WorldWideScience

Sample records for subsea hydrocarbon formation

  1. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladford, J.

    1996-07-18

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. (author) figs.

  2. Hysteresis of methane hydrate formation/decomposition at subsea geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapproth, Alice; Piltz, Ross; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Kennedy, Shane J.; Kozielski, Karen A.; Hartley, Patrick G.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Gas hydrates are a major risk when transporting oil and gas in offshore subsea pipelines. Under typical conditions in these pipelines (at high pressure and low temperature) the formation of gas hydrates is favourable. The hydrates form large solid plugs that can block pipelines and can even cause them to burst. This represents a major problem for the gas mining industry, which currently goes to extreme measures to reduce the risk of hydrate formation because there is no reliable experimental data on hydrate processes. The mechanisms of gas hydrate formation, growth and inhibition are poorly understood. A clear understanding of the fundamental processes will allow development of cost effective technologies to avoid production losses in gas pipelines. We are studying the nucleation of the methane hydrates by measuring the hysteresis of hydrate formation/decomposition by neutron diffraction. When a gas hydrate is decomposed (melted) the resulting water has a 'supposed memory effect' raising the probability of rapid hydrate reformation. This rapid reformation does not occur for pure water where nucleation can be delayed by several hours (induction time) due to metastability [1]. The memory effect can only be destroyed by extreme heating of the effected area. Possible causes of this effect include residual water structure, persistent hydrate crystal lites remaining in solution and remaining dissolved gas. We will compare the kinetics of formation and the stability region of hydrate formation of 'memory' water for comparison with pure water. This information has important implications for the oil and gas industry because it should provide a better understanding of the role of multiple dissociation and reformation of gas hydrates in plug formation.

  3. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  4. Subsea HIPPS design procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaroe, R.; Lund, B.F.; Onshus, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is based on a feasibility study investigating the possibilities of using a HIPPS (High Integrity Pressure Protection System) to protect a subsea pipeline that is not rated for full wellhead shut-in pressure. The study was called the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study, and was performed by SINTEF, Norway. Here, OPPS is an acronym for Overpressure Pipeline Protection System. A design procedure for a subsea HIPPS is described, based on the experience and knowledge gained through the ''Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study''. Before a subsea HIPPS can be applied, its technical feasibility, reliability and profitability must be demonstrated. The subsea HIPPS design procedure will help to organize and plan the design activities both with respect to development and verification of a subsea HIPPS. The paper also gives examples of how some of the discussed design steps were performed in the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study. Finally, further work required to apply a subsea HIPPS is discussed

  5. Subsea technology 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The conference focuses on Subsea problems and requirements and contains 18 presentation on the topics: Flow management, autonomous underwater vehicles, risers and other technologies, installation of offshore production and exploitation units, management and maintenance of Subsea installations, design, production and functionality aspects of the Subsea structures and equipment, simulation aspects and oil and gas exploitation and production. (tk)

  6. Subsea technology 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The conference focuses on Subsea problems and requirements and contains 18 presentation on the topics: Flow management, autonomous underwater vehicles, risers and other technologies, installation of offshore production and exploitation units, management and maintenance of Subsea installations, design, production and functionality aspects of the Subsea structures and equipment, simulation aspects and oil and gas exploitation and production. (tk)

  7. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  8. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  9. Subsea production prototype development for deep water applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weibye, B; Varvin, K; Mellingen, T [ed.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents general goals and preliminary results from a prototype and testing program for the next generation of deepwater subsea production systems, in the following main areas: Transportation pipeline pull-in/connection and pig launching systems for multiwell manifolded diverless gas production systems; Inductive and conductive subsea electrical connectors; control system pilot valves and hydraulic fluids; Subsea electric power generation; monitoring of sand particles in gas flow; tools for remotely operated vehicles; pipeline insulation materials; corrosion inhibition and material selection for transporation of unprocessed hydrocarbons. 5 drawings.

  10. Risk-based Reliability Assessment of Subsea Control module for Offshore Oil and Gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Umofia, Anietie Nnana

    2014-01-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploitation is principally conducted using dry or wet tree systems, otherwise called the subsea Xmas tree system. Due to the shift to deeper waters, subsea production system (SPS) has come to be a preferred technology with attendant economic benefits. At the centre of the SPS is the subsea control module (SCM), responsible for the proper functioning and monitoring of the entire system. With increasing search for hydrocarbons in deep and ultra-deepwaters...

  11. Subsea. Pushing back the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article deals with the oil companies' growing confidence in the use of subsea production technology. The oil companies' increasing reputation for reliability has made this sector the fastest growing segment of the North European offshore oil and gas development market. Themes discussed are cost reduction, subsea well intervention and maintenance, artificial lift of deep water wells, diverless connections, horizontal trees, and standardization of subsea equipment. 4 figs

  12. Grand Bank seabed and shallow subsurface geology in relation to subsea engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, G.V.; King, E.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2005-07-01

    An overview of the surficial and subseabed geology of the northeastern section of the Newfoundland Grand Banks was presented with particular reference to the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. The stratigraphy of the upper 100 metres below seafloor has been interpreted from high-resolution seismic reflection data, surficial sediment samples and geotechnical borehole data. This paper described the character and strength properties of nearby seabed sediments and addressed the issue of seabed scour by icebergs, which is the main process threatening subsea facilities. Other potential geohazards such as shallow gas, buried channels and sediment mobility are not considered to be major barriers to offshore development in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. However, drifting icebergs with large drafts often impact the seabed, producing either linear furrows or circular pits. The constraints to subsea design and construction were identified. It was noted that regional geological characterization is needed to help select the location for offshore platforms as well as routes for excavating trenches for subsea installations for offshore hydrocarbon development. Updated regional surficial and near-seabed stratigraphy is needed to predict foundation conditions beyond ground truth from isolated geotechnical borehole investigations. This paper described the Grand Banks regional setting, regional geology, near-surface sediment in the northeastern Grand Banks, and Quaternary sediments in the northeastern Grand Banks with reference to the Grand Banks Drift, Adolphus Sand, and the Grand Banks Sand and Gravel Formation. Risk assessments have shown that well heads and manifolds should be installed below the seabed in order to avoid damage by seabed-scouring icebergs and that the design scour depth should be re-examined for future subsea development. It was suggested that more emphasis on gathering multibeam bathymetric data and repetitive mapping of the seabed will better define scour risk. 57 refs., 3

  13. Method for thermal recovery of hydrocarbons from an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-11-13

    In a thermal recovery procedure for hydrocarbons from an underground formation, an oxygen-containing gas is injected through at least one input well into the formation. A part of the hydrocarbons in the formation is then ignited and an oxidation front is created. This front moves under the influence of the injected gas to at least one production well in the formation. The temperature in the burning front is higher than approximately 200/sup 0/C but lower than approximately 350/sup 0/C. (4 claims)

  14. Subsea Infrastructure Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Pedersen, Simon; Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing energy demands, the offshore energy business has boomed in recent decades. Sub-sea pipeline and power transmission cable installations are commonly applied worldwide. Any potential breakages can cause equipment damage and also damage the environment. The majority...... (S-AUVs) can significantly change the inspections of infrastructure, as these vehicles could be much cheaper to deploy. S-AUVs can potentially conduct faster data collection and provide higher inspection data quality. However, there are still some technical challenges related to: underwater wireless...

  15. Improvements in subsea well technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation subsea developments will be facing a number of new challenges which have to be solved to maintain a cost-efficient solution for production of oil and gas: (1) Smaller fields, i.e. cost reduction through volume will no longer be valid. (2) Freedom in configuration of subsea development. The current idea of standardization will not be directly applicable for cost reduction. (3) Various water depth. The same technology should be applicable for both guideline- and guideline less water depth. (4) Development in new areas of the world where drilling rig deployable system is a must. (5) Various types of fluid processing may be required as an integral part of a subsea production system. The next generation subsea production system should be universal and applicable to any subsea field development. Kongsberg Offshore a.s. (KOS) have gained extensive experience in supplying standardized total subsea systems. The paper presents the approach taken by KOS to develop the next generation subsea system, and discussed the challenges associated with this

  16. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  17. Insights into hydrocarbon formation by nitrogenase cofactor homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-04-14

    The L-cluster is an all-iron homolog of nitrogenase cofactors. Driven by europium(II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [Eu(II)-DTPA], the isolated L-cluster is capable of ATP-independent reduction of CO and CN(-) to C1 to C4 and C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, respectively. Compared to its cofactor homologs, the L-cluster generates considerably more CH4 from the reduction of CO and CN(-), which could be explained by the presence of a "free" Fe atom that is "unmasked" by homocitrate as an additional site for methanation. Moreover, the elevated CH4 formation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of longer hydrocarbons and/or the lengths of the hydrocarbon products, illustrating a competition between CH4 formation/release and C-C coupling/chain extension. These observations suggest the possibility of designing simpler synthetic clusters for hydrocarbon formation while establishing the L-cluster as a platform for mechanistic investigations of CO and CN(-) reduction without complications originating from the heterometal and homocitrate components. Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme that is highly complex in structure and uniquely versatile in function. It catalyzes two reactions that parallel two important industrial processes: the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia, which parallels the Haber-Bosch process in ammonia production, and the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons, which parallels the Fischer-Tropsch process in fuel production. Thus, the significance of nitrogenase can be appreciated from the perspective of the useful products it generates: (i) ammonia, the "fixed" nitrogen that is essential for the existence of the entire human population; and (ii) hydrocarbons, the "recycled" carbon fuel that could be used to directly address the worldwide energy shortage. This article provides initial insights into the catalytic characteristics of various nitrogenase cofactors in hydrocarbon formation. The reported assay system provides a useful tool for mechanistic

  18. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre [Rijswijk, NL; Schoeling, Lanny Gene [Katy, TX

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  19. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX

    2009-12-15

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  20. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of a carbonaceous gas, e.g. methane, dissolved in a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict hydrocarbon potential of the earth formation under the body of water, the formation being a source of carbonaceous gas, comprises at a known geographic location sampling the water at a selected flow rate and at a selected depth; continuously vacuum separating the water into liquid and gas phases; separating a selected carbonaceous gas from interfering gas species in the presence of an air carrier vented to atmosphere at a known flow rate; and quantitatively oxidizing the selected gas and then cryogenically trapping an oxidant thereof in the presence of said air carrier to provide for an accurate isotopic examination. (author)

  1. Integrity of subsea control umbilical

    OpenAIRE

    Yasseri, R; Yasseri, S; Wang, B

    2014-01-01

    Controlling subsea oil and gas production systems requires fibre optics, power cables and tubes for the transportation of chemical for injection and fluid for hydraulic controls. These are arranged in helical bundles in successive layers. Shaped thermoplastic fillers are used to separate components and to fill out voids in the cross section. If necessary, armour is added to provide strength for the dynamic loads. This paper describes the application of 3D finite element method to assess the s...

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, C.; Kleppe, T.; Maribu, J.

    1997-01-01

    Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenklach, M.; Feigelson, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes was investigated using a kinetic approach. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism of gas-phase PAH formation and growth, containing approximately 100 reactions of 40 species, was numerically solved under the physical conditions expected in cool stellar winds. The chemistry is based on studies of soot production in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. Several first-ring and second-ring cyclization processes were considered. A linear lumping algorithm was used to describe PAH growth beyond the second aromatic ring. PAH production using this mechanism was examined with respect to a grid of idealized constant velocity stellar winds as well as several published astrophysical models. The basic result is that the onset of PAH production in the interstellar envelopes is predicted to occur within the temperature interval of 1100 to 900 K. The absolute amounts of the PAHs formed, however, are very sensitive to a number of parameters, both chemical and astrophysical, whose values are not accurately known. Astrophysically meaningful quantities of PAHs require particularly dense and slow stellar winds and high initial acetylene abundance. It is suggested that most of the PAHs may be produced in a relatively small fraction of carbon-rich red giants. 87 refs

  5. Subsea well intervention; Learning from the past - planning for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsnes, Trond Inge

    2010-07-01

    Over many years Statoil has focussed on increasing hydrocarbon recovery factors from their reservoirs. The company has a stated ambition for achieving an average 55% recovery factor from subsea wells. Considering that the majority of the company's oil production originates from subsea wells, it is clear that this is a major strategic area for development. Continuous technology development has been is delivering more safe, efficient and cost effective well intervention operations in subsea wells. During 2009 new technology has been taken into use for the first time, this consists of a fit-for-purpose LRP (Lower Riser Package), high pressure riser and near-surface BOP system operating from the Stena Don semi-submersible unit. This unique system enables, for the first time, coiled tubing and TTRD (Through Tubing Rotary Drilling) operations on subsea wells with the same riser and well control system. The presentation will review some history relating to increasing reserves recovery from subsea wells. Activities from light to medium well intervention operations will be discussed with a focus on the technical and operational experiences. A review of the 2009 activities will be provided - with several coiled tubing and TTRD operations with Stena Don. The presentation will also provide a look ahead to further plans for improvement and optimisation in this area. (Author)

  6. Environmental protection for subsea wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, R.J.; Osborne, R.S.; Elwood, J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for receiving and containing surplus fluid from a subsea well installation on the ocean floor including a subsea wellhead assembly disposed in an enclosed protective chamber. It comprises a fluid-carrying conduit connected to the exterior of the protective chamber in fluid communication with the interior of the protective chamber; an inflatable dracon disposed upon and against the ocean floor in protective relation thereto when deflated and releasably connected in fluid communication to an outlet of the conduit; and pressure-balanced relief valve means disposed in the conduit between the outlet and the protective chamber for communicating surplus fluid from the interior of such chamber to the dracon when the fluid pressure within such chamber exceeds a predetermined value. This patent describes a method of completing an underwater well. It comprises installing a hollow cylindrical silo body with attached conductor guide casing into the sea floor; drilling and casing a well through the silo body and conductor guide casing; installing a wellhead assembly on top of the drilled and cased well inside of the silo body; installing a pressure-containing lid on top of the silo body, forming an enclosed protective chamber and isolating the interior of the chamber from the surrounding hydrostatic head of the sea water

  7. New technology of subsea and offshore compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Subsea compressor is a hot topic. Subsea compressor offers tremendous potentials, but also some obstacles. Active magnetic bearings installed inside the process gas allow the elimination of lubrication and seal systems. High-speed permanent- magnet motor directly drives centrifugal compressor to meet optimum speed, eliminating gear box. This design offers inherent machinery health monitoring features and very compact and reliable train. New technology of hermitically sealed direct drive centrifugal compressor for offshore and subsea applications are discussed and case studies for horizontal and vertical compressor train arrangements are presented. (orig.)

  8. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  9. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  10. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Lilia, E.; Cristalli, A.

    1986-01-01

    Gaseous 0-terphenyl, 1-phenylnaphthalene, and 9-phenylanthracene were submitted to gamma rays. The yields of cyclization products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, show that at least one twentieth of the intermediates formed undergo intramolecular reaction. (author)

  11. Successful pipeline installation for Parque das Conchas development; Subsea installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartz, Cesar

    2010-07-01

    Subsea 7 has successfully delivered again in Brazilian deep-waters. The subsea engineering and construction company has recently completed pipeline installation activities for the Parque das Conchas (BC-10) development, offshore Brazil. (AG)

  12. Further insight into the mechanism of hydrocarbon layer formation below the divertor of ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M; Rohde, V

    2006-01-01

    The surface loss probability of hydrocarbon radicals was measured below the roof baffle of the ASDEX Upgrade divertor using the cavity technique. Hydrocarbon layers are mainly formed by sticking of hydrocarbon radicals with high surface loss probabilities of about 0.2 and close to unity. In addition to sticking, re-erosion by atomic hydrogen plays an important role in layer formation. The temperature dependence of layer formation was measured with heated and cooled long term samples from 77 to 475 K. The layer growth rate is larger by a factor of about 40 at 77 K compared with room temperature, while it is lower by a factor of about 70 at 475 K than at room temperature due to enhanced re-erosion. Implications of the results for predictions of tritium retention in future fusion devices and hydrocarbon layer formation on mirror surfaces are discussed

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a tracer of star formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Spoon, HWW; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 mum are generally attributed to IR fluorescence from ( mainly) far-ultraviolet (FUV) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV stellar flux and are thus a measure of star

  14. Enhanced Subsea Acoustically Aided Inertial Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Juhl

    time is expensive so lots of effort is put into cutting down on time spent on all tasks. Accuracy demanding tasks such as subsea construction and surveying are subject to strict quality control requirements taking up a lot of time. Offshore equipment is rugged and sturdy as the environmental conditions...... are harsh, likewise should the use of it be simple and robust to ensure that it actually works. The contributions of this thesis are all focused on enhancing accuracy and time efficiency while bearing operational reliability and complexity strongly in mind. The basis of inertial navigation, the inertial...... at desired survey points; the other uses a mapping sensor such as subsea lidar to simply map the area in question. Both approaches are shown to work in practice. Generating high resolution maps, as the latter approach, is how the author anticipates all subsea surveys will be conducted in the near future....

  15. Subsea leak detection systems - recommended practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Kristin Nergaard

    2010-07-01

    It is known in the industry that occasional leakages occur in subsea production systems. In spite of efforts to apply subsea leak detectors, the experience is that most leakages are either detected by ROV during routine inspections or interventions or as oil slicks on the surface . Operators and authority awareness towards the environmental impact of oil and gas production is increasing. The regulatory bodies in Norway, EU and USA specify requirements for detection of acute pollution. This paper presents the development of a Recommended Practice (RP) sponsored by OLF (The Norwegian Oil Industry Association). The JIP includes several major oil and gas operators. The objective of the RP is to serve as a technical and practical reference in the field of subsea leak detection. (Author)

  16. Slender wells and new subsea solutions for increased oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faanes, Audun; Myhre, Erling; Vinge, Torstein; Stroem, Steinar

    2010-07-01

    Statoil has identified cost effective subsea wells as one of our major challenges. To achieve such solutions it is required to look at all sides of a subsea development. This presentation will cover how a slim wellhead, BOP and riser system will contribute to a less costly subsea development. The focus will be on all aspects of a subsea development. The effect on the drilling rig will be discussed based on the fact that the drilling rig is the major cost driver in subsea well developments. (Author)

  17. Hydrocarbon potential assessment of Ngimbang formation, Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandito, R. H.; Haris, A.; Zainal, R. M.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    The assessment of Ngimbang formation at Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin has been conducted to identify the hydrocarbon potential by analyzing the response of passive seismic on the proven reservoir zone and proposing a tectonic evolution model. In the case of petroleum exploration in Northeast Java basin, the Ngimbang formation cannot be simply overemphasized. East Java Basin has been well known as one of the mature basins producing hydrocarbons in Indonesia. This basin was stratigraphically composed of several formations from the old to the young i.e., the basement, Ngimbang, Kujung, Tuban, Ngerayong, Wonocolo, Kawengan and Lidah formation. All of these formations have proven to become hydrocarbon producer. The Ngrayong formation, which is geologically dominated by channels, has become a production formation. The Kujung formation that has been known with the reef build up has produced more than 102 million barrel of oil. The Ngimbang formation so far has not been comprehensively assessed in term its role as a source rock and a reservoir. In 2013, one exploratory well has been drilled at Ngimbang formation and shown a gas discovery, which is indicated on Drill Stem Test (DST) reading for more than 22 MMSCFD of gas. This discovery opens new prospect in exploring the Ngimbang formation.

  18. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  19. Evolution of the Macondo well blowout: simulating the effects of the circulation and synthetic dispersants on the subsea oil transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B; Hénaff, Matthieu Le; Aman, Zachary M; Subramaniam, Ajit; Helgers, Judith; Wang, Dong-Ping; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H; Srinivasan, Ashwanth

    2012-12-18

    During the Deepwater Horizon incident, crude oil flowed into the Gulf of Mexico from 1522 m underwater. In an effort to prevent the oil from rising to the surface, synthetic dispersants were applied at the wellhead. However, uncertainties in the formation of oil droplets and difficulties in measuring their size in the water column, complicated further assessment of the potential effect of the dispersant on the subsea-to-surface oil partition. We adapted a coupled hydrodynamic and stochastic buoyant particle-tracking model to the transport and fate of hydrocarbon fractions and simulated the far-field transport of the oil from the intrusion depth. The evaluated model represented a baseline for numerical experiments where we varied the distributions of particle sizes and thus oil mass. The experiments allowed to quantify the relative effects of chemical dispersion, vertical currents, and inertial buoyancy motion on oil rise velocities. We present a plausible model scenario, where some oil is trapped at depth through shear emulsification due to the particular conditions of the Macondo blowout. Assuming effective mixing of the synthetic dispersants at the wellhead, the model indicates that the submerged oil mass is shifted deeper, decreasing only marginally the amount of oil surfacing. In this scenario, the oil rises slowly to the surface or stays immersed. This suggests that other mechanisms may have contributed to the rapid surfacing of oil-gas mixture observed initially. The study also reveals local topographic and hydrodynamic processes that influence the oil transport in eddies and multiple layers. This numerical approach provides novel insights on oil transport mechanisms from deep blowouts and on gauging the subsea use of synthetic dispersant in mitigating coastal damage.

  20. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  1. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF ETHANE. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe effect of fuel-side carbon density on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in atmospheric pressure, opposed flow, ethane diffusion flames has been studied using heated micro-probe sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (...

  2. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  3. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a- C:H Film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E de la; Tabares, F L

    1993-07-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H Film deposition plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs

  5. Zeolite-Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Formation from Methanol: Density Functional Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fitzgerald

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We report detailed density functional theory (DFT calculations of important mechanisms in the methanol to gasoline (MTG process in a zeolite catalyst. Various reaction paths and energy barriers involving C-O bond cleavage and the first C-C bond formation are investigated in detail using all-electron periodic supercell calculations and recently developed geometry optimization and transition state search algorithms. We have further investigated the formation of ethanol and have identified a different mechanism than previously reported [1], a reaction where water does not play any visible role. Contrary to recent cluster calculations, we were not able to find a stable surface ylide structure. However, a stable ylide structure built into the zeolite framework was found to be possible, albeit a very high reaction barrier.

  6. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  7. Deep-water subsea lifting operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestegaard, Arne; Boee, Tormod

    2010-07-01

    Significant costs are related to marine operations in the installation phase of deep water subsea field developments. In order to establish safe operational criteria and procedures for the installation, detailed planning is necessary, including numerical modelling and analysis of the environmental conditions and hydrodynamic loads on the installed object as well as the installation equipment. This paper presents recommendations for modelling and analysis of deep water subsea lifting operations developed for the new DNV RP-H103 [1]. During installation of subsea structures, the highest dynamic forces are most often encountered in the splash zone. Recommendations for estimation of maximum forces will be presented. For small structures and tools, installation through the moon pool of a small installation vessel is often preferred. Calculation methods for loading on structures installed through a moon pool will be presented. During intervention or installation in deep water a significant amplification of amplitude and forces can be experienced when the frequency range of vertical crane tip motion coincides with the natural vertical oscillation of the lift wire and load. Vertical resonance may reduce the operability of the operation. Simplified calculation methods for such operations are presented. (Author)

  8. Corrosion induced failure analysis of subsea pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Khan, Faisal; Thodi, Premkumar; Abbassi, Rouzbeh

    2017-01-01

    Pipeline corrosion is one of the main causes of subsea pipeline failure. It is necessary to monitor and analyze pipeline condition to effectively predict likely failure. This paper presents an approach to analyze the observed abnormal events to assess the condition of subsea pipelines. First, it focuses on establishing a systematic corrosion failure model by Bow-Tie (BT) analysis, and subsequently the BT model is mapped into a Bayesian Network (BN) model. The BN model facilitates the modelling of interdependency of identified corrosion causes, as well as the updating of failure probabilities depending on the arrival of new information. Furthermore, an Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN) has been developed to better structure the network and to provide an efficient updating algorithm. Based on this OOBN model, probability updating and probability adaptation are performed at regular intervals to estimate the failure probabilities due to corrosion and potential consequences. This results in an interval-based condition assessment of subsea pipeline subjected to corrosion. The estimated failure probabilities would help prioritize action to prevent and control failures. Practical application of the developed model is demonstrated using a case study. - Highlights: • A Bow-Tie (BT) based corrosion failure model linking causation with the potential losses. • A novel Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN) based corrosion failure risk model. • Probability of failure updating and adaptation with respect to time using OOBN model. • Application of the proposed model to develop and test strategies to minimize failure risk.

