WorldWideScience

Sample records for subscription supplemental materials

  1. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual subscription rates: Annual subscription: Individuals – US$300.00; Institutions and organisations - $350.00. Two-year subscription (less 15% discount). Three-year subscription (less 20% discount). Distribution agents are charged subscription rates as for organisations, less 15% discount. All rates exclude postage.

  2. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Emmanuel U. Onweremadu Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria Phone: +234 08053127006. Email: tapasinstitute@yahoo.com. Current Subscription Rate: Subscription to Animal Production Research Advances for a full calendar year, ...

  3. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Dr. BA Kolawole Medicine Department, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Phone: +2348033804884. Email: nigendopractice@gmail.com. The annual subscription rate for this journal is 100USD per annum. ISSN: 2251-0362. AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Abiodun Bankole c/o Trade Policy Research and Training Programme Department of Economics University of Ibadan Ibadan Nigeria Email: asbanky@yahoo.com. Annual Subscription Rates (Two issues per year) Institutional Africa: $30.00. Rest of the World: $60.00. Personal Africa: $20.00

  5. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Food Journal is an annual publication of the Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology. Subscription prices have changed slightly in response to the economy. Subscription prices for this issue are: individuals in Nigeria N3, 000.00; Nigerian Institution N5,000.00, African Countries 100,00 US Dollars, ...

  6. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... P/Bag 66022 Kopje Harare Zimbabwe Email: mupedziswars@yahoo.com. SUBSCRIPTIONS PER ANNUM (2 ISSUES PER YEAR)* Developing world US$ 50. Rest of the world US$ 80. Airmail US$ 30 * Note: • Please indicate starting year for subscriptions. • Back issues available on request. • Agents discount 15%.

  7. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Christine Lucia Musicological Society of Southern Africa PO Box 3452. MATIELAND 7602. South Africa Email: clucia@telkomsa.net. International Subscriptions SA Rand 90 per volume by surface (plus R50 if paid in currency other than SA Rand) SA Rand 165 per volume by air mail (plus R50 if paid ...

  8. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Dr Jide Owoeye College press Publishers Lts P O Box 30678 Ibadan Oyo State NIGERIA Phone: 234 02 8101963. Fax: 234 02 8104165. Email: ajiadlcu@gmail.com. International Rates. Subscription per volume (2 issues) $50 (including airmail and handling). Advertisement per volume $50 (full ...

  9. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Ms Julia Clare School of Philosophy and Ethics University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban 4041 South Africa Email: clare@ukzn.ac.za. Annual subscription fees (volume of four numbers) are ZAR200,00 for subscribers on the continent of Africa, and for others US$60 (airmail included). Orders to: Ms Julia ...

  10. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    za/Journal%20subscriptions%20rates.pdf. NOTE: Members of the African Language Association of Southern Africa receive print copies of the journal with their membership. Membership enquiries should be addressed to: The Treasurer (ALASA) ...

  11. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ₤36.30 less 10% to Subscription Agent (₤32.67 + ₤9.33 Forex charges = ₤42.00 to ISEA, Rhodes University). $57.48 less 10% to Subscription Agent ($51.73 + $18.27 Forex charges = $70.00 to ISEA, Rhodes University). Airmail: Please add a further £9/$16. Africa: Individuals: R230.00 less 10% to Agent - (R 207.00 incl.

  12. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Prof B M Marshall Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific P.O. Box CY 124 Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe. Email: marshall@trep.co.zw ) To subscribe to Transactions it is necessary to become a member of the Association: Membership Rates (2001/2002) Ordinary member (in Zimbabwe) Z$300.00

  13. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Prof. S Feresu P.O. Box CY 124 Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe Email: feresu@ies.uz.ac.zw. To subscribe to The Zimbabwe Science News it is necessary to become a member of the Association: Membership Rates (2001/2002) Ordinary member (in Zimbabwe) Z$300.00. Ordinary member ...

  14. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Dr Obinna Muogboh Pan African University 2 Ahmed Onibudo Street, P.O. Box 73688, Victoria Island, Lagos, NIGERIA Email: omuogboh@lbs.edu.ng. One Year Institutional: US$40. Individual: US$30. Two Years Institutional: US$70. Individual: US$55. To subscribe, please return information to:

  15. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscriptions Contact. Dr Basil C Ezeanolue Department of Otorhinolaryngology College of Medicine University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu 400 001. Nigeria Email: editornjorl@yahoo.com. Individuals Nigeria - 600.00 Naira Africa - US$15.00. Other Countries - US$25.00. Institutions Nigeria - 1200.00 Naira

  16. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Europe 75 USD. USA 100 USD. Asia 75 USD. Institutional subscription: Tanzania 40 USD. East African 50 USD. Africa 75 UDS. Europe 150 USD. USA 175 USD. Asia 75 USD. Purchase of single copies: Tanzania 10 USD. East African Community 15 USD. Others 25 USD. Prices include postage costs. ADVERTISING ...

  17. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  18. SUBSCRIPTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SUBSCRIPTION POLICYIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. All the registered members of the association and currently working as faculty in Community Medicine at various Medical Colleges of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand are only entitled to receive a free copy of the journal. Subscription Rate - 2017 (Including Postage India (INROverseas (US$CategoryIndividualInstituteIndividualInstituteBack Single Issue1500200075100Current Single Issue100015005075Yearly Four Issues30005000175250* Subscription Agent Discount: 10% of the Institute Rates (Details of end user is mandatory  Modes of payment: NEFT / RTGS / Online Transfer / Net Banking / Demand DraftAccount Name: Indian Journal of Community Health  Account No: 33858042598 Type: Saving AccountBank Name: State Bank of India (SBI HIHT  Branch: HIHT Jolly Grant, Dehradun Branch Code: 10580 IFSC Code: SBIN0010580 MICR Code: 248002201Note: Please allow at least six to eight weeks for commencement of new subscription, Subscription are for calendar year only, Claims for missing issues can be made only within one month of publication, Worldwide free online full text access in PDF format (Open Access.  Postal Address:To Editor Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH Publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social MedicineUttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand Department of Community Medicine,Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences,Swami Ram Nagar, Doiwala, Dehradun 248140UttarakhandWebsite: www.iapsmupuk.org E – Mail:  chiefeditor@iapsmupuk.orgSubscription FormTo Editor Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH Publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social MedicineUttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand Department of Community Medicine,Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences,Swami Ram Nagar, Doiwala, Dehradun

  19. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  20. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  1. CERN GSM SUBSCRIPTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2002-01-01

    AS Division has created a new EDH document for handling all GSM subscription requests and amendments. This procedure will enter force immediately and from now on the Labo Telecom stores will no longer be able to deal with requests submitted on paper forms. Detailed information on the subject can be found here and the Labo Telecom stores will continue to open every day between 11.00 a.m. and 12.00 midday. IT-CS-TEL, Labo Telecom

