. A major marine transgression in the Maastrichtian formed a widespread seal over the entire shelf and slope area. Four play types were identified: (1) a major north-east trending elongate delta system sourced inland from the San Julien (N. Malvinas) Basin and deposited on the southern Patagonian shelf and rise, (2) reworked deltaic barrier sands accumulated along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge, (3) The Outer Basement Ridge, a major structural closure 400 km long, and (4) a series of margin-parallel rift systems in the offshore region between the 200 m and 1500 m isobaths. Regional seismic data and geological correlations suggest that oil prone source rocks are likely in the Middle and Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous formations. Source rocks are probably mature east and west of the Outer Basement Ridge and in the easterndepocenter of the Colorado Basin. Eastward migration from Jurassic age lacustrine source rocks in the Colorado Basin may have charged traps along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge. Westward directed migration from deeply buried Aptian age marine source rocks in the Atlantic basins has probably charged prospective stratigraphic and structural traps in a suite of coast-parallel grabens developed on the Argentine continental shelf and slope. The Argentine offshore region, therefore, offers significant encouragement as a productive hydrocarbon province.

  3. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  4. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  5. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin


    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least C. and up to C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  6. Process for Photochemical Chlorination of Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Beanblossom, W S


    A process for chlorination of a major portion of the hydrogen atoms of paraffinic hydrocarbons of five or more carbon atoms may be replaced by subjecting the hydrocarbon to the action of chlorine under active light. The initial chlorination is begun at 25 to 30 deg C with the chlorine diluted with HCl. The later stages may be carried out with undiluted chlorine and the temperature gradually raised to about 129 deg C.

  7. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin


    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  8. Calculation of hydrocarbon-in-place in gas and gas-condensate reservoirs - Carbon dioxide sequestration (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.


    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2), requiring estimation of hydrocarbon-in-place volumes and formation volume factors for all the oil, gas, and gas-condensate reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins. The procedures to calculate in-place volumes for oil and gas reservoirs have already been presented by Verma and Bird (2005) to help with the USGS assessment of the undiscovered resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, but there is no straightforward procedure available for calculating in-place volumes for gas-condensate reservoirs for the carbon sequestration project. The objective of the present study is to propose a simple procedure for calculating the hydrocarbon-in-place volume of a condensate reservoir to help estimate the hydrocarbon pore volume for potential CO2 sequestration.

  9. Synergetic deoxy reforming of cellulose and fatty acid esters for liquid hydrocarbon-rich oils. (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Sui, Jingjing; Lu, Weipeng; Li, Baopeng; Li, Guoxing; Ding, Yihong; Huang, Yong; Geng, Jianxin


    A series of liquid hydrocarbons (alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and alkenes) were obtained by a synergetic deoxy reforming (SDR) process of cellulose and linoleic acid methyl ester (LAME) at 350°C and 4-6MPa in a closed system without external source of hydrogen. The liquid product was obtained with a yield of 15wt% at a LAME/cellulose ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the direct deoxy reforming of cellulose produces oil that contains plenty of phenols and oxygen-containing compounds. Due to the insufficiency of water employed (30wt%), a radical reaction pathway was proposed. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the radicals from LAME interfere with the reactions of the intermediate products from cellulose, being responsible for the removal of phenols and the formation of hydrocarbons. The SDR process offers an embryonic insight in an alternative technique for preparation of hydrocarbon fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anomalies in the stratigraphic distribution of hydrocarbons in the Irati oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, C.C.; Furtado, E.G.; Concha, F.J.M.; Cardoso, J.N.; Quadros, L.P.


    The stratigraphic functions, carbon preference index (CPI) (for n-alkanes from C/sub 18/ to C/sub 30/), light/heavy hydrocarbon ratio (for n-alkanes C/sub 15/--C/sub 22//C/sub 23/--C/sub 39/), paleotemperature and relative content of isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (C/sub 16/, C/sub 18/, C/sub 19/, and C/sub 20/) were established for a stratigraphic column of the Irati Formation (CERI-1 from Sao Mateus do Sul, Parana, Brasil). The effects of cracking of hydrocarbons and of forced (differential) migration of the products formed under the influence of a localized diabase intrusion were characterized by the behavior of these stratigraphic functions.

  11. Hydrocarbon oxidation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnatz, J.


    In this review it is described how, by suitable separation and elimination of unimportant reactions, a mechanism is developed with the aid of the present kinetic data for the elementary reactions involved. This mechanism explains, without fitting, the currently available experimental results for laminar premixed flames of alkanes, alkenes and acetylene. These experimental results are simulated by the solution of the corresponding conservation equations with suitable models describing diffusion and heat conduction in the multicomponent mixture considered. In lean and moderately rich flames the hydrocarbon is attacked by O, H, and OH in the first step. These radicals are produced by the chain-branching steps of the oxyhydrogen reaction. The alkyl radicals formed in this way always decompose to smaller alkyl radicals by fast thermal elimination of alkenes. Only the relatively slow thermal decomposition of the smallest alkyl radicals (CH/sub 3/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) competes with recombination and with oxidation reactions by O atoms and O/sub 2/. This part of the mechanism is rate-controlling in the combustion of alkanes and alkenes, and is therefore the reason for the similarity of all alkane and alkene flames.

  12. SHS-produced intermetallides as catalysts for hydrocarbons synthesis from CO and H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Kazantsev, R.V.; Davydov, P.E.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Borshch, V.N.; Pugacheva, E.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science


    Raney-type polymetallic alloys were prepared by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis followed by alkaline treating. Surface morphology and composition of were studied using XRD, BET, SEM and EMPA techniques. The samples were tested in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis demonstrated rather high activity and very high selectivity to heavy paraffins. High selectivity to C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons is attributed to high thermal conductivity of alloys which prevents hot spots formation and therefore suppresses formation of methane and light hydrocarbons. Selectivity can be further improved by adding some d-metals in catalyst composition. Promotion with La seems to be particularly suitable for lowering methane formation while doping with Ni enhances methane yield greatly. (orig.)

  13. Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of the Silurian in the Tazhong Uplift of Tarim Basin (United States)

    LÜ, Xiuxiang; BAI, Zhongkai; ZHAO, Fengyun

    Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift of Tarim basin is characterized by "two sources and three stages". "Two sources" means that the hydrocarbons are derived from two source rocks of the Cambrian and Middle-Upper Ordovician. "Three stages" means that asphalt and movable oil undergoes three hydrocarbon accumulation stages, i.e., Late Caledonian, Late Hercynian, and Yanshanian-Himalayan. The formation of asphalt resulted from the destruction of the hydrocarbons accumulated and migrated in the early stages. The present movable oil, mostly derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock, resulted from the hydrocarbons accumulated in the late stage. There are three types of reservoirs, i.e., anticline structural, stratigraphic lithological, and lava shield reservoirs in the Tazhong uplift. Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift is controlled by the three factors. (1) The background of uplift structure. Around the ancient uplift, the compounding of many types makes up the composite hydrocarbon accumulation areas. (2) Effective cover. The show of oil gas including asphalt, heavy crude oil, and normal oil is quite active in the Silurian. Asphalt and heavy crude oil are distributed under the red mudstone member and movable oil is distributed under the gray mudstone member. (3) High quality reservoir bed. Sandstone is distributed widely in the Tazhong area. Reservoir pore space can be divided into three types: a) secondary origin-primary origin pore space; b) primary origin-secondary origin pore space, and c) micropore space. Porosity is 3.3-17.4%, and permeability is (0.1-667.97) × 10 -3 μm 2.

  14. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))


    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  15. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass


    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  16. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; Geiger, Robert A.; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Davison, Brian H.