  9. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Some studies on the formation of excited states of aromatic solutes in hydrocarbons and other solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, G A [Leeds Univ. (UK). Cookridge High Energy Radiation Research Centre

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of the author and his co-workers on the radiation-induced formation of excited states of aromatic compounds in solution. The experimental methods used are surveyed and in particular the method of measuring the yields of triplet and singlet excited states of the solute are described. The problems discussed are: (1) the effect of solvent on the yields of excited states, (2) formation of excited states in cyclohexane and other alicyclic hydrocarbons, (3) the formation of excited states in benzene and (4) the identification of T-T absorption spectra.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Mixing in a Swirler-Embedded Line-Heater for Flow Assurance in Subsea Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Min Park

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow assurance issue in subsea pipelines arises mainly due to hydrate plugs. We present a new line-heater for prevention of hydrate plug formation in subsea pipelines. The line heater has modular compact design where an electrical heater and a swirl generator are embedded inside the housing pipe so that the stream can be heated efficiently and homogeneously. In this paper, flow and heat transfer characteristics of the line heater are investigated numerically, with a particular emphasis on the mixing effect due to the swirl generator.

  12. Underwater sound due to a subsea high speed turbo compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnerts, B.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    In the oil & gas industry there is a trend towards more subsea activities. To improve gas recovery from existing and new fields at greater depths, the produced gas will be compressed, processed and transported via subsea templates and underwater networks (pipelines, flexible risers, etc.). Besides

  13. Chemical kinetic models for combustion of hydrocarbons and formation of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides NOx during combustion of methane, propane, and a jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in a jet stirred combustor. The results of the experiments were interpreted using reaction models in which the nitric oxide (NO) forming reactions were coupled to the appropriate hydrocarbon combustion reaction mechanisms. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions reveals that the CH + N2 reaction process has a significant effect on NO formation especially in stoichiometric and fuel rich mixtures. Reaction models were assembled that predicted nitric oxide levels that were in reasonable agreement with the jet stirred combustor data and with data obtained from a high pressure (5.9 atm (0.6 MPa)), prevaporized, premixed, flame tube type combustor. The results also suggested that the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures, like JP-4, may not be significantly different from that of pure hydrocarbons. Application of the propane combustion and nitric oxide formation model to the analysis of NOx emission data reported for various aircraft gas turbines showed the contribution of the various nitric oxide forming processes to the total NOx formed.

  14. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.R.; Demaison, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to predict hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water, said formation being a source of said methane, comprises: (i) sampling the water; (ii) continuously vacuum separating said water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from methane; (iv) quantitatively oxidising said methane; (v) cryogenically trapping the resulting gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at a trapping station, and (vi) isotopically examining said trapped carbon dioxide and water vapour for carbon and deuterium distribution. (author)

  15. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H film deposition plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E.; Tabares, F.L.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of C 2 and C 3 hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C-H films from admixtures of methane with H 2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanism of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the carburized metal. (Author)

  16. THE EFFECTS OF EQUIVALENCE RATIO ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND SOOT IN PREMIXED ETHANE FLAMES. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot has been investigated in atmospheric-pressure, laminar, ethane/oxygen/argon premixed flames as a function of mixture equivalence ratio. Mole fraction profiles of major products, trace aromatics, ...

  17. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  18. Formation of H{sub 2} from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Excitation energy dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Delaunay, R.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Micelotta, E. R. [Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H{sub 2} formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H{sub 2} emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H]{sup +} peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H{sub 2}-formation rates.

  19. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  20. Formation of microspheres under the action of femtosecond laser radiation on titanium samples in hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuev, D. A.; Khorkov, K. S.; Ivashchenko, A. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.; Arakelian, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the original method of laser synthesis of microspheres which contain titanium carbide. The formation of microspheres is carried out by the action of femtosecond laser radiation on the surface of titanium in the reaction medium - the ultimate hydrocarbon. The resulting microspheres have a high surface smoothness, a narrow particle size distribution, an average size of 1-3 μm. They can be used in applications of additive engineering, powder metallurgy as the main raw material, or as an alloying additive.

  1. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  2. Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influence spicule formation in the early development of sea urchins (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Ogiso, Shouzo; Yachiguchi, Koji; Kawabe, Kimi; Makino, Fumiya; Toriba, Akira; Kiyomoto, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Hong, Chun-Sang; Srivastav, Ajai K; Oshima, Yuji; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), which are metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), act on calcified tissue and suppress osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales of teleost fish. The compounds may possibly influence other calcified tissues. Thus, the present study noted the calcified spicules in sea urchins and examined the effect of both PAHs and OHPAHs on spicule formation during the embryogenesis of sea urchins. After fertilization, benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and 4-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (4-OHBaA) were added to seawater at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M and kept at 18 °C. The influence of the compound was given at the time of the pluteus larva. At this stage, the length of the spicule was significantly suppressed by 4-OHBaA (10(-8) and 10(-7) M). BaA (10(-7) M) decreased the length of the spicule significantly, while the length did not change with BaA (10(-8) M). The expression of mRNAs (spicule matrix protein and transcription factors) in the 4-OHBaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos was more strongly inhibited than were those in the BaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate that OHPAHs suppress spicule formation in sea urchins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Apparatus for use in predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    In a relatively quick, convenient and highly accurate technique for the determination of a carbonaceous gas, normally methane, contained in water samples collected at depth from a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict the hydrocarbon-containing potential of the earth formation, carbonaceous gaseous constituents liberated from the water are carried via an air stream to flow into and through an isotope trapping network where collection in microlitre amounts occurs. The isotope capture apparatus comprises a box-like structure formed from a series of panel members, front panel member intersecting the bottom panel member near the centre of the latter and carrying interconnected gas trapping and stripping sections, the structure also comprising a detachable lid connectable by means, for protection of sections. (author)

  4. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced the formation of other by-products. With alumina ethene showed a lower tendency to form HCN as compared to propene and water addition further suppressed by-product formation. This contrasts the findings with Cu/ZSM-5, where HCN production was not significantly altered by the presence of water. On this catalyst HNCO was found additionally for dry feeds, whereas ammonia appeared in the presence of water in the same temperature range. Under special feed gas compositions further by-products, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons, were found over Cu/ZSM-5, whereas none of these compounds were observed over {gamma}-alumina

  5. Hydrocarbon Seeps Formations: a Study Using 3-D Seismic Attributes in Combination with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.; Shedd, W.

    2011-12-01

    Analyzing the magnitude of oil discharges from natural hydrocarbon seeps is important in improving our understanding of carbon contribution as oil migrates from deeper sediments to the water column, and then eventually to the atmosphere. Liquid hydrocarbon seepage in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is associated with deep cutting faults, associated with vertical salt movement, that provide conduits for the upward migration of oil and gas. Seeps transform surface geology and generate prominent geophysical targets that can be identified on 3-D seismic data as seafloor amplitude anomalies maps that correlate with the underlying deep fault systems. Using 3D seismic data, detailed mapping of the northern GOM has identified more than 21,000 geophysical anomalies across the basin. In addition to seismic data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have proven to be a reliable tool for localizing natural seepage of oil. We used a Texture Classifier Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) to process more than 1200 SAR images collected over the GOM. We quantified more than 900 individual seep formations distributed along the continental shelf and in deep water. Comparison of the geophysical anomalies with the SAR oil slick targets shows good general agreement between the distributions of the two indicators. However, there are far fewer active oil slicks than geophysical anomalies, most of which are probably associated with gas seepage. By examining several sites where the location of active venting can be determined by submersibles observations, we found that the active oily vents are often spatially offset from the most intense geophysical targets (i.e. GC600, GC767, GC204, etc). In addition to the displacement of the oil by deep sea currents, we propose that during the 100K years of activity, the location of the vents on the seafloor probably migrate as carbonate cementation reduces the permeability of the upper sediment. Many of the geophysical targets may represent

  6. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.; Arias, P.G.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Y.; Park, S.; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho; Lu, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  7. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.

    2015-03-30

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  8. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  9. Kinetic particularities of strained alicyclic compounds formation in catalytic methanol to hydrocarbon transformation process

    OpenAIRE

    Doluda V.; Brovko R.; Giniatullina N.; Sulman M.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons is a complex chemical process, accompanied by chain parallel chemical transformation reactions. The most valuable products of the methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation reaction are the strained hydrocarbons — cyclopropane derivatives. These compounds can be used as a high-energy fuel, and also as a valuable chemical raw material. However, the yield of strained compounds in methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation ...

  10. Maintenance optimization for subsea oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanier, Bruno; Rausand, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the classical PF interval model, proposed for reliability centered maintenance, is used to optimize the preventive replacement policy of a subsea oil pipeline. The pipeline is subject to failure modes that may lead to oil release and pollution of the sea. The proposed replacement policy is based on regular condition measurements of the quality of an internal pipeline coating (lining). Holes in the coating will expose the pipe material (steel) to a corrosive environment. It is, therefore, important to identify holes in the coating and take action before the corrosion penetrates the pipe wall. The model proposed in the paper can be used to determine the inspection interval that minimizes the average maintenance cost per time unit. The model formulation is outlined and illustrative examples are solved. The mathematical evaluation of the replacement policy requires numerous assumptions. These assumptions have to be tailored to the specific application. The assumptions and the data provided are included for illustrative purposes to exemplify potential results that may be obtained by using the replacement policy

  11. Ormen Lange subsea development strategy and execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogmoen, K. [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    Ormen Lange is the largest natural gas field in development on the Norwegian continental shelf. This paper discussed Norsk Hydro's Ormen Lange development strategy and execution. Several illustrations of the Ormen Lange project were presented, including the field layout and the main challenges of working in deep water. Other challenges involve environmental conditions; long distance control; and hydrate prevention. Several components of the project were presented, including the xmas tree handling system; choke module; control system; large bore tie-in system; in-line tee system; and free spans in pipeline design. Other topics that were presented and illustrated included the feasibility of pipeline design; design optimization with installation contractors; design optimization between intervention methods; positioning; dredging with spiders; excavation with jetprops; ploughing; rock installation; and trenching. The installation of thirty inch pipelines and umbilical lines in shallow and deep water were also discussed and illustrated. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned subsea. These included early definition of operational requirements; close monitoring of interface work between contractors; professional change management; and thorough testing onshore prior to installation. Securing vessel capacity and timely start-up were among the lessons learned for marine operations. figs.

  12. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... kinetic mechanism was established for methane oxidation, with emphasis on formation of higher hydrocarbons and PAH. A submodel for soot formation was adopted from the work of Frenklach and co-workers without changes. Modeling predictions showed good agreement with experimental results. Reactants, stable...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  13. Egypt's first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hawary, A.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations

  14. Operational experience gained from the Central Brae subsea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, S.J.; Gomersall, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the field discoveries made in the North Sea in recent years has declined dramatically. With the low oil price many small fields are not viable stand alone developments. The North Sea has a large, well developed infrastructure of production facilities and pipelines. With many platforms now operating below optimum production rate, subsea tieback of these small fields utilizing the available processing capacity is the most economically attractive means of development. This paper presents a history of such a field development. The Central Brae field is located within the Brae complex of fields, 155 miles north east of Aberdeen, and has been developed by means of a subsea facility tied back to the Brae Alpha platform. A great deal of experience has been gained through the field development, not only in subsea operations but also in completion and template design and operating philosophy

  15. Subsea industry implements NORSOK: Happy marriages reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggelund, N.

    1995-01-01

    Cost reduction by implementing NORSOK standards and cooperation between subsea suppliers to the Norwegian continental shelf, are discussed in this article. The aim of NORSOK, which is based on US standards, is to achieve standardization of technical requirements for drilling and production facilities, to identify and develop common requirements for equipment and installations, based on functional specifications, interfaces and limited variety for equipment and design, and to take into consideration existing industry standards and use these where possible. The offspring of cooperation is notable cost reductions. Subsea costs at Saga's Vigdis field have been reduced by 50% in two years. More subsea projects could come up soon. Norsk Hydro has short-listed a semi PDQ (Processing, Drilling and living Quarters), a ship or Gullfaks tie-in as runner-up concepts for the Viksund project. 1 fig

  16. Minimizing the cost of subsea developments through technological innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, G.; Loth, B.

    1994-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an extensive study carried out for the UK Government. This assessed the cost and economic impact of technological innovation on subsea and floating developments in the UKCS. The study covered, innovations that could be applied to subsea developments to significantly reduce cost, including multiwell completions, composite pipelines, compartmented pipelines, pipeline specification breaking and autonomous control systems. Cost and economic models were used to assess the economic impact of technological innovation on marginal field developments. The results of these assessments were drawn up as a series of ranking lists designed to assist manufacturers and suppliers in establishing priorities for research and development funding. The study also explored the potential UKCS and World market for innovative subsea technologies and quantified the research and development required to bring key innovations into commercial use

  17. Laboratory testing and field implementation of scale inhibitor squeeze treatments to subsea and platform horizontal wells, North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M. M.; Lewis, M. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Tomlinson, C. J.; Pritchard, A. R. P. [Enterprise Oil Plc, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Field results from a number of scale squeeze treatments carried out on subsea and platform horizontal wells in the Nelson Field of the North Sea are presented. Scale inhibitor chemicals are reviewed along with factors which influence inhibitor selection for both horizontal and highly deviated wells. Formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, formation minerals/inhibitor incompatibility, and the potential for sand production and oil-in-water process as a result of these incompatibilities, are discussed. Practical difficulties in squeezing subsea horizontal wells, the use of chemical stabilizers to reduce formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, variation of pump rates to encourage propagation of inhibitor along the wellbore, and the potential of fluid diversion are outlined, stressing the significance of production logging data (or good reservoir simulation data), to evaluate the location of water production prior to the squeeze treatment. Results of these treatments show that with the correct laboratory evaluation of both scale inhibitor and divertor agents, and with appropriate utilization of production logging or reservoir simulation data, it is possible to carry out scale inhibitor squeeze treatments of subsea and platform horizontal wells without having to resort to coiled tubing. 22 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs

  18. On the Formation of Nanobubbles in Vycor Porous Glass during the Desorption of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, A. C.; Stefanopoulos, K. L.; Favvas, E. P.; Vansant, E.; Hankins, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Vycor porous glass has long served as a model mesoporous material. During the physical adsorption of halogenated hydrocarbon vapours, such as dibromomethane, the adsorption isotherm exhibits an hysteresis loop; a gradual ascent is observed at higher pressures during adsorption, and a sharp drop is observed at lower pressures during desorption. For fully wetting fluids, an early hypothesis attributed the hysteresis to mechanistic differences between capillary condensation (adsorption) and evaporation (desorption) processes occurring in the wide bodies and narrow necks, respectively, of ‘ink-bottle’ pores. This was later recognized as oversimplified when the role of network percolation was included. For the first time, we present in-situ small angle x-ray scattering measurements on the hysteresis effect which indicate nanobubble formation during desorption, and support an extended picture of network percolation. The desorption pattern can indeed result from network percolation; but this can sometimes be initiated by a local cavitation process without pore blocking, which is preceded by the temporary, heterogeneous formation of nanobubbles involving a change in wetting states. The capacity of the system to sustain such metastable states is governed by the steepness of the desorption boundary.

  19. Subsea innovative boosting technologies on deep water scenarios -- Impacts and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano, E.F.; Mendonca, J.E.; Pagot, P.R.; Cotrim, M.L.; Camargo, R.M.T.; Assayag, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the importance of deep water scenario for Brazil, the PETROBRAS Deep and Ultra-Deep Water R and D Program (PROCAP-2000) and the candidate fields for the deployment of subsea innovative boosting technologies (ESPS -- electrical submersible pump in subsea wells, SSS -- subsea separation systems and SBMS -- subsea multiphase flow pumping system) as well as the problems associated with the flow assurance in such conditions. The impact of those innovative systems, their technological stage and remaining demands to make them available for deployment in offshore subsea areas, mainly in giant deepwater fields, are discussed and predicted

  20. Safety integrity under demanding conditions: A study on Permit-to-Work (PTW) systems in the Marine-Subsea sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, Shambu

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Risk management Last few years has seen evaluation of the oil and gas industry into innovative subsea solution and technological leap leading to the subsea factory. Taking this into perspective the marine subsea industry is one of the most developing sectors involving many stakeholders with a wide range of background to perform various operations. These operations bring together marine operators, ship owners, subsea asset owners/asset operators, subsea equipment manufact...

  1. Lowering of the critical concentration for micelle formation in aqueous soap solutions by action of truly dissolved hydrocarbon at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markina, Z.N.; Kostova, N.Z.; Rebinder, P.A.

    1970-03-01

    The effect of dissolved hydrocarbons (octane, benzene, and ethylbenzene) on critical micelle concentration of aqueous solutions of sodium salts of fatty acids from caproate to sodium myristate at various temperatures was studied. Experimental results showed that formation of micelles is promoted by presence of hydrocarbons dissolved in the water phase. Such solutions have below normal critical micelle concentration. The change in critical micelle concentration decreases with increase in length of hydrocarbon chain in the soap molecule and with decrease of hydrocarbon solubility in pure water. The nature of the hydrocarbon also affects the forms and dimension of the micelle. Aromatic hydrocarbons increase micelle volume and greatly decrease C.M.C., while aliphatic hydrocarbons decrease C.M.C. slightly. (12 refs.)

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  5. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-08-15

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  6. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-01-01

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  7. Optimizing and Quantifying CO2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

    2017-06-30

    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO2 storage efficiency. CO2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO2 storage in these types of systems. CO2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  8. Methane clumped isotopes in the Songliao Basin (China): New insights into abiotic vs. biotic hydrocarbon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Etiope, Giuseppe; Zhang, Shuichang; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Huang, Ling; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic hydrocarbon gas, typically generated in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and crystalline shields, has important implications for the deep biosphere, petroleum systems, the carbon cycle and astrobiology. Distinguishing abiotic gas (produced by chemical reactions like Sabatier synthesis) from biotic gas (produced from degradation of organic matter or microbial activity) is sometimes challenging because their isotopic and molecular composition may overlap. Abiotic gas has been recognized in numerous locations on the Earth, although there are no confirmed instances where it is the dominant source of commercially valuable quantities in reservoir rocks. The deep hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Xujiaweizi Depression in the Songliao Basin (China) have been considered to host significant amounts of abiotic methane. Here we report methane clumped-isotope values (Δ18) and the isotopic composition of C1-C3 alkanes, CO2 and helium of five gas samples collected from those Xujiaweizi deep reservoirs. Some geochemical features of these samples resemble previously suggested identifiers of abiotic gas (13C-enriched CH4; decrease in 13C/12C ratio with increasing carbon number for the C1-C4 alkanes; abundant, apparently non-biogenic CO2; and mantle-derived helium). However, combining these constraints with new measurements of the clumped-isotope composition of methane and careful consideration of the geological context, suggests that the Xujiaweizi depression gas is dominantly, if not exclusively, thermogenic and derived from over-mature source rocks, i.e., from catagenesis of buried organic matter at high temperatures. Methane formation temperatures suggested by clumped-isotopes (167-213 °C) are lower than magmatic gas generation processes and consistent with the maturity of local source rocks. Also, there are no geological conditions (e.g., serpentinized ultramafic rocks) that may lead to high production of H2 and thus abiotic production of CH4 via CO2 reduction. We propose

  9. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    The Bahariya Formation of Cenomanian age is considered to be one of the main oil and gas accumulations in most of the fields of the Western Desert basins. The lithostratigraphic succession of the Bahariya Formation is classified into two main sand units (Unit I and Unit III) separated by shalesiltstone (Unit II). The sandstone of unit-I and III is characterized by being highly enriched in shale content especially glauconite in all wells of the Alamein Field, that has an obvious negative effect on the porosity and oil saturation, where the glauconite increases the grain density of sandstone reservoirs from 2.65 g/cm{sup 3} up to 2.71 g/cm{sup 3}. The well logging data and petrophysical characteristics conducted on Alamein well-28 involving analysis of 30 core samples, were used to evaluate the reservoir characterization and hydrocarbon potentialities. The petrophysical parameters indicate that the primary porosity values are between 8.7 and 29.1%. Decreasing porosity is related to the increase of shale content from 9 to 13%, which occurs as a dispersed habitat. The water saturation changes from 43 to 80%, while the hydrocarbon saturation ranges from 12.1 to 37%. Promising hydrocarbon accumulations are displayed by the sandstone of unit-III due to increased hydrocarbon saturation and effective porosity, thus reflecting the high quality reservoir of this unit. The irreducible and movable hydrocarbon distribution shows a general increase at the eastern and western flanks of the faulted anticline in the Alamein-Yidma fields. The biomarker characteristics and stable carbonisotopic composition of the Bahariya crude oils recovered from the Alamein Field show no obvious variations among them. These oils are paraffinic, containing little branched or cyclic materials waxy n-alkanes(C{sub 25}-C{sub 31}) and characterized by high API gravity, low sulfur content, oleanane index < 2% and moderately high pristane/phytaneratio > 1 and CPI > 1 and the canonical variable parameter is

  10. Economic benefits of subsea flexible flowlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.T.; Measamer, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The development of marginal off-shore hydrocarbon deposits has resulted in production of increasingly corrosive fluids, thus furthering the need for pipelines capable of operating at elevated temperatures in the presence of high concentrations of H 2 S and CO 2 gases. Conventional pipelines require the use of stainless steels or other corrosion resistant alloys which drives up the cost of materials and fabrication/installation of the system. The use of flexible pipe is assuming an important role in these applications where the selection of compatible metallic and non-metallic components have resulted in cost effective alternatives. As development of marginal and aggressive hydrocarbon reservoirs increases operators are faced with providing systems which minimize the cost of field production. This paper describes the results of economic analyses of actual field developments in order to provide a methodology for selection of an appropriate pipeline technology to minimize life cycle costs of the flowline system

  11. Advanced Applications of Subsea Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, G.; Kitt, P.; Leipner, G.A.; Whitaker, T.

    2002-01-01

    the umbilical cable with its conductors running in close proximity to each other, meaning operating with very high reactive losses. In Kvaerner Oilfield Products (KOP) the associated technology is being developed as a holistic programme, the Icon (intelligent control) Initiative. KOP's latest generation of sub sea control systems, iCon, encompasses the entire control system and not just the sub sea control module (SCM). iCon provides significantly enhanced functionality over previous modules including 'Open' data-communications with enhanced performance and flexibility and increased control/monitoring functionality within the SCM. The iCon based Kvaerner Slip-on DUET Multiphase Flow Meter non-intrusively measures the individual flow rates of water, oil and gas in a multiphase environment. The use of a sub sea multiphase flow meter not only eliminates the need for a test line and an extra inlet separator, but can also accelerate oil recovery adding considerable value to the field development economics. The DUET 'Slip-On' meter replaces the entire steel spool with a composite material producing the meter body in the same composite. The non-intrusive nature of the meter applied to the slip-on deployment method means that recovery and deployment is safer, well shut-in during retrieval is avoided and the meter can be retrofitted at any time. Kvaerner Oilfield Products has produced the iCon system to meet the above challenges and be the enabling technology for the sub-sea production and process systems which will be required to satisfy our client's future needs

  12. On the role of resonantly stabilized radicals in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation: pyrene and fluoranthene formation from benzyl-indenyl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Rahman, Ramees K; Raj, Abhijeet

    2017-07-26

    Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals. The intermediate species and transition structures involved in the elementary reactions of the mechanism were studied using density functional theory, and the reaction kinetics were evaluated using transition state theory. The barrierless addition of benzyl and indenyl to form the adduct, 1-benzyl-1H-indene, was found to be exothermic with a reaction energy of 204.2 kJ mol -1 . The decomposition of this adduct through H-abstraction and H 2 -loss was studied to determine the possible products. The rate-of-production analysis was conducted to determine the most favourable reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation. The premixed laminar flames of toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were simulated using a well-validated hydrocarbon fuel mechanism with detailed PAH chemistry after adding the proposed reactions to it. The computed and experimentally observed species profiles were compared to determine the effect of the new reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation on their concentration profiles. The role of benzyl and indenyl combination in PAH formation and growth is highlighted.

  13. Photochemically consumed hydrocarbons and their relationship with ozone formation in two megacities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Wang, J.; Liu, S.; Shao, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Shiu, C.; Lai, C.