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of a Perovskite Barium Zirconate (BaZrO[subscript 3]): An Experiment for an Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thananatthanachon, Todsapon

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, the students explore the synthesis of a crystalline solid-state material, barium zirconate (BaZrO3) by two different synthetic methods: (a) the wet chemical method using BaCl[subscript 2]·2H[subscript 2]O and ZrOCl[subscript 2]·8H[subscript 2]O as the precursors, and (b) the solid-state reaction from BaCO[subscript 3] and…

  3. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Email: vinck.aequatoria@skynet.be
    Honore.Vinck@ped.kuleuven.be. Congo Mbandaka : Centre Aequatoria, B.P. 276(don't use this address in times of trouble/n'utilisez pas cette adresse en p riode de troubles) Kinshasa: Maison MSC, Limete, 19, 3 me rue,Vente: Librairie St Paul Kinshasa et Limete Belgium

  4. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicate; Journal of Library and Information Science, Department of Library of Information Science, Ambrose Alli University, PMB 14, Ekpoma, Edo State. Nigeria. Phone: + 234 703 636 0662. Email: communicatejournal@yahoo.com. Prices: Recent issue = $30. Past Issue =$20. Mode of Payment for Journal: Send a ...

  5. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institutions: US$ 50 (East Africa), US$ 200 (Europe), US$ 250 (USA). Individuals: US$ 25 (East Africa), US$ 120 (Europe), US$ 140 (USA). Purchase of single copies: US$ 20.00 per copy VAT inclusive. ... Advertising rates (may change without notice) Inside cover: US$ 200.0 per issue. Full page: US$ 250.0 per issue

  6. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-contributors, libraries and institutions wishing to procure copies can do so at a moderate charge which defrays the costs of production and postage: 2000 CFA for individuals or national institutions 4000 CFA for international organizations $10 for institutions in Africa $20 for institutions outside Africa. ISSN: 1813-3320.

  7. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amadou Hama MAÏGA Revue " SUD SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES " Ecole inter-états d'Ingénieurs de l'Equipement Rural (E.I.E.R.) 03 BP 7023. OUAGADOUGOU 03. BURKINA FASO Phone: (226) 30 71 16/17. Fax: (226) 31 27 24. Afrique del'Ouest et du Centre Autres pays. Abonnement. individuel 10 000 f cfa 15 000 f ...

  8. Subscriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : U. B. A.. (ii) Payments from Outside Nigeria. Intermediary Bank: STANDARD CHARTERED BANK, LONDON SWIFT CODE: SCBLGB2L. Beneficiary Bank: First Bank of Nigeria LTD. Address: 35, SAMUEL ASABIA HOUSE, MARIN, LAGOS, ...

  9. Managing Distributed Systems with Smart Subscriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe an event-based, publish-and-subscribe mechanism based on using 'smart subscriptions' to recognize weakly-structured events. We present a hierarchy of subscription languages (propositional, predicate, temporal and agent) and algorithms for efficiently recognizing event matches. This mechanism has been applied to the management of distributed applications.

  10. What Does f[subscript xx]f[subscript yy] - f[superscript 2][subscript xy] Greater than 0 "Really" Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartin, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This note presents geometric and physical interpretations of the sufficient condition for a critical point to be a strict relative extremum: f[subscript xx]f[subscript yy] - f[superscript 2][subscript xy] greater than 0. The role of the double derivative f[subscript xy] in this inequality will be highlighted in these interpretations. (Contains 14…

  11. Introduction, Supplemental Materials, and Appendices, MCSP Monarch and Plant Monitoring, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains the Introduction, five Supplemental Materials (SM), and four Appendices Materials of the initial survey instructions (ISI) developed and...

  12. Consecutive C[subscript 60] Fullerene Dissociation from Ir([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])(CO)(Cl)(PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 2] and the Oxidative Addition of Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Tamara; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory activity is a mechanistic exploration of the interactions between electronically deficient organometallic compounds and solvent molecules. Simple kinetics experiments designed to explore the mechanism of C[subscript 60] fullerene-benzene exchange on Ir(([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])(CO)(Cl)(PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 2]…

  13. Italian print magazines and subscription discounts

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Mangani

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the antecedents of subscription discounts of Italian print magazines. Drawing on previous empirical work on the theme, I formulate six research hypotheses regarding demand and supply factors that may affect subscription pricing. The two-sidedness of magazine industry is considered implicitly in the empirical analysis. The empirical observations show that the issue frequency, economies of scope deriving from publishing multiple titles, intra-category competition and content ...

  14. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCI[subscript 4]?[subscript 1] Mode: Effect of Thermally Populated Vibrational States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous article on CCl[subscript 4] in this "Journal," we presented an investigation of the fine structure of the symmetric stretch of carbon tetrachloride (CCl[subscript 4]) due to isotopic variations of chlorine in C[superscript 35]Cl[subscript x][superscript 37]Cl[subscript 4-x]. In this paper, we present an investigation of…

  15. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  16. An Advanced Organometallic Lab Experiment with Biological Implications: Synthesis and Characterization of Fe[subscript 2](µ-S[subscript 2])(C0)[subscript 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacob; Spentzos, Ariana; Works, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The organometallic complex Fe[subscript 2](µ-S[subscript 2])(CO)[subscript 6] has interesting biological implications. The concepts of bio-organometallic chemistry are rarely discussed at the undergraduate level, but this experiment can start such a conversation and, in addition, teach valuable synthetic techniques. The lab experiment takes a…

  17. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Gregory A.

    2014-02-01

    A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.

  18. A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

    1988-09-01

    Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

  19. Internet Access from CERN GSM subscriptions

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The data service on GSM subscriptions has been improved, allowing CERN users to access the Internet directly. A CERN GSM subscription with data option now allows you to connect to the Internet from a mobile phone or a PC equipped with a GSM modem. The previous access (CERN intranet) still exists. To get access to the new service, you will find all the information on configurations at: http://cern.ch/gprs The use of this service on the Sunrise network is charged on a flat-rate basis (no extra charge related to the volume of downloaded data). Depending on your CERN subscription type (standard or master), you can also connect to foreign GSM data networks (roaming), but this is strongly discouraged, except where absolutely necessary, due to international roaming charges. Telecom Section, IT/CS

  20. Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

  1. Using a Subscription Agent for E-Journal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    Subscription agents have had to reinvent themselves over the past 15 years as the numbers of print subscriptions have dramatically dwindled. Many libraries have chosen to bypass the subscription agent and its extra fees in favor of dealing directly with the publisher for e-journal and e-journal package procurement and management. Especially in…

  2. 47 CFR 73.642 - Subscription TV service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subscription TV service. 73.642 Section 73.642... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.642 Subscription TV service. (a) Subscription TV service may be provided by: (1) Licensees and permittees of commercial and noncommercial TV stations, and (2) Licensees and...