    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  17. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale. (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S


    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  18. An insect-specific P450 oxidative decarbonylase for cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis (United States)

    Qiu, Yue; Tittiger, Claus; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Young, Sharon; Wajnberg, Eric; Fricaux, Thierry; Taquet, Nathalie; Blomquist, Gary J.; Feyereisen, René


    Insects use hydrocarbons as cuticular waterproofing agents and as contact pheromones. Although their biosynthesis from fatty acyl precursors is well established, the last step of hydrocarbon biosynthesis from long-chain fatty aldehydes has remained mysterious. We show here that insects use a P450 enzyme of the CYP4G family to oxidatively produce hydrocarbons from aldehydes. Oenocyte-directed RNAi knock-down of Drosophila CYP4G1 or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in flies deficient in cuticular hydrocarbons, highly susceptible to desiccation, and with reduced viability upon adult emergence. The heterologously expressed enzyme converts C18-trideuterated octadecanal to C17-trideuterated heptadecane, showing that the insect enzyme is an oxidative decarbonylase that catalyzes the cleavage of long-chain aldehydes to hydrocarbons with the release of carbon dioxide. This process is unlike cyanobacteria that use a nonheme diiron decarbonylase to make alkanes from aldehydes with the release of formate. The unique and highly conserved insect CYP4G enzymes are a key evolutionary innovation that allowed their colonization of land. PMID:22927409

  19. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants. (United States)

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami


    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  20. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry


    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  1. Photodegradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen in water. (United States)

    Shirayama, H; Tohezo, Y; Taguchi, S


    The photodegradation rates of seven chlorinated hydrocarbons; C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2H4Cl2, 1,1,1-C2H3Cl3, 1,1,2-C2H3Cl3, CHCl3, CCl4 were investigated under the UV bandwidths of 185 and 254 nm in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water. These hydrocarbons are possible contaminants of groundwater. This study confirms that the degradation rates of all chlorinated hydrocarbons are elevated in the absence of DO. This was especially apparent for chlorinated methane and ethane. Tetrachloroethylene's rate was the highest among the seven hydrocarbons regardless of the DO levels. It was clear that the concentration of intermediate trichloroethylene produced by photodegradation of tetrachloroethylene in the absence of DO was 1/50th of that in the presence of DO. Photodegradation in the presence of DO resulted in the formation of O3 and hydroxyl radicals. Alternatively, the photodegradation in the absence of DO resulted in the formation of organic radicals and a dissociation of the bond. It is discussed that DO acts as an "inner filter" or "scavenger" that reduces the UV light intensity in the photoreactor. Molecular O2 has absorption bands at 185 and 254 nm, the former being stronger. The processes of degradation depend on the degradation rate relative to the presence and absence of DO.

  2. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.


    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  3. Photochemistry on Pluto - I. Hydrocarbons and aerosols (United States)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathleen; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Kammer, Joshua; Hue, Vincent; Hamel, Mark; Filwett, Rachael


    In light of the recent New Horizons flyby measurements, we present a coupled ion-neutral-photochemistry model developed for simulating the atmosphere of Pluto. Our model results closely match the observed density profiles of CH4, N2 and the C2 hydrocarbons in the altitude range where available New Horizons measurements are most accurate (above ∼100-200 km). We found a high eddy coefficient of 106 cm2 s-1 from the surface to an altitude of 150 km, and 3 × 106 cm2 s-1 above 150 km for Pluto's atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that C2 hydrocarbons must stick to and be removed by aerosol particles in order to reproduce the C2 profiles observed by New Horizons. Incorporation into aerosols in Pluto's atmosphere is a significantly more effective process than condensation, and we found that condensation alone cannot account for the observed shape of the vertical profiles. We empirically determined the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons to aerosol particles as a function of altitude, and found that the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons is inversely related to the aerosol surface area. Aerosols must harden and become less sticky as they age in Pluto's atmosphere. Such hardening with ageing is both necessary and sufficient to explain the vertical profiles of C2 hydrocarbons in Pluto's atmosphere. This result is in agreement with the fundamental idea of aerosols hardening as they age, as proposed for Titan's aerosols.

  4. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks. (United States)

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E


    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  5. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.


    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  6. Coliform Bacteria for Bioremediation of Waste Hydrocarbons (United States)


    Raw, domestic sewage of Kuwait City contained about 106 ml−1 colony forming units of Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae (56.6%), Klebsiella spp. (36%), and Escherichia coli (7.4%), as characterized by their 16S rRNA-gene sequences. The isolated coliforms grew successfully on a mineral medium with crude oil vapor as a sole source of carbon and energy. Those strains also grew, albeit to different degrees, on individual n-alkanes with carbon chains between C9 and C36 and on the individual aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl as sole sources of carbon and energy. These results imply that coliforms, like other hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, oxidize hydrocarbons to the corresponding alcohols and then to aldehydes and fatty acids which are biodegraded by β-oxidation to acetyl CoA. The latter is a well-known key intermediate in cell material and energy production. E. coli cells grown in the presence of n-hexadecane (but not in its absence) exhibited typical intracellular hydrocarbon inclusions, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Raw sewage samples amended with crude oil, n-hexadecane, or phenanthrene lost these hydrocarbons gradually with time. Meanwhile, the numbers of total and individual coliforms, particularly Enterobacter, increased. It was concluded that coliform bacteria in domestic sewage, probably in other environmental materials too, are effective hydrocarbon-biodegrading microorganisms. PMID:29082238

  7. Prospects for development of hydrocarbon raw materials resources reproduction (United States)

    Vertakova, Y. V.; Babich, T. N.; Polozhentseva, Y. S.; Zvyagintsev, G. L.


    The article presents data on the influence of factors in the field of innovative technology of thermocatalytic depolymerization of solid household wastes (SHW) on the efficiency and prospects for the development of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction. Process thermodynamics, reactions kinetics, the mechanism of thermolysis of secondary polymers in organic solvents have been studied by means of laboratory experiments. It is shown that different morphological groups of wastes dissolve practically at the same rate at temperatures of 250-310°C. A homogeneous product is formed in the liquid phase; the spread of values for the elements lies in the interval of 1.5-4.5 %; technological requirements of the stages of formation of boiler fuels are satisfied. Using the principles of patent analysis, new techniques of processing household waste components are proposed. The basics of energy-efficient and energy-saving processes of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction have been laid. The possibility of increasing the production payback and intensification is shown. Ecological and demographic safety for population and technical and economic benefits from SHW processing are achieved.

  8. Paleozoic Hydrocarbon-Seep Limestones (United States)

    Peckmann, J.


    To date, five Paleozoic hydrocarbon-seep limestones have been recognized based on carbonate fabrics, associated fauna, and stable carbon isotopes. These are the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound from the Antiatlas of Morocco [1], Late Devonian limestone lenses with the dimerelloid brachiopod Dzieduszyckia from the Western Meseta of Morocco [2], Middle Mississippian limestones with the dimerelloid brachiopod Ibergirhynchia from the Harz Mountains of Germany [3], Early Pennsylvanian limestones from the Tantes Mound in the High Pyrenees of France [4], and Late Pennsylvanian limestone lenses from the Ganigobis Shale Member of southern Namibia [5]. Among these examples, the composition of seepage fluids varied substantially as inferred from delta C-13 values of early diagenetic carbonate phases. Delta C-13 values as low as -50 per mil from the Tantes Mound and -51 per mil from the Ganigobis limestones reveal seepage of biogenic methane, whereas values of -12 per mil from limestones with Dzieduszyckia associated with abundant pyrobitumen agree with oil seepage. Intermediate delta C-13 values of carbonate cements from the Hollard Mound and Ibergirhynchia deposits probably reflect seepage of thermogenic methane. It is presently very difficult to assess the faunal evolution at seeps in the Paleozoic based on the limited number of examples. Two of the known seeps were typified by extremely abundant rhynchonellide brachiopods of the superfamily Dimerelloidea. Bivalve mollusks and tubeworms were abundant at two of the known Paleozoic seep sites; one was dominated by bivalve mollusks (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian), another was dominated by tubeworms (Ganigobis Shale Member, Late Pennsylvanian). The tubeworms from these two deposits are interpreted to represent vestimentiferan worms, based on studies of the taphonomy of modern vestimentiferans. However, this interpretation is in conflict with the estimated evolutionary age of vestimentiferans based on molecular clock methods

  9. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation (United States)

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.


    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  10. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.