    2010-12-01

    Two on-site continuous measurements of ozone and its precursors in two megacities of China were carried out in an urban site of Beijing and a suburban site near Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to estimate precursor consumption and to assess its relationship with oxidant (O3+NO2) formation level. An observation-based method (OBM) with the precursor consumption concept was adopted to assess the relationship between oxidant production and amounts of photochemically consumed non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). In this approach, the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylenes was used to estimate the degree of photochemical processing, as well as the amounts of photochemically consumed NMHCs by reacting with OH. By trying to correlate the observed oxidant with the observed NMHC concentration, the two areas both revealed nearly no to low correlation between them. However, it existed fair to good correlations (R2=0.68 for Beijing, 0.53 for PRD) between the observed oxidant level and the degree of photochemical processing (ethylbenzene/m,p-xylenes). Furthermore, after taking the approach of consumption to estimate the consumed amounts of NMHCs, an interesting finding reveals that the definite correlation existed between the observed oxidant level and the total consumed NMHCs. The good correlations (R2=0.83 for Beijing, 0.81 for PRD) implies that the ambient oxidant level correlated to the amount of consumed NMHCs. The results of the two megacities in China by using the OBM with the precursor consumption concept can provide another pathway to explore the relationship between photochemically produced oxidant and consumed precursors, and will be helpful to validate model results and to reduce uncertainty of model predictions. However, the method has some room for uncertainty, as injection of fresh precursor emissions and additional boundary ozone involved, etc. could affect the estimation of consumed NMHCs and observed oxidant levels. Assistance of approaches in assessing the

  14. The genetic source and timing of hydrocarbon formation in gas hydrate reservoirs in Green Canyon, Block GC955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. T.; Darrah, T.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Phillips, S.; Whyte, C. J.; Lary, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although large volumes of gas hydrates are known to exist along continental slopes and below permafrost, their role in the energy sector and the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. Investigations regarding the genetic source(s) (i.e., biogenic, thermogenic, mixed sources of hydrocarbon gases), the location of hydrocarbon generation, (whether hydrocarbons formed within the current reservoir formations or underwent migration), rates of clathrate formation, and the timing of natural gas formation/accumulation within clathrates are vital to evaluate economic potential and enhance our understanding of geologic processes. Previous studies addressed some of these questions through analysis of conventional hydrocarbon molecular (C1/C2+) and stable isotopic (e.g., δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-CO2) composition of gases, water chemistry and isotopes (e.g., major and trace elements, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) of natural gas hydrate systems to determine proportions of biogenic and thermogenic gas. However, the effects from contributions of mixing, transport/migration, methanogenesis, and oxidation in the subsurface can complicate the first-order application of these techniques. Because the original noble gas composition of a fluid is preserved independent of microbial activity, chemical reactions, or changes in oxygen fugacity, the integration of noble gas data can provide both a geochemical fingerprint for sources of fluids and an additional insight as to the uncertainty between effects of mixing versus post-genetic modification. Here, we integrate inert noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and associated isotopes) with these conventional approaches to better constrain the source of gas hydrate formation and the residence time of fluids (porewaters and natural gases) using radiogenic 4He ingrowth techniques in cores from two boreholes collected as part of the University of Texas led UT-GOM2-01 drilling project. Pressurized cores were extracted from

  15. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  16. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    directed Paleo-current system prevailed during deposition of Lumshiwal Formation. Diagenetic and tectonically induced fractures make the formation exceedingly porous and permeable as suitable reservoir horizon for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the Trans-Indus ranges. The same formation has already been proven as potential reservoir horizon for hydrocarbon in the Kohat Plateau of northwest Pakistan. Secondly, the formation is dominantly comprised of silica/quartz sandstone (quartzarenite which can be used as silica sand, one of the essential raw materials for glass industries. The formation is also comprised of local coal seams which can be mined for production of coal in the region.

  17. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain

  18. LOW TEMPERATURE FORMATION OF NITROGEN-SUBSTITUTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PANHs)—BARRIERLESS ROUTES TO DIHYDRO(iso)QUINOLINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Meteorites contain bio-relevant molecules such as vitamins and nucleobases, which consist of aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms. Questions remain over the chemical mechanisms responsible for the formation of nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) in extraterrestrial environments. By exploiting single collision conditions, we show that a radical mediated bimolecular collision between pyridyl radicals and 1,3-butadiene in the gas phase forms nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) 1,4-dihydroquinoline and to a minor amount 1,4-dihydroisoquinoline. The reaction proceeds through the formation of a van der Waals complex, which circumnavigates the entrance barrier implying it can operate at very low kinetic energy and therefore at low temperatures of 10 K as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1. The discovery of facile de facto barrierless exoergic reaction mechanisms leading to PANH formation could play an important role in providing a population of aromatic structures upon which further photo-processing of ice condensates could occur to form nucleobases.

  19. Formation of radical cations in a model for the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Andreas F.; Horn, Jamie; Flesher, James W.

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that electrophilic radical cations are the major ultimate electrophilic and carcinogenic forms of benz[a]anthracene (BA), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), we have focused on a chemical model of metabolism which parallels and duplicates known or potential metabolites of some polycyclic hydrocarbons formed in cells. Studies of this model system show that radical cations are hardly formed, if at all, in the case of BA or DBA but are definitely formed in the cases of the carcinogen BP as well as the non-carcinogenic hydrocarbons, pyrene and perylene. We conclude that the carcinogenicities of BA, DBA, BP, pyrene, and perylene are independent of one-electron oxidation to radical cation intermediates

  20. Carbon structures formation in low current high voltage electrical discharge in hydrocarbon vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk, A T; Jaworek, A

    2011-01-01

    The properties of carbon fibers and other carbon structures produced from hydrocarbon vapours decomposed in electrically generated plasma at atmospheric pressure are studied in this paper. The electrical discharge was generated between a stainless steel needle and a plate made of nickel alloy. The carbon fiber has grown at the tip of the needle electrode, while other microflower-like deposits were built at the plate. The physical properties of carbon fibers were investigated by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and EDS methods.

  1. Evaluating vibration performance of a subsea pump module by full-scale testing and numerical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Pereboom, H.P.; Slot, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior to subsea installation, a subsea system has to be tested to verify whether it performs in accordance with specifications and component specific performance evaluation criteria. It is important to verify that the assembled components work in accordance with the assumptions and design criteria

  2. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  3. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illustrated by introducing a typical grouting process. Then the site-specific grouting techniques employed in the Xiang'an subsea tunnel are elaborated. By using this ground reinforcement technique, the tunneling safety of the Xiang'an subsea tunnel was guaranteed.

  4. Reservoir attributes of a hydrocarbon-prone sandstone complex: case of the Pab Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Southwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umar, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Links between the architectural elements of major sand bodies and reservoir attributes have been explored in a field study of the hydrocarbon-yielding Late Cretaceous Pab Formation of southwest Pakistan. The lithofacies and facies associations represented in the Pab Formation are the main...... determinants of its reservoir properties. Thus, thick, vertically connected and laterally continuous sand packets have moderate-to-high mean porosities (10–13 %) in fluviodeltaic, shoreface, shelf delta, submarine channel, and fan-lobe facies associations while deeper shelf and basin floor sand bodies yield...... significantly lower porosities (4–6 %). Overall, in the Pab arenites, porosity values increase with increasing grain size and better sorting. The varying sand-shale ratios encountered in different sectors of the Pab outcrop are also petrophysically important: Sequences displaying high ratios yield higher bulk...

  5. DNV launches new recommended practice for design of subsea equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toerstad, Elisabeth Heggelund

    2005-07-01

    The application of modern corrosion-resistant alloys to subsea pipelines and components has led to serious problems of hydrogen embrittlement from the corrosion protection system, resulting in cracks and leaks. The most commonly known incidents of this kind are the duplex hubs on Voinhaven, UK and Garn West and the 13% Cr pipelines on Tune and Aasgard, all at the Norwegian shelf. Understanding the nature of this problem has called for a broad multidisciplinary approach, involving expertise on corrosion and metallurgy as well as structural design and integrity. Competence in probabilistic analyses and risk assessments has also been necessary in order to set acceptance criteria and evaluate probability of failure for existing installations. (Det Norske Veritas (DNV) is now about to issues a Recommended Practise (RP) for design of subsea equipment in duplex steels under Cathodic Protection. The RP is based on knowledge gained through failure investigations, qualification pr grams and research work, and a broad industry consortium has contributed with experience and knowledge. Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking (HISC) due to hydrogen from the Cathodic Protection (CP) system has been one of the most frequent and costly failure modes for subsea equipment and pipelines in the North Sea over the recent years. Today, the international oil business is looking to Norway for assistance in establishing detailed knowledge about and preventive measures against this failure mode. A significant research work is currently being carried out jointly by DNV, SINTEF and TWI (The Welding Institute), supported by a broad industry consortium - aiming at a better understanding of the HISC (Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking) mechanism and establishment of test methods which reflect the sensitivity to cracking. DNV has also established a Recommended Practice, which will be issued late 2005. It reflects the experience gained from the failure examinations, fitness for purpose evaluations, research

  6. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  7. Estimation of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China: implications for hydrocarbon generation and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China, is vital for assessment of hydrocarbon generation and preservation, and of geothermal energy potential. However, it has not previously been well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data with drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime and estimate the subsurface formation temperature at depth in the range of 1000-5000 m, together with temperatures at the lower boundary of each of four major Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks buried in this basin. Results show that heat flow of the Tarim Basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5 ± 7.6 mW/m2; the geothermal gradient at depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7 ± 2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature estimated at the depth of 1000 m is between 29 and 41 °C, with a mean of 35 °C, while 63-100 °C is for the temperature at the depth of 3000 m with a mean of 82 °C. Temperature at 5000 m ranges from 97 to 160 °C, with a mean of 129 °C. Generally spatial patterns of the subsurface formation temperature at depth are basically similar, characterized by higher temperatures in the uplift areas and lower temperatures in the sags, which indicates the influence of basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties on the geotemperature field. Using temperature to identify the oil window in the source rocks, most of the uplifted areas in the basin are under favorable condition for oil generation and/or preservation, whereas the sags with thick sediments are favorable for gas generation and/or preservation. We conclude that relatively low present-day geothermal regime and large burial depth of the source rocks in the Tarim Basin are favorable for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. In addition, it is found that the

  8. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E

    1997-12-31

    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  9. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E.

    1996-12-31

    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  10. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    2016-01-01

    Temperature programmed desorption has been used to investigate adsorption and abstraction of hydrogen atoms on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene. The coronene molecules were exposed to different hydrogen fluences at a dosing temperature of 1000K. Large fluences of hydrogen leave...... large abundances, alongside H2[2]. To investigate the the abstraction and adsoption patterns of hydrogen/deuterium on coronene, C24H12 (a PAH), we used temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000 K H or D atoms...

  11. Electronic techniques for subsea oil exploration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Subsea oil exploration and extraction is becoming increasingly difficult, costly, and dangerous. Electronics is contributing to make offshore work easier and safer. It is used for positioning ships or oil rigs, for remotely controlling well-heads and tool reentry operations, for pipelaying operations, and for monitoring underwater equipment. It is also tending to replace men in diving operations. The specific achievements of THOMPSON--CSF in this field are described. Fully automated operation of the winches on the ETPM 1601 barge proved successful during a recent pipelaying operation. The technique used by THOMPSON--CSF in this venture allowed a single operator to control all the maneuvers. These are briefly described. (MCW)

  12. Emerging Subsea Networks: SMART Cable Systems for Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Butler, R.; Joint Task Force, U.

    2016-02-01

    The subsea telecommunications cable industry is approaching a prospective new era: deploying SMART subsea cable systems (SMART = Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunication). The current global, commercial cable infrastructure consists of 1 Gm of cable, being refreshed now and expanding in the future. The SMART concept is to add a small external sensor package along the cable system at its optical repeaters to transmit important real-time environmental data via a dedicated wavelength or overhead channel in the transmission system, avoiding any impact on the commercial traffic. These small, reliable, existing sensors would precisely measure temperature, pressure and three-axis acceleration across the world's ocean floor over an extended period of time, being deployed using standard cable-laying procedures on new or refurbished cables, but not requiring maintenance through the 2-3 decade life of the cable systems. The game-changing factor is the urgent international need for ocean environmental data related to mitigating climate and sea-level change and improving tsunami and slope failure hazard warnings. Societal costs incurred by these are reaching billions of dollars and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Pressures for new and urgent public policies are evident from the 5th IPCC Assessment, USA-China agreement on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, clear evidence for rapid global warming, 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (December 2015, Paris), and the scale of the costs of inaction. To support revised public policies and actions, decision-makers, industry leaders, and the public are seeking key scientific data, which will necessitate new sources of funding. Hence, the emergence of new SMART cable systems offered by the subsea telecommunications industry will provide new market opportunities, engage additional non-traditional users, and make profound societal contributions. The Joint Task Force (JTF) on SMART Subsea Cable Systems

  13. Improved FTA methodology and application to subsea pipeline reliability design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhang, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    An innovative logic tree, Failure Expansion Tree (FET), is proposed in this paper, which improves on traditional Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). It describes a different thinking approach for risk factor identification and reliability risk assessment. By providing a more comprehensive and objective methodology, the rather subjective nature of FTA node discovery is significantly reduced and the resulting mathematical calculations for quantitative analysis are greatly simplified. Applied to the Useful Life phase of a subsea pipeline engineering project, the approach provides a more structured analysis by constructing a tree following the laws of physics and geometry. Resulting improvements are summarized in comparison table form.

  14. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  15. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal : a possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooten, G.K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study addressed the issue of sources of hydrocarbons for benthic sediments in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) with particular reference to the application of forensic geology to identify end members and to explain the geologic setting and processes affecting the system. Native coals and natural seep oils have been questioned in the past decade as possible sources of background hydrocarbons because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Native coal has also been dismissed as a pollution source because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low to be consistent with GOA sediments. The authors present evidence that perhaps native coal has been prematurely dismissed as a pollution source because BRCF coals do not represent adequately the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation which have much higher PAH:TOC ratios. The patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals indicate a genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analysis of the coal suggests it is a significant source of PAH, and it was cautioned that source models that do not include this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the background hydrocarbon signature in the Gulf of Alaska. 32 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Molecular mechanisms in the pyrolysis of unsaturated chlorinated hydrocarbons: formation of benzene rings. 1. Quantum chemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Grant J; Russell, Douglas K

    2013-05-23

    Analogues of important aromatic growth mechanisms in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion systems are extended to chlorinated systems. We consider the addition of C2Cl2 to both C4Cl3 and C4Cl5 radicals at the M06-2X/6-311+G(3df,3p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, and we demonstrate that these reaction systems have much in common with those of nonchlorinated species. In particular, we find that these radicals appear to lead preferentially to fulvenes, and not to the observed aromatic products, as is found in nonchlorinated systems. We have therefore also considered nonradical C4/C2 channels by way of Diels-Alder cyclization of C4Cl4/C2Cl2 and C4H2Cl2/C2HCl pairs to describe aromatic formation. While the latter pair readily leads to the formation of partially chlorinated benzenes, the fully chlorinated congeners are sterically prohibited from ring closing directly; this leads to a series of novel rearrangement processes which predict the formation of hexachloro-1,5-diene-3-yne, in addition to hexachlorobenzene, in good agreement with experiment. This suggests, for the first time, that facile nonradical routes to aromatic formation are operative in partially and fully chlorinated pyrolysis and combustion systems.

  17. Gas hydrate geohazards in shallow sediments and their impact on the design of subsea systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.; Hatton, G. [Shell Global Solutions Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Mehta, A. [Shell Malaysia Exploration and Production, Sarawak (Malaysia); Hadley, C. [Shell Exploration and Production Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the challenges that exist in producing gas hydrates in deepwater and Arctic environments as a potential source of methane gas. In order to safely produce hydrocarbon reservoirs far beneath near-mudline hydrates, it is important to understand and manage the geohazard risks associated with wells that pass through hydrate-bearing sediments. Since these wells may produce for decades, the temperature of near-mudline sediments may increase above the hydrate dissociation temperature for hundreds of meters from the well. This can result in the release of large quantities of gas causing a volume change that can impact the subsea system in many ways. As the fluids of an underlying reservoir flow to the mudline, heat carried by the fluids warms nearwell sediments and dissociates hydrates, which releases gas that can displace and fracture near well soil. This gas release may be calculated with numerical simulations that model heat and mass transfer in hydrate-bearing sediments. The model simulations require information on the nature and distribution of hydrates within the sediments, the melting behaviour of the hydrates, the thermal and mechanical properties of these shallow sediments, and the amount of hydrates contained in the sediments. However, this information is costly to acquire and characterize with certainty for an offshore development. Therefore, it is important to understand what information, processes, and calculations are needed in order to ensure safe, robust systems to produce the hydrocarbon reservoirs far below the hydrates. It was concluded that the relation between the quantity of gas released and dissociated gas quantities must be well understood. The hydrate concentration is a critical reservoir parameter for reservoirs with severe geohazard risk. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Formation of combustible hydrocarbons and H2 during photocatalytic decomposition of various organic compounds under aerated and deaerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Kułagowska, Aleksandra; Morawski, Antoni W

    2014-11-26

    A possibility of photocatalytic production of useful aliphatic hydrocarbons and H2 from various organic compounds, including acetic acid, methanol, ethanol and glucose, over Fe-modified TiO2 is discussed. In particular, the influence of the reaction atmosphere (N2, air) was investigated. Different gases were identified in the headspace volume of the reactor depending on the substrate. In general, the evolution of the gases was more effective in air compared to a N2 atmosphere. In the presence of air, the gaseous phase contained CO2, CH4 and H2, regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, formation of C2H6 and C3H8 in the case of acetic acid and C2H6 in the case of ethanol was observed. In case of acetic acid and methanol an increase in H2 evolution under aerated conditions was observed. It was concluded that the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds with simultaneous generation of combustible hydrocarbons and hydrogen could be a promising method of "green energy" production.

  19. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  20. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Subsea Multiphase Pump Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Shobowale Kafayat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding oil and gas reserves in deep/harsh environment with challenging reservoir and field conditions, subsea multiphase pumping benefits has found its way to provide solutions to these issues. Challenges such as failure issues that are still surging the industry and with the current practice of information hiding, this issues becomes even more difficult to tackle. Although, there are some joint industry projects which are only accessible to its members, still there is a need to have a clear understanding of these equipment groups so as to know which issues to focus attention on. A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a potential first aid in understanding this equipment groups. A survey questionnaire/interview was conducted with the oil and gas operating company and equipment manufacturer based on the literature review. The results indicates that these equipment’s group are similar with its onshore counterpart, but the difference is the robustness built into the equipment internal subsystems for subsea applications. The results from the manufacturer perspectives indicates that Helico-axial multiphase pump have a mean time to failure of more than 10 years, twin-screw and electrical submersible pumps are still struggling with a mean time to failure of less than 5 years.

  1. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on HOPG and their catalytic abilities of H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and temperature programmed desorption techniques have been used to investigate adsorption and abstraction of hydrogen atoms on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene. The coronene molecules were exposed to different hydrogen fluences at a dosing temperature......). Both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques have been used. Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000K H or D atoms. STM images show brigth spots on the coronene monolayers after hydrogenation indicating...... calcutions have also been made on desorption of H from a fully hydrogenated coronene molecule. The desorption DFT calculation reveals a favourable desorption route and stable configurations consistent with our TPD measurements[5]. References [1] Tielens, A., Reviews of Modern Physics, 85 (2013) 1021-1081 [2...

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on a sandbank plant formation: ecology and potential for hydrocarbon oil mycorrhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocimar Ferreira de Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of contamination related to the exploration, production, storage, transport, distribution and disposal of petroleum, and its products, carry risks that threaten fragile coastal environments, little studied and, thus, in need of attention from the scientific community. On the other hand, symbiont mechanisms essential for the very existence of many plant species, and their relation to contaminated soils, remain unknown. Despite the identification of several species of AMF halophytes soil communities in sandbanks, one can infer their bioremediation potential from studies in other types of soil, which, however, report the same genera of fungi as participants in mycorrhizoremediation processes of polluted soil. This study focuses on the application of biotechnology using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF in soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  3. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the formation of sewage sludge toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate to what degree polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determines sewage sludge toxicity in relation to Heterocypris incongruens. Six differing sewage sludges with increasing contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were selected for the present study. As well as total PAH content, the content of the potentially bioavailable fraction was also determined in the sewage sludges using a method of mild-solvent extraction (with n-butanol). The PAH content was also calculated in the sewage sludge pore water by the equilibrium partitioning method. The total PAH content in the sewage sludges studied were in the range 3.60 to 27.95 mg kg -1 . The contribution of the n-butanol extracted fraction was in the range 38.7 to 75.4%. In the group of individual PAHs, 4- and 5-ring compounds had the highest content in the potentially bioavailable group. H. incongruens mortality in the range 6.7 to 100%, depending both on the sewage sludge and the dose applied. An increase of the sewage sludge dose usually resulted in an increase in toxicity. At the highest dose, a 100% mortality of H. incongruens was found in half of the sludges. The lowest dose, irrespective of the sludge type, caused over 40% growth inhibition. However, the results obtained did not allow for the establishing of an unambiguous relationship between various sludge toxicity levels and the content of potentially bio-available PAHs. In some cases only, the extraction using n-butanol explained the high difference in toxicity despite a slight differentiation in the PAH content

  5. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    , are observed. Because of relatively high H2 destruction rates in these regions, the presently accepted formation routes on dust grains cannot exclusively account for the observed abundances [1]. Therefore, new formation routes are needed and lately attention has been drawn towards molecules called polycyclic...

  6. Formation of Nitriles in the Interstellar Medium via Reactions of Cyano Radicals, CN(X2Σ+), with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, N.; Asvany, O.; Huang, L. C. L.; Lee, Y. T.; Kaiser, R. I.; Osamura, Y.; Bettinger, H. F.

    2000-12-01

    Crossed molecular beam experiments of cyano radicals, CN(X2Σ+, ν=0), in their electronic and vibrational ground state reacting with unsaturated hydrocarbons acetylene, C2H2(X1Σ+g), ethylene, C2H4(X1Ag), methylacetylene, CH3CCH(X1A1), allene, H2CCCH2(X1A1), dimethylacetylene, CH3CCCH3(X1A1'), and benzene, C6H6 (X1A1g), were performed at relative collision energies between 13.3 and 36.4 kJ mol-1 to unravel the formation of unsaturated nitriles in the outflows of late-type AGB carbon stars and molecular clouds. In all reactions, the CN radical was found to attack the π electron density of the hydrocarbon molecule with the radical center located at the carbon atom; the formation of an initial addition complex is a prevalent pathway on all the involved potential energy surfaces. A subsequent carbon-hydrogen bond rupture yields the nitriles cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X1Σ+), vinylcyanide, C2H3CN (X1A'), 1-methylcyanoacetylene, CH3CCCN (X1A1), cyanoallene, H2CCCH(CN) (X1A'), 3-methylcyanoacetylene, HCCCH2CN(X1A'), 1,1-cyanomethylallene, H2CCC(CN)(CH3) (X1A'), and cyanobenzene, C6H5CN (X1A1). In case of acetylene and ethylene, a second reaction channel involves a [1, 2]-H atom shift in the initial HCCHCN and H2CCH2CN collision complexes prior to a hydrogen atom release to form cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X1Σ+), and vinylcyanide, C2H3CN (X1A'). Since all these radical-neutral reactions show no entrance barriers, have exit barriers well below the energy of the reactant molecules, and are exothermic, the explicit identification of this CN versus H atom exchange pathway under single collision conditions makes this reaction class a compelling candidate to synthesize unsaturated nitriles in interstellar environments holding temperatures as low as 10 K. This general concept makes it even feasible to predict the formation of nitriles once the corresponding unsaturated hydrocarbons are identified in the interstellar medium. Here HCCCN, C2H3CN, and CH3CCCN have been already observed

  7. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  8. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal: A possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooten, G. K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The successful application of forensic geology to contamination studies involving natural systems requires identification of appropriate endmembers and an understanding of the geologic setting and processes affecting the systems. Studies attempting to delineate the background, or natural, source for hydrocarbon contamination in Gulf of Alaska (GOA) benthic sediments have invoked a number of potential sources, including seep oils, source rocks, and coal. Oil seeps have subsequently been questioned as significant sources of hydrocarbons present in benthic sediments of the GOA in part because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Likewise, native coal has been dismissed in part because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon (e.g. PAH:TOC) for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low - i.e. the coals are over mature - to be consistent with GOA sediments. We present evidence here that native coal may have been prematurely dismissed, because BRCF coals do not adequately represent the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation. Contrary to previous thought, Kulthieth Formation coals east of the BRCF have much higher PAH: TOC ratios, and the patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals suggest a possible genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analyses of low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal indicate the low maturity coal is a significant source of PAH. Source apportionment models that neglect this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the regional background hydrocarbon signature. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  9. Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary coals exposed in the north-central part of onshore Sarawak are evaluated, and their depositional environments are interpreted. Total organic carbon contents (TOC) of the coals range from 58.1 to 80.9 wt. % and yield hydrogen index values ranging from 282 to 510 mg HC/g TOC with low oxygen index values, consistent with Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens. The coal samples have vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.47-0.67 Ro %, indicating immature to early mature (initial oil window). T max values range from 428 to 436 °C, which are good in agreement with vitrinite reflectance data. The Tertiary coals are humic and generally dominated by vitrinite, with significant amounts of liptinite and low amounts of inertinite macerals. Good liquid hydrocarbons generation potential can be expected from the coals with rich liptinitic content (>35 %). This is supported by their high hydrogen index of up to 300 mg HC/g TOC and Py-GC ( S 2) pyrograms with n-alkane/alkene doublets extending beyond C30. The Tertiary coals are characterised by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes ( n-C23 to n-C33), high Pr/Ph ratio (6-8), high T m / T s ratio (8-16), and predominant regular sterane C29. All biomarkers parameters clearly indicate that the organic matter was derived from terrestrial inputs and the deposited under oxic condition.