  3. 47 CFR 73.641 - Subscription TV definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subscription TV definitions. 73.641 Section 73.641 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.641 Subscription TV definitions. (a) Subscription...

  4. 41 CFR 101-25.108 - Multiyear subscriptions for publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Multiyear subscriptions...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.108 Multiyear subscriptions for publications. Subscriptions for... the purpose of economy or otherwise. Where various bureaus or offices in the same agency are...

  5. An Annotated List of Audio-Visual Materials, Supplement One. Reader Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Melissa R., Ed.

    This annual supplement to the annotated list of audio-visual materials includes the filmstrips added to the Reader Development collection since June, 1971. The list is arranged alphabetically by filmstrip title, and a brief subject index follows the list. A catalog giving the addresses of filmstrip distributors is also included. A total of 43…

  6. Gentamicin supplementation of polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials for infection prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Karsten; Rosch, Raphael; Klinge, Uwe; Krones, Carsten; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Mertens, Peter R; Lynen, Petra; Kunz, Dagmar; Preiss, Achim; Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, Heidrun; Schumpelick, Volker

    2005-03-01

    Hernia repair evolved from pure tissue repair to mesh repair due to decreased recurrence rates. However, concern exists about mesh-related infections occurring even several years after initial operation. Therefore, a polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) mesh material was constructed and surface modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF+PAAc). Antimicrobial treatment was sought by binding of gentamicin (PVDF+PAAc+Gentamicin). In vitro efficacy and cytotoxicity was measured by agar diffusion test, L929 cytotoxicity testing and by analyzing the amount of gentamicin release from the mesh surface. In vivo biocompatibility was evaluated in 45 Sprague-Dawley rats. 7, 21 and 90 days after mesh implantation the amount of inflammatory and connective tissue as well as the percentage of proliferating (Ki67) and apoptotic cells (TUNEL) were analyzed at the perifilamentary region. Agar diffusion tests showed sufficient local antimicrobiotic effects against the bacteria tested after 24h of incubation. No signs of cytotoxicity could be identified by L929 testing. Furthermore, surface modification did not affect the in vivo biocompatibility. At the end of the observation period, no significant differences were found for the perifilamentary amount of inflammatory cells and connective tissue and the percentage of Ki67 and TUNEL positive stained cells. The presented data confirm that an antibiotic surface modification of PVDF mesh samples is feasible. By analyzing cytotoxicity in vitro as well as biocompatibility in vivo no side effects were observed.

  7. New types of subscriptions for CERN GSM

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    A recent renegotiation of our commercial conditions with our mobile telephony operator allows us today to deploy new GSM mobile services, reduce communication costs, as well as put in place a new subscription system. First of all, the "email to SMS" service has already been extended to all Swiss numbers. This service allows you to send SMS messages (Short Message Service) to any Swiss mobile telephone from your CERN e-mail account. For further details, please refer to the web site http://cern.ch/sms. The sending of MMS messages (Multi-media Message Service) will be activated by default on all CERN subscriptions by the end of March 2010. This service allows users to attach to a text message an image, a video or an audio recording. All the necessary details for configuring this new service on CERN mobile phones will be published on the web site http://cern.ch/mms. Concerning mobile service costs, new rates have been put in place since 1st January 2010. All tariffs have dramatically decrea...

  8. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider’s desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users’ desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly “re-anonymize” their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  9. 47 CFR 73.644 - Subscription TV transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subscription TV transmission systems. 73.644... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.644 Subscription TV transmission systems. (a... increasing the RMS output power from either the video or audio transmitters over that required to transmit...

  10. The Sabatier Principle Illustrated by Catalytic H[subscript2]O[subscript2] Decomposition on Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Anders B.; Man, Isabela Costinela; Trinhammer, Ole L.; Rossmeisl, Jan; Dahl, Soren

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis is important in today's industry. Hence, it is imperative to introduce students to this field and its tools. A new way of introducing one of these tools, the Sabatier principle, via a laboratory exercise is presented. A volcano plot is constructed for the well-known heterogeneous H[subscript2]O[subscript2] catalytic…

  11. L[subscript 1] and L[subscript 2] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language (L[subscript 1]) and second language (L[subscript 2]) spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of…

  12. An Intervention Study: Removing Supplemented Materials from Montessori Classrooms Associated with Better Child Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S Lillard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Montessori classrooms vary a good deal in implementation, and one way in which implementation differs is the provision of materials.  Specifically, some classrooms use only Montessori materials, whereas others supplement the Montessori materials with commercially available materials like puzzles and games.  A prior study suggested this might be a reason for observed differences across studies and classrooms (Author, 2012 but an intervention study is the best test.  The present study presents such an intervention with 52 children in 3 Montessori classrooms with Supplementary materials. All children were given 6 pretests, and non-Montessori materials were removed from 2 of the classrooms.  Four months later, children were retested to see how much they changed across that period.  Children in the classrooms from which the non-Montessori materials were removed advanced significantly more in early reading and executive function, and to some degree advanced more in early math.  There were no differences across the classroom types in amount of change on the tests of vocabulary, social knowledge, or social skills.

  13. Low Background Materials and Assay - A Supplement to the Cosmic Frontier CF1 Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Cooley, J; Hoppe, E W; Orrell, J L; Schnee, R W

    2013-01-01

    This White Paper provides a supplement to the Snowmass Summary from CF1 (Cosmic Frontier WIMP Direct Detection). It was largely prepared during the August 2013 Community Planning Meeting and relies on information gathered from the larger dark matter community. It is a more detailed answer to the CF1 Charge: "Identify the common infrastructure required to meet the scientifica and technical goals of dark matter direct detection." The community as a whole recognizes that sensitive searches for WIMPs require identification, quantification, and procurement of radiopure materials. The lack of sufficient resources in this area is a major project risk for future experiments and can limit scientific reach

  14. Subscription Agencies: A New Look at an Old Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, N. Bernard; Warner, Alice Sizer

    1988-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of subscription agencies and describes the current situation. The largest companies are identified and issues for the future--computers and integrated systems, pricing, budgeting, optical technology, and printing technology--are discussed. (MES)

  15. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses.