    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  11. High Temperature Chemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Lawrence T. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Merkert Chemistry Center, Dept. of Chemistry


    The primary goal of this research was to uncover the principal reaction channels available to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperatures in the gas phase and to establish the factors that determine which channels will be followed in varying circumstances. New structure-property relationships for PAHs were also studied. The efficient production of clean energy from fossil fuels will remain a major component of the DOE mission until alternative sources of energy eventually displace coal and petroleum. Hydrocarbons constitute the most basic class of compounds in all of organic chemistry, and as the dominant species in fossil fuels, they figure prominently into the programs of the DOE. Much is already known about the normal chemistry of hydrocarbons under ambient conditions, but far less is known about their intrinsic chemistry at temperatures close to those reached during combustion. An understanding of the fundamental molecular transformations, rearrangements, and interconversions of PAHs at high temperatures in the gas phase, as revealed by careful studies on small, well-designed, molecular systems, provides insights into the underlying chemistry of many important processes that are more complex, such as the generation of energy by the combustion of fossil fuels, the uncatalyzed gasification and liquefaction of coal, the production of fullerenes in fuel-rich flames, and the formation of soot and carcinogenic pollutants in smoke (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). The rational control of any of these processes, whether it be the optimization of a desirable process or the minimization of an undesirable one, requires a clear knowledge of the basic chemistry that governs the fate of the species involved. Advances in chemistry at the most fundamental level come about primarily from the discovery of new reactions and from new insights into how reactions occur. Harnessing that knowledge is the key to new technologies. The recent commercialization of a combustion

  12. Supported metal nanoparticles for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (United States)

    Schrick, Bettina

    Zero valent iron filings are currently being used in pilot scale field studies to dehalogenate toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons from contaminated surface- and groundwater. Iron filings reduce trichloroethylene (TCE), a model contaminant, via two interconnected degradation pathways: (a) reductive beta-elimination and (b) sequential hydrogenolysis, in which each chlorine atom is sequentially replaced by hydrogen. For the latter pathway, problems arise because the dehalogenation rate decreases as the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule decreases. Therefore, some of the products formed, such as vinyl chloride (VC), are more toxic than the parent compound (TCE), and are only slowly reduced by iron. To improve the rate, cost and technique of remediation for chlorinated hydrocarbons, zero valent nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoparticles have been developed. To elucidate the dehalogenation reaction and particularly the product distributions from a mechanistic standpoint, the roles that nickel and iron play in the dehalogenation of TCE were studied. On the bimetallic particles, the reaction occurs by nickel-catalyzed hydrodechlorination. As the iron actively corrodes, the cathodically protected nickel surface chemisorbs hydrogen ions, and TCE adsorbed to the Ni surface is thus hydrogenated. This reaction competes kinetically with the evolution of molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenolysis of the C-Cl bond results in the formation of linear, as well as branched saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Dispersing the nanometals onto high surface area supports, such as hydrophilic carbon or polyacrylic acid (PAA), provides a delivery vehicle for the reactive nanoparticles. The support acts as a nanometal carrier, and may also help preconcentrate the toxins, and provide a conductive pathway for electron transfer. In general, supports are expected to stabilize the nanoparticles and give an increased surface to volume ratio. The carbon- and PAA-supported nanometals form a permanent suspension

  13. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee


    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  14. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Based Polymer Etch (United States)

    Lane, Barton; Ventzek, Peter; Matsukuma, Masaaki; Suzuki, Ayuta; Koshiishi, Akira


    Dry etch of hydrocarbon based polymers is important for semiconductor device manufacturing. The etch mechanisms for oxygen rich plasma etch of hydrocarbon based polymers has been studied but the mechanism for lean chemistries has received little attention. We report on an experimental and analytic study of the mechanism for etching of a hydrocarbon based polymer using an Ar/O2 chemistry in a single frequency 13.56 MHz test bed. The experimental study employs an analysis of transients from sequential oxidation and Ar sputtering steps using OES and surface analytics to constrain conceptual models for the etch mechanism. The conceptual model is consistent with observations from MD studies and surface analysis performed by Vegh et al. and Oehrlein et al. and other similar studies. Parameters of the model are fit using published data and the experimentally observed time scales.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin


    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  16. ambient volatile organic compounds pollution and ozone formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 1, 2013 ... formation in urban Hong kong where the reactivity of. VOC was dominated by anthropogenic sources. The fact that undecene and 22-dimethylbutane, aliphatic group and heavy hydrocarbon were ranked among the highest contributions to ozone formation in our study suggested that pollutants associated ...

  17. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul


    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  18. Prediction of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins (United States)

    Harff, J.E.; Davis, J.C.; Eiserbeck, W.


    To estimate the undiscovered hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary basins, quantitative play assessments specific for each location in a region may be obtained using geostatistical methods combined with the theory of classification of geological objects, a methodology referred to as regionalization. The technique relies on process modeling and measured borehole data as well as probabilistic methods to exploit the relationship between geology (the "predictor") and known hydrocarbon productivity (the "target") to define prospective stratigraphic intervals within a basin. It is demonstrated in case studies from the oil-producing region of the western Kansas Pennsylvanian Shelf and the gas-bearing Rotliegend sediments of the Northeast German Basin. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray


    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  20. Activation of hydrocarbons and the octane number (United States)

    Peschard, Marcel


    This report presents an examination of the history of research on engine knocking and the various types of fuels used in the investigations of this phenomenon. According to this report, the spontaneous ignition of hydrocarbons doped with oxygen follows the logarithmic law within a certain temperature range, but not above 920 degrees K. Having extended the scope of investigations to prove hydrocarbons, the curves of the mixtures burned by air should then be established by progressive replacement of pure iso-octane with heptane. Pentane was also examined in this report.

  1. Hydrocarbonization of coal in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Miller, C.L.


    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple method of producing oil, substitute natural gas, and devolatilized char from coal. Oil and gas yields have been determined for hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.10-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 850 K. Subbituminous coal and bituminous coal that was pretreated with CaO, NaOH, and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to eliminate agglomeration was used. Oil yields up to 21% (based on moisture- and ash-free coal) were achieved. Data on the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  2. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment. (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz


    naphthalene), W-cofactor-containing enzymes for reductive dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA (class II benzoyl-CoA reductase) in obligate anaerobes and addition of water to acetylene, fermentative formation of cyclohexanecarboxylate from benzoate, and methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee. (United States)

    Jimenez, Angelica; Adisa, Afolabi; Woodham, Cara; Saleh, Mahmoud


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g(-1) for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g(-1) for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g(-1) for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g(-1) for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.

  4. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.B.


    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  5. Carbon in condensed hydrocarbon phases, steels and cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAFAROVA Victoria Alexandrovna


    Full Text Available The article presents a review of studies carried out mainly by the researchers of the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, which are aimed at detection of new properties of carbon in such condensed media as petroleum and coal pitches, steels and cast irons. Carbon plays an important role in the industry of construction materials being a component of road and roof bitumen and setting the main mechanical properties of steels. It was determined that crystal-like structures appear in classical glass-like substances – pitches which contain several thousands of individual hydrocarbons of various compositions. That significantly extends the concept of crystallinity. In structures of pitches, the control parameter of the staged structuring process is paramagnetism of condensed aromatic hydrocarbons. Fullerenes were detected in steels and cast irons and identified by various methods of spectrometry and microscopy. Fullerene С60, which contains 60 carbon atoms, has diameter of 0,7 nm and is referred to the nanoscale objects, which have a significant influence on the formation of steel and cast iron properties. It was shown that fullerenes appear at all stages of manufacture of cast irons; they are formed during introduction of carbon from the outside, during crystallization of metal in welded joints. Creation of modified fullerene layers in steels makes it possible to improve anticorrosion and tribological properties of structural materials. At the same time, outside diffusion of carbon from the carbon deposits on the metal surface also leads to formation of additional amount of fullerenes. This creates conditions for occurrence of local microdistortions of the structure, which lead to occurrence of cracks. Distribution of fullerenes in iron matrix is difficult to study as the method is labor-intensive, it requires dissolution of the matrix in the hydrofluoric acid and stage fullerene separation with further identification by spectral methods.

  6. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)


    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  7. Exo-PlanetarY high-Temperature Hydrocarbons by Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy (the e-PYTHEAS project) (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Boudon, V.; Campargue, A.; Georges, R.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.


    The e-PYTHEAS is a multidisciplinary project which combines theoretical and experimental work about radiative properties of small hydrocarbon molecules at high temperature with exoplanet modelling applications. This will help to analyse data concerning hot Jupiter type exoplanets and address essential questions on the formation and evolution of planetary systems.

  8. Fast co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene for high yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan


    Waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to enhance the yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. The effects of WP: HDPE feed ratio (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) and temperature (500-800°C) on products distribution were investigated and the interaction mechanism during co-pyrolysis was also proposed. Maximum yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons reached 85.88% (feed ratio 50:50wt.%, 600°C). Hydrogen supplements and deoxidation by HDPE and subsequently fragments recombination result in the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into branched hydrocarbons. Radicals from WP degradation favor the secondary crack for HDPE products resulting in the formation of linear hydrocarbons with low carbon number. Hydrocarbons with activated radical site from HDPE degradation were interacted with hydroxyl from WP degradation promoting the formation of linear long chain alcohols. Moreover, co-pyrolysis significantly enhanced condensable oil qualities, which were close to commercial diesel No. 0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on ozone generation with dielectric barrier discharges (United States)

    Lopez, Jose L.; Vezzu, Guido; Freilich, Alfred; Paolini, Bernhard


    The increasing usage of the feed gases of lower grade liquid oxygen (LOX) containing higher levels of trace hydrocarbon impurities in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for ozone generation requires a better understanding of the kinetics of the by-product formation resulting from reactions involving these hydrocarbon impurities. As a case study of hydrocarbon impurities, the kinetics of CH4 conversion in DBDs and the subsequent HNO3 formation were investigated by means of gas-phase plasma diagnostics, supported by detailed process modeling, and extensive in-situ and ex-situ by-product analysis. The by-products formation in the plasma with the presence of CH4, were found to differ significantly in oxygen-fed generators as compared to generators fed with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The amount of HNO3 formed depends on the concentration of NOx formed in the plasma and the amount of CH4 that is converted, but not on the O3 concentration. In the present work we have investigated CH4 concentrations of up to 1.95 wt% of the feed gas. The rate of deterioration of the overall ozone generator performance was found to be affected by the concentration of nitrogen in the oxygen/nitrogen mixture.