  10. Modeling unburned hydrocarbon formation due to absorption/desorption processes into the wall oil film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.K.; Assanis, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that as a result of continuing air pollution problems, very stringent regulations are being enforced to control emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) from premixed-charge, spark-ignition engines. A number of attempts have been reported on modeling sources of HC emissions using various analytical tools. Over the past decade, the development of multi-dimensional reacting flow codes has advanced considerably. Perhaps the most widely used multi-dimensional engine simulation code is KIVA-II, which was developed at Lost Alamos National Laboratory. The ability to deal with moving boundary conditions caused by the piston movement is built in this code. This code also includes models for turbulent fluid flow, turbulent interaction between spray drops and gas, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and fuel spray. A standard k-ε turbulence model is used for gas flow. The fuel spray model is based on the stochastic particle technique, and includes sub-models for droplet injection, breakup, collision and coalescence, and evaporation

  11. Development of a subsea system for water separation; Desenvolvimento de sistema submarino de separacao de agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Mauricio W. de; Ramalho, Joao Batista V.S.; Souza, Antonio Luiz S. de; Gomes, Jose Adilson T.; Burmann, Clovis P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil production is normally followed by water production in increasing rates, mostly when waterflooding is used as oil recovery mechanism. In order to minimize the impact that high rates of produced water causes to the topside facilities , PETROBRAS is working on the development of a subsea system for oil-water separation, so that most of the produced water on the mud line can be removed and reinjected in the reservoir or in a bearing formation. The article shows how this development has been carried, the scenario definition for the pilot, the problems associated to an installation in a system already operating and the oil characteristics determination. These data constitute the base for the survey to define the technologies with potential application on the separation system to be developed. The special characteristic of the oil, with high tendency to form stable emulsions with water, are also analyzed, as well as the difficulties it brings to the process in the subsea environment, where there are vessel size and fluid heating limitations. (author)

  12. Paleoweathering features in the Sergi Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous), northeastern Brazil, and implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Cristina; Mizusaki, Ana M.; Pimentel, Nuno; Faccini, Ubiratan F.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Paleoweathering in the Sergi Formation has been classified and analyzed to ascertain its origin and relationship with stratigraphic evolution. The Sergi Formation belongs to the pre-rift sequence of the Recôncavo Basin (northeastern Brazil) and comprises a complex association of eolian and fluvial sandstones and lacustrine mudstones. This formation can be subdivided into three depositional sequences bounded by regional unconformities. Four paleoweathering types, each one related to a distinct origin, have been described in the Sergi Formation: (1) textural mottling, which is distinguished by alternating rock colors as a result of the iron oxide mobilization within mineral phases that evolved under alternating oxidation (yellowish, brownish and reddish shades) and reduction (grayish or greenish hues) conditions; (2) non-textural mottling, which displays a discoloration pattern that is independent of the original rock texture; (3) carbonate concentrations, usually related to carbonate nodule formation, which display a massive internal structure that reveals their origin through continuous growth or crystallization; and (4) banded carbonates (silicified), associated with the beginning of regular surface formation due to the chemical precipitation of carbonates within lacustrine environments. Both mottling color motifs and carbonate accumulation usually represent groundwater oscillation rather than pedogenesis. Only carbonate intraclasts and banded carbonate (silicified) have their origin ascribed to pedogenesis sensu stricto, although the carbonate intraclasts do not represent soil deposits in situ, but calcretes eroded from areas close to channels, and the banded carbonates (silicified) have strong diagenetic modifications. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that fluvial and meteoric water have controlled paleoweathering evolution as well as deposition, yet both aspects are ruled by the same mechanisms (relief, sedimentation rate and, above all, climate).

  13. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University

    2017-01-01

    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  14. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  15. En-Tegrity - Advanced subsea well control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Jeff

    2010-07-01

    Shear Seal Valve: En-Tegrity - Advanced subsea well control technology. With the growing complexity of well interventions operations such as zone isolations, chemical treatment, sand removal and side track re-completion drilling, there is an increasing demand for an efficient light well intervention service equipment. This paper details the design, development and qualification program undertaken to introduce a new technology for well interventions operations. The Shear Seal Valve provides dual barrier sealing integrity that is capable of cutting large diameter coiled tubing, drill pipe and intervention tooling within a single compact housing. The hydraulic design of the valve minimizes operating volumes and negates the requirement for mechanical ram locks therefore greatly simplifying control system complexity. Utilizing dual metal to metal sealing technology and a fail safe close rational the system is ideally suited to HPHT applications providing optimum operational integrity. (Author)

  16. Measuring Star-Formation Rates of AGNs and QSOs using a new calibration from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey

    Understanding the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion is one of the key questions in galaxy formation theory. This relation is important for understanding why at present the mass in galaxy bulges (on scales of kpc) correlates so tightly with the mass of galaxy central supermassive blackholes (on scales of AU). Feedback from supermassive black hole accretion may also be responsible for heating or expelling cold gas from galaxies, shutting off the fuel for star-formation and additional black hole growth. Did bulges proceed the formation of black holes, or vice versa, or are they contemporaneous? Therefore, understanding the exact rates of star-formation and supermassive black hole growth, and how they evolve with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. It has previously been nearly impossible to study simultaneously both star-formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies because the emission from black hole accretion contaminates nearly all diagnostics of star-formation. The "standard" diagnostics for the star-formation rate (the emission from hydrogen, UV emission, midIR emission, far-IR emission, etc) are not suitable for measuring star-formation rates in galaxies with actively accreting supermassive blackholes. In this proposal, the researchers request NASA/ADP funding for an archival study using spectroscopy with the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure simultaneously the star-formation rate (SFR) and bolometric emission from accreting supermassive blackholes to understand the complex relation between both processes. The key to this study is that they will develop a new calibrator for SFRs in galaxies with active supermassive black holes based on the molecular emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which emit strongly in the mid-IR (3 - 20 micron) and are very strong in spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The PAH molecules exist near photo-dissociation regions, and

  17. Permian-Triassic maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons in the Assistência Formation (Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil: implications for the exploration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Mateus

    Full Text Available New lines of geological evidence strongly suggest that the main period of hydrocarbon maturation within Assistência Formation should be Permian-Triassic, stimulated by a high geothermal gradient that also sustained various manifestations of hydrothermal activity. Three main stages of fluid/hydrocarbon migration can also be inferred on the basis of multiscale observations: confined flow in late Permian to Triassic times, depending on the local build-up of fluid pressures; heterogeneous flow in Lower Cretaceous, triggered by a rejuvenated temperature gradient assisted by the early developed permeability conditions; and a late flow possibly driven by local pressure gradients, after complete cooling of dolerite dykes/sills. The early maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons have significant consequences in the design of exploration models to be applied in Paraná Basin.

  18. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  19. An experimental investigation into the formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from pyrolysis of biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, T.; Sharma, R.; Hajaligol, M. [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2001-10-09

    The formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of cellulose, pectin and chlorogenic acid was studied. The primary product, mostly primary volatile tar, was exposed to a higher thermal severity i.e. high temperatures and long residence times. The reactor setup consisted of a quartz tube with two zones, zone I and II, each heated and controlled separately. Zone I was used to first pyrolyse the substrate at 300{degree}C to produce a low temperature tar (LTT) as well as to pyrolyse the product char at 600{degree}C to produce a high temperature tar (HTT). The LTT and HTT were then subjected to a high thermal severity in the second zone (zone II) where the temperature was varied between 700 and 850{degree}C. The residence time of the volatiles in zone II was varied between ca. 90 and 1400 ms (calculated at 800{degree}C). The results show that the yield of most PAHs increased with temperature, except in a few cases where the yield of two- and three-ring PAHs exhibited a maximum. PAHs yields also generally increased as the residence time was increased from 90 to 1400 ms at 800{degree}C. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  2. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  3. Direct formation of gasoline hydrocarbons from cellulose by hydrothermal conversion with in situ hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Sudong; Mehrotra, Anil Kumar; Tan, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    A new process based on aqueous-phase dehydration/hydrogenation (APD/H) has been developed to directly produce liquid alkanes (C 7–9 ), which are the main components of fossil gasoline, from cellulose in one single batch reactor without the consumption of external hydrogen (H 2 ). In this new process, part of the cellulose is first converted to in situ H 2 by steam reforming (SR) in the steam gas phase mainly; and, in the liquid water phase, cellulose is converted to an alkane precursor, such as 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF). In the final reaction step, in situ H 2 reacts with HMF to form liquid alkanes through APD/H. Accordingly, this new process has been named SR(H 2 )-APD/H. Experimental results show that the volumetric ratio of the reactor headspace to the reactor (H/R) and an initial weakly alkaline condition are the two key parameters for SR(H 2 )-APD/H. With proper H/R ratios (e.g., 0.84) and initial weakly alkaline conditions (e.g., pH = 7.5), liquid alkanes are directly formed from the SR(H 2 )-APD/H of cellulose using in situ H 2 instead of external H 2 . In this study, compared with pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose at the same temperatures with same retetion time, SR(H 2 )-APD/H greatly increased the liquid alkane yields, by approximately 700 times and 35 times, respectively. Based on this process, direct formation of fossil gasoline from renewable biomass resources without using external H 2 becomes possible. -- Highlights: ► A process of producing gasoline alkanes from cellulose was proposed and studied. ► Alkane precursors and in situ H 2 were formed simultaneously in a single reactor. ► Alkanes subsequently formed by reactions between in situ H 2 and alkane precursors. ► The yields were 700 and 35 times higher than pyrolysis and hydrothermal conversion.

  4. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  5. Remote controlled tool systems for nuclear sites have subsea applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, B.; Yemington, C.; Kuhta, B.

    1995-10-01

    Remotely operated underwater tool systems designed to operate in Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins can be applied to deep water, subsea oilfield applications. Spent nuclear fuel rods re stored underwater in large indoor swimming pool-like facilities where the water cover shields the workers from the radiation. This paper describes three specialized tooling systems that were designed and built by Sonsub for work at the Department of Energy's Hanford site. The Door Seal Tool removed an existing seal system, cleaned a 20 ft. tall, carbon steel, underwater hatch and installed a new stainless steel gasket surface with underwater epoxy. The Concrete Sampling Tool was built to take core samples from the vertical, concrete walls of the basins. The tool has three hydraulic drills with proprietary hollow core drill bits to cut and retrieve the concrete samples. The Rack Saw remotely attached itself to a structure, cut a variety of steel shapes and pipes, and retained the cut pieces for retrieval. All of these systems are remotely operated with onboard video cameras and debris collection systems. The methods and equipment proven in this application are available to refurbish sealing surfaces and to drill or sample concrete in offshore oil field applications

  6. Influence of in situ steam formation by radio frequency heating on thermodesorption of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Ulf; Bergmann, Sabine; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    Thermal desorption of a wide spectrum of organic contaminants, initiated by radio frequency (RF) heating, was studied at laboratory and pilot-plant scales for an artificially contaminated soil and for an originally contaminated soil from an industrial site. Up to 100 °C, moderate desorption rates were observed for light aromatics such as toluene, chlorobenzene, and ethylbenzene. Desorption of the less volatile contaminants was greatly enhanced above 100 °C, when fast evaporation of soil-water produced steam for hydrocarbon stripping (steam-distillation, desorption rates increased by more than 1 order of magnitude). For hydrocarbons with low water solubility (e.g., aliphatic hydrocarbons), the temperature increase above 100 °C after desiccation of soil again led to a significant increase of the removal rates, thus showing the impact of hydrocarbon partial pressure. RF heating was shown to be an appropriate option for thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, leading to efficient cleaning of contaminated soils.

  7. A real-time non-contact monitoring method of subsea pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Dalei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitoring the subsea pipeline in real-time, a special potentiometric sensor array and a potential prediction model are presented in this paper. Firstly, to measure the potential of seawater, a special potentiometric sensor array with Ag/AgCl all-solid-state reference electrodes is first developed in this paper. Secondly, according to the obtained distribution law of electric field intensities a prediction model of the pipeline potentials is developed. Finally, the potentiometric sensor array is applied in sink experiment and the prediction model is validated by the sink measurements. The maximum error for pipeline potential prediction model is 1.1 mV. The proposed non-contact monitoring method for subsea pipeline can predict the potential of sea pipeline in real-time, thus providing important information for further subsea pipeline maintenance.

  8. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2012-01-01

    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability analysis and optimisation of subsea compression system facing operational covariate stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaro, Ikenna Anthony; Tao, Longbin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced Weibull-Corrosion Covariate model for reliability assessment of a system facing operational stresses. The newly developed model is applied to a Subsea Gas Compression System planned for offshore West Africa to predict its reliability index. System technical failure was modelled by developing a Weibull failure model incorporating a physically tested corrosion profile as stress in order to quantify the survival rate of the system under additional operational covariates including marine pH, temperature and pressure. Using Reliability Block Diagrams and enhanced Fusell-Vesely formulations, the whole system was systematically decomposed to sub-systems to analyse the criticality of each component and optimise them. Human reliability was addressed using an enhanced barrier weighting method. A rapid degradation curve is obtained on a subsea system relative to the base case subjected to a time-dependent corrosion stress factor. It reveals that subsea system components failed faster than their Mean time to failure specifications from Offshore Reliability Database as a result of cumulative marine stresses exertion. The case study demonstrated that the reliability of a subsea system can be systematically optimised by modelling the system under higher technical and organisational stresses, prioritising the critical sub-systems and making befitting provisions for redundancy and tolerances. - Highlights: • Novel Weibull Corrosion-Covariate model for reliability analysis of subsea assets. • Predict the accelerated degradation profile of a subsea gas compression. • An enhanced optimisation method based on Fusell-Vesely decomposition process. • New optimisation approach for smoothening of over- and under-designed components. • Demonstrated a significant improvement in producing more realistic failure rate.

  10. Installation of deep water sub-sea equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Jack; Demian, Nabil [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)

    2004-07-01

    Offshore oil developments are being planned in water depths exceeding 2000 m. Lowering and positioning large, heavy sub sea hardware, using conventional methods, presents new technical challenges in these ultra deep waters. In 3000 m a safe lift using conventional steel cables will require more capacity to support the cable self weight than the static payload. Adding dynamic loads caused by the motions of the surface vessel can quickly cause the safe capacity of the wire to be exceeded. Synthetic ropes now exist to greatly reduce the lowering line weight. The lower stiffness of these synthetic ropes aggravate the dynamic line tensions due to vessel motions and relatively little is known about the interaction of these ropes on the winches and sheaves required for pay-out and haul-in of these lines under dynamic load. Usage of conventional winches would damage the synthetic rope and risk the hardware being deployed. Reliable and economic installation systems that can operate from existing installation vessels are considered vital for ultra deep-water oil development. The paper describes a Deep Water Sub-Sea Hardware Deployment system consisting of a buoy with variable, pressure-balanced buoyancy, which is used to offset most of the payload weight as it is lowered. The buoyant capacity is controlled by air pumped into the tank from the surface vessel through a reinforced hose. The buoy and payload motion are isolated from the deployment line surface dynamics using a simple passive heave compensator mounted between the buoy and the bottom of the deployment rope. The system components, functionality and dynamic behavior are presented in the paper. (author)

  11. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole; Brower, David; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin; Tang, Henry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  12. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Fiber-Optic Monitoring System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin H.; Tang, Henry H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system capable of measuring pressure, strain, and temperature that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. A summary is provided of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and subsequent design refinements of the device. The results of laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are also included. Limitations of the initial concept were identified during testing and future design improvements were proposed and later implemented. These new features enhance the coupling of the sensor device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on flowlines, risers, and other subsea structures. The work described in this paper investigates the design and test of a friction-based coupling device (herein referred to as a friction clamp) which is suitable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column as well as for those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiberoptic sensors that are bonded to a stainless steel clamshell assembly with a high-friction surface coating. The friction clamp incorporates a single hinge design to facilitate installation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force along the structure. The friction clamp can be modified to be installed by commercial divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating

  13. Development and Testing of a Friction-Based Post-Installable Sensor for Subsea Fiber-Optic Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Seaman, Calvin H.; Tang, Henry H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a friction-based coupling device for a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing subsea structures. This paper provides a summary of the design concept, prototype development, prototype performance testing, and design refinements of the device. The results of the laboratory testing of the first prototype performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are included in this paper. Limitations of the initial design were identified and future design improvements were proposed. These new features will enhance the coupling of the device and improve the monitoring system measurement capabilities. A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation monitoring system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the structure of interest for reliable measurements. Friction-based coupling devices have the potential to overcome coupling limitations caused by marine growth and soil contamination on subsea structures, flowlines or risers. The work described in this paper investigates the design of a friction-based coupling device (friction clamp), which is applicable for pipelines and structures that are suspended in the water column and those that are resting on the seabed. The monitoring elements consist of fiber-optic sensors that are bonded to a metal clamshell with a high-friction coating. The friction clamp has a single hinge design to facilitate the operation of the clamp and dual rows of opposing fasteners to distribute the clamping force on the structure. The friction clamp can be installed by divers in shallow depths or by remotely operated vehicles in deep-water applications. NASA-JSC was involved in the selection and testing of the friction coating, and in the design and testing of the prototype clamp device. Four-inch diameter and eight-inch diameter sub-scale friction clamp prototypes were built and tested to evaluate the strain

  14. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  15. Structure of formations on the NaCl monocrystal surface following simultaneous irradiation of it by hydrocarbon molecule flow and Ne/sup +/ ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derevyanchenko, A S; Palatnik, L S; Martynov, I S; Seryugin, A L; Gritsyna, V V; Koval' , A G; Kiyan, T S; Fogel' , Ya M [Khar' kovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1975-07-01

    The structure of a film growing on the surface of NaCl crystal with a simultaneous irradiation of the film with molecules of hydrocarbons and Ne ions has been investigated. At the first stage of formation the film has a net structure of graphite with an abnormally large internet distance. At the subsequent stage of growing hollow spherulites are formed in the film, their walls having the structure of the third phase of carbon - carbine and dendrites - crystals with the structure of NaCl forming inside of the growing film.

  16. Availability analysis of subsea blowout preventer using Markov model considering demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghee Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Availabilities of subsea Blowout Preventers (BOP in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (GoM OCS is investigated using a Markov method. An updated β factor model by SINTEF is used for common-cause failures in multiple redundant systems. Coefficient values of failure rates for the Markov model are derived using the β factor model of the PDS (reliability of computer-based safety systems, Norwegian acronym method. The blind shear ram preventer system of the subsea BOP components considers a demand rate to reflect reality more. Markov models considering the demand rate for one or two components are introduced. Two data sets are compared at the GoM OCS. The results show that three or four pipe ram preventers give similar availabilities, but redundant blind shear ram preventers or annular preventers enhance the availability of the subsea BOP. Also control systems (PODs and connectors are contributable components to improve the availability of the subsea BOPs based on sensitivity analysis.

  17. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  18. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  20. Process for running scrapers, particularly for subsea petroleum well lines; Fremgangsmaate ved kjoering av skrapere, saerlig for undervannspetroleumbroenn-roerledninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Mendonca da; Herdeiro, Marco Antonio Nogueira; Capplonch, Ricardo Wagner; Miranda, Luiz Vicente Auler Passos

    1997-09-29

    The invention relates to a cleaning method of offshore pipelines. A process for running scrapers for subsea petroleum well lines has, according to a first embodiment, launching a scraper through the line towards the wellhead on a step-by-step basis. The operation proceeds by sending the scraper along successively larger sections via reversing flow through the obstructed line to limit passage of the scraper to that obstructed line, until the whole line is swept. Furthermore, according to a second embodiment, the process consists of the launching of one or more scrapers from a chamber installed in the subsea production system, towards the platform, sweeping only the whole obstructed line, all at once. Once cleaning of the obstructed line is completed, new scrapers may be sent from the platform to the subsea equipment chamber where they are stored until a further cleaning operation is required. The chamber installed in the subsea equipment may serve more than one obstructed line

  1. Modeling sub-sea permafrost in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: the Dmitry Laptev Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolsky, D; Shakhova, N

    2010-01-01

    The present state of sub-sea permafrost modeling does not agree with certain observational data on the permafrost state within the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. This suggests a need to consider other mechanisms of permafrost destabilization after the recent ocean transgression. We propose development of open taliks wherever thaw lakes and river paleo-valleys were submerged shelf-wide as a possible mechanism for the degradation of sub-sea permafrost. To test the hypothesis we performed numerical modeling of permafrost dynamics in the Dmitry Laptev Strait area. We achieved sufficient agreement with the observed distribution of thawed and frozen layers to suggest that the proposed mechanism of permafrost destabilization is plausible.

  2. Required developments towards ultra high pressure and temperature subsea tree system solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queseth, Per-Olaf

    2010-07-01

    For the subsea High Pressure High Temperature oil and gas production systems, the primary challenge is to provide good, reliable solutions for HPHT reservoir exploitation based on an overview of parameters for already discovered potential fields. The paper will present a resume of Aker Solutions' previous development in this area exemplified with experiences from testing and operator observations during production start of HPHT fields in the North Sea. Further improvements are required to comply with the extreme pressures and temperatures sought to overcome. 'The Devil is in the details' is a very relevant proverb. A program to qualify subsea production X-mas trees for Ultra HPHT use will be presented with highlight on sealing systems, feed-through solutions and materials as well as impact on interfacing systems. Preliminary and intermediate analytical and test results will be presented and remaining activities summarised. (Author)

  3. Framework for Combined Diagnostics, Prognostics and Optimal Operation of a Subsea Gas Compression System

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyleweghen, Adriaen; Jaeschke, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The efficient and safe operation of subsea gas and oil production systems sets strict requirements to equipment reliability to avoid unplanned breakdowns and costly maintenance interventions. Because of this, condition monitoring is employed to assess the status of the system in real-time. However, the condition of the system is usually not considered explicitly when finding the optimal operation strategy. Instead, operational constraints on flow rates, pressures etc., based on worst-case sce...

  4. Subsea Cable Tracking by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Magnetic Sensing Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Yu, Caoyang; Niu, Zemin; Zhang, Qin

    2016-08-20

    The changes of the seabed environment caused by a natural disaster or human activities dramatically affect the life span of the subsea buried cable. It is essential to track the cable route in order to inspect the condition of the buried cable and protect its surviving seabed environment. The magnetic sensor is instrumental in guiding the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to track and inspect the buried cable underseas. In this paper, a novel framework integrating the underwater cable localization method with the magnetic guidance and control algorithm is proposed, in order to enable the automatic cable tracking by a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) under-actuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) without human beings in the loop. The work relies on the passive magnetic sensing method to localize the subsea cable by using two tri-axial magnetometers, and a new analytic formulation is presented to compute the heading deviation, horizontal offset and buried depth of the cable. With the magnetic localization, the cable tracking and inspection mission is elaborately constructed as a straight-line path following control problem in the horizontal plane. A dedicated magnetic line-of-sight (LOS) guidance is built based on the relative geometric relationship between the vehicle and the cable, and the feedback linearizing technique is adopted to design a simplified cable tracking controller considering the side-slip effects, such that the under-actuated vehicle is able to move towards the subsea cable and then inspect its buried environment, which further guides the environmental protection of the cable by setting prohibited fishing/anchoring zones and increasing the buried depth. Finally, numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed magnetic guidance and control algorithm on the envisioned subsea cable tracking and the potential protection of the seabed environment along the cable route.

  5. Geochemical monitoring for detection of CO_{2} leakage from subsea storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Johannessen, Truls

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in subsea geological formations is a promising large-scale technology for mitigating the increases of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. However, detection and quantification of potential leakage of the stored CO2 remains as one of the main challenges of this technology. Geochemical monitoring of the water column is specially demanding because the leakage CO2 once in the seawater may be rapidly dispersed by dissolution, dilution and currents. In situ sensors capture CO2 leakage signal if they are deployed very close to the leakage point. For regions with vigorous mixing and/or deep water column, and for areas far away from the leakage point, a highly sensitive carbon tracer (Cseep tracer) was developed based on the back-calculation techniques used to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the water column. Originally, the Cseep tracer was computed using accurate discrete measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT) in the Norwegian Sea to isolate the effect of natural submarine vents in the water column. In this work we assess the effect of measurement variables on the performance of the method by computing the Cseep tracer twice: first using DIC and AT, and second using partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and pH. The assessment was performed through the calculation of the signal to noise ratios (STNR). We found that the use of the Cseep tracer increases the STNR ten times compared to the raw measurement data, regardless of the variables used. Thus, while traditionally the pH-pCO2 pair generates the greatest uncertainties in the oceanic CO2 system, it seems that the Cseep technique is insensitive to that issue. On the contrary, the use of the pCO2-pH pair has the highest CO2 leakage detection and localization potential due to the fact that both pCO2 and pH can currently be measured at high frequency and in an autonomous mode.