  16. In vitro and in vivo characteristics of gentamicin-supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, C D; Binnebösel, M; Lambertz, A; Alizai, H P; Roeth, A; Otto, J; Klinge, U; Neumann, U P; Junge, K

    2012-05-01

    To reduce infection rates after mesh implantation antibiotic-coated meshes were designed. The aim of the study was to analyze biocompatibility and in vitro efficiency of a modified gentamicin-supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh. Twenty rats were randomized to two groups (PVDF group and Genta group). Mesh material was implanted subcutaneously. Blood samples were taken to determine the gentamicin serum concentration. Seven and 90 days after mesh implantation, animals were euthanized. The inflammatory tissue response was characterized by analyzing the foreign body granuloma. Cellular immune response was analyzed by immunohistochemical investigations. The collagen type I/III ratio was estimated by crosspolarization microscopy. In vitro agar diffusion test, suspension test, and gentamicin release were characterized. Agar diffusion and suspension test showed efficient antibiotic effects of the mesh in vitro. Serum concentrations of gentamicin showed a peak value 1 h postoperatively with a decline within the next day. The total size of the granuloma was significantly smaller in the Genta group compared to the PVDF group at both points of time. Except of a short period of increased expression of CD68 in the Genta group after 7 days, no further difference was found analyzing cellular immune response. The collagen type I/III ratio was widely constant analyzing the two mesh types without significant differences comparing both mesh materials. A significantly decreased foreign body granuloma formation compared to the pure PVDF mesh group was found. In vitro analysis showed efficient antibiotic effects of the Gentamicin supplementation compared to the pure PVDF mesh. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Power Subscription Strategy: Administrator`s Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1998-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a Power Subscription Strategy for entering into new power sales contracts with its Pacific Northwest customers. The Strategy equitably distributes the electric power generated by the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) within the framework of existing law. The Power Subscription Strategy addresses the availability of power; describes power products; lays out strategies for pricing, including risk management; and discusses contract elements. In proceeding with this Subscription Strategy, BPA is guided by and committed to the Fish and Wildlife funding Principles for the BPA announced by the Vice President of the US in September 1998. This Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the issues raised by commenters who responded to BPA`s Power Subscription Strategy Proposal during and after the comment period that began with the release of the Proposal on September 18, 1998. The ROD is organized in approximately the same way as the Proposal and the Power Subscription Strategy that BPA developed based on the comments received. Abbreviations of party names used in citations appear in the section just preceding this introduction; a list of all the commenters follows the text of the ROD.

  18. Designing and Developing Supplemental Technology of PACI Model Materials through Blended Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Limbong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century English teachers and lecturers are required to have competencies in translating Content Knowledge (CK, integrating various Pedagogical Knolwedge (PK and implementing Technological Knowledge (TK in order to produce effective and efficient teaching. This research reveals and describes researchers efforts and pre-service EFL teachers (PSEFLTs roles in designing and developing the supplemental teaching and learning materials with PowerPoint, Audacity, Camtasia and Internet. To transform researcher roles and model to introduce and implement Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK framework, this research implemented blended learning: traditional face to face (F2F and Facebook closed-group discussion (FBcgD based on Project-Based Learning (PBL. This research employed the qualitative autobiography narrative of self-study from the researchers experiences to implement blended learning. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with four PSEFLTs of group A and five PSEFLTs of group B to seek the PSEFLTs experiences in designing and developing PACI model. The results suggested that blended learning is can effectively and efficiently integrate and implement the design and development of a PACI model. Most importantly both of researcher and two groups realized that in integration of TPACK during a Computer Literacy course, the subject matter may be shaped by the application of technology; teaching as well as learning might be changed by the use of technology and the way to represent and communicate specific lessons to students.

  19. 47 CFR 10.270 - Subscribers' right to terminate subscription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subscribers' right to terminate subscription. 10.270 Section 10.270 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Election to Participate in Commercial Mobile Alert System § 10.270 Subscribers' right to...

  20. Constructing I[subscript h] Symmetrical Fullerenes from Pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Li-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Twelve pentagons are sufficient and necessary to form a fullerene cage. According to this structural feature of fullerenes, we propose a simple and efficient method for the construction of I[subscript h] symmetrical fullerenes from pentagons. This method does not require complicated mathematical knowledge; yet it provides an excellent paradigm for…

  1. How Einstein Discovered "E[subscript 0] = mc[squared]"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces Einstein's discovery of "the equivalence of mass [m] and energy ["E[subscript 0]"]." He came to that splendid insight in 1905 while employed by the Bern Patent Office, at which time he was not an especially ardent reader of physics journals. How then did the young savant, working outside of academia in semi-isolation, realize…

  2. Trends in Health Insurance Subscription at Cape Coast, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to increase subscription to the scheme through innovative ways such as sharing the scheme's achievements ... Health care financing in Ghana started after independence, with a tax-funded system called free .... serve as motivations for its adoption, while the costs refer to the barriers hindering adoption (Mhere,. 2013).

  3. GRID[subscript C] Renewable Energy Data Streaming into Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, V. William; Carpenter, Pam; Lari, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    For years, researchers have shown the value of using real-world data to enhance instruction in mathematics, science, and social studies. In an effort to help develop students' higher-order thinking skills in a data-rich learning environment, Green Research for Incorporating Data in the Classroom (GRID[subscript C]), a National Science…

  4. Trends in Health Insurance Subscription at Cape Coast, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study underscores the need for the National Health Insurance Authority to increase subscription to the scheme through innovative ways such as sharing the scheme's achievements through improved advertisement and contracting private entities through public-private partnerships to augment its efforts at recruiting ...

  5. price list 2015.pdf | Subscription | Journals | Resources | public ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Resources; Journals; Subscription; price list 2015.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube · Twitter · Facebook · Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Associates – 2017. Posted on 30 August 2017. Click here to see the list ...

  6. d Subunit-Containing GABA[subscript A] Receptor Prevents Overgeneralization of Fear in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Han-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Wei-Zhu; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Pan, Bing-Xing

    2017-01-01

    The role of d subunit-containing GABA[subscript A] receptor (GABA[subscript A](d)R) in fear generalization is uncertain. Here, by using mice with or without genetic deletion of GABA[subscript A](d)R and using protocols in which the conditioned tone stimuli were cross presented with different nonconditioned stimuli, we observed that when the two…

  7. The 5-HT[subscript 3A] Receptor Is Essential for Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Nakamura, Yukiko; Ishida, Yusuke; Yamada, Takahiro; Shimada, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT [subscript 3] receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT [subscript 3A] receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT [subscript 3A]…

  8. Long-term selenium supplementation of humans: selenium status and relationships between selenium concentrations in skeletal muscle and indicator materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behne, Dietrich; Alber, Dorothea; Kyriakopoulos, Antonios