  10. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use in...

  12. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons complying with § 172.884(a) and (b) of this chapter may be safely used in an amount not in excess...

  13. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 52.777 - Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (United States)


    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.777 Section 52.777 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter... for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region by May 31...

  15. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  16. Selection of ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Podt, J.G.; de Haan, A.B.


    The separation of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) from C4 to C10 aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures is challenging since these hydrocarbons have boiling points in a close range and several combinations form azeotropes. In this work, we investigated the separation of

  17. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 86.521-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.521-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibration. The...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1221-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations. (a) Initial and periodic...

  1. 40 CFR 86.331-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86....331-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The following steps are followed in sequence to calibrate the hydrocarbon analyzer. It is suggested, but not required, that efforts be made to minimize relative response...

  2. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to a...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  4. Trace Metals and Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    knowledge of this hydrocarbon and non hydrocarbon contents and their behaviour when discharged on shore is very useful in the decontamination and effective management of the affected environment. (Osuji and. Achugasim, 2007). An important group of the hydrocarbon content of crude oil is the Benzene Toluene.

  5. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  6. Associated petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals of an oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of 1.13×105±2.91 ×104 mg/kg of the affected soil revealed a high level of petroleum hydrocarbon ... aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with naphthalene which may actually be oxidized before many saturates which are the most prone to biodegradation and attenuation, while

  7. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence analysis revealed the presence of distinct known hydrocarbon degrading bacteria like Acinetobacter radioresistens strain Philippines-11, Alcaligenes sp. PAH- 43, Bacillus sp. UR2, Bacillus subtilis strain B7, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H221, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H156, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H231, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H84, ...

  8. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  9. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. In this study, two bacterial strains were isolated from a contaminated soil of a refinery of Arzew (Oran). The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P3) and Pseudomonas fluoresens (P4).

  10. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 13, 2014 ... Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from Pleurotus ostreatus in agricultural soils. A. Mauricio-Gutiérrez1, T. Jiménez-Salgado2, A. Tapia-Hernández2, J. Cavazos-Arroyo1 and. B. Pérez-Armendáriz1*. 1Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting, Autonomus Popular University of State ...

  11. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 18, 2010 ... de hidrocarburos en el suelo de playas de presa agua de mina. Texistepec, Veracruz. Tesis de Licenciatura. División Académica de. Ciencias Biológicas. Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. p. 51. Atlas RM (1986). Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the environment,. In: Enviromental biotechnology ...

  12. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ter and its facies are considered very important while evaluating source rock potential. These types of organic matter must be identified and distin- guished, for different types of organic matter have different hydrocarbon potentials and products. The dispersed organic matter is classified in to various categories depending on ...

  13. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)


    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  14. Accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon waste. (United States)

    Ward, Owen; Singh, Ajay; Van Hamme, J


    Conventional landfarming approaches to bioremediation of refinery and other petroleum sludges are not acceptable environmentally and are banned in most North American jurisdictions. While initial bioreactor-based systems for treatment of these sludges required batch-cycle process-times of 1-3 months, an accelerated process has now been developed which can be completed in 10-12 days. In this process, up to 99% of total petroleum hydrocarbons are degraded and the sludges are converted from hazardous to non-hazardous according to the United States EPA's toxicity characteristic leachate procedure criteria. Understanding and exploiting mechanisms to improve hydrocarbon accession to the degrading microorganisms was a key development component of the process. Contrasting physiological mechanisms were observed for different component organisms of the mixed culture with respect to their associations with the hydrocarbon substrate; and the beneficial effects of using surfactants were demonstrated. The mixed culture used in the process exhibited a capacity for high-rate degradation of volatile organic carbons and the potential use of the culture as a liquid biofilter was demonstrated. The culture was also effective as an inoculant for the bioaugmentation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and as a de-emulsifier of oilfield emulsions and could transform some other environmental contaminants which are not predominant components of crude oil.

  15. Predicting the Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prediction of biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a mixture of naphthalene; anthracene and pyrene in a continuously stirred tank reactor by an artificial neural network. Artificial neural networks are relatively crude electronic networks of "neurons" whose operations are based ...

  16. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability of freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability and growth profile of indigenous filamentous freshwater fungi from four (4) different streams were determined in vitro. The result indicated that the streams under investigation contained an average heterotrophic fungal count of 5.55 0.25x105 cfu ml-1 while the mean count of ...

  18. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The irrepressible quest for a cheap source of energy to meet the extensive global industrialization demand has expanded the frontiers of petroleum hydrocarbon exploration. These exploration activities amongst others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic ...

  19. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio ...

  20. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  1. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 5. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. Reza Tayebee. Volume 118 Issue 5 September 2006 pp 429-433 ...

  2. Superlattice configurations in linear chain hydrocarbon binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monoclinic, monoclinic-monoclinic) are realizable, because of discrete orientational changes in the alignment of molecules of -C28H58 hydrocarbon, through an angle , where = 1, 2, 3 … and angle has an average value of 3.3°.

  3. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory studies were carried out to assess the bacterial population dynamics and distribution in composite soil samples collected from five (5) different automobile workshops at various locations (Ikpa road, Nwaniba road, Udi street, Idakokpo lane and Mechanic village) within Uyo metropolis. The hydrocarbon utilizing ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil and implies ... biodegradation. Obahiagbon and Erhabor [4] compared with the effectiveness of treating refinery wastewater with pseudomonas and that of using Fusarium, and found the latter ... the study were to determine the effects.

  5. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy. Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. *1. IWUOHA, G;. 1. ORUBITE, O;. 1. OKITE I. 1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Port Harcourt. ABSTRACT: This article is focused ...

  6. A method for isolating aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, N.F.; Feofilov, Ye.Ye.; Nesterchuk, G.T.; Yablochkina, M.N.; Yakushkin, M.I.


    A method is proposed for separating aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU) from their mixtures with nonaromatic through extraction using cyanethylated semiformals of methyl alcohol with additives of polar substances, for instance, water or glycol in a volume of up to 20 percent at a temperature from -15 to +30 degrees.

  7. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles. (United States)

    Botella-Cruz, María; Villastrigo, Adrián; Pallarés, Susana; López-Gallego, Elena; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa


    Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae), using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae) compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae). Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  8. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.


    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and crabs in the mangrove ecosystems of Zanzibar. Sediments and crabs from eight sampling sites were analysed for eleven selected PAHs. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication, ...

  10. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo


    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  11. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    can be degraded by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria and microalgae. However, bacteria are the most active agents in petroleum degradation, and they .... them use the hydrocarbons as substrates (Thenmozhi et al., 2012). These findings have revealed that there is an appreciable population of active ...

  12. 6 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and.

  13. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  14. Biosurfactant-enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude biosurfactant extract produced by two microbial isolates, Pseudomonas mallei and Pseudomonas pseudomallei were used to enhance the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in a mangrove swamp in Nigeria. Nutrient application in combination with biosurfactants showed very significant ...

  15. Controlling Hydrocarbon Emissions from Tank Vessel Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... of Hydrocarbon Vapors from Ships and Barges Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks Page inserted. accidentally typesetting been have may original the from errors not the retained, typographic book, paper some orig...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Jan; Poolman, Bert; de Bont, J.A.M.

    Microbial transformations of cyclic hydrocarbons have received much attention during the past three decades. Interest in the degradation of environmental pollutants as well as in applications of microorganisms in the catalysis of chemical reactions has stimulated research in this nl ea. The

  17. The sulfurous compounds consisting of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.В. Медвєдєва


    Full Text Available  The sulfurous compounds have been studied and their negative influence on operation properties of the oil and products of its processing have been described. Basic methods of definition of the hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans in the hydrocarbon fuels have been shown.

  18. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  19. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of sunlight on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of Agbabu natural bitumen in Nigeria was investigated. The raw flow type of the bitumen was purified and exposed to sunlight for six consecutive months. Different portions of the bitumen were withdrawn at an interval of one month and were ...