  6. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  7. Modeling the formation, decay, and partitioning of semivolatile nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitronaphthalenes) in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Kamens, R.M.; Strommen, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A nitronaphthalene kinetics mechanism has been implemented and added to the photochemical smog mechanism, Carbon Bond-4. This mechanism was used to simulate the formation, decay, and partitioning of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and compare it to outdoor smog chamber data. The results suggest that th...

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  9. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  10. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H2 FORMATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrower, John; Jørgensen, Bjarke; Friis, Emil Enderup

    2012-01-01

    , in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H2 loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H2 formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic...

  11. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  12. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Electrical resistivity and induced polarization tomography in identifying the plume of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sedimentary formation: a case study in Rho (Milan - Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2009-09-01

    Resistivity and induced polarization surveying were originally developed for mineral exploration but are now finding new applications in the field of environmental and engineering geophysics. The present article reports the results of a geophysical survey performed with the aim of identifying a plume of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sedimentary formations of the Pandania plain. The tested site is characterized by three sand and gravel aquifers containing a quantity of clay particles which influence the overall bulk resistivity and chargeability. According to data obtained using shallow boreholes, mainly dense non-aqueous phase liquids were found as contaminants in the first and second aquifer. The aforementioned geo-electrical methods were applied in both two- and three-dimensional approaches. Steel and copper electrodes were used in the process of field data acquisition and the results of the survey were compared. The geophysical survey revealed some anomalies that could be explained by the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in the soil medium. The concept of normalized chargeability facilitates the interpretation of detected induced polarization anomalies. The shape of the plume was inferred from maps of resistivity and chargeability to a depth of 25 m below the surface of the ground.

  14. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  15. Hydrogen Assisted Crack in Dissimilar Metal Welds for Subsea Service under Cathodic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Desmond

    Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) are routinely used in the oil and gas industries for structural joining of high strength steels in order to eliminate the need for post weld heat treatment (PWHT) after field welding. There have been reported catastrophic failures in these DMWs, particularly the AISI 8630 steel - Alloy 625 DMW combination, during subsea service while under cathodic protection (CP). This is due to local embrittlement that occurs in susceptible microstructures that are present at the weld fusion boundary region. This type of cracking is known as hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC) and it is influenced by base/filler metal combination, and welding and PWHT procedures. DMWs of two material combinations (8630 steel -- Alloy 625 and F22 steel -- Alloy 625), produced with two welding procedures (BS1 and BS3) in as welded and PWHT conditions were investigated in this study. The main objectives included: 1) evaluation of the effect of materials composition, welding and PWHT procedures on the gradients of composition, microstructure, and properties in the dissimilar transition region and on the susceptibility to HAC; 2) investigation of the influence of microstructure on the HAC failure mechanism and identification of microstructural constituents acting as crack nucleation and propagation sites; 3) assessment of the applicability of two-step PWHT to improve the resistance to HAC in DMWs; 4) establishment of non-failure criterion for the delayed hydrogen cracking test (DHCT) that is applicable for qualification of DMWs for subsea service under cathodic protection (CP).

  16. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors in urogenital sinus mesenchyme mediate the inhibition of prostatic epithelial bud formation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kinarm; Moore, Robert W.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    In utero exposure of male C57BL/6 mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prevents prostatic epithelial buds from forming in the ventral region of the urogenital sinus (UGS) and reduces the number of buds that form in the dorsolateral region. This inhibition of budding is aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) dependent and appears to be the primary cause of lobe-specific prostate abnormalities in TCDD-exposed mice. TCDD can inhibit prostatic epithelial bud formation by acting directly on the UGS in vitro, but whether it does so via AHR in UGS mesenchyme, epithelium, or both was unknown. To address this issue, UGS mesenchyme and epithelium from gestation day (GD) 15 wild-type C57BL/6J male mice were isolated, recombined, and cultured in vitro for 5 days with 10 -8 M 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and either 10 -9 M TCDD or vehicle. Prostatic epithelial buds were viewed by light microscopy after removal of mesenchyme. Effects depended greatly on which portions of the mesenchyme were used: TCDD had little if any effect when whole UGS epithelium (UGE) was recombined with ventral plus dorsolateral mesenchyme, tended to reduce bud numbers in recombinants made with UGE and dorsolateral mesenchyme, and severely reduced bud numbers in recombinants made with UGE and ventral mesenchyme (VM). [VM + UGE] recombinants prepared from wild-type and AHR knockout (Ahr -/- ) mice were then cultured with DHT to determine the site of action of TCDD. AHR null mutation alone had no effect on budding. TCDD severely inhibited prostatic epithelial bud formation in recombinants that contained mesenchymal AHR, whereas bud formation was not inhibited by TCDD in recombinants lacking mesenchymal AHR, regardless of epithelial AHR status. These results demonstrate that UGS mesenchyme and not UGS epithelium is the site of action of TCDD. Therefore, the initial events responsible for abnormal UGS (and ultimately prostate) development occur within the UGS mesenchyme, and changes in gene expression

  18. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  19. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - gas-particle partitioning, mass size distribution, and formation along transport in marine and continental background air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Mulder, Marie D.; Shahpoury, Pourya; Kukučka, Petr; Lišková, Hana; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) are ubiquitous in polluted air but little is known about their abundance in background air. NPAHs were studied at one marine and one continental background site, i.e. a coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea (summer 2012) and a site in the central Great Hungarian Plain (summer 2013), together with the parent compounds, PAHs. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to track air mass history. Based on Lagrangian particle statistics, the urban influence on samples was quantified for the first time as a fractional dose to which the collected volume of air had been exposed. At the remote marine site, the 3-4-ring NPAH (sum of 11 targeted species) concentration was 23.7 pg m-3 while the concentration of 4-ring PAHs (6 species) was 426 pg m-3. The most abundant NPAHs were 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFLT) and 3-nitrophenanthrene. Urban fractional doses in the range of air are the lowest ever reported and remarkably lower, by more than 1 order of magnitude, than 1 decade before. Day-night variation of NPAHs at the continental site reflected shorter lifetime during the day, possibly because of photolysis of some NPAHs. The yields of formation of 2NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2NPYR) in marine air seem to be close to the yields for OH-initiated photochemistry observed in laboratory experiments under high NOx conditions. Good agreement is found for the prediction of NPAH gas-particle partitioning using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship. Sorption to soot is found to be less significant for gas-particle partitioning of NPAHs than for PAHs. The NPAH levels determined in the south-eastern outflow of Europe confirm intercontinental transport potential.

  20. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  1. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2017-04-01

    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e. g. depressurization and/or carbon dioxide injection) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR - Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs«. In order to simulate the exploitation of hydrate-bearing sediments in the subsea, an in-house simulation model HyReS which is implemented in the general-purpose software COMSOL Multiphysics is used. This tool turned out to be especially suited for the flexible implementation of non-standard correlations concerning heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate kinetics, and other relevant model data. Partially based on the simulation results, the development of a technical concept and its evaluation are the subject of ongoing investigations, whereby geological and ecological criteria are to be considered. The results illustrate the processes and effects occurring during the gas production from a subsea gas hydrate deposit by depressurization. The simulation results from a case study for a deposit located in the Black Sea reveal that the production of natural gas by simple depressurization is possible but with quite low rates. It can be shown that the hydrate decomposition and thus the gas production strongly depend on the geophysical properties of the reservoir, the mass and heat transport within the reservoir, and

  2. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  3. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  4. Modelling and assessment of accidental oil release from damaged subsea pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhong; Chen, Guoming; Zhu, Hongwei

    2017-10-15

    This paper develops a 3D, transient, mathematical model to estimate the oil release rate and simulate the oil dispersion behavior. The Euler-Euler method is used to estimate the subsea oil release rate, while the Eulerian-Lagrangian method is employed to track the migration trajectory of oil droplets. This model accounts for the quantitative effect of backpressure and hole size on oil release rate, and the influence of oil release rate, oil density, current speed, water depth and leakage position on oil migration is also investigated in this paper. Eventually, the results, e.g. transient release rate of oil, the rise time of oil and dispersion distance are determined by above-mentioned model, and the oil release and dispersion behavior under different scenarios is revealed. Essentially, the assessment results could provide a useful guidance for detection of leakage positon and placement of oil containment boom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 2. Borehole constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Herman, Bruce M.; Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Borehole logging data from legacy wells directly constrain the contemporary distribution of subsea permafrost in the sedimentary section at discrete locations on the U.S. Beaufort Margin and complement recent regional analyses of exploration seismic data to delineate the permafrost's offshore extent. Most usable borehole data were acquired on a ∼500 km stretch of the margin and within 30 km of the contemporary coastline from north of Lake Teshekpuk to nearly the U.S.-Canada border. Relying primarily on deep resistivity logs that should be largely unaffected by drilling fluids and hole conditions, the analysis reveals the persistence of several hundred vertical meters of ice-bonded permafrost in nearshore wells near Prudhoe Bay and Foggy Island Bay, with less permafrost detected to the east and west. Permafrost is inferred beneath many barrier islands and in some nearshore and lagoonal (back-barrier) wells. The analysis of borehole logs confirms the offshore pattern of ice-bearing subsea permafrost distribution determined based on regional seismic analyses and reveals that ice content generally diminishes with distance from the coastline. Lacking better well distribution, it is not possible to determine the absolute seaward extent of ice-bearing permafrost, nor the distribution of permafrost beneath the present-day continental shelf at the end of the Pleistocene. However, the recovery of gas hydrate from an outer shelf well (Belcher) and previous delineation of a log signature possibly indicating gas hydrate in an inner shelf well (Hammerhead 2) imply that permafrost may once have extended across much of the shelf offshore Camden Bay.

  6. Subsea Permafrost Mapped Across the U.S. Beaufort Sea Using Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, L.; Hart, P. E.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Circum-Arctic continental shelves at water depths less than ~100 m were subaerial permafrost prior to the onset of sea-level rise starting in the late Pleistocene. Rapid transgression and the resulting temperature increase at the sediment surface have led to thawing of the inundated permafrost, landward retreat of the leading edge of the permafrost, and dissociation of permafrost-associated gas hydrates. Past numerical modeling has shown that gas hydrate dissociation is particularly pronounced at the permafrost-to-no permafrost transition offshore. On the U.S. Beaufort margin, subsea permafrost has never been systematically mapped, and the best insights about permafrost and associated gas hydrate have been based on a limited number of offshore boreholes and numerical studies, with sometimes contrasting predictions of the permafrost's seaward extent. We bring together 5370 km of multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired during various proprietary exploration industry and public domain government surveys between 1977 and 1992 to map a velocity anomaly diagnostic of submerged permafrost along 500 km of the US Beaufort coastline. These high-velocity (>~2.8 km/s) refractions (HVR), which are evident in prestack MCS shot records, reveal laterally continuous layers of shallow, ice-bonded, coarse-grained sediments beneath the inner continental shelf. The HVR occur in less than 5% of the tracklines, and calculated HVR depths range from 60 to 350 m below seafloor. The velocity anomaly is not observed seaward of the 20 m isobath, and is only found within 30 km of the current shoreline. These results can be used to: 1) create a map of the minimum distribution of remaining US Beaufort shelf subsea permafrost; 2) reconcile discrepancies between model-predicted and borehole-verified offshore permafrost distribution; and 3) constrain where to expect hydrate dissociation.

  7. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  8. Online estimation of wax deposition thickness in single-phase sub-sea pipelines based on acoustic chemometrics: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Halstensen, Maths; Arvoh, Benjamin Kaku; Amundsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Wax deposition in sub-sea oil producing pipelines is a concern to the oil producing companies. The deposition of wax in pipelines can cause serious economic implications if not monitored and controlled. Several researchers have developed models and investigated the deposition of wax in crude oil pipelines. As of today, there is no off the shelf instrument available for reliable online estimation of the wax depo- sition thickness in sub-sea pipelines. Acoustic chemometrics was applied to inves...

  9. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  10. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  11. Investigations of material balance and the formation of metabolites on white rot in clamps in soil loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarth, M.

    1993-01-01

    One examines from a concrete case to what extent the potential danger of white rot in bio-beds caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) is reduced. The potential danger is mainly determined by the remainder of the PAH's. The remainder paths to be considered (micro-biological decomposition, transport and abiotic processes) are shown. (orig.) [de

  12. Heterogeneous reactions between ions NH3+and NH+andhydrocarbons adsorbed on a tungsten surface.Formation of HCN+in NH+-surface hydrocarbon collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harnisch, M.; Scheier, P.; Herman, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 392, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 139-144 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ion-surface collisions * NH3+ and NH+projectiles * surface hydrocarbons Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  13. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  14. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  15. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  16. System to provide 3D information on geological anomaly zone in deep subsea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kwon, O.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    The study on building the ultra long and deep subsea tunnel of which length is 50km and depth is 200m at least, respectively, is underway in Korea. To analyze the geotechnical information required for designing and building subsea tunnel, topographic/geologiccal information analysis using 2D seabed geophysical prospecting and topographic, geologic, exploration and boring data were analyzed comprehensively and as a result, automation method to identify the geological structure zone under seabed which is needed to design the deep and long seabed tunnel was developed using geostatistical analysis. In addition, software using 3D visualized ground information to provide the information includes Gocad, MVS, Vulcan and DIMINE. This study is intended to analyze the geological anomaly zone for ultra deep seabed l and visualize the geological investigation result so as to develop the exclusive system for processing the ground investigation information which is convenient for the users. Particularly it's compatible depending on file of geophysical prospecting result and is realizable in Layer form and for 3D view as well. The data to be processed by 3D seabed information system includes (1) deep seabed topographic information, (2) geological anomaly zone, (3) geophysical prospecting, (4) boring investigation result and (5) 3D visualization of the section on seabed tunnel route. Each data has own characteristics depending on data and interface to allow interlocking with other data is granted. In each detail function, input data is displayed in a single space and each element is selectable to identify the further information as a project. Program creates the project when initially implemented and all output from detail information is stored by project unit. Each element representing detail information is stored in image file and is supported to store in text file as well. It also has the function to transfer, expand/reduce and rotate the model. To represent the all elements in

  17. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.

    2017-05-01

    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  18. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  19. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  20. Predicting scour beneath subsea pipelines from existing small free span depths under steady currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Y. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An equation was developed to predict current-induced scour beneath subsea pipelines in areas with small span depths, S. Current equations for scour prediction are only applicable to partially buried pipelines. The existence of small span depths (i.e. S/D < 0.3 are of concern because the capacity for scour is higher at smaller span depths. Furthermore, it is impractical to perform rectification works, such as installing grout bags, under a pipeline with a small S/D. Full-scale two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and the Shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model. To predict the occurrence of scour, the computed maximum bed shear stress beneath the pipe was converted to the dimensionless Shields parameter, and compared with the critical Shields parameter based on the mean sediment grain size. The numerical setup was verified, and a good agreement was found between model-scale CFD data and experimental data. Field data were obtained to determine the mean grain size, far field current velocity and to measure the span depths along the surveyed pipe length. A trend line equation was fitted to the full-scale CFD data, whereby the maximum Shields parameter beneath the pipe can be calculated based on the undisturbed Shields parameter and S/D.

  1. SeeStar: an open-source, low-cost imaging system for subsea observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, F.; Kecy, C. D.; Haddock, S.

    2016-02-01

    Scientists and engineers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have collaborated to develop SeeStar, a modular, light weight, self-contained, low-cost subsea imaging system for short- to long-term monitoring of marine ecosystems. SeeStar is composed of separate camera, battery, and LED lighting modules. Two versions of the system exist: one rated to 300 meters depth, the other rated to 1500 meters. Users can download plans and instructions from an online repository and build the system using low-cost off-the-shelf components. The system utilizes an easily programmable Arduino based controller, and the widely distributed GoPro camera. The system can be deployed in a variety of scenarios taking still images and video and can be operated either autonomously or tethered on a range of platforms, including ROVs, AUVs, landers, piers, and moorings. Several Seestar systems have been built and used for scientific studies and engineering tests. The long-term goal of this project is to have a widely distributed marine imaging network across thousands of locations, to develop baselines of biological information.

  2. Behavior and dynamics of bubble breakup in gas pipeline leaks and accidental subsea oil well blowouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Socolofsky, Scott A; Lai, Chris C K; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C

    2018-06-01

    Subsea oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks release oil and gas to the environment through vigorous jets. Predicting the breakup of the released fluids in oil droplets and gas bubbles is critical to predict the fate of petroleum compounds in the marine water column. To predict the gas bubble size in oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks, we observed and quantified the flow behavior and breakup process of gas for a wide range of orifice diameters and flow rates. Flow behavior at the orifice transitions from pulsing flow to continuous discharge as the jet crosses the sonic point. Breakup dynamics transition from laminar to turbulent at a critical value of the Weber number. Very strong pure gas jets and most gas/liquid co-flowing jets exhibit atomization breakup. Bubble sizes in the atomization regime scale with the jet-to-plume transition length scale and follow -3/5 power-law scaling for a mixture Weber number. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An optical system with potential for remote health monitoring of subsea machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D A

    2009-01-01

    A prototype fibre-optic sensing system is described with potential to remotely monitor the condition of three-phase variable frequency subsea motors and electric submersible pumps. An indication that the integrity of a powerful electric motor may be compromised can be gained by spectral analysis of the stator drive current, the phases of the currents, the measurement of vibration at specific locations on the motor and the temperature of the bearings. The optical interrogation system is based on an imbalanced Mach–Zehnder fibre interferometer, illuminated with a broadband source with fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) used as the basic transducers for the current and vibration measurements. Signals were recovered at a distance of 7 km, for the 'in house' current sensor at an effective ac current of 500 A at frequencies from 10 to 1000 Hz with a S/N ratio of 45 dB, together with the relative phases between the currents. These signals were generated with a simulated high power three-phase electric motor. A commercial accelerometer was incorporated into the system which demonstrated a sensitivity of 1 mg Hz −1/2 also from 10 to 1000 Hz. As the interrogation system can only be used to detect dynamic signals, a second interrogation for quasi-static temperature measurements is required; although this was not deployed, possible applications other than bearing temperature measurement are considered

  4. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 1. Minimum seaward extent defined from multichannel seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Laura; Herman, Bruce M.; Hart, Patrick E.; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Subsea ice-bearing permafrost (IBPF) and associated gas hydrate in the Arctic have been subject to a warming climate and saline intrusion since the last transgression at the end of the Pleistocene. The consequent degradation of IBPF is potentially associated with significant degassing of dissociating gas hydrate deposits. Previous studies interpreted the distribution of subsea permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort continental shelf based on geographically sparse data sets and modeling of expected thermal history. The most cited work projects subsea permafrost to the shelf edge (∼100 m isobath). This study uses a compilation of stacking velocity analyses from ∼100,000 line-km of industry-collected multichannel seismic reflection data acquired over 57,000 km2 of the U.S. Beaufort shelf to delineate continuous subsea IBPF. Gridded average velocities of the uppermost 750 ms two-way travel time range from 1475 to 3110 m s−1. The monotonic, cross-shore pattern in velocity distribution suggests that the seaward extent of continuous IBPF is within 37 km of the modern shoreline at water depths < 25 m. These interpretations corroborate recent Beaufort seismic refraction studies and provide the best, margin-scale evidence that continuous subsea IBPF does not currently extend to the northern limits of the continental shelf.

  5. Crossed-beam reaction of carbon atoms with hydrocarbon molecules. IV. Chemical dynamics of methylpropargyl radical formation, C4H5, from reaction of C(3Pj) with propylene, C3H6 (X1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.I.; Stranges, D.; Bevsek, H.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Suits, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction between ground state carbon atoms and propylene, C 3 H 6 , was studied at average collision energies of 23.3 and 45.0 kJmol -1 using the crossed molecular beam technique. Product angular distributions and time-of-flight spectra of C 4 H 5 at m/e=53 were recorded. Forward-convolution fitting of the data yields a maximum energy release as well as angular distributions consistent with the formation of methylpropargyl radicals. Reaction dynamics inferred from the experimental results suggest that the reaction proceeds on the lowest 3 A surface via an initial addition of the carbon atom to the π-orbital to form a triplet methylcyclopropylidene collision complex followed by ring opening to triplet 1,2-butadiene. Within 0.3 endash 0.6 ps, 1,2-butadiene decomposes through carbon endash hydrogen bond rupture to atomic hydrogen and methylpropargyl radicals. The explicit identification of C 4 H 5 under single collision conditions represents a further example of a carbon endash hydrogen exchange in reactions of ground state carbon with unsaturated hydrocarbons. This versatile machine represents an alternative pathway to build up unsaturated hydrocarbon chains in combustion processes, chemical vapor deposition, and in the interstellar medium. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Review of the Factors that Influence the Condition of Wax Deposition in Subsea Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Junyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When crude oil is transported via sub-sea pipeline, the temperature of the pipeline decreases at a deep depth which causes a difference in temperature with the crude oil inside. This causes the crude oil to dissipate its heat to the surrounding until thermal equilibrium is achieved. This is also known as the cloud point where wax begins to precipitate and solidifies at the walls of the pipeline which obstruct the flow of fluid. The main objective of this review is to quantify the factors that influence wax deposition such as temperature difference between the wall of the pipeline and the fluid flowing within, the flow rate of the fluid in the pipeline and residence time of the fluid in the pipeline. It is found the main factor that causes wax deposition in the pipeline is the difference in temperature between the petroleum pipeline and the fluid flowing within. Most Literature deduces that decreasing temperature difference results in lower wax content deposited on the wall of the pipeline. The wax content increases with rising flow rate. As for the residence time, the amount of deposited wax initially increases when residence time increases until it reaches a peak value and gradually decreases. Flow-loop system and cold finger apparatus were used in literature investigations to determine the trends above. Three new models are generated through a regression analysis based on the results from other authors. These new models form a relationship between temperature difference, flow rate, residence time and Reynolds number with wax deposition. These models have high values of R-square and adjusted R-square which demonstrate the reliability of these models.

  7. Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. L.; Partridge, J. C.; Bond, T.; Birt, M. J.; Bornt, K. R.; Langlois, T. J.

    2017-06-01

    Remote Operated Vehicles are routinely used to undertake inspection and maintenance activities of underwater pipelines in north-west Australia. In doing so, many terabytes of geo-referenced underwater video are collected at depths, and on a scale usually unobtainable for ecological research. We assessed fish diversity and abundance from existing ROV videos collected along 2-3 km sections of two pipelines in north-west Australia, one at 60-80 m water depth and the other at 120-130 m. A total of 5962 individual fish from 92 species and 42 families were observed. Both pipelines were characterised by a high abundance of commercially important fishes including: snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Epinephelidae). The presence of thousands of unidentifiable larval fish, in addition to juveniles, sub-adults and adults suggests that the pipelines may be enhancing, rather than simply attracting, fish stocks. The prevalence and high complexity of sponges on the shallower pipeline and of deepwater corals on the deeper pipeline had a strong positive correlation with the fish abundance. These habitats likely offer a significant food source and refuge for fish, but also for invertebrates upon which fish feed. A greater diversity on the shallower pipeline, and a higher abundance of fishes on both pipelines, were associated with unsupported pipeline sections (spans) and many species appeared to be utilising pipeline spans as refuges. This study is a first look at the potential value of subsea pipelines for fishes on the north-west shelf. While the results suggest that these sections of pipeline appear to offer significant habitat that supports diverse and important commercially fished species, further work, including off-pipeline surveys on the natural seafloor, are required to determine conclusively the ecological value of pipelines and thereby inform discussions regarding the ecological implications of pipeline decommissioning.

  8. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J E; Sánchez-García, L; van Dongen, B E; Alling, V; Kosmach, D; Charkin, A; Semiletov, I P; Dudarev, O V; Shakhova, N; Roos, P; Eglinton, T I; Andersson, A; Gustafsson, O

    2012-09-06

    The future trajectory of greenhouse gas concentrations depends on interactions between climate and the biogeosphere. Thawing of Arctic permafrost could release significant amounts of carbon into the atmosphere in this century. Ancient Ice Complex deposits outcropping along the ~7,000-kilometre-long coastline of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), and associated shallow subsea permafrost, are two large pools of permafrost carbon, yet their vulnerabilities towards thawing and decomposition are largely unknown. Recent Arctic warming is stronger than has been predicted by several degrees, and is particularly pronounced over the coastal ESAS region. There is thus a pressing need to improve our understanding of the links between permafrost carbon and climate in this relatively inaccessible region. Here we show that extensive release of carbon from these Ice Complex deposits dominates (57 ± 2 per cent) the sedimentary carbon budget of the ESAS, the world’s largest continental shelf, overwhelming the marine and topsoil terrestrial components. Inverse modelling of the dual-carbon isotope composition of organic carbon accumulating in ESAS surface sediments, using Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertainties, suggests that 44 ± 10 teragrams of old carbon is activated annually from Ice Complex permafrost, an order of magnitude more than has been suggested by previous studies. We estimate that about two-thirds (66 ± 16 per cent) of this old carbon escapes to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, with the remainder being re-buried in shelf sediments. Thermal collapse and erosion of these carbon-rich Pleistocene coastline and seafloor deposits may accelerate with Arctic amplification of climate warming.