    2010-04-01

    Supplementation with elevated doses of l-selenomethionine (SeM) or selenium-enriched yeast that contains SeM as the main selenium species is frequently used as a protective or therapeutic measure. Information on the effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the body selenium status is, however, rather scarce. We therefore investigated fifteen male test persons who had taken selenium yeast and/or SeM supplements in medium doses of 62.5-125 microg Se/day or high doses of 200-262.5 microg Se/day for periods ranging from 1 year to 24 years. Seven non-supplemented men served as controls. As skeletal muscle is the main selenium pool, thigh muscle biopsy samples were taken. The selenium concentrations in these biopsies and in samples of the indicator materials blood, blood plasma, blood cells, head hair and toenails were determined by neutron activation analysis. Compared with the controls, the muscle selenium level was raised with additional selenium supplementation, but the relative increase in the mean muscle selenium concentration (by factors of about 1.6 and 2 for the medium and high doses, respectively) was lower than that in the selenium intake. Highly significant correlations found between the selenium concentrations in muscle and whole blood (R=0.90), red blood cells (R=0.91), blood plasma (R=0.87), head hair (R=0.89) and toenails (R=0.85) show that in humans supplemented in this way the selenium status can be assessed in a relatively easy way by analysis of the selenium retention in these indicator materials. 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCl[subscript 4] v[subscript 1] Mode: Theoretical Prediction of Isotopic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique, yet it is often missing from the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum. Tetrachloromethane (CCl[subscript 4]) is the ideal molecule for an introductory vibrational spectroscopy experiment and the symmetric stretch vibration contains fine structure due to isotopic variations…

  10. pK[subscript a] Values in the Undergraduate Curriculum: What Is the Real pK[subscript a] of Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.; Heller, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the 1960s, organic chemistry textbooks have featured pK[subscript a] tables for organic acids that include values for H[subscript 2]O and H[subscript 3]O[superscript +] (15.74 and -1.74, respectively) that are thermodynamically and chemically indefensible. Here we trace this error back to Brønsted's early contributions in the 1920s…

  11. Does SDDS Subscription Reduce Borrowing Costs for Emerging Market Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    John Cady

    2005-01-01

    Does macroeconomic data transparency-as signaled by subscription to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS)-help reduce borrowing costs in international capital markets? This question is examined using data on new issues of sovereign foreign-currency-denominated (U.S. dollar, yen, and euro) bonds for several emerging market economies. Panel econometric estimates indicate that spreads on new bond issues declined on average by close to 20 percent, or by an average of about 55 basis...

  12. Dental economics: a non-subscription dental journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, J A

    1999-01-01

    The editor of a non-subscription publication for dentists explains the advantages of having a journal whose contents are driven by advertising revenue unrelated to products or services mentioned in the journal and free from political influence as well. The drive on the publication is reader interest rather than author or publisher philosophy, and surveys and other methods are used to stay close to the issues practicing dentists are interested in.

  13. Open Access, Library Subscriptions, and Article Processing Charges

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayakumar, J.K.

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid journals contains articles behind a pay-wall to be subscribed, as well as papers made open access when author pays article processing charge (APC). In such cases, an Institution will end up paying twice and Publishers tend to double-dip. Discussions and pilot models are emerging on pricing options, such as “offset pricing,” [where APCs are adjusted or discounted with subscription costs as vouchers or reductions in next year subscriptions, APCs beyond the subscription costs are modestly capped etc] and thus reduce Institutions’ cost. This presentation will explain different models available and how can we attain a transparent costing structure, where the scholarly community can feel the fairness in Publishers’ pricing mechanisms. Though most of the offset systems are developed through national level or consortium level negotiations, experience of individual institutions, like KAUST that subscribe to large e-journals collections, is important in making right decisions on saving Institutes costs and support openness in scholarly communications.

  14. Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.

  15. Synthesis and Migratory-Insertion Reactivity of CpMo(CO)[subscript3](CH[subscript3]): Small-Scale Organometallic Preparations Utilizing Modern Glovebox Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, Matthew T.; Hofmeister, Gretchen E.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments are described for the reliable small-scale glovebox preparation of CpMo(CO)[subscript 3](CH[subscript 3]) and acetyl derivatives thereof through phosphine-induced migratory insertion. The robust syntheses introduce students to a variety of organometallic reaction mechanisms and glovebox techniques, and they are easily carried out…

  16. Regionally Selective Requirement for D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] Dopaminergic Neurotransmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Object-in-Place Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Bashir, Zafar I.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2015-01-01

    Object-in-place (OiP) memory is critical for remembering the location in which an object was last encountered and depends conjointly on the medial prefrontal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Here we examined the role of dopamine D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] receptor neurotransmission within these brain regions for OiP memory. Bilateral…

  17. Supplementary Material for: Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Findings Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. Conclusions This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  18. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  19. Determination of Bitter Orange alkaloids in dietary supplements standard reference materials by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C

    2007-07-13

    Four adrenergic amines [synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and n-methyltyramine] were determined in a variety of Bitter Orange containing dietary supplements. Two extraction techniques were evaluated in detail: Soxhlet extraction and sonication extraction. A liquid chromatographic separation using a reversed-phase C(18) stationary phase and the ion-pairing reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate was developed to separate the Bitter Orange alkaloids. Ultraviolet absorbance detection at 220 nm and fluorescence detection with excitation at 273 nm and emission at 304 nm were used for the alkaloid detection. The method described was used for the assignment of the levels of the predominant alkaloids in three candidate standard reference materials containing Bitter Orange.

  20. A comparison of subscription and open access journals in construction management and related fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjork, Bo-Christer

    2012-01-01

    .... This study looks closer at the current publishing situation in construction management and related fields and compares empirical data about 17 OA journals and 16 traditional subscription journals...

  1. [Computer-assisted teaching in medical education--development of methods and supplemental materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santek, F; Bozikov, J; Kern, J; Dezelić, G

    1990-01-01

    A review of the elementary types of materials for the computer assisted learning (CAI--Computer Assisted Instruction) is given in this paper. It shows our initial experiences in creating the computer educational materials of the patient management simulation type, destinated for the primary care physicians. A computer simulation program "First Aid in Traffic Accident" is described as an example. A typical structure of these materials is shown. The materials had been developed using the own authoring system, a computer program which enables the teachers and other experts to create the computer educational materials independently, with the minimal help of the professional computer experts.

  2. A Bibliography of Materials for Handicapped and Special Education. Vocational Education Resource Materials. Supplement to the Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Roger H.; And Others

    Developed to encourage and support curriculum development and instructional activities in vocational education for handicapped and special students through identification of resources and materials, this bibliography lists over 300 citations. Citations are grouped under different code numbers which provide information about the document content.…

  3. CERN Library - Reduction of subscriptions to scientific journals

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Library Working Group for Acquisitions has identified some scientific journal subscriptions as candidates for cancellation. Although the 2005 budget is unchanged with respect to 2004 thanks to the efforts of the Management, it does not take account of inflation, which for many years has been much higher for scientific literature than the normal cost-of-living index. For 2006, the inflation rate is estimated to be 7-8%. Moreover, the Library does not only intend to compensate for the loss of purchasing power but also to make available some funds to promote new Open Access publishing models. (See Bulletin No.15/2005) The list of candidates can be found on the Library homepage (http://library.cern.ch/). In addition, some subscriptions will be converted to online-only, i.e. CERN will no longer order the print version of certain journals. We invite users to carefully check the list (http://library.cern.ch/). Comments on this proposal should be sent to the WGA Chairman, Rudiger Voss, with a copy to the Hea...