  20. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich


    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  1. Prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recalcitrant pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are difficult to degrade and have been the focus for biodegradation. They form a class of pollutant on a global scale. In an attempt to contribute to the search for suitable microbial culture with potential to biodegrade low and high molecular weight PAHs ...

  2. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil production activities take place were analyzed for the presence of 16 US EPA priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) namely: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, ...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase enzyme was produced from an isolate of the white rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum Chaaim-001 BCU. The enzyme was subsequently evaluated for its degradative ability towards sixteen types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The G. lucidum laccase degraded antracene completely with or without a ...

  4. Measurements of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was designed to examine the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soot deposited at the Mariannhill toll plaza situated on the N3 highway in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected from the toll plaza either by scraping the toll booth walls and surrounding areas, or by wiping ...


    A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the formation of polyketones in secondary organic aerosol from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene, a major constituent of automobile exhaust. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene...

  6. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region - II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons (United States)

    Barrick, Robert C.; Hedges, John I.


    Cyclic components of the 'aliphatic' hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C 19 and C 20 diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite. sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C 27, C 28 and C 29 diasteranes and four C 29, C 30 and C 31 17α(H), 21β(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes. along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C 30 polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C 25 diene and to C 20 and C 25 acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper ( BARRICK et al., 1980).

  7. On the Radiolysis of Ethylene Ices by Energetic Electrons and Implications to the Extraterrestrial Hydrocarbon Chemistry (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Maity, Surajit; Abplanalp, Matt; Turner, Andrew; Kaiser, Ralf I.


    The chemical processing of ethylene ices (C2H4) by energetic electrons was investigated at 11 K to simulate the energy transfer processes and synthesis of new molecules induced by secondary electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic ray particles. A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (solid state) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (gas phase) resulted in the identification of six hydrocarbon molecules: methane (CH4), the C2 species acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), the ethyl radical (C2H5), and—for the very first time in ethylene irradiation experiments—the C4 hydrocarbons 1-butene (C4H8) and n-butane (C4H10). By tracing the temporal evolution of the newly formed molecules spectroscopically online and in situ, we were also able to fit the kinetic profiles with a system of coupled differential equations, eventually providing mechanistic information, reaction pathways, and rate constants on the radiolysis of ethylene ices and the inherent formation of smaller (C1) and more complex (C2, C4) hydrocarbons involving carbon-hydrogen bond ruptures, atomic hydrogen addition processes, and radical-radical recombination pathways. We also discuss the implications of these results on the hydrocarbon chemistry on Titan's surface and on ice-coated, methane-bearing interstellar grains as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1.

  8. Final technical report for the Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (an EFRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    Greater than 95% of all materials produced by the chemical industry are derived from a small slate of simple hydrocarbons that are derived primarily from natural gas and petroleum, predominantly through oxygenation, C–C bond formation, halogenation or amination. Yet, current technologies for hydrocarbon conversion are typically high temperature, multi-step processes that are energy and capital intensive and result in excessive emissions (including carbon dioxide). The Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (CCHF) brought together research teams with the broad coalition of skills and knowledge needed to make the fundamental advances in catalysis required for next-generation technologies to convert hydrocarbons (particularly light alkanes and methane) at high efficiency and low cost. Our new catalyst technologies offer many opportunities including enhanced utilization of natural gas in the transportation sector (via conversion to liquid fuels), more efficient generation of electricity from natural gas using direct methane fuel cells, reduced energy consumption and waste production for large petrochemical processes, and the preparation of high value molecules for use in biological/medical applications or the agricultural sector. The five year collaborative project accelerated fundamental understanding of catalyst design for the conversion of C–H bonds to functionalized products, essential to achieve the goals listed above, as evidenced by the publication of 134 manuscripts. Many of these fundamental advancements provide a foundation for potential commercialization, as evidenced by the submission of 11 patents from research support by the CCHF.

  9. Active Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Accumulation in a Green Alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race A) (United States)

    Hirose, Mana; Mukaida, Fukiko; Okada, Sigeru


    Among oleaginous microalgae, the colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii accumulates especially large quantities of hydrocarbons. This accumulation may be achieved more by storage of lipids in the extracellular space rather than in the cytoplasm, as is the case for all other examined oleaginous microalgae. The stage of hydrocarbon synthesis during the cell cycle was determined by autoradiography. The cell cycle of B. braunii race A was synchronized by aminouracil treatment, and cells were taken at various stages in the cell cycle and cultured in a medium containing [14C]acetate. Incorporation of 14C into hydrocarbons was detected. The highest labeling occurred just after septum formation, when it was about 2.6 times the rate during interphase. Fluorescent and electron microscopy revealed that new lipid accumulation on the cell surface occurred during at least two different growth stages and sites of cells. Lipid bodies in the cytoplasm were not prominent in interphase cells. These lipid bodies then increased in number, size, and inclusions, reaching maximum values just before the first lipid accumulation on the cell surface at the cell apex. Most of them disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the second new accumulation at the basolateral region, where extracellular lipids continuously accumulated. The rough endoplasmic reticulum near the plasma membrane is prominent in B. braunii, and the endoplasmic reticulum was often in contact with both a chloroplast and lipid bodies in cells with increasing numbers of lipid bodies. We discuss the transport pathway of precursors of extracellular hydrocarbons in race A. PMID:23794509

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria. (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi


    Hydrocarbons are relatively recalcitrant compounds and are classified as high-priority pollutants. However, these compounds are slowly degraded by a large variety of microorganisms. Bacteria are able to degrade aliphatic saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons via both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Branched hydrocarbons and cyclic hydrocarbons are also degraded by bacteria. The aerobic bacteria use different types of oxygenases, including monooxygenase, cytochrome-dependent oxygenase and dioxygenase, to insert one or two atoms of oxygen into their targets. Anaerobic bacteria, on the other hand, employ a variety of simple organic and inorganic molecules, including sulphate, nitrate, carbonate and metals, for hydrocarbon oxidation.

  11. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J


    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  12. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants. (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A


    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  13. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C


    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  14. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.


    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j


    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  16. Ballistic Diffusion in Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons on Graphite. (United States)

    Calvo-Almazán, Irene; Sacchi, Marco; Tamtögl, Anton; Bahn, Emanuel; Koza, Marek M; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Fouquet, Peter


    This work presents an experimental picture of molecular ballistic diffusion on a surface, a process that is difficult to pinpoint because it generally occurs on very short length scales. By combining neutron time-of-flight data with molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations, we provide a complete description of the ballistic translations and rotations of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite. Pyrene, C16H10, adsorbed on graphite is a unique system, where at relative surface coverages of about 10-20% its mean free path matches the experimentally accessible time/space scale of neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy (IN6 at the Institut Laue-Langevin). The comparison between the diffusive behavior of large and small PAHs such as pyrene and benzene adsorbed on graphite brings a strong experimental indication that the interaction between molecules is the dominating mechanism in the surface diffusion of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on graphite.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež


    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  18. Geothermal and Hydrocarbon Regimes, Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Paul H.


    Geothermal heat flow in the Gulf basin is primarily a function of its hydrology. Water expelled from sediments with deepening burial and increasing overburden load escapes upward and toward the basin margin. Where it moves freely in the hydropressure zone, the basin is relatively cool; but where rapid sedimentation and contemporaneous faulting have retarded water loss from compacting sediments, the interstitial fluid pressure reflects a part of the overburden load, and the formation waters are superheated and geopressured. The geopressured zone is common below depths of about 3 km (9,600 ft) in the basin, beneath an area of 375,000 km{sup 2} (150,000 mi{sup 2}), and extends downward perhaps 15 km (50,000 ft) to the base of Cenozoic deposits. The upper boundary of the geopressured zone is the most important physical interface in the basin. Across it the head of formation water increases downward from a few hundred to several thousand feet above sea level; the geothermal gradient increases downward from 20° to 40° C/km to 100°C/km or more; the salinity of formation water decreases downward, commonly by 50,000 mg/l or more; and the porosity of shale and sand increases downward by 10 to 25 percent. Petroleum matures in geopressured clay at 140° to 220°F. Montmorillonite is dehydrated at 180° to 250°F; fresh water released may equal half the volume of the mineral altered. Molecular solubility in fresh water of the hydrocarbons in Gulf basin crude, under geopressured zone conditions, could account for petroleum resources of the basin. Exsolution of petroleum hydrocarbons near the geopressured zone boundary could account for observed occurrences. This geopressured zone is a natural pressure vessel from which superheated water of moderate salinity could be produced through wells, each yielding millions of gallons a day at pressures of several thousand pounds per square inch, and temperatures above 300°F. with considerable amounts of methane gas in solution. (63

  19. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.