  9. Study of the processes of ion pairs formation by the method of ion-ion coincidence: I2 and chlorine-containing hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    A method of ion-ion coincidences was suggested to study the process of ion pairs formation during molecule photoionization. The principle of action of ion-ion coincidence method is based on recording of only the negative and positive ions that formed as a result of a molecule decomposition. The flowsheet of the facility of ion-ion coincidences was presented. The processes of ion pairs formation in iodine, chloroform, propyl-, n-propenyl-, tert.butyl- and benzyl-chlorides were studied. A simple model permitting to evaluate the dependence of quantum yield of ion pair formation on excitation energy was suggested

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano

    2017-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  12. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  13. On-line monitoring of trace compounds in the flue gas of an incineration pilot plant: Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, H. J.; Zimmermann, R.; Dorfner, R.; Kettrup, A.; Boesl, U.

    1998-01-01

    Laser mass spectrometry is applied for on-line analysis of PAHs from a complex flue gas matrix in the combustion chamber of an incineration plant. Process monitoring of industrial processes can be performed. New insights into the formation of toxic combustion byproducts are possible

  14. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  15. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  16. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  17. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, Shaw D.; Westerlund, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Valve pumping activity in A. islandica significantly increased at pH 6.2 seawater. • Changes in valve movements were not related to attempted burrowing activities. • Valve activity returned to control levels after 5 days of continuous exposure. • A. islandica tolerate pH reductions likely to follow leakage of sub-sea stored CO_2. - Abstract: Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO_2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO_2. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9 pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO_2 from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40 h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity intensity over the

  18. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamber, Shaw D., E-mail: shaw.bamber@iris.no; Westerlund, Stig, E-mail: sw@iris.no

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Valve pumping activity in A. islandica significantly increased at pH 6.2 seawater. • Changes in valve movements were not related to attempted burrowing activities. • Valve activity returned to control levels after 5 days of continuous exposure. • A. islandica tolerate pH reductions likely to follow leakage of sub-sea stored CO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO{sub 2}. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9 pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO{sub 2} from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40 h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity

  19. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  20. The Gothic shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation Greater Aneth Field (Aneth Unit) Southeastern Utah U.S.A.: Seal for Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chidsey, Thomas C. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Carney, Stephanie M. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bereskin, S. R. [Bereskin and Associates, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Greater Aneth oil field, Utah’s largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 483 million barrels of oil. Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. Because Greater Aneth is a mature, major oil field in the western U.S., and has a large carbonate reservoir, it was selected to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage. The Aneth Unit in the northwestern part of the field has produced over 160 million barrels of the estimated 386 million barrels of original oil in place—a 42% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil made the Aneth Unit ideal to enhance oil recovery by carbon dioxide flooding and demonstrate carbon dioxide storage capacity.

  1. Novel CO2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Quoc [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering; Hirasaki, George [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Johnston, Keith [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2015-02-05

    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  2. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  4. Proceedings of the 2011 hydrocarbon annual days - Innovation, technological and human challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the available presentations (slides) given at the 2011 issue of the annual hydrocarbon days. The conference comprises 14 workshops and 5 plenary sessions dealing with: - Plenary 1 - oil and gas and the evolution of the world energy landscape: The new geopolitical energy landscape (Lesourne, J.); Macondo and Fukushima: what challenges for the industry and for Total? (Mosconi, J.J.); Natural gas: energy of the 21. century? (Bensasson, B.); - Workshop 1 - innovation in modeling, computer science and calculations: Tools at the engineering service - 3D visualisation mock-ups (Hoffert, J.L.; Bouget, F.); Basins modelling (Facon, J.); 'OCEAN' computer platform and calculation modules development (Dury, V.); - Workshop 2 - source rock hydrocarbons: Exploration-production (B. Courme); Aquifers monitoring technology (Lallier, S.); Hydraulic fracturing of schists (Faucompret, N.); - Workshop 3 - research, universities and industries, the innovating process: presentation of ANCRE actions - situation of research (Goffe, B.); Artificial photosynthesis - using solar energy for hydrogen and fuels production (Artero, V.); Partnership and competitiveness (Valadier, L.); - workshop 4 - marine innovations, new ships: new building ships for ultra-deep offshore and big pipelines (Ardavanis, K.); The Seven Borealis, a World-Class Strategic Enabler (Bost, F.); Application of innovation utilizing the Skandi Arctic through the use of the Pipeline Repair System (PRS) and the Personal Diving Equipment (PDE) (Grosjean, P.); - Workshop 5 - innovative Subsea equipments: Subsea: Way to Future - Fully Autonomous Plant (Riviere, L.); The 2. Generation DC All-Electric Subsea Production Control System (Van der Akker, J.); The power distribution module: an essential component in the submarine production chain (Eschbach, J.L.); Reeled installation of EHTF - Electrically Heat Traced Pipe-in-Pipe (Mair, J.); - Workshop 6 - seismic imaging: Towed streamer seismic strategies for sub

  5. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  6. Model for economical analysis of oil and gas deepwater production concepts : Comparisons of life cycle cost of subsea production systems vs. floating structures with dry wellheads.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Mata, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology The scope of the work was to create a model that will allow the comparison of Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for subsea production systems and floating structures with dry wellheads for the Mexican territorial waters of the Gulf of Mexico. To give validity to the model, an empirical comparison on the resulting recovery factor based on data of the US Gulf of Mexico was included. This comparison is intended to answer ¿Is there a significant diffe...

  7. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  8. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  9. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  10. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayah, Zaid H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ghebeh, Hazem [Stem Cell & Tissue Re-Engineering, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Alhaider, Abdulqader A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Camel Biomedical Research Unit, College of Pharmacy and Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S. [Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Korashy, Hesham M., E-mail: hkorashy@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  11. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayah, Zaid H.; Ghebeh, Hazem; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Korashy, Hesham M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  12. The multiple gas-liquid subsea separation system: development and qualification of a novel solution for deep water field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie; Butin, Nicolas; Shaiek, Sadia; Hallot, Raymond [Saipem S.p.A., Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Subsea processing is more and more considered as a viable solution for the development of deep and ultra deep water fields. SAIPEM has developed a deep water gas separation and liquid boosting system, based on its proprietary 'Multi pipe' separator concept, providing a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and un-steady multiphase input streams using a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The Multi pipe Concept features an array of vertical pipes for gas/liquid separation by gravity and adequate liquid hold up volumes. The operating principle is the same as standard gravity vessels. Specific inlet pipe arrangements have been worked out to enhance the separation efficiency and internals can be implemented to further optimize the performances. The limited diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes make the Multi pipe Concept particularly suited for deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure conditions where the selection of a single separator vessel could lead to unpractical wall thicknesses. In most cases, standard API or ASME pipes can be utilized for the Multi pipe Separator, thus enabling conventional fabrication methods, and in turn reducing cost and delivery time and opening opportunities for local content. The qualification testing program has seen two subsequent phases. The first qualification phase aimed at the confirmation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the system. In particular, the homogeneous distribution of the multiphase stream into the pipes and the stability of the liquid levels under un-steady inlet conditions were continuously assessed during the tests. This first qualification phase gave confidence in the viability of the Multi pipe and in its good hydrodynamic behavior under the different inlet conditions that can be encountered during field production. It proved that, having the same liquid level in all the separator pipes, whatever the inlet conditions are, the Multi pipe separator can be

  13. Anomalous dispersion due to hydrocarbons: The secret of reservoir geophysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    When P- and S-waves travel through porous sandstone saturated with hydrocarbons, a bit of magic happens to make the velocities of these waves more frequency-dependent (dispersive) than when the formation is saturated with brine. This article explores the utility of the anomalous dispersion in finding more oil and gas, as well as giving a possible explanation about the effect of hydrocarbons upon the capillary forces in the formation. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Research on the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions at the coastal area and submarine formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Tomochika; Taniguchi, Makoto; Goto, Junji

    2003-05-01

    One of the major concerns for the high-level radioactive waste disposal is the possibility of the radionuclides to reach biosphere by groundwater flow. Recent research results have shown that the fresh groundwater discharge from subsea formations are widespread phenomena, thus, it is necessary to evaluate the submarine groundwater discharge as possible pathways of contaminant discharge towards the biosphere. It is also important to unravel the groundwater flow and associated material transport at the coastal area and subsea formations. To better understand the groundwater flow processes and the submarine groundwater discharge, we have conducted the hydrological, hydrogeological, geochemical, and numerical modeling studies at the Kurobe alluvial fan and its offshore, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In this report, the results of the following research activities are presented: 1) Development and application of a method to detect the locations of the submarine groundwater discharge. 2) Development and application of a method to collect uncontaminated groundwater samples from subsea formations. 3) Measurements of submarine groundwater discharge fluxes by automated seepage meter. 4) Hydrological and geochemical studies for groundwater flow at the coastal area. 5) Geochemical studies to understand sources of fresh submarine groundwater discharge. 6) Examination of groundwater flow and submarine groundwater discharge using methane concentration and carbon isotope ratio. 7) Numerical modeling studies for coastal groundwater flow system. (author)

  15. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  16. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  17. Integrity management of deepwater subsea flow system; Gerenciamento de integridade de sistema de escoamento submarino em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, Helio A. de; Oliveira, Luiz F.S.; Cardoso, Cassia O.; Cabete, Ricardo; Matos, Barbara; Alvarenga, Tobias V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Wallace B. e; Bessa, Guilherme S.; Divenyi, Sandor; Gomes, Andre L.C [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios Rio

    2008-07-01

    Deep and ultra-deepwater Exploration and Production activities offshore Brazil have become a reality, corresponding nowadays to the majority of the national production. In order to make oil and gas production viable in this kind of environment, complex systems are used, requiring very strong investments, as well as equipment with high reliability requirements, to assure the benefits of the high productivity of the fields. The production flow systems comprise rigid and flexible pipelines, umbilicals and subsea equipment, to which high costs are associated regarding inspection, maintenance and intervention activities. Besides this, social claims through actions by regulatory agencies are getting stricter with time, as they increase their control of aspects related to safety and environmental impact aspects. In this scenario, PETROBRAS, through its Exploration and Production Business Unit in Rio de Janeiro (UN-RIO), signed a service contract with Det Norske Veritas (DNV). The development and application of specific methodologies for risk and reliability analysis, as well as the development of a specific software, are included in this project. (author)

  18. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  20. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  1. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  2. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  3. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  4. First principles modeling of hydrocarbons conversion in non-equilibrium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminsky, M.A.; Strelkova, M.I.; Durov, S.G.; Jivotov, V.K.; Rusanov, V.D.; Potapkin, B.V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Theoretical justification of catalytic activity of non-equilibrium plasma in hydrocarbons conversion process is presented in this paper. The detailed model of highest hydrocarbons conversion includes the gas-phase reactions, chemistry of the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), precursor of soot particles formation, neutral, charged clusters and soot particle formation, ion-molecular gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry. The results of theoretical analysis are compared with experimental results. (authors)

  5. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  6. The role of heat transfer time scale in the evolution of the subsea permafrost and associated methane hydrates stability zone during glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, Valentina V.; Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming may lead to degradation of the subsea permafrost developed during Pleistocene glaciations and release methane from the hydrates, which are stored in this permafrost. It is important to quantify time scales at which this release is plausible. While, in principle, such time scale might be inferred from paleoarchives, this is hampered by considerable uncertainty associated with paleodata. In the present paper, to reduce such uncertainty, one-dimensional simulations with a model for thermal state of subsea sediments forced by the data obtained from the ice core reconstructions are performed. It is shown that heat propagates in the sediments with a time scale of ∼ 10-20 kyr. This time scale is longer than the present interglacial and is determined by the time needed for heat penetration in the unfrozen part of thick sediments. We highlight also that timings of shelf exposure during oceanic regressions and flooding during transgressions are important for simulating thermal state of the sediments and methane hydrates stability zone (HSZ). These timings should be resolved with respect to the contemporary shelf depth (SD). During glacial cycles, the temperature at the top of the sediments is a major driver for moving the HSZ vertical boundaries irrespective of SD. In turn, pressure due to oceanic water is additionally important for SD ≥ 50 m. Thus, oceanic transgressions and regressions do not instantly determine onsets of HSZ and/or its disappearance. Finally, impact of initial conditions in the subsea sediments is lost after ∼ 100 kyr. Our results are moderately sensitive to intensity of geothermal heat flux.

  7. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  8. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  9. Use of derivatives to assess preservation of hydrocarbon deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkin, K. A.; Melkishev, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers the calculation of derivatives along the surface of a modern and paleostructure map of a Tl2-b formation top used to forecast the preservation of oil and gas deposits in traps according to 3D seismic survey via statistical methods. It also suggests a method to evaluate morphological changes of the formation top by calculating the difference between derivatives. The proposed method allows analyzing structural changes of the formation top in time towards primary migration of hydrocarbons. The comprehensive use of calculated indicators allowed ranking the prepared structures in terms of preservation of hydrocarbon deposits.

  10. Composition and method for coke retardant during hydrocarbon processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of filamentous coke on metallic surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon having a temperature of 600 0 -1300 0 F which comprises adding to the hydrocarbon a sufficient amount for the purpose of a boron compound selected from the group of boron oxide compounds, boric acid and metal borides, with the proviso that when boric acid is used, it is substantially free of water

  11. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  12. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  13. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  14. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  15. Experimental and numerical study on coupled motion responses of a floating crane vessel and a lifted subsea manifold in deep water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Nam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The floating crane vessel in waves gives rise to the motion of the lifted object which is connected to the hoisting wire. The dynamic tension induced by the lifted object also affects the motion responses of the floating crane vessel in return. In this study, coupled motion responses of a floating crane vessel and a lifted subsea manifold during deep-water installation operations were investigated by both experiments and numerical calculations. A series of model tests for the deep-water lifting operation were performed at Ocean Engineering Basin of KRISO. For the model test, the vessel with a crane control system and a typical subsea manifold were examined. To validate the experimental results, a frequency-domain motion analysis method is applied. The coupled motion equations of the crane vessel and the lifted object are solved in the frequency domain with an additional linear stiffness matrix due to the hoisting wire. The hydrodynamic coefficients of the lifted object, which is a significant factor to affect the coupled dynamics, are estimated based on the perforation value of the structure and the CFD results. The discussions were made on three main points. First, the motion characteristics of the lifted object as well as the crane vessel were studied by comparing the calculation results. Second, the dynamic tension of the hoisting wire were evaluated under the various wave conditions. Final discussion was made on the effect of passive heave compensator on the motion and tension responses.

  16. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  17. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  19. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  20. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  1. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  2. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  3. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  4. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  5. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  8. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  9. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  10. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  11. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  12. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  13. Subsea pipe dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcombe, Mark

    1988-09-22

    The Gulf of Mexico is famous today mainly for the ferocity of its hurricanes. But for anyone in the oil industry, it is also known for the vast array of oil pipelines that criss-cross its stormy waters, and for the large number of pipeline-laying barges which install them. Soon many of these vessels could be steaming to British waters - not to escape the weather, but to cash in on a bonanza of pipe-laying activity which could soon take place offshore northern Europe. The construction of new pipelines off the UK, Norway and Netherlands will, however, present a new range of challenges for pipeline designers and builders. First and foremost is the Piper Alpha platform disaster, which could saddle the UK offshore industry with a Pound 500 million-plus bill for the installation of emergency shutdown valves (ESVs) on existing lines.

  14. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  15. Method for depth referencing hydrocarbon gas shows on mud logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identifying hydrocarbon formations surrounding a borehole, comprising the steps of: a. measuring hydrocarbon gas in the entrained formation cuttings obtained during drilling operations in which a drilling mud is continually circulated past a drill bit to carry the cuttings to the earth's surface, b. simultaneously measuring natural gamma radiation in the cuttings, c. identifying the depths at which the cuttings were obtained within the borehole, d. measuring natural gamma radiation within the borehole following completion of the drilling operations, e. correlating the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d), and f. identifying the depths within the borehole from which the entrained cuttings containing hydrocarbon gas were obtained during drilling operations when there is correlation between the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d)

  16. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  17. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  18. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  19. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  20. Hydrocarbons (aliphatic and aromatic) in the snow-ice cover in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.; Kluvitkin, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented the concentration and composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in snow and ice-infested waters in the France-Victoria trough in the northern Barents Sea and in the Mendeleev ridge in the Amerasian basin of the Arctic Ocean. Extreme conditions such as low temperatures, ice sheets and the polar nights render the arctic environment susceptible to oil spills. Hydrocarbons found in these northern seas experience significant transformations. In order to determine the sources, pathways and transformations of the pollutants, it is necessary to know their origin. Hydrocarbon distributions is determined mostly by natural hydrobiological and geochemical conditions. The regularity of migration is determined by natural factors such as formation and circulation of air and ice drift. There is evidence suggesting that the hydrocarbons come from pyrogenic sources. It was noted that hydrocarbons could be degraded even at low temperatures. 17 refs., 1 tab

  1. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  2. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  4. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  5. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet; Charry Prada, Iran David; Amer, Ahmad Amer; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline

  6. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  7. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  8. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  9. Application of low density from pig in subsea satellite well flow line; Utilizacao de pig-espuma de baixa densidade em linhas de producao de pocos-satelites submersos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Couto, Nilton Castro; Souza, Robson Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Divisao de Explotacao

    1995-01-01

    This work describes a new concept of pigging using low density form to prevent/removal of wax in subsea satellite well flowline. The methodology of wax control is world pioneer. The pigs are sent through a 2.5 in lift gas line, and through a wet x-mas tree, not designed to be pigged, and back through the flowline. (author) 2 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced by thermal alteration of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Brown, S.; Calvin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of algae and photosynthetic bacteria to serve as precursors of kerogen was studied to determine what factors affect the relative rates of formation of precursor hydrocarbons. Cells of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides were subjected to thermal alteration (by heating samples in glass tubes sealed under nitrogen) for two, four, and twelve weeks. Both unextracted and extracted cells in the absence and presence of montmorillonite were investigated, and the isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced in these experiments were determined. Phytane and five isomeric phytenes were the main hydrocarbons observed; their relative rates of formation in the different experimental conditions are described. No phytadienes, pristane, or pristenes were detected.

  11. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  12. Development of a numerical simulator to control the liquid level of a subsea separator system; Dsenvolvimento de simulador numerico para controle de nivel de um sistema de separacao submarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiguemoto, Denis; Rodrigues, Vinicius Mastelaro [DPR Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tsukada, Raphael; Mendes, Jose Ricardo Palaquim [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Serapiao, Adriane Beatriz de Souza [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estevam, Valdir [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The challenges posed by recent discoveries of oil accumulations at bigger distances from the cost and ultra deep water depths (above 2500 meters) have stimulated the development of technologies and equipment to overcome these challenges. A major technological issue is the need for larger vessels capable of withstanding the weight of installed equipment and pipe production, which significantly increase the manufacturing cost which is already of the order of billions of dollars. The oil industry has focused efforts on developing solutions aimed to reduce weight installed on production platforms. In this context the Subsea Separation Systems was developed in order to carry out the primary processing under the water, thereby reducing the processing plant installed in the oil production platforms. It is a biphasic (liquid and gas) separator that sends the phases to the platform by means of independent pipes. This paper presents a numerical simulator developed to understand the behavior of the liquid level inside the Subsea Separations Systems for its operating conditions. A control system for liquid level was tested and evaluated considering the behavior of fluids within the Subsea Separation System and the pipes that carry them to the production unit. The numerical simulator developed allows a quick and practical understanding of the behavior of the liquid level inside the equipment and also the behavior of pressure and flow within the production pipe which produce benefits for the development design. (author)

  13. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  14. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  15. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  16. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  17. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  18. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  19. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  20. Mathematical approaches in deriving hydrocarbons expressions from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Yoon-Geun [Geophysical Prospecting Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hwan [Petroleum Engineering & Reservoir Simulation Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-08

    Defining and understanding hydrocarbon expressions in seismic expression is main concern of geoscientists in oil and gas exploration and production. Over the last decades several mathematical approaches have been developed in this regard. Most of approaches have addressed information in amplitude of seismic data. Recently, more attention has been drawn towards frequency related information in order to extract frequency behaviors of hydrocarbons bearing sediments. Spectrally decomposing seismic data into individual frequencies found to be an excellent tool for investigating geological formations and their pore fluids. To accomplish this, several mathematical approaches have been invoked. Continuous wavelet transform and Short Time Window Fourier transform are widely used techniques for this purpose. This paper gives an overview of some widely used mathematical technique in hydrocarbon reservoir detection and mapping. This is followed by an application on real data from Boonsville field.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  2. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  4. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  5. Evaluation report on research and development of a subsea petroleum production system; Kaitei sekiyu seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    In order to assure stable supply of oil and natural gas resources, and achieve enhancement in ocean development technologies in general, development has been made on the subsea petroleum production system (SBPPS), which is effective in ocean floor petroleum production from oil fields at great depths (300 m or deeper), and can be applicable to continental shelves and continental slopes around Japan. The SBPPS consists of four sub-systems of shafts, pipelines, manifolds, and riser and oil storage, whose basic development targets were established for the total system. The system was given a conceptual design for the total system, and the above four sub-systems were designed according to the conceptual design. The experimenting devices of each system were fabricated on a trial basis while fundamental studies are being made on component technologies, and experiments were performed to verify basic functions of the sub-systems. Developments were made on such operation technologies as the system operation technology, production control technology, safety control technology, and maintenance and repair technology required to operate the SBPPS. On-shore and general off-shore experiments were carried out to verify the functions of the experimenting devices of each system, the comprehensive functions and the operation technology. Comprehensive evaluation was given on the above achievements from the technical, economic and social viewpoints. (NEDO)

  6. Stress and thermal expansion numerical analysis of subsea buried pipelines; Analise numerica de tensoes e expansao termica de dutos submarinos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Marcio de S.; Vaz, Murilo A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Solano, Rafael F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The design of Capixaba North Terminal pipelines (TNC) became very complex, once the pipelines are exposed to elevated temperature variations. As the pipelines are buried, the interaction with the seabed can become critical with the thermal expansion development, since an axial compressive force arise, reaching critical values and then leading the pipeline to the thermo mechanical instability phenomenon. To minimize these effects, the pipeline will cross the shore approach through a horizontal directional drilling, and expansion loops and intermediate tie-ins took place on his route in order to permit pipeline displacements, working thermally. The objective of this present work is to develop a numerical model, able to analyze the entire pipeline stress, strain and displacements, considering different kinds of soil along of his route. The influence of expansion loops is evaluated and a comparative analysis in order to discover the minimum curvature radius at the directional drilling region is carried out. This study defines a methodology based on the developed numerical model which will be extended to future applications in subsea buried pipeline design. (author)

  7. On how to understand and present the uncertainties in production assurance analyses, with a case study related to a subsea production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Pedersen, Linda Martens

    2014-01-01

    Production assurance analyses of production systems are in practice typically carried out using flow network modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the network and probability distribution assumptions for equipment lifetime and restoration time, the simulation tool produces predictions/estimates and uncertainty distributions of the production availability, which is defined as the ratio of production to planned production, or any other reference level, over a specified period of time. To adequately communicate the results from the analyses, it is essential that there is in place a framework which clarifies how to understand the concepts introduced, including the uncertainty distributions produced. Some key elements of such a conceptual framework are well established in the industry, for example the use of probability models to represent the stochastic variation related to lifetimes and restoration times. However an overall framework linking this variation, as well as “model uncertainties”, to the epistemic uncertainty distribution for the output production availability, has been lacking. The purpose of the present paper is to present such a framework, and in this way provide new insights to and guidelines on how to understand and present the uncertainties in practical production assurance analyses. An example related to a subsea production system is used to illustrate the framework and the guidelines

  8. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  9. Biodegradation of an oil-hydrocarbon contaminated soil, enhanced by surfactants: Effect of the type and dose of surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. G.; Galindo, C.; Rojas, N.; Iturbe, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of different parameters, such as surfactant type an dose, soil initial hydrocarbons concentration, and soil granulometry, over the total petroleum hydrocarbons TPH degradation, as well as over the microbial count (as colony formation units CFU/g soil) along the process. (Author)

  10. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  12. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  13. Phase behaviour in water/hydrocarbon mixtures involved in gas production systems; etude des equilibres des systemes: eau-hydrocarbures-gaz acides dans le cadre de la production de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapoy, A.