  4. 75 FR 3666 - Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings and Ephemeral Recordings for a New Subscription...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 383 Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings and Ephemeral... subscription service that ``performs sound recordings on digital audio channels programmed by the licensee for... recordings and new subscription services performing the sound recordings on digital audio channels programmed...

  5. Pulmonary and Cutaneous O[subscript 2] Gas Exchange: A Student Laboratory Exercise in the Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J.; Currie, Suzanne; LeBlanc, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Gas exchange in animals is ultimately diffusion based, generally occurring across dedicated respiratory organs. In many aquatic amphibians, however, multiple modes of gas exchange exist, allowing for the partitioning of O[subscript 2] uptake and CO[subscript 2] excretion between respiratory organs with different efficiencies. For example, due to…

  6. Managing without a subscription agent: the experience of doing it yourself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lovén

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2015 Stockholm University Library (SUB decided to no longer use the services of a subscription agent for managing individual journal subscriptions. Instead, SUB has taken a do-it-yourself (DIY approach to subscriptions management and now renews and orders new journals directly from each publisher. In the light of two years of experience, this article discusses the key findings of this new way of working with subscriptions, the differences between the first and second year of renewing directly with publishers and the pros and cons of not using an agent. The article ends with a few recommendations and things for other libraries to consider before making the decision to do without a subscription agent and explains why SUB has decided to continue with the DIY approach. 'Based on a breakout session presented at the 40th UKSG Annual Conference, Harrogate, April 2017 '

  7. Bone substitute materials supplemented with prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decrease osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzenz, Philipp; Schröckmair, Stefan; Gruber, Reinhard; Agis, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases stimulates bone regeneration. Consequently, bone substitute materials were developed that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. However, the impact of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from these carriers on osteoclastogenesis is not clear. We therefore assessed the effect of bone substitute materials that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors on osteoclastogenesis. Dimethyloxalylglycine, desferrioxamine, and l-mimosine were lyophilized onto bovine bone mineral and hydroxyapatite, and supernatants were generated. Osteoclastogenesis was induced in murine bone marrow cultures in the presence of the supernatants from bone substitute materials. The formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and TRAP activity were determined. To test for possible effects on osteoclast progenitor cells, we measured the effect of the supernatants on proliferation and viability. In addition, experiments were performed where prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors were directly added to the bone marrow cultures. We found that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released within the first hours from bone substitute materials reduce the number and activity of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. In line with this, addition of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors directly to the bone marrow cultures dose-dependently reduced the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the overall resorption activity. Moreover, the released prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decreased proliferation but not viability of osteoclast progenitor cells. Our results show that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from bone substitute materials decrease osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow cultures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Advancement of understanding in physical science and reduction of mathematical anxiety through the use of supplemental mathematics material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James Chadwick

    The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementary mathematics materials (created to be complementary to a physical science course) could provide a significant change in the attitudes and performance of the students involved. The supplementary text was provided in the form of a booklet. Participants were students in a physical science class. Students were given surveys to evaluate existing knowledge of physical science, mathematics skill, and mathematics anxiety in the context of a science class. Students were divided into control and experimental groups by lab section, with the experimental group receiving a supplemental booklet. At the end of the semester, another anxiety survey was given. The anxiety surveys and test grades were compared between groups. Anxiety scores were compared between the beginning and end of the semester within each group. Too few students reported using the booklets for a reliable statistical comparison (of grades) to be made. A statistically significant difference in mathematics anxiety levels was found between the groups.

  9. ATLAS Replica Management in Rucio: Replication Rules and Subscriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Barisits, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Lassnig, M; Stewart, G; Beermann, T; Vigne, R; Goossens, L; Nairz, A; Molfetas, A

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system stores more than 150PB of physics data across 120 sites globally. To cope with the anticipated ATLAS workload of the coming decade, Rucio, the next-generation data management system has been developed. Replica management, as one of the keys aspects of the system, has to satisfy critical performance requirements in order to keep pace with the experiment’s high rate of continual data generation. The challenge lies in meeting these performance objectives while still giving the system users and applications a powerful toolkit to control their data workflows. In this work we present the concept, design and implementation of the replica management in Rucio. We will specifically introduce the workflows behind replication rules, their formal language definition, weighting and site selection. Furthermore we will present the subscription component, which offers functionality for users to proclaim interest in data that has not been created yet. This contribution describes t...

  10. ATLAS Replica Management in Rucio: Replication Rules and Subscriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Barisits, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Lassnig, M; Stewart, G; Beermann, T; Vigne, R; Goossens, L; Nairz, A; Molfetas, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system stores more than 150PB of physics data across 120 sites globally. To cope with the anticipated ATLAS workload of the coming decade, Rucio, the next-generation data management system has been developed. Replica management, as one of the keys aspects of the system, has to satisfy critical performance requirements in order to keep pace with the experiment’s high rate of continual data generation. The challenge lies in meeting these performance objectives while still giving the system users and applications a powerful toolkit to control their data workflows. In this work we present the concept, design and implementation of the replica management in Rucio. We will specifically introduce the workflows behind replication rules, their formal language definition, weighting and site selection. Furthermore we will present the subscription component, which offers functionality for users to proclaim interest in data that has not been created yet. This contribution describes t...

  11. Journal subscription expenditure of UK higher education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Stuart; Meghreblian, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The academic libraries of higher education institutions (HEIs) pay significant amounts of money each year for access to academic journals. The amounts paid are often not transparent especially when it comes to knowing how much is paid to specific publishers. Therefore data on journal subscription expenditure were obtained for UK HEIs using a series of Freedom of Information requests. Data were obtained for 153 HEIs' expenditure with ten publishers over a five-year period. The majority of institutions have provided figures but some are still outstanding. The data will be of interest to those who wish to understand the economics of scholarly communication and see the scale of payments flowing within the system. Further research could replicate the data collection in other jurisdictions.

  12. 75 FR 56961 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Material Inspection and Receiving Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Workflow Receiving Report required for use in most contracts in lieu of the DD Form 250, Material... Workflow (WAWF), Item Unique Identification, and Radio Frequency Identification. The proposed rule provides... approved under Office of Management and Budget Control Number 0704-0248. The current approval took into...