    Sarsfield, N.F.


    This patent relates to improvements in the production of fluorine- containing hydrocarbon derivatives. The process for increasing the degree of fluorination of a fluorochlorohydrocarbon comprises subjecting a highly fluorinated fluorochlorohydrocarbon to the action of a dehydrochlorinating agent, and treating the resulting unsaturated body with fluorine, cobalt trifluoride, or silver difluoride. A number of reagents are known as dehydrochlorinaling agents, including, for example, the caustic alkalies, either in an anhydrous condition or dissolved in water or a lower aliphatic alcohol.

  2. Review of current results in computational studies of hydrocarbon phase and transport properties in nanoporous structures (United States)

    Stroev, N.; Myasnikov, A.


    This article provides a general overview of the main simulation results on the behavior of gas/liquids under confinement conditions, namely hydrocarbons in shale formations, and current understanding of such phenomena. In addition to the key effects, which different research groups obtained and which have to be taken into account during the creation of reservoir simulation software, a list of methods is briefly covered. Comprehensive understanding of both fluid phase equilibrium and transport properties in nanoscale structures is of great importance for many scientific and technical disciplines, especially for petroleum engineering considering the hydrocarbon behavior in complex shale formations, the development of which increases with time. Recent estimations show that a significant amount of resources are trapped inside organic matter and clays, which has extremely low permeability and yet great economic potential. The issue is not only of practical importance, as the existing conventional approaches by definition are unable to capture complicated physics phenomena for effective results, but it is also of fundamental value. The research of the processes connected with such deposits is necessary for both evaluations of petroleum reservoir deposits and hydrodynamic simulators. That is why the review is divided into two major parts—equilibrium states of hydrocarbons and their transport properties in highly confined conditions.

  3. Tailoring Colors by O Annulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Miletić, Tanja; Fermi, Andrea; Orfanos, Ioannis; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; De Leo, Federica; Demitri, Nicola; Bergamini, Giacomo; Ceroni, Paola; Papadopoulos, Manthos G; Couris, Stelios; Bonifazi, Davide


    The synthesis of O-doped polyaromatic hydro- carbons in which two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sub units are bridged through one or two O atoms has been achieved. This includes high-yield ring-closure key steps that, depending on the reaction conditions, result in the formation of furanyl or pyranopyranyl linkages through intramolecular C-O bond formation. Comprehensive photophysical measurements in solution showed that these compounds have exceptionally high emission yields and tunable absorption properties throughout the UV/Vis spectral region. Electrochemical investigations showed that in all cases O annulation increases the electron-donor capabilities by raising the HOMO energy level, whereas the LUMO energy level is less affected. Moreover, third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) measurements on solutions or thin films containing the dyes showed very good values of the second hyperpolarizability. Importantly, poly(methyl methacrylate) films containing the pyranopyranyl derivatives exhibited weak linear absorption and NLO absorption compared to the nonlinearity and NLO refraction, respectively, and thus revealed them to be exceptional organic materials for photonic devices. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on hydrocarbon processing mixing and scale-up problems. [Fuels processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J. D. [ed.


    A workshop was convened by the Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization of the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Particulate and Multiphase Process Program of the National Science Foundation to identify needs for fundamental engineering support for the design of chemical reactors for processing heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The problems associated with dispersing liquid hydrocarbons in a reacting gas and mixing within the gas phase are of primary concern. The transactions of the workshop begin with an introduction to the immediate goals of the Department of Energy. Fuel cell systems and current research and development are reviewed. Modeling of combustion and the problems of soot formation and deposits in hydrocarbon fuels are next considered. The fluid mechanics of turbulent mixing and its effect on chemical reactions are then presented. Current experimental work and process development provide an update on the present state-of-the-art.

  5. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.


    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals,

  6. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.


    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  7. Hydrocarbon distribution in the Irati shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, J.C.; Schmal, M.; Cardoso, J.N. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    This work reports a detailed characterization of the various hydrocarbon structures present in a sample of the Irati shale oil (Sao Mateus do Sul, Parana), obtained by the Petrosix Process, by means of a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (g.c.-m.s.), co-injection with authentic standards, and retention time data of model compounds. Hydrocarbon structures, the main constituents of the shale oil ({approximately} 38 wt%), include: linear, branched and isoprenoidal alkanes, linear and isoprenoidal alkenes, alkycyclopentanes and cyclohexanes, alkylcycloalkenes, hopanes, hopenes and steranes. Linear structures are dominant (43% of the total hydrocarbons), followed by isoprenoidal skeletons. Saturated compounds strongly predominate over their unsaturated counterparts. The use of several maturity parameters attested to the immaturity of the sediment. Data further suggested a predominant algal/microbial origin and a basic lacustrine depositional environment to the Irati shale, probably under a moderate oxidative condition, thus confirming previous conclusions obtained via analysis of the Irati bitumen and the shale rock. Additionally, the data confirmed the usual classification of this shale as containing Type-II kerogen. 34 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.


    molecular weight hydrocarbons and the production of methane-rich ("dry") natural gas. Evaluation of aqueous reaction products generated during the experiments within a thermodynamic framework indicates that alkane-alkene, alkene-ketone, and alkene-alcohol reactions attained metastable thermodynamic equilibrium states. This equilibrium included water and iron-bearing minerals, demonstrating the direct involvement of inorganic species as reactants during organic transformations. The high reactivity of water and iron-bearing minerals suggests that they represent abundant sources of hydrogen and oxygen available for the formation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated alteration products. Thus, variations in elemental kerogen composition may not accurately reflect the timing and extent of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and organic acid generation in sedimentary basins. This study demonstrates that the stabilities of aqueous hydrocarbons are strongly influenced by inorganic sediment composition at elevated temperatures. Incorporation of such interactions into geochemical models will greatly improve prediction of the occurrence of hydrocarbons in natural environments over geologic time.

  9. Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects. (United States)

    Schwander, Tanja; Arbuthnott, Devin; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Nosil, Patrik; Crespi, Bernard J


    Individuals commonly prefer certain trait values over others when choosing their mates. If such preferences diverge between populations, they can generate behavioral reproductive isolation and thereby contribute to speciation. Reproductive isolation in insects often involves chemical communication, and cuticular hydrocarbons, in particular, serve as mate recognition signals in many species. We combined data on female cuticular hydrocarbons, interspecific mating propensity, and phylogenetics to evaluate the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in diversification of Timema walking-sticks. Hydrocarbon profiles differed substantially among the nine analyzed species, as well as between partially reproductively-isolated T. cristinae populations adapted to different host plants. In no-choice trials, mating was more likely between species with similar than divergent hydrocarbon profiles, even after correcting for genetic divergences. The macroevolution of hydrocarbon profiles, along a Timema species phylogeny, fits best with a punctuated model of phenotypic change concentrated around speciation events, consistent with change driven by selection during the evolution of reproductive isolation. Altogether, our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles vary among Timema species and populations, and that most evolutionary change in hydrocarbon profiles occurs in association with speciation events. Similarities in hydrocarbon profiles between species are correlated with interspecific mating propensities, suggesting a role for cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in mate choice and speciation in the genus Timema.

  10. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils. (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L


    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.


    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data

  12. Hydrocarbons in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Alto Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Fundacao Univ. do Amazonas, Manaus (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Kerkis, Alexei; Hidalgo, Renata L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia Sedimentar; Riccomini, Claudio; Fairchild, Thomas R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    Full text of publication follows: A singular occurrence of hydrocarbons (bitumen) was found in Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks of the Araras Formation (Alto Paraguay basin) in the Terconi quarry (Mirassol d'Oeste, Mato Grosso, Brazil). The bitumen occurs in a transgressive carbonate succession overlying Varanger tillites, that consists of two facies associations: (1) lagoon complex, with pink parallel-laminated dolomicrites and fenestral stromatolitic biostromite, and (2) tidal-flat complex, represented by terrigenous gray micrites and pseudosparites, with parallel lamination, asymmetric ripple marks, tepee breccia, planar stromatolites and evaporites. When fresh, the bitumen is compact and vitreous, filling fractures, stylolites and dissolution cavities, generally associated with calcite cement and euhedral dolomite crystals. Microscopic examination shows the bitumen filling pores of primary (fenestral) and secondary (moldic and intragranular) origins. As the first record of hydrocarbon in Neoproterozoic rocks of the Paraguay Belt, this occurrence opens a new perspective for the evaluation of oil potential in Precambrian rocks of Central Brazil. (author)