    2004-11-15

    Inside wells, natural gases frequently coexist with water. The gases are in equilibrium with the sub-adjacent aquifer. Many problems are associated with the presence of water during the production, transport and processing of natural gases. Accurate knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the water/hydrocarbon and water-inhibitor/hydrocarbon equilibria near the hydrate forming conditions, at sub-sea pipeline conditions and during the transport is crucial for the petroleum industry. An apparatus based on a static/analytic method combined with a dilutor apparatus to calibrate on the gas chromatograph (GC) detectors with water was used to measure the water content of binary systems (i.e.: water - methane, ethane - water, nitrogen - water...) as well of a synthetic hydrocarbon gas mixture (i.e.: 94% methane, 4% ethane and 2% n-butane) with and without inhibitor. This same apparatus was also used generate data of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and nitrogen solubility in water and also the solubilities of a synthetic mixture in water. In-house software has been developed in order to fit and model the experimental data. (author)

  14. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  15. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  16. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  17. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  18. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  19. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  20. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  1. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  2. Electron microscopy of hydrocarbon production in parthenium argentatum (guayule)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1977-11-01

    The electron microscope was used to study the biological processes involved in hydrocarbon production. The little desert shrub Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) was selected for study. This shrub can produce hydrocarbons (rubber) in concentrations up to 1/4 of its dry weight. It grows on semi-arid land and has been extensively studied. The potential of Guayule is described in detail. Results of an investigation into the morphology of Guayule at the electron microscope level are given. Experiments, which would allow the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon in Guayule to be followed, were designed. In order to do this, knowledge of the biochemistry of rubber formation was used to select a tracer, mevalonic acid. Mevalonic acid is the precursor of all the terpenoids, a large class of hydrocarbons which includes rubber. It was found that when high enough concentrations of mevalonic acid are administered to seedling Guayule plants, build-ups of metabolized products are found within the chloroplasts of the seedlings. Also, tritium labeled mevalonic acid was used as a precursor, and its metabolic progress was followed by using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. The results of these experiments also implicated chloroplasts of the Guayule plant in hydrocarbon production. The final task was the development of a system to produce three-dimensional stereo reconstructions of organelles suspected of involvement in hydrocarbon biosynthesis in Guayule. The techniques are designed to reconstruct an object from serial sections of that object. The techniques use stereo imaging both to abstract information for computer processing, and also in the computer produced reconstruction.

  3. Transport and deposition of injected hydrocarbons in plasma generator PSI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmeyer, W.; Naujoks, D.; Markin, A.; Arkhipov, I.; Koch, B.; Schroeder, D.; Fussmann, G.

    2005-01-01

    The transport and deposition of hydrocarbons were studied in the stationary plasma of plasma generator PSI-2. CH 4 or C 2 H 4 were injected into the plasma at different positions in the target chamber. After an interaction between the plasma and the hydrocarbons, different species are produced, some of them having high sticking probabilities and forming a:CH films on a temperature controlled collector. The film growth is studied in situ for different plasma parameters. The 3D Monte Carlo code ERO including three different sets of atomic data is used to describe the formation of hydrocarbon films

  4. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  5. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  6. Chemistry and photophysics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, and it is thought that they are a key factor in the formation of molecular hydrogen at high gas and dust grain temperatures. We have explored how PAHs can contribute to the formation of H2 by taking a small PAH

  7. 欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理及其对油气运移的影响%Formation Mechanism of the Undercompacting Mudstone's Roof and Floor and Their Influence on Hydrocarbon Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冲; 邹华耀; 汪斌

    2012-01-01

    欠压实泥岩顶底板是指比中部欠压实泥岩较致密的泥岩表层,是趋于正常压实的泥岩层,发育于低渗透率的厚层泥岩的上、下部位.以低速渗流定律为理论基础,从微观机理上分析欠压实泥岩顶底板的形成过程,提出穿过欠压实泥岩顶底板流体运移阻力的计算公式.当含顶底板泥岩作为盖层时,分为连续沉积型、抬升型和压裂型3种.压裂型泥岩盖层的封闭能力等于底板排替压力与达到顶板破裂的剩余压力之和,其他两种盖层的封闭能力就等于盖层顶底板的排替压力之和.当含顶底板泥岩作为源岩时,在连续型源岩中,油气排放的方向主要取决于泥岩顶底板渗透性地层的发育程度;在压裂型源岩中,大量油气沿裂缝向上排烃.此外,源岩的排烃方向还受断层的控制.通过欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理的研究,有助于评价泥岩盖层的封烃能力,了解泥质烃源岩油气初次运移的方向.%Undercompacting mudstone's roof and floor (UMRF) are the mudstone surface layers that are tighter than the central undercompaction, and are close to the normal compacting mudstone. UMRF develops in upper and lower parts of thick-layered mudstone with low permeability. This paper, by the Laws of Low-speed Flow, analyzed formation process of the UMRF from the microscopic mechanism, and proposed the resistance force formula of the fluid passing UMRF. The mudstone with the UMRF as a cap rock, can be divided into three types; the continuous sedimentary type, the uplift type and the fracture type. The sealing ability of the fracture type mudstone cap rock is equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs overpressure when it breaks down. The other two types of mudstone cap rocks' sealing abilities are equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs displacement pressure. When the mudstone with the UMRF as a source rock, in the continuous type, the expulsion direction

  8. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  9. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    Seepage of methane-dominated hydrocarbons is heterogeneous in space and time, and trigger mechanisms of episodic seep events are not well constrained. It is generally found that free hydrocarbon gas entering the local gas hydrate stability field in marine sediments is sequestered in gas hydrates. In this manner, gas hydrates can act as a buffer for carbon transport from the sediment into the ocean. However, the efficiency of gas hydrate-bearing sediments for retaining hydrocarbons may be corrupted: Hypothesized mechanisms include critical gas/fluid pressures beneath gas hydrate-bearing sediments, implying that these are susceptible to mechanical failure and subsequent gas release. Although gas hydrates often occur in seismically active regions, e.g., subduction zones, the role of earthquakes as potential triggers of hydrocarbon transport through gas hydrate-bearing sediments has hardly been explored. Based on a recent publication (Fischer et al., 2013), we present geochemical and transport/reaction-modelling data suggesting a substantial increase in upward gas flux and hydrocarbon emission into the water column following a major earthquake that occurred near the study sites in 1945. Calculating the formation time of authigenic barite enrichments identified in two sediment cores obtained from an anticlinal structure called "Nascent Ridge", we find they formed 38-91 years before sampling, which corresponds well to the time elapsed since the earthquake (62 years). Furthermore, applying a numerical model, we show that the local sulfate/methane transition zone shifted upward by several meters due to the increased methane flux and simulated sulfate profiles very closely match measured ones in a comparable time frame of 50-70 years. We thus propose a causal relation between the earthquake and the amplified gas flux and present reflection seismic data supporting our hypothesis that co-seismic ground shaking induced mechanical fracturing of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

  10. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  11. Positron induced scattering cross sections for hydrocarbons relevant to plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-05-01

    This article explores positron scattering cross sections by simple hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, ethyne, propane, and propyne. Chemical erosion processes occurring on the surface due to plasma-wall interactions are an abundant source of hydrocarbon molecules which contaminate the hydrogenic plasma. These hydrocarbons play an important role in the edge plasma region of Tokamak and ITER. In addition to this, they are also one of the major components in the planetary atmospheres and astrophysical mediums. The present work focuses on calculation of different positron impact interactions with simple hydrocarbons in terms of the total cross section (Qtot), elastic cross section (Qel), direct ionization cross section (Qion), positronium formation cross section (Qps), and total ionization cross section (Qtion). Knowing that the positron-plasma study is one of the trending fields, the calculated data have diverse plasma and astrophysical modeling applications. A comprehensive study of Qtot has been provided where the inelastic cross sections have been reported for the first time. Comparisons are made with those available from the literature, and a good agreement is obtained with the measurements.

  12. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  13. Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. Don; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As a part of a high energy density materials (HEDM) development, the hot fire tests for Quadricyclane, 1,7 Octadiyne, AFRL-1, Biclopropylidene, and CINCH (Dimethyl amino ethyl azide) have been conducted at NASA/MSFC. The first 4 materials for this task are provided from Air Force Research Laboratory at Edward Air Force Base and US Army provided CINCH. The performance of these fuels is compared with RP-1. The preliminary results of these tests are presented. The preliminary results of Quadricyclane tests indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency for quadricyclane at the mixture ratio 1.94 are approximately 5 sec and 105 ft/sec better than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 1.9. The 1,7 Octadiyne test indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency at the mixture ratio 2.1 are approximately -1 sec and 89 ft/sec differ than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 2.04. The Quadricyclane soot buildup at the combustor is a little more than RP-1, but detail study of soot formation is not considered at this time. There was no visual soot buildup for the 1,7 Octadiyne and AFRL-1.

  14. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  15. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  16. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  17. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  18. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  19. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  20. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  1. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  2. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  3. He+ irradiation temperature influence on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Deming; Sun, Li; Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Bi, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films were irradiated with 100 keV He + or annealed at sample temperatures varying from 25 to 600 °C. The effects of sample temperature on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM-based nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that annealing results in the decrease in the nanohardness of hydrocarbon films from 4.0 GPa to 0.55 GPa while He + irradiation at an elevated sample temperature results in the formation of dense diamond-like carbon films with nanohardness up to 20.0 GPa. This indicates that polymer-like hydrocarbon films can be transformed into the hard diamond-like carbon films with a relatively low H content on vacuum vessels of fusion devices due to the energetic bombardments at an elevated wall temperature

  4. He{sup +} irradiation temperature influence on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Sun, Li [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong [Accelerator Laboratory, School of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Bi, Zhenhua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films were irradiated with 100 keV He{sup +} or annealed at sample temperatures varying from 25 to 600 °C. The effects of sample temperature on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM-based nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that annealing results in the decrease in the nanohardness of hydrocarbon films from 4.0 GPa to 0.55 GPa while He{sup +} irradiation at an elevated sample temperature results in the formation of dense diamond-like carbon films with nanohardness up to 20.0 GPa. This indicates that polymer-like hydrocarbon films can be transformed into the hard diamond-like carbon films with a relatively low H content on vacuum vessels of fusion devices due to the energetic bombardments at an elevated wall temperature.

  5. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  8. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  9. A parametric study of AC electric field-induced toroidal vortex formation in laminar nonpremixed coflow flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    in increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, which promoted ITV formation. When judging the ITV-formation tendency based on critical applied voltage and frequency, it was qualitatively well correlated with the PAH concentration and the relative

  10. Hydrocarbon formation core protection and and transportation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for transporting core samples includes an outer tube having an open end and a cover removably mounted to the open end; a core tube slidable into and out ofthe outer tube when the cover is removed from the outer tube; and a stabilizing structure between the core tube and the outer tube,

  11. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  12. The influence of cyclic structure on the radiolysis of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.; Cserep, Gy.; Horvath, Zs.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1975-01-01

    Aliphatic and cyclic C 3 -C 12 alkanes and alkenes have been irradiated in liquid phase by a 60 Co-γ-source with the nominal activity of 80 000 Ci. The dose rate was 1-2 Mrad/hr, the doses were between 0 and 10 Mrad. The following conclusions can be drawn from the experiments: 1., While no significant difference can be observed between radiolytic decomposition of n-hydrocarbon homologues, that of cyclic hydrocarbons is the function of the size of the ring. 2., Reactivity of cyclic hydrocarbons is influenced not only by their surplus enthalpy of formation (strain energy) but also by the individual components of this surplus enthalpy, e.g. bond deformation or repulsion between hydrogen atoms. 3., The overall yield of decomposition of higher than C 4 straightchain and cyclic alkanes activated by radiation and reacting via either C-C or C-H fission is approximately constant, with a G value of 6.5+-0.5. The structure of the molecules affects mainly the ratio of C-C and C-H bond rupture, i.e. these two processes are in competition. 4., Hydrogen yields from alkenes are affected mainly by the order and number of allylic C-H bonds, and by the possibility of the formation of allyl-type radicals. This latter is facilitated by ''free'' rotation in the case of open-chain hydrocarbons whereas it is hindered in the case of small and medium size cycles. (K.A.)

  13. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie's parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie's parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie's parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around 15%.

  14. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  15. A remote and autonomous continuous monitoring ultrasonic system for flood detection in sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijarez-Castro, Rito

    2006-07-01

    This thesis presents a novel and autonomous continuous monitoring system for flood detection in the hollow sub-sea members of offshore steel oil rigs. The technique offers an alternative to underwater nondestructive testing methods based on ultrasound and x-rays, which have been used to detect the presence of seawater in these applications, often with divers or remote operating vehicles. The research consists of theoretical and experimental work necessary for the development of an integral system that can be used in new fixed offshore oil rig designs. The system employs a single piezoelectric transducer which can be permanently attached to the inner wall of every sub-sea structure and which is powered by a normally inert seawater battery. Upon activation, the sensor transmits ultrasonic chirp or tone encoded pulses in the range of 21 k Hz to 42 k Hz, to a monitoring system at deck level for decoding and identifying flooded members. Two approaches to the system were considered during the investigation, depending on the communication channel exploited. These were based on either using the seawater as a propagation medium or using the steel structure as a wave-guide. A system based on theoretical models was built and field experiments were conducted using a purpose built jointed steel pipe structure, 7 m in length, 0.5 m in diameter and 16 mm in thickness. This structure was flooded by complete immersion in seawater. Results obtained using water as communication medium and a frequency in the order of 38 k Hz yielded an attenuation figure of 0.4 d B m{sub -}1 over 100 m, since losses were predominantly geometric. In contrast, using the tubular structure as a wave-guide and axis symmetric guided waves as the excitation, a gross attenuation figure of 1.3 d B m{sub -}1 was attained. In the straight parts of the structure, the attenuation ranged from 0.3 d B m{sub -} 1 to 0.6 d B m{sub -}1. The modes most likely to have been excited within the structure were L(0,5) - L(0

  16. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  17. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  18. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  19. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  20. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  1. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  2. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  3. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  4. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  5. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  6. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  7. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  8. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  9. Study of liquid hydrocarbons subjected to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This work is a study of liquid hydrocarbons (especially alkanes and cycloalkanes), ionized and excited by low L.E.T. high energy radiation. An analysis of radiolytical products shows a definite correlation between radiochemical yields and bond energies. The study of the influence of scavengers has been carried out and the methods for the determination of α parameters are discussed. Ionic recombination has been fully investigated: theoretical studies, based on a phenomenological model, on primary and (in presence of solute) secondary charge recombination have been performed. Secondary species were observed by use of kinetic optical absorption spectrophotometry. A good agreement with theory is obtained only when the electron scavenging before thermalization is negligible. Electron mobility in hydrocarbons has been measured and the electron scavenging rate constants have been determined using the pulse conductivity technique. Conformational analysis calculations show a correlation between the electron mobility and the electronic structure. The rate of formation of a radiolytic product and the rate of decay of its precursor have been studied for solutions of hydrocarbons and electron scavengers [fr

  10. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, S.; Leitao, C.; Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.; Crespo, M.T. Barreto; Pereira, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. → Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. → Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. → The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm 2 , anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  11. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  12. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  13. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  14. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  15. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  16. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  17. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  18. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Deming; Sun, Li; Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10 15 –1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 ) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp 2 carbon clusters. The sp 2 carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature

  19. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Sun, Li [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10{sup 15}–1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp{sup 2} carbon clusters. The sp{sup 2} carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature.

  20. A computational study of ethylene–air sooting flames: Effects of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Selvaraj, Prabhu; Arias, Paul G.; Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.; Wang, Yu; Gao, Yang; Park, Sungwoo; Sarathy, Mani; Lu, Tianfeng; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    formation to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The gas-phase chemical mechanism adopted the KAUST-Aramco PAH Mech 1.0, which utilized the AramcoMech 1.3 for gas-phase reactions validated for up to C2 fuels

  1. Effect of hydrocarbon-contaminated fluctuating groundwater on magnetic properties of shallow sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameen, N. N.; Klueglein, N.; Appel, E.; Petrovský, Eduard; Kappler, A.; Leven, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2014), s. 442-460 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13042 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : environmental magnetism * magnetic susceptibility * groundwater table fluctuation * hydrocarbon contamination * magnetite formation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  2. Simultaneous Production of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds and Hydrocarbons Using Amorphous Iron Silicate Smokes as a Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous iron silicates efficiently catalyze formation of hydrocarbons and ammonia under conditions similar to that found in the solar nebula. Preliminary data and rates will be discussed, and much further experimentation is required. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Wireless subsea. Traadloest under vann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvistad, Oe

    1993-01-01

    The article deals with a Norwegian developed acoustic telemetry link designed for the transmission of data to and from underwater production control systems offshore. The acoustic link is designed for operation in maximum water depths of 500 m, and it has a reach capacity of 10 km. All the electric and hydraulic power is generated locally by means of a seawater battery and an hydraulic power generator. The operation control of valves, and the reading of the status of valves and battery together with sensor values are done by transmitting the acoustic signals via the link to a control system onboard a platform. 1 fig.

  4. Differentiation of naturally-occurring vs. artificial hydrocarbons in a landfill groundwater investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, J.L.; Hartness, J.A.; Breeding, L.B.; Buchanan, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Interpretation of groundwater sampling data at a large municipal/industrial landfill indicates contamination by both artificial and naturally-occurring hydrocarbons. Site hydrogeology consists of three different water bearing zones. The uppermost (shallow) aquifer is an unconfined unit consisting of silt, clay, and sand deposits. An intermediate depth semiconfined aquifer underlies the unconfined unit, and consists of a chert rubble zone and the upper portion of a fractured and solution-enhanced limestone formation. A regionally-extensive organic-rich shale underlies the semiconfined aquifer and separates it from the deep confined aquifer, which also consists of limestone. Groundwater investigations at the landfill have detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the different aquifer intervals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons detected include tetrachloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride and occur almost exclusively in the shallow aquifer. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and-occur in the intermediate and deep aquifers. The landfill was originally interpreted as the source of the contaminants. The observation of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in the intermediate aquifer at the site, and high dissolved BTEX levels in the deep and intermediate aquifers upgradient of the landfill suggest that the aromatics were derived from a source other than the landfill. A potential source of BTEX contamination may be abandoned (pre-1930) natural gas wells located near the landfill. An additional BTEX source may be the organic-rich shale formation (a documented petroleum source rock)

  5. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  6. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  7. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  8. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  9. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    using fimbriae and pili. Formation of biofilm with biosurfactant characteristics has been observed in Marinobacter cultures and environmental strains in relation to hydrocarbon degradation. Genomic potential exists for the synthesis of biofilm-related carbon and energy storage compounds, e.g. alginate and isoprenoid wax esters, and quorum sensing encoded by the regulatory luxR gene and N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals. Halotolerance is predicted to be achieved through biosynthesis and/or import of compatible solutes, including glycine betaine, choline, ectoine, sucrose, periplasmic glucans as well as membrane channel activity regulating intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentration balance. Gene abundances concur with those observed in sequenced halophilic Halomonas genomes. Defense mechanisms are plentiful and include arsenate, organic solvent, copper, and mercuric resistance, compounds, which frequently occur in oil refinery wastewater. The Marinobacter genomes reflect dynamic environments and diverse interactions with viruses and other bacteria with similar metabolic strategies, as reflected by the large number of integrases and transposases. This study has provided comprehensive genomic insights into the metabolic versatility and predicted environmental impact potential of one of the most ubiquitous bacterial genera.

  10. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  11. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  12. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  13. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  14. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  15. Sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Kildebestemmelse af polyaromatiske kulbrinter (PAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egsgaard, H. [Forskningscenetr Risoe, Ald. for Plantebiologi og Biokemi (DK); Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Ald. for Optic og Fluid Dynamik (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons including PAH compounds are thermally and chemically very stable compounds and are formed by gasification/pyrolysis of biomass. With reference to the tar compounds present in the produced gas from updraft gasifiers the sources responsible for the formation of naphthalene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons have been investigated. The focus has been on thermal and oxidative conversions of compounds related to the lignin building blocks. Thus, phenols, 2-methoxy-phenols and 4-substituted-2-methoxy-phenols were investigated by introducing water solutions of the compounds into a continuos flow system operating in the temperature range 600-850 deg. C. The pyrolysis products were identified by GC/MS. The tar compounds reveal a well-defined and characteristic thermal transformation. Phenol is a strong source to naphthalene and indenes while 2-methoxyphenols are sources to aromatic oxo-compounds such as cinnamaldehyde. More complex systems are sources to higer PAH compounds. Thus, oligomers of phenol and 2-methoxyphenol give dibenzofuran and oligomers of isoeugenol are important sources to acenaphthylene. It is characteristic that the simple tar compounds investigated undergo loss of CO and hereby loss of the aromatic structure. The intermediary compounds are very reactive cyclo-pentadienes entering Diels-Alder reactions. The later products are transformed to aromatic compounds. The results may facilitate the determination of optimum conditions for updraft gasifiers and hence a reduction of PAH formation. (au)

  16. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  17. Petrophysics and hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic rocks in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fowzia; Shaaban, Fouad; Khalaf, Fikry; Bahaman, Fatma; Akbar, Bibi; Al-Khamiss, Awatif

    2017-10-01

    Well logs from nine deep exploratory and development wells in Kuwaiti oil fields have been used to study petrophysical characteristics and their effect on the reservoir quality of the subsurface Paleozoic Khuff and Unayzah formations. Petrophysical log data have been calibrated with core analysis available at some intervals. The study indicates a complex lithological facies of the Khuff Formation that is composed mainly of dolomite and anhydrite interbeds with dispersed argillaceous materials and few limestone intercalations. This facies greatly lowered the formation matrix porosity and permeability index. The porosity is fully saturated with water, which is reflected by the low resistivity logs responses, except at some intervals where few hydrocarbon shows are recorded. The impermeable anhydrites, massive (low-permeability) carbonate rock and shale at the lower part of the formation combine to form intraformational seals for the clastic reservoirs of the underlying Unayzah Formation. By contrast, the log interpretation revealed clastic lithological nature of the Unayzah Formation with cycles of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and shales. The recorded argillaceous materials are mainly of disseminated habit, which control, for some extent, the matrix porosity, that ranges from 2% to 15% with water saturation ranges from 65% to 100%. Cementation, dissolution, compaction and clay mineral authigenesis are the most significant diagenetic processes affecting the reservoir quality. Calibration with the available core analysis at some intervals of the formation indicates that the siliciclastic sequence is a fluvial with more than one climatic cycle changes from humid, semi-arid to arid condition and displays the impact of both physical and chemical diagenesis. In general, the study revealed that the Unyazah Formation has a better reservoir quality than the Khuff Formation and possible gas bearing zones.

  18. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  19. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  20. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  1. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  2. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  3. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  4. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  5. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  6. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  7. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  8. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  9. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  10. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies on geminate ion recombination in saturated hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Katsumura, Y.; Tabata, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The geminate recombination kinetics of the excess electron and the electron hole are discussed, based on time-resolved data on picosecond and nanosecond time scales. The recombination times of the excess electron and the electron hole are evaluated to be 3 ps for cyclohexane on the basis of the comparison between the experimental and the calculated results. The spin correlation decay of the geminate ion pairs and the triplet state formation before the spin correlation loss have also been discussed. The rapidly decaying species with very broad absorption spectra, which are similar to the absorption spectra of the cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons, have been observed in neat saturated hydrocarbons in the sub-nanosecond and a few nanosecond time regions. The identification of the rapidly decaying species were not definitely made but those species are tentatively assigned to the excited states and/or the tail of the geminate cation radicals of saturated hydrocarbons. (author)

  11. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  12. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  13. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  14. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  15. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  16. SHS-produced intermetallides as catalysts for hydrocarbons synthesis from CO and H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Kazantsev, R.V.; Davydov, P.E.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Borshch, V.N.; Pugacheva, E.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science

    2012-07-01

    Raney-type polymetallic alloys were prepared by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis followed by alkaline treating. Surface morphology and composition of were studied using XRD, BET, SEM and EMPA techniques. The samples were tested in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis demonstrated rather high activity and very high selectivity to heavy paraffins. High selectivity to C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons is attributed to high thermal conductivity of alloys which prevents hot spots formation and therefore suppresses formation of methane and light hydrocarbons. Selectivity can be further improved by adding some d-metals in catalyst composition. Promotion with La seems to be particularly suitable for lowering methane formation while doping with Ni enhances methane yield greatly. (orig.)