  13. THE IROQUOIS, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS--WITH SUPPLEMENT. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLERHOUSE, KENNETH; AND OTHERS

    APPROXIMATELY 25 SOURCES OF AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS PERTAINING TO THE IROQUOIS AND OTHER NORTHEASTERN AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES ARE LISTED ACCORDING TO TYPE OF AUDIOVISUAL MEDIUM. AMONG THE LESS-COMMON MEDIA ARE RECORDINGS OF IROQUOIS MUSIC AND DO-IT-YOURSELF REPRODUCTIONS OF IROQUOIS ARTIFACTS. PRICES ARE GIVEN WHERE APPLICABLE. (BR)

  14. Assessing the Readability of Geoscience Textbooks, Laboratory Manuals, and Supplemental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…

  15. Analytical approaches to determination of carnitine in biological materials, foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Monika; Starek, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    l-Carnitine is a vitamin-like amino acid derivative, which is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism as acyltransferase cofactor and in energy production processes, such as interconversion in the mechanisms of regulation of cetogenesis and termogenesis, and it is also used in the therapy of primary and secondary deficiency, and in other diseases. The determination of carnitine and acyl-carnitines can provide important information about inherited or acquired metabolic disorders, and for monitoring the biochemical effect of carnitine therapy. The endogenous carnitine pool in humans is maintained by biosynthesis and absorption of carnitine from the diet. Carnitine has one asymmetric carbon giving two stereoisomers d and l, but only the l form has a biological positive effect, thus chiral recognition of l-carnitine enantiomers is extremely important in biological, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences. In order to get more insight into carnitine metabolism and synthesis, a sensitive analysis for the determination of the concentration of free carnitine, carnitine esters and the carnitine precursors is required. Carnitine has been investigated in many biochemical, pharmacokinetic, metabolic and toxicokinetic studies and thus many analytical methods have been developed and published for the determination of carnitine in foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical formulations, biological tissues and body fluid. The analytical procedures presented in this review have been validated in terms of basic parameters (linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision). This article presented the impact of different analytical techniques, and provides an overview of applications that address a diverse array of pharmaceutical and biological questions and samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  17. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  18. Sweet whey as a raw material for the dietary supplements obtaining with immunomodulatory effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Didukh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study of literary sources to prove the viability of the idea of using sweet whey to deep its fractionation, and to obtain biologically active proteins with immunomodulatory effect. We demonstrated methods for fractionation of milk whey (membrane and chromatographic, as well as the technological scheme of concentration of sweet whey. We introduced the composition of sweet whey and protein content of immunomodulatory action. Modern methods of processing whey, which include, basically, only the process of dehydration and concentration of whey and its use in the complete component composition, which limits its use for food purposes are shown. The necessity of processing of secondary resources in a catastrophic ecological situation on the planet and full use of the composite processing of raw materials for food purposes, and also shows properties of proteins immunomodulating actions which are part of the whey are grounded.

  19. The Golden Lady: The Storied Life of a Multilingual Teacher and Author of Supplemental Reading Materials in a Marginalized South African Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Deborah A.; Sailors, Misty; Martinez, Miriam; Skerrett, Allison; Makalela, Leketi

    2012-01-01

    Personal narratives can be powerful venues for understanding human experiences. In this paper, we tell the story of Lutanyani, a Black South African multilingual teacher and author of supplemental reading materials in a marginalized South African language. Through various word images, we convey the role of language, in particular written language,…

  20. The Determinants of Library Subscription Prices of the Top-Ranked Economics Journals: An Econometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chressanthis, George A.; Chressanthis, June D.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that subscription price increases for academic journals have been the area of single greatest concern to librarians during the past decade. Finds that systematic variations in library prices across economics journals offer explainable reasons. (CFR)

  1. Empirical Analysis of Pre-Paid and Post-Paid Mobile Subscription in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÇETİNKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of pre-paid and post-paid mobile phone subscriptions in Turkey. The binary logit analysis is employed to explore the relationship between the subscribers’ characteristics and their subscription type i.e. pre-paid or post-paid. The data used in the analysis relies on a survey carried out during 2009-Q3. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the subscription type choice and the dependent variables. It is found that the choices of the other members living in the respondents’ household have significant effect on the decisions of the subscribers. The results also show that the subscribers who use their phones mainly for mobile calls and for surfing on internet are more likely to have a post-paid subscription while the pre-paid users usually use their phones for short messages and for playing games on their mobile phones.

  2. 75 FR 5513 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Preexisting Subscription Services and Satellite Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Copyright, Digital audio transmissions, Performance right, Sound recordings. Final Regulations 0 For the... Federal Regulations as follows: PART 382--RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS BY PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES AND PREEXISTING...

  3. ATLAS Replica Management in Rucio: Replication Rules and Subscriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisits, M.; Serfon, C.; Garonne, V.; Lassnig, M.; Stewart, G.; Beermann, T.; Vigne, R.; Goossens, L.; Nairz, A.; Molfetas, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system stores more than 150PB of physics data across 120 sites globally. To cope with the anticipated ATLAS workload of the coming decade, Rucio, the next-generation data management system has been developed. Replica management, as one of the key aspects of the system, has to satisfy critical performance requirements in order to keep pace with the experiment's high rate of continual data generation. The challenge lies in meeting these performance objectives while still giving the system users and applications a powerful toolkit to control their data workflows. In this work we present the concept, design and implementation of the replica management in Rucio. We will specifically introduce the workflows behind replication rules, their formal language definition, weighting and site selection. Furthermore we will present the subscription component, which offers functionality for users to proclaim interest in data that has not been created yet. This contribution describes the concept and the architecture behind those components and will show the benefits made by this system.

  4. Determination of bitter orange alkaloids in dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials by liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Sander, Lane C

    2007-09-01

    A liquid chromatographic atmospheric-pressure ionization electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-API-ES-MS) method has been developed for the determination of five bitter orange alkaloids (synephrine, octopamine, n-methyltyramine, tyramine, and hordenine) in bitter orange-containing dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs). The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrices. Two extraction techniques were evaluated: pressurized-fluid extraction (PFE) and sonication extraction. The influence of different solvents, extraction temperatures, and pH were investigated for a plant material and a processed sample. The LC method uses a new approach for the separation of highly polar alkaloids. A fluorinated, silica-based stationary phase separated the five alkaloids and the internal standard terbutaline in less than 20 min. This method enabled the determination of the dominant alkaloid synephrine and other minor alkaloids in a variety of dietary supplement SRMs.