  13. Hydrogen production by reforming of hydrocarbons and alcohols in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, Belen; Brey, J. Javier; Viera, Inmaculada G. [Hynergreen Technologies, S.A. Avda. de la Buhaira, 2. 41018 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Cotrino, Jose; Rico, Victor J. [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University Sevilla), Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)


    This work reports about the use of plasmas to obtain hydrogen by reforming of hydrocarbons or alcohols in mixtures with CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O. The plasma is activated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor working at atmospheric pressure and low temperatures (i.e., about 100 C). The reactor presents a great versatility in operation and a low manufacturing cost. Results are presented for the reforming of methane, methanol and ethanol. Methane transforms up to a 70% into CO and H{sub 2} without formation of any kind of superior hydrocarbon. For the two alcohols 100% conversion into the same products is found for flows much higher than in the case of methane. The work reports a description of the reactor and the operational conditions of the power supply enabling the ignition of the plasma and its steady state operation. (author)

  14. Chemical Aspects of Astrophysically Observed Extraterrestrial Methanol, Hydrocarbon Derivatives, and Ions. (United States)

    Olah, George A; Mathew, Thomas; Prakash, G K Surya; Rasul, Golam


    Astrophysically observed extraterrestrial molecular matter contains, besides hydrogen and water, methane and methanol as the most abundant species. Feasible pathways and chemical aspects of their formation as well as of derived hydrocarbon homologues and their ions (carbocations and carbanions) are discussed on the basis of observed similarities with our studied terrestrial chemistry. The preferred pathway for converting extraterrestrial methane according to Ali et al. is based on CH5(+) and Olah's related nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry. On the basis of the observed higher reactivity of methanol compared with methane in various chemical reactions, a feasible new pathway is proposed for the conversion of extraterrestrial methanol to hydrocarbons, their derivatives, and carbocations together with a possible connection with methonium ion-based chemistry.

  15. The MrCYP52 Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenase Gene of Metarhizium robertsii Is Important for Utilizing Insect Epicuticular Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Lin, Liangcai; Fang, Weiguo; Liao, Xinggang; Wang, Fengqing; Wei, Dongzhi; St. Leger, Raymond J.


    Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52) gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10), extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures). Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella) confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes. PMID:22194968

  16. The MrCYP52 cytochrome P450 monoxygenase gene of Metarhizium robertsii is important for utilizing insect epicuticular hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcai Lin

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52 gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10, extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures. Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes.

  17. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Curved Surfaces: Buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygula, Andrzej [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)


    The discovery of a new allotropic form of elemental carbon – the fullerenes – and subsequently other novel forms of elemental carbon with pyramidalized surfaces, most notably single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, introduced a novel structural motif to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with nonplanar surfaces. Our research program supported by BES DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15514 has dealt with the synthesis, structural studies, and chemistry of the novel curved-surface PAHs with carbon frameworks structurally related to fullerenes. They are referred to as “buckybowls”. We prepared several new buckybowls and, even more importantly, developed the efficient, gram-scale synthetic methodologies for the preparation of small buckybowls, most notably corannulene (C20H10) and its derivatives. In addition, the employment of the corannulene-based synthons previously developed in our laboratory led to a number of highly nonplanar molecular architectures with two or more corannulene subunits with a potential for the applications as novel materials in separation sciences, nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and catalysis. In collaboration with Professor Angelici (Iowa State) we prepared and characterized several transition metal complexes of corannulene, providing the first structural characterization of η6 metal complexes of buckybowls by a single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to the definitive structural characterization of the complexes we demonstrated that the (η6-C6Me6)Ru2+ unit in some relatively stable complexes activate the corannulene ligand to react with proper nucleophiles suggesting that such complexex may be used in catalysis. (Section C). We have explored the efficiency of the dispersion-based interactions of curved-surface conjugated carbon networks by high-level computational models. We showed that the curvature of such networks does not reduce the van der Waals attractions as compared to the planar systems of similar size. We than

  18. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk


    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  19. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  20. Noble gases solubility models of hydrocarbon charge mechanism in the Sleipner Vest gas field (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Lawson, M.; Meurer, W. P.; Warr, O.; Mabry, J. C.; Byrne, D. J.; Ballentine, C. J.


    Noble gases are chemically inert and variably soluble in crustal fluids. They are primarily introduced into hydrocarbon reservoirs through exchange with formation waters, and can be used to assess migration pathways and mechanisms, as well as reservoir storage conditions. Of particular interest is the role groundwater plays in hydrocarbon transport, which is reflected in hydrocarbon-water volume ratios. Here, we present compositional, stable isotope and noble gas isotope and abundance data from the Sleipner Vest field, in the Norwegian North Sea. Sleipner Vest gases are generated from primary cracking of kerogen and the thermal cracking of oil. Gas was emplaced into the Sleipner Vest from the south and subsequently migrated to the east, filling and spilling into the Sleipner Ost fields. Gases principally consist of hydrocarbons (83-93%), CO2 (5.4-15.3%) and N2 (0.6-0.9%), as well as trace concentrations of noble gases. Helium isotopes (3He/4He) are predominantly radiogenic and range from 0.065 to 0.116 RA; reported relative to air (RA = 1.4 × 10-6; Clarke et al., 1976; Sano et al., 1988), showing predominantly (>98%) crustal contributions, consistent with Ne (20Ne/22Ne from 9.70 to 9.91; 21Ne/22Ne from 0.0290 to 0.0344) and Ar isotopes (40Ar/36Ar from 315 to 489). Air-derived noble gas isotopes (20Ne, 36Ar, 84Kr, 132Xe) are introduced into the hydrocarbon system by direct exchange with air-saturated water (ASW). The distribution of air-derived noble gas species are controlled by phase partitioning processes; in that they preferentially partition into the gas (i.e., methane) phase, due to their low solubilities in fluids. Therefore, the extent of exchange between hydrocarbon phases and formation waters - that have previously equilibrated with the atmosphere - can be determined by investigating air-derived noble gas species. We utilize both elemental ratios to address process (i.e., open vs. closed system) and concentrations to quantify the extent of hydrocarbon

  1. Low cost optic sensor for hydrocarbon detection in open oceans


    PARRA BORONAT, LORENA; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; Mendoza, Jonatan


    Hydrocarbons are one of the most important toxics in the oceans. Their presence may cause the death of organisms. They even can affect to the human beings, when they consume products that have been in contact with the hydrocarbons. After a hydrocarbon spillage, the fishing activity, the tourism, the safety and the wildlife are endangered. The fast detection is very important in order to start as soon as possible the cleaning tasks. It can be done using sensor networks. The firs...

  2. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land


    Cunningham, Colin John


    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  3. Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Tang, Y.


    The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42 - are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42 - is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions (HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42 -. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels

  4. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... hydrocarbons. The Regional Supervisor may allow you to burn liquid hydrocarbons if you demonstrate that...

  5. Pre-drilling prediction techniques on the high-temperature high-pressure hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, China (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Liu, Huaishan; Wu, Shiguo; Sun, Jin; Yang, Chaoqun; Xie, Yangbing; Chen, Chuanxu; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jiliang


    Decreasing the risks and geohazards associated with drilling engineering in high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) geologic settings begins with the implementation of pre-drilling prediction techniques (PPTs). To improve the accuracy of geopressure prediction in HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, we made a comprehensive summary of current PPTs to identify existing problems and challenges by analyzing the global distribution of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs, the research status of PPTs, and the geologic setting and its HTHP formation mechanism. Our research results indicate that the HTHP formation mechanism in the study area is caused by multiple factors, including rapid loading, diapir intrusions, hydrocarbon generation, and the thermal expansion of pore fluids. Due to this multi-factor interaction, a cloud of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs has developed in the Ying-Qiong Basin, but only traditional PPTs have been implemented, based on the assumption of conditions that do not conform to the actual geologic environment, e.g., Bellotti's law and Eaton's law. In this paper, we focus on these issues, identify some challenges and solutions, and call for further PPT research to address the drawbacks of previous works and meet the challenges associated with the deepwater technology gap. In this way, we hope to contribute to the improved accuracy of geopressure prediction prior to drilling and provide support for future HTHP drilling offshore Hainan Island.

  6. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric


    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about C. to about C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  7. 40 CFR 86.121-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... the manufacturer's instructions or good engineering practice for instrument startup and basic... Hydrocarbons in Diluted Automobile Exhaust”; author, Glenn D. Reschke. (iii) For HFIDs only, the following...

  8. Alternative Hydrocarbon Propulsion for Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the application of an alternative hydrocarbon fuel – densified propylene, in combination with liquid oxygen (LOX)...