  17. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

  19. Long-term Behavior of Hydrocarbon Production Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A.; Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recovering hydrocarbons (such as natural gas) from naturally-occurring formations with low permeability has had a huge impact on the energy sector, however, recovery rates are low due to poor understanding of recovery and transport mechanisms [1]. The physical mechanisms that control the production of hydrocarbon are only partially understood. Calculations have shown that the short-term behavior in the peak of the production curve is understood to come from the free hydrocarbons in the fracture networks, but the long-term behavior of these curves is often underpredicted [2]. This behavior is thought to be due to small scale processes - such as matrix diffusion, desorption, and connectivity in the damage region around the large fracture network. In this work, we explore some of these small-scale processes using discrete fracture networks (DFN) and the toolkit dfnWorks [3], the matrix diffusion, size of the damage region, and distribution of free gas between the fracture networks and rock matrix. Individual and combined parameter spaces are explored, and comparisons of the resulting production curves are made to experimental site data from the Haynesville formation [4]. We find that matrix diffusion significantly controls the shape of the tail of the production curve, while the distribution of free gas impacts the relative magnitude of the peak to the tail. The height of the damage region has no effect on the shape of the tail. Understanding the constrains of the parameter space based on site data is the first step in rigorously quantifying the uncertainties coming from these types of systems, which can in turn optimize and improve hydrocarbon recovery. [1] C. McGlade, et. al., (2013) Methods of estimating shale gas resources - comparison, evaluation, and implications, Energy, 59, 116-125 [2] S. Karra, et. al., (2015) Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production, Water Resources Research, 51(10), 8646-8657 [3] J.D. Hyman, et

  20. Hydrocarbon Potential in Sandstone Reservoir Isolated inside Low Permeability Shale Rock (Case Study: Beruk Field, Central Sumatra Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diria, Shidqi A.; Musu, Junita T.; Hasan, Meutia F.; Permono, Widyo; Anwari, Jakson; Purba, Humbang; Rahmi, Shafa; Sadjati, Ory; Sopandi, Iyep; Ruzi, Fadli

    2018-03-01

    Upper Red Bed, Menggala Formation, Bangko Formation, Bekasap Formation and Duri Formationare considered as the major reservoirs in Central Sumatra Basin (CSB). However, Telisa Formation which is well-known as seal within CSB also has potential as reservoir rock. Field study discovered that lenses and layers which has low to high permeability sandstone enclosed inside low permeability shale of Telisa Formation. This matter is very distinctive and giving a new perspective and information related to the invention of hydrocarbon potential in reservoir sandstone that isolated inside low permeability shale. This study has been conducted by integrating seismic data, well logs, and petrophysical data throughly. Facies and static model are constructed to estimate hydrocarbon potential resource. Facies model shows that Telisa Formation was deposited in deltaic system while the potential reservoir was deposited in distributary mouth bar sandstone but would be discontinued bedding among shale mud-flat. Besides, well log data shows crossover between RHOB and NPHI, indicated that distributary mouth bar sandstone is potentially saturated by hydrocarbon. Target area has permeability ranging from 0.01-1000 mD, whereas porosity varies from 1-30% and water saturation varies from 30-70%. The hydrocarbon resource calculation approximates 36.723 MSTB.

  1. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M; Geiger, Robert A; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V; Davison, Brian H

    2015-11-03

    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  2. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  3. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern part of the Nile Delta and its facing offshore area (Egypt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, T.

    1990-01-01

    Bottom Hole Temperature (BHT) as physical parameter beside depths to both Pliocene and Miocene sections are used in this study. Temperature analysis is based on Hood, Gutjahr and Heacock's and Gretener and Curtis' methods. The results have thrown light on the interrelation between the different rock units forming both Pliocene and Miocene sections as well as their hydrocarbon potential. It is found that, only three wells namely, Abu Qir-1, NAF-1 and Sidi Salim can be hydrocarbon producing, and Abu Madi formation can be classified to be of Upper Miocene as the underlying Quawasim formation for their lithologic similarity. (orig.).

  4. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  6. Improve The Efficiency Of The Study Of Complex Reservoirs And Hydrocarbon Deposits - East Baghdad Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al-Obaidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical value of this work consists in increasing the efficiency of exploration for oil and gas fields in Eastern Baghdad by optimizing and reducing the complex of well logging coring sampling and well testing of the formation beds and computerizing the data of interpretation to ensure the required accuracy and reliability of the determination of petrophysical parameters that will clarify and increase proven reserves of hydrocarbon fields in Eastern Baghdad. In order to calculate the most accurate water saturation values for each interval of Zubair formation a specific modified form of Archie equation corresponding to this formation was developed.

  7. Thermal maturity history and implications for hydrocarbon exploration in the Catatumbo basin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Antonio; Hernandez, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A thermal model integrated with oil and gas geochemical study has been constructed for the Catatumbo basin, Colombia for provides petroleum system data for hydrocarbon exploration. The calibration of the thermal model with maturity data took into account a changing heat flow scheme which included a thermal increase towards the end of the Jurassic and another one in the early Eocene, associated with rifting events. Locally, active/generating source rocks are within the synclines axes. The hydrocarbon expulsion time for Cretaceous source rocks (Capacho and La Luna formations) started in the upper Paleocene-Eocene, while for the los Cuervos Formation the generation and expulsion started of 1 0 my. The petroleum expelled during the Paleocene-Miocene, were likely accumulated in structures formed since the end of the cretaceous, while the younger structures that resulted from the Andean orogen were charged by remigration from the older structures and additionally with the youngest lately generated hydrocarbons. The accumulations of hydrocarbons are mainly the result of generation and migration locally within the basin. The Catatumbo Basin contains thermogenic wet gases with different degrees of thermal maturity which varies from around 1,0 for 2,5 equivalent Ro. The highest degree of thermal evolution according to maturity indicators and thermal modeling is in the southern area, which is prospective for wet gas. The central and northern area appears more prospective for oil with minor amounts of gas

  8. Hydrocarbons in sediments adjacent to a gas and condensate development and production platform in northwestern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    In northwestern Australia during the period of 1983 to 1991, 23 wells were drilled from a gas/condensate production platform to the producing formation approximately 3000 m below the sea bed. Low toxicity water-based drilling muds formulated with hydrogenated kerosenes were used, with the resultant formation cuttings being legally discharged into the ocean. To study the fate of hydrocarbons associated with the cuttings, sea-floor samples were collected along two perpendicular transects from the platform. The first extended 10 km in the prevailing direction of the current and the other to 1.2 km. Subsequently, samples have been collected from one of these sites on two occasions, first one year and secondly two years after the initial collection. Samples collected from directly under the platform cuttings chute contained the highest hydrocarbon concentrations, determined gravimetrically, of 75000 mg/kg, decreasing to approximately 40 mg/kg within 800 m in the direction of the prevailing current. Concentrations in the more remote samples were determined by GC and decreased gradually to be barely discernible above background at less than 0.01 mg/kg at 10 km from the platform. This suite of samples provided an excellent opportunity to study the progress of hydrocarbon biodegradation as it occurs in the marine environment. Analysis by GC-FID, GC-MS and GC-FTIR revealed a number of features. For example, the extent of biodegradation and weathering with increasing distance from the platform, and the half life for biodegradation of total hydrocarbons appears to be approximately one year. The hydrocarbon components of the sediments are mainly from the drilling mud with minor contributions from the formation fluids

  9. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  10. Magnetic enhancement caused by hydrocarbon migration in the Mawangmiao Oil Field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Tao [Department of Geophysics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Qingsong [National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Chan, Lungsang [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Xianghua; Cheng, Tongjin [Wuxi Institute of Petroleum Geology, SNOPEC, Jiangsu Wuxi 214151 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Magnetic parameters (volume-specific susceptibility k, and hysteresis parameters and ratios) of 47 samples, collected from an oil-producing well (M{sub 36}) and a dry well (M{sub 46}) from the oil-bearing II-You Formation of Paleogene Xingouzui Group in the Mawangmiao Oil Field in China, were measured to address the secondary alteration of iron-bearing minerals associated with hydrocarbon migration. Our results indicated that both k and magnetization (saturation magnetization J{sub s} and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization J{sub rs}) of oil-bearing formation have been dramatically enhanced. Further grain size estimation reveals that the background samples (samples both in M{sub 46} and outside the oil-bearing formation in M{sub 36}) contain coarser-grained magnetic particles (circa 30{mu}m) of detrital origin. In contrast, the alteration of hydrocarbon produces finer-grained (circa 25nm) magnetic particles. The new constraints on grain sizes and its origin of the hydrocarbon-related magnetic particles improve our understanding of the mechanism of formation of these secondary finer-grained particles, even though the precise nature of this process is still unknown. (author)

  11. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  12. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  15. Catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids in bio-oil for liquid hydrocarbons production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shurong; Guo, Zuogang; Cai, Qinjie; Guo, Long

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil must be upgraded to be suitable for use as a high-grade transport fuel. Crude bio-oil has a high content of carboxylic acids which can cause corrosion, and the high oxygen content of these acids also reduces the oil’s heating value. In this paper, acetic acid and propanoic acid were chosen as the model carboxylic acids in bio-oil. Their behavior in the production of liquid hydrocarbons during a catalytic conversion process was investigated in a micro-fixed bed reactor. The liquid organic phase from this catalytic conversion process mainly consisted of liquid hydrocarbons and phenol derivatives. Under the condition of low Liquid Hourly Space Velocity (LHSV), the liquid organic phase from acetic acid cracking had a selectivity of 22% for liquid hydrocarbons and a selectivity of 65% for phenol derivatives. The composition of the organic products changed considerably with the LHSV increasing to 3 h −1 . The selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons increased up to 52% while that for phenol derivatives decreased to 32%. Propanoic acid performed much better in producing liquid hydrocarbons than acetic acid. Its selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons was as high as 80% at LHSV = 3 h −1 . A mechanism for this catalytic conversion process was proposed according to the analysis of the components in the liquid organic phases. The pathways of the main compounds formation in the liquid organic phases were proposed, and the reason why liquid hydrocarbons were more effectively produced when using propanoic acid rather than acetic acid was also successfully explained. In addition, BET and SEM characterization were used to analyze the catalyst coke deposition. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► High content of carboxylic acids in bio-oil causes its corrosiveness. ► Acetic acid and propanoic acid are two dominant acids in bio-oil. ► Liquid hydrocarbons were produced by cracking of these two dominant acids. ► A mechanism model was proposed to explain

  16. Natural radioactivity in mining and hydrocarbon extraction industry. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, C; Desideri, D; Meli, M A; Roselli, C [General Chemistry Institute, Urbino University, 61029 Urbino, (Italy)

    1996-03-01

    Water and soil natural radioactivity is a well known phenomenon which can produced by variable concentrations of uranium and thorium series radionuclides. Generally, the relevant radiological hazard is not important; however, some radiation protection problems can occur in particular industrial processes involving the treatment of large quantities of materials. In this case a high concentration of radioactive substance (NORM: nationally occurring radioactive materials) can be found at special points of the plant, in the manufacture by-products and in the waters. Sometimes the national radioactivity concentration can be so high to raise radiation protection problems which can be assimilated in a sense to the ones faced in the presence, handling, and disposal of non-sealed radioactive sources. In this paper the following mining and hydrocarbon extraction plants were particularly taken into account: (a) industries using zircon sands to produce refractory and ceramic materials; (b) phosphorites manufacture to prepare phosphoric acids, plasters and fertilizers (c) hydrocarbon extraction and treatment processes where formations of low specific activity (L.S.A.) scales and sludges are produced. The relevant results and the possible radiation protection risks for the professional exposed staff will be reported. A special emphasis will be given to some african phosphorites (boucraa, togo, morocco), and L.S.A. scales (tunisia, congo, Egypt). 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Natural radioactivity in mining and hydrocarbon extraction industry. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    1996-01-01

    Water and soil natural radioactivity is a well known phenomenon which can produced by variable concentrations of uranium and thorium series radionuclides. Generally, the relevant radiological hazard is not important; however, some radiation protection problems can occur in particular industrial processes involving the treatment of large quantities of materials. In this case a high concentration of radioactive substance (NORM: nationally occurring radioactive materials) can be found at special points of the plant, in the manufacture by-products and in the waters. Sometimes the national radioactivity concentration can be so high to raise radiation protection problems which can be assimilated in a sense to the ones faced in the presence, handling, and disposal of non-sealed radioactive sources. In this paper the following mining and hydrocarbon extraction plants were particularly taken into account: a) industries using zircon sands to produce refractory and ceramic materials; b) phosphorites manufacture to prepare phosphoric acids, plasters and fertilizers c) hydrocarbon extraction and treatment processes where formations of low specific activity (L.S.A.) scales and sludges are produced. The relevant results and the possible radiation protection risks for the professional exposed staff will be reported. A special emphasis will be given to some african phosphorites (boucraa, togo, morocco), and L.S.A. scales (tunisia, congo, Egypt). 4 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Sampling of high molecular weight hydrocarbons with adsorbent tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemberg, B.

    1996-12-01

    Adsorption tubes have been used to determine the content of hydrocarbons in gas samples from small scale combustion and gasification of biomass. Compounds from benzene (mw 78) to indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene (mw 276) have been examined. The results show that it is possible to analyze polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with 4 aromatic rings (mw 202). Detection limits for these compounds are 3 . PAH with higher molecule weight can be identified and quantified in samples with high amounts of PAH e.g. at gasification of biomass. Sampling on adsorption tubes is extremely quick and easy. The tube is inserted in the gas of interest and the sample is sucked through the tube with a pump. Sampling times of 2-10 minutes are often sufficient. High moisture content in the gas may result in losses of the most volatile compounds, when drying. Even very low concentrations of water in the tube may cause ice formation in the cold-trap and the sample will be destroyed. The analysis is unfortunately time-consuming because the desorption oven must be cooled between every analysis. This will reduce the number of samples which can be analyzed per day. The tubes can be stored for several weeks before analysis without deterioration. 4 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Prospects for development of hydrocarbon raw materials resources reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertakova, Y. V.; Babich, T. N.; Polozhentseva, Y. S.; Zvyagintsev, G. L.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents data on the influence of factors in the field of innovative technology of thermocatalytic depolymerization of solid household wastes (SHW) on the efficiency and prospects for the development of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction. Process thermodynamics, reactions kinetics, the mechanism of thermolysis of secondary polymers in organic solvents have been studied by means of laboratory experiments. It is shown that different morphological groups of wastes dissolve practically at the same rate at temperatures of 250-310°C. A homogeneous product is formed in the liquid phase; the spread of values for the elements lies in the interval of 1.5-4.5 %; technological requirements of the stages of formation of boiler fuels are satisfied. Using the principles of patent analysis, new techniques of processing household waste components are proposed. The basics of energy-efficient and energy-saving processes of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction have been laid. The possibility of increasing the production payback and intensification is shown. Ecological and demographic safety for population and technical and economic benefits from SHW processing are achieved.

  20. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeability of low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member...... facies A and diagenetic facies B do not develop accumulation conditions with low accumulation dynamics in the late accumulation period for very low permeability. At more than 3000 m burial depth, a larger proportion of turbidite reservoirs are oil charged due to the proximity to the source rock. Also...

  1. Petrography and mineralgy of gachsaran formation in west of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gachsaran Formation is the most important cap rock of hydrocarbon reservoir in Iran and has important deposits of salt, sulfur and gypsum. A section of Gachsaran formation (Early to Middle Miocene) in south- east of zagros area, west of Bandar- e- Abbas province, was studied from sedimentary geology view. Gachsaran ...

  2. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  3. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  4. High Temperature Chemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Lawrence T. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Merkert Chemistry Center, Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-05-15

    The primary goal of this research was to uncover the principal reaction channels available to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperatures in the gas phase and to establish the factors that determine which channels will be followed in varying circumstances. New structure-property relationships for PAHs were also studied. The efficient production of clean energy from fossil fuels will remain a major component of the DOE mission until alternative sources of energy eventually displace coal and petroleum. Hydrocarbons constitute the most basic class of compounds in all of organic chemistry, and as the dominant species in fossil fuels, they figure prominently into the programs of the DOE. Much is already known about the normal chemistry of hydrocarbons under ambient conditions, but far less is known about their intrinsic chemistry at temperatures close to those reached during combustion. An understanding of the fundamental molecular transformations, rearrangements, and interconversions of PAHs at high temperatures in the gas phase, as revealed by careful studies on small, well-designed, molecular systems, provides insights into the underlying chemistry of many important processes that are more complex, such as the generation of energy by the combustion of fossil fuels, the uncatalyzed gasification and liquefaction of coal, the production of fullerenes in fuel-rich flames, and the formation of soot and carcinogenic pollutants in smoke (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). The rational control of any of these processes, whether it be the optimization of a desirable process or the minimization of an undesirable one, requires a clear knowledge of the basic chemistry that governs the fate of the species involved. Advances in chemistry at the most fundamental level come about primarily from the discovery of new reactions and from new insights into how reactions occur. Harnessing that knowledge is the key to new technologies. The recent commercialization of a combustion

  5. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  6. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  7. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  8. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  9. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  10. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  11. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  12. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  13. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  14. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts. PMID:27958290

  15. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  16. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    naphthalene), W-cofactor-containing enzymes for reductive dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA (class II benzoyl-CoA reductase) in obligate anaerobes and addition of water to acetylene, fermentative formation of cyclohexanecarboxylate from benzoate, and methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Hydrogen/hydrocarbon explosions in the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of H 2 /hydrocarbon detonations in the vacuum vessel (torus) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have been studied. The most likely scenario for such a detonation involves a water leak into the torus and a vent of the torus to atmosphere, permitting the formation of an explosive fuel-air mixture. The generation of fuel gases and possible sources of air or oxygen are reviewed, and the severity and effects of specific fuel-air mixture explosions are evaluated. Detonation or deflagration of an explosive mixture could result in pressures exceeding the maximum allowable torus pressure. Further studies to examine the design details and develop an event-tree study of events following a gas detonation are recommended

  18. Detailed modeling of hydrocarbon nanoparticle nucleation in acetylene discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleecker, Kathleen de; Bogaerts, Annemie; Goedheer, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The initial stage of nanoparticle formation and growth in radiofrequency acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) plasmas is investigated by means of a self-consistent one-dimensional fluid model. A detailed chemical kinetic scheme, containing electron impact, ion-neutral, and neutral-neutral reactions, has been developed in order to predict the underlying dust growth mechanisms and the most important dust precursors. The model considers 41 different species (neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons) describing hydrocarbons (C n H m ) containing up to 12 carbon atoms. Possible routes for particle growth are discussed. Both positive and negative ion reaction pathways are considered, as consecutive anion- and cation-molecule reactions seem to lead to a fast build up of the carbon skeleton

  19. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  20. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  1. Carbon in condensed hydrocarbon phases, steels and cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAFAROVA Victoria Alexandrovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of studies carried out mainly by the researchers of the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, which are aimed at detection of new properties of carbon in such condensed media as petroleum and coal pitches, steels and cast irons. Carbon plays an important role in the industry of construction materials being a component of road and roof bitumen and setting the main mechanical properties of steels. It was determined that crystal-like structures appear in classical glass-like substances – pitches which contain several thousands of individual hydrocarbons of various compositions. That significantly extends the concept of crystallinity. In structures of pitches, the control parameter of the staged structuring process is paramagnetism of condensed aromatic hydrocarbons. Fullerenes were detected in steels and cast irons and identified by various methods of spectrometry and microscopy. Fullerene С60, which contains 60 carbon atoms, has diameter of 0,7 nm and is referred to the nanoscale objects, which have a significant influence on the formation of steel and cast iron properties. It was shown that fullerenes appear at all stages of manufacture of cast irons; they are formed during introduction of carbon from the outside, during crystallization of metal in welded joints. Creation of modified fullerene layers in steels makes it possible to improve anticorrosion and tribological properties of structural materials. At the same time, outside diffusion of carbon from the carbon deposits on the metal surface also leads to formation of additional amount of fullerenes. This creates conditions for occurrence of local microdistortions of the structure, which lead to occurrence of cracks. Distribution of fullerenes in iron matrix is difficult to study as the method is labor-intensive, it requires dissolution of the matrix in the hydrofluoric acid and stage fullerene separation with further identification by spectral methods.

  2. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  3. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M B

    1997-12-31

    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  4. External heavy atom effect on intersystem crossing reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojnarovits, L.; Foeldiak, G.

    1988-01-01

    The external heavy atom effect by xenon on the S 1 → T n and T 1 → S o transitions of naphthalene and pyrene was investigated in hydrocarbon solvents by fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. The quencher forms a short-lived encounter complex (that may be called exciplex as well) with the excited molecules in equilibrium process. This exciplex formation in solutions with naphthalene leads to some deviation from the Stern-Volmer type concentration dependence of the quenching. (author)

  5. Early events following radiolytic and photogeneration of radical cations in hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werst, D.W.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Real-time studies in hydrocarbons have revealed a richness of chemistry involving the initial ionic species produced in radiolysis and photoionization. A modified radical cation mechanism patterned after the core mechanism for alkane radiolysis-formation of radical cations and their disappearance via ion-molecule reactions - is capable of explaining a wide range of observations in high-energy photochemistry, and thus unifies two high-energy regimes. Fundamental studies of radical cations suggest strategies for mitigating radiation effects in materials

  6. Steam cracking of hydrocarbons 6. Effect of dibenzyl sulfide and dibenzyl disulfide on reaction kinetics and coking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajus, M.; Baxa, J.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of aromatic sulfides on the kinetics and selectivity of hydrocarbon conversion by steam cracking and on pyrolytic coke formation was investigated in stainless steel tubular reactors with relatively large inner surface.The rate of decomposition of heptane (at 700 ‘C, 100 kPa, and a mass

  7. Temporal variations in natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in eutrophic river sediments impacted by a contaminated groundwater plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Kuhn, T.; Vos, J.; Maesen, M.; Kalka, H.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Dejonghe, W.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater base flow. Biotrans formation, sorption and dilution of CAHs in the impacted river sediments have been reported to reduce discharge, but the effect of temporal variations in environmental conditions on

  8. Fast co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene for high yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-09-01

    Waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to enhance the yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. The effects of WP: HDPE feed ratio (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) and temperature (500-800°C) on products distribution were investigated and the interaction mechanism during co-pyrolysis was also proposed. Maximum yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons reached 85.88% (feed ratio 50:50wt.%, 600°C). Hydrogen supplements and deoxidation by HDPE and subsequently fragments recombination result in the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into branched hydrocarbons. Radicals from WP degradation favor the secondary crack for HDPE products resulting in the formation of linear hydrocarbons with low carbon number. Hydrocarbons with activated radical site from HDPE degradation were interacted with hydroxyl from WP degradation promoting the formation of linear long chain alcohols. Moreover, co-pyrolysis significantly enhanced condensable oil qualities, which were close to commercial diesel No. 0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on ozone generation with dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose L.; Vezzu, Guido; Freilich, Alfred; Paolini, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The increasing usage of the feed gases of lower grade liquid oxygen (LOX) containing higher levels of trace hydrocarbon impurities in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for ozone generation requires a better understanding of the kinetics of the by-product formation resulting from reactions involving these hydrocarbon impurities. As a case study of hydrocarbon impurities, the kinetics of CH4 conversion in DBDs and the subsequent HNO3 formation were investigated by means of gas-phase plasma diagnostics, supported by detailed process modeling, and extensive in-situ and ex-situ by-product analysis. The by-products formation in the plasma with the presence of CH4, were found to differ significantly in oxygen-fed generators as compared to generators fed with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The amount of HNO3 formed depends on the concentration of NOx formed in the plasma and the amount of CH4 that is converted, but not on the O3 concentration. In the present work we have investigated CH4 concentrations of up to 1.95 wt% of the feed gas. The rate of deterioration of the overall ozone generator performance was found to be affected by the concentration of nitrogen in the oxygen/nitrogen mixture.

  10. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  11. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  12. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  13. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  14. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  15. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  16. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  17. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  18. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  19. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  1. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  2. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  3. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  5. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  6. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  7. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  8. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  9. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  10. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  11. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  12. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  13. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  14. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  15. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  16. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  17. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  18. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  19. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  20. Benthic Bioprocessing of Hydrocarbons in the Natural Deep-Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, N.; MacDonald, I. R.; Bohrmann, G.; Schubotz, F.; Johansen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Science is accustomed to quantifying ecosystem processes that consume carbon from primary production as it drifts downward through the photic zone. Comparably efficient processes operate in reverse, as living and non-living components sequester and re-mineralize a large fraction of hydrocarbons that migrate out of traps and reservoirs to the seafloor interface. Together, they comprise a sink that prevents these hydrocarbons from escaping upward into the water column. Although quantification of the local or regional magnitude of this sink poses steep challenges, we can make progress by classifying and mapping the biological communities and geological intrusions that are generated from hydrocarbons in the deep sea. Gulf of Mexico examples discussed in this presentation extend across a broad range of depths (550, 1200, and 3200 m) and include major differences in hydrocarbon composition (from gas to liquid oil to asphaltene-dominated solids). Formation of gas hydrate is a dynamic process in each depth zone. At upper depths, gas hydrate is unstable at a timescale of months to years and serves as a substrate for microbial consortia and mussel symbiosis. At extreme depths, gas hydrate supports large and dense tubeworm colonies that conserve the material from decomposition. Timescales for biogeochemical weathering of oil and asphalts are decadal or longer, as shown by sequential alterations and changing biological colonization. Understanding these processes is crucial as we prepare for wider and deeper energy exploitation in the Gulf of Mexico and beyond.