  9. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID


    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  10. Hydrocarbon Migration from the Micro to Macro Scale in the Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Marty, E.; Silva, M.; Natter, M.; Shedd, W. W.; Hill, J. C.; Viso, R. F.; Lobodin, V.; Krajewski, L.; Abrams, M.; MacDonald, I. R.


    In the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) at GC600, ECOGIG has been investigating the processes involved in hydrocarbon migration from deep reservoirs to sea surface. We studied two individual vents, Birthday Candles (BC) and Mega-Plume (MP), which are separated by 1km on a salt supported ridge trending from NW-SE. Seismic data depicts two faults, also separated by 1km, feeding into the surface gas hydrate region. BC and MP comprise the range between oily, mixed, and gaseous-type vents. In both cases bubbles are observed escaping from gas hydrate out crops at the sea floor and supporting chemosynthetic communities. Fluid flow is indicated by features on the sea floor such as hydrate mounds, authigenic carbonates, brine pools, mud volcanoes, and biology. We propose a model to describe the upward flow of hydrocarbons from three vertical scales, each dominated by different factors: 1) macro (capillary failure in overlying cap rocks causing reservoir leakage), 2) meso (buoyancy driven fault migration), and 3) micro (hydrate formation and chemosynthetic activity). At the macro scale we use high reflectivity in seismic data and sediment pore throat radii to determine the formation of fractures in leaky reservoirs. Once oil and gas leave the reservoir through fractures in the cap rock they migrate in separate phases. At the meso scale we use seismic data to locate faults and salt diapirs that form conduits for buoyant hydrocarbons follow. This connects the path to the micro scale where we used video data to observe bubble release from individual vents for extended periods of time (3h-26d), and developed an image processing program to quantify bubble release rates. At mixed vents gaseous bubbles are observed escaping hydrate outcrops with a coating of oil varying in thickness. Bubble oil and gas ratios are estimated using average bubble size and release rates. The relative vent age can be described by carbonate hard ground cover, biological activity, and hydrate mound formation

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by bento(a)pyrene ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Nagle, Peter; Kleinjans, J C; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Godschalk, Roger W.

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification

  12. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.


    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  13. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.


    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative analysis of reliability, maintainability and availability for two alternatives of the production submarine systems: ANM and submarine ducts versus BOP and a subsea well testing tree; Analise comparativa da confiabilidade, mantenabilidade e disponibilidade para duas alternativas de sistemas submarino de producao: ANM e dutos submarinos versus BOP e arvore submarina de teste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Arlindo Antonio de; Polillo Filho, Adolfo; Santos, Otto Luiz Alcantara [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This technical article presents a study using the concepts of the Engineering of the Reliability and Risk Analysis with the objective of doing a comparative evaluation of the reliability of two alternative production systems for a marine well: one composed by a wet christmas tree (ANM) producing through underwater ducts (flow lines) and other, usually used in tests of long duration, using a subsea BOP and a subsea well testing tree (AST). The central point of the work was the evaluation of the probability of happening an event considered as critic, denominated 'critical flaw', during the well production life. The work uses one of the procedures and methodologies adopted in the Well Construction Engineering, GERISK, together with four computer applications for data treatment, generation of flaw distribution curves and times of repair, modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. The adopted strategy was the one of starting from the existent report, to assume an interval for the possible real value of the relevant parameters and then to establish the scenarios (more probable, optimist and pessimist). Based on those sceneries, the considered premises, the modelling and the reliabilities obtained for each one of the variables, the simulations have been made. As results, are presented the medium readiness, MTTFF (Mean Time To First Failure), the number of flaws and the expected costs. The work also displays the sensibility analysis in respect to the time of production of the well. (author)

  15. Mechanistic studies on the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of selected aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehr, Sascha


    Benzene, toluene, the xylenes, and the trimethylbenzenes are among the most abundant aromatic trace constituents of the atmosphere mainly originating from anthropogenic sources. The OH-initiated atmospheric photo-oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons is the predominant removal process resulting in the formation of O{sub 3} and secondary organic aerosol. Therefore, aromatics are important trace constituents regarding air pollution in urban environments. Our understanding of aromatic photo-oxidation processes is far from being complete. This work presents novel approaches for the investigation of OH-initiated atmospheric degradation mechanisms of aromatic hydrocarbons. Firstly, pulsed kinetic studies were performed to investigate the prompt HO{sub 2} formation from OH+ aromatic hydrocarbon reactions under ambient conditions. For these studies, the existing OH reactivity instrument, based on the flash photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (FP/LIF) technique, was extended to the detection of HO{sub 2} radicals. The experimental design allows for the determination of HO{sub 2} formation yields and kinetics. Results of the pulsed kinetic experiments complement previous product studies and help to reduce uncertainties regarding the primary oxidation steps. Secondly, experiments with aromatic hydrocarbons were performed under atmospheric conditions in the outdoor atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction chamber) located at Forschungszentrum Juelich. The experiments were aimed at the evaluation of up-to-date aromatic degradation schemes of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2). The unique combination of analytical instruments operated at SAPHIR allows for a detailed investigation of HO{sub x} and NO{sub x} budgets and for the determination of primary phenolic oxidation product yields. MCMv3.2 deficiencies were identified and most likely originate from shortcomings in the mechanistic representation of ring

  16. Helium passage through homogeneous ultrafine hydrocarbon layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenchikov Michael A.


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of helium atoms and methane molecules moving through a hydrocarbon layer of evenly distributed energy sources. A computational technique for integrating the Schrödinger equation based on formulation of two fundamental numerical solutions to the problem of waves passing through a barrier is suggested. A linear combination of these solutions defines the required wave function, while cross-linking with asymptotic boundary conditions allows determining the coefficients of transmission and particle reflection from the potential layer barrier.

  17. Hydrocarbon transport in the laboratory plasma (MAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Tanaka, Satoru


    Hydrocarbons are admitted in the laboratory plasma in order to investigate the transport processes of carbon - containing molecules in relation to redeposition processes in the fusion boundary plasma. When CH{sub 4} was introduced into the plasma, CH radical band spectra were optically identified, while in the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} introduction, C{sub 2} radicals were also identified in addition to CH radicals. Excitation temperature was determined from CH and C{sub 2} spectra band, which was observed to increase on approaching to the target. (author)

  18. Hydrogen Abstraction from Hydrocarbons by NH2. (United States)

    Siddique, Kamal; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Gore, Jeff; Westmoreland, Phillip R; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors. In an analogy to other H abstraction systems, we demonstrate only a small influence of variational effects on the rate constants for selected reaction. The studied reactions cover the abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the NH2 radical from the C-H bonds in C1-C4 species, and four C5 hydrocarbons of 2-methylbutane, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-2-butene, and 3-methyl-1-butyne. For the abstraction of H from methane, in the temperature windows 300-500 and 1600-2000 K, the calculated reaction rate constants concur with the available experimental measurements, i.e., kcalculated/kexperimetal = 0.3-2.5 and 1.1-1.4, and the previous theoretical estimates. Abstraction of H atom from ethane attains the ratio of kcalculated/kexperimetal equal to 0.10-1.2 and 1.3-1.5 over the temperature windows of available experimental measurements, i.e., 300-900 K and 1500-2000 K, respectively. For the remaining alkanes (propane and n-butane), the average kexperimental/kcalculated ratio remains 2.6 and 1.3 over the temperature range of experimental data. Also, comparing the calculated standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔrH°298) with the available experimental measurements for alkanes, we found the mean unsigned error of computations as 3.7 kJ mol-1. This agreement provides an accuracy benchmark of our methodology, affording the estimation of the unreported kinetic parameters for H abstractions from alkenes and alkynes. On the basis of the Evans-Polanyi plots

  19. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  20. Computer simulation study of water/hydrocarbon interfaces: Effects of hydrocarbon branching on interfacial properties (United States)

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka M.


    We review here the results of our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of water/hydrocarbon liquid/liquid interfaces. In order to examine the effects of chain length and branching on interfacial properties, we considered five different alkanes (n-pentane, 2-methyl pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane, 2-methyl heptane, and n-octane) as the hydrocarbon phase. We used a recently-proposed procedure to identify molecular surface sites and constructed intrinsic density profiles, in addition to the more familiar laboratory-frame profiles, in order to determine the effects of interface fluctuations on the structure and dynamics of the two phases. We found that interfacial properties of the aqueous phase are relatively insensitive to the molecular structure of the hydrocarbon, even though both branching and chain length have significant influence on the hydrocarbon interfacial properties. We found that translational and rotational mobilities of molecules of both phases are affected by the presence of the interface and that rotational relaxation of water molecules is significantly more anisotropic in the interfacial region than in the bulk.