  5. Impact of gentamicin-supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials on MMP-2 expression and tissue integration in a transgenic mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnebösel, Marcel; Ricken, Christina; Klink, Christian D; Junge, Karsten; Jansen, Marc; Schumpelick, Volker; Lynen Jansen, Petra

    2010-04-01

    Reinforcement of the abdominal wall by alloplastic mesh material results in a chronic foreign body reaction which is characterized by a transcriptionally induced overexpression of the matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Mesh modification represents a new approach to normalize the MMP-2 expression and thereby to reduce the foreign body reaction. Because of its proven beneficial effect on tissue integration, the influence of gentamicin-supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) mesh materials on MMP-2 transcription and protein expression was investigated in transgenic reporter mice harboring MMP-2 regulatory sequence-1686/+423. A PVDF mesh material was surface-modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF + PAAc). Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5, and 8 microg/mg). Seventy-five male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ CD1-tg mice harboring MMP-2 regulatory sequences -1686/+423 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline, one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription and protein expression were analyzed semiquantitatively 7, 21, and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross-polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. The perifilamentary MMP-2 protein expression as well as the MMP-2 promoter activity decreased over time, whereas the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications. The 8-microg/mg mesh material showed significantly reduced levels of MMP-2-positive stained cells when compared with the PVDF group on days 7, 21, and 90 (p = 0.008; p = 0.016; p = 0.016). In accordance, the 8-microg/mg group revealed a significant reduction of beta-galactosidase-positive stained cells at each time point in comparison with the PVDF group (p = 0.008; p = 0.047; p = 0.016). Though the type I/III collagen

  6. Gentamicin supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials enhance tissue integration due to a transcriptionally reduced MMP-2 protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnebösel Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A beneficial effect of gentamicin supplemented mesh material on tissue integration is known. To further elucidate the interaction of collagen and MMP-2 in chronic foreign body reaction and to determine the significance of the MMP-2-specific regulatory element (RE-1 that is known to mediate 80% of the MMP-2 promoter activity, the spatial and temporal transcriptional regulation of the MMP-2 gene was analyzed at the cellular level. Methods A PVDF mesh material was surface modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF+PAAc. Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5 and 8 μg/mg. 75 male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ mice harbouring the LacZ reporter gene under control of MMP-2 regulatory sequence -1241/+423, excluding the RE-1 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription (anti-ß-galactosidase staining and MMP-2 protein expression (anti-MMP-2 staining were analyzed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry 7, 21 and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. Results The perifilamentary ß-galactosidase expression as well as the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications, whereas no significant changes could be observed for MMP-2 protein expression between days 21 and 90. Both the 5 and 8 μg/mg gentamicin group showed significantly reduced levels of ß-galactosidase expression and MMP-2 positive stained cells when compared to the PVDF group on day 7, 21 and 90 respectively (5 μg/mg: p Conclusions Our current data indicate that lack of RE-1 is correlated with increased mesh induced MMP-2-gene expression for coated as well as for non-coated mesh materials. Gentamicin

  7. Gentamicin supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials enhance tissue integration due to a transcriptionally reduced MMP-2 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnebösel, Marcel; von Trotha, Klaus T; Ricken, Christina; Klink, Christian D; Junge, Karsten; Conze, Joachim; Jansen, Marc; Neumann, Ulf P; Lynen Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-13

    A beneficial effect of gentamicin supplemented mesh material on tissue integration is known. To further elucidate the interaction of collagen and MMP-2 in chronic foreign body reaction and to determine the significance of the MMP-2-specific regulatory element (RE-1) that is known to mediate 80% of the MMP-2 promoter activity, the spatial and temporal transcriptional regulation of the MMP-2 gene was analyzed at the cellular level. A PVDF mesh material was surface modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF+PAAc). Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5 and 8 μg/mg). 75 male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ mice harbouring the LacZ reporter gene under control of MMP-2 regulatory sequence -1241/+423, excluding the RE-1 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription (anti-ß-galactosidase staining) and MMP-2 protein expression (anti-MMP-2 staining) were analyzed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry 7, 21 and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. The perifilamentary ß-galactosidase expression as well as the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications, whereas no significant changes could be observed for MMP-2 protein expression between days 21 and 90. Both the 5 and 8 μg/mg gentamicin group showed significantly reduced levels of ß-galactosidase expression and MMP-2 positive stained cells when compared to the PVDF group on day 7, 21 and 90 respectively (5 μg/mg: p < 0.05 each; 8 μg/mg: p < 0.05 each). Though the type I/III collagen ratio increased over time for all mesh modifications significant differences to the PVDF mesh were only detected for the 8 μg/mg group at all 3 time points (p < 0

  8. Successful isolation and PCR amplification of DNA from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) herbal dietary supplement standard reference material powders and extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Matthew T.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-four herbal dietary supplement powder and extract reference standards provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were investigated using three different commercially available DNA extraction kits to evaluate DNA availability for downstream nucleotide-based applications. The material included samples of Camellia, Citrus, Ephedra, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Serenoa, and Vaccinium. Protocols from Qiagen, MoBio, and Phytopure were used to isolate and purify DNA from the NIST standards. The resulting DNA concentration was quantified using SYBR Green fluorometry. Each of the twenty-four samples yielded DNA, though the concentration of DNA from each approach was notably different. The Phytopure method consistently yielded more DNA. The average yield ratio was 22:3:1 (ng/μL; Phytopure:Qiagen:MoBio). Amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer II region using PCR was ultimately successful in twenty-two of the twenty-four samples. Direct sequencing chromatograms of the amplified material suggested most of the samples were comprised of mixtures. However, the sequencing chromatograms of twelve of the twenty-four samples were sufficient to confirm the identity of the target material. The successful extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from these herbal dietary supplement extracts and powders supports a continued effort to explore nucleotide sequence-based tools for the authentication and identification of plants in dietary supplements. PMID:19844865

  9. Public Policy Implications of the Transition to a Subscription-Based Economic Structure for the Television Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; Wirth, Michael O.

    This paper argues that the United States television industry is in a transitional period between the dominance of an advertiser-supported system and an advertiser-subscription system, and that a "dual revenue stream" system of subscription and advertising will eventually relegate the advertiser-only support system to a secondary role.…

  10. Why Combustions Are Always Exothermic, Yielding about 418 kJ per Mole of O[subscript 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The strongly exothermic nature of reactions between molecular oxygen and all organic molecules as well as many other substances is explained in simple, general terms. The double bond in O[subscript 2] is much weaker than other double bonds or pairs of single bonds, and therefore the formation of the stronger bonds in CO[subscript 2] and…

  11. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  12. Blockade of IP[subscript 3]-Mediated SK Channel Signaling in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Avis R.; Dolinsky, Beth; Vu, Mai-Anh T.; Stanley, Marion; Yeckel, Mark F.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2008-01-01

    Planning and directing thought and behavior require the working memory (WM) functions of prefrontal cortex. WM is compromised by stress, which activates phosphatidylinositol (PI)-mediated IP[subscript 3]-PKC intracellular signaling. PKC overactivation impairs WM operations and in vitro studies indicate that IP[subscript 3] receptor (IP[subscript…

  13. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based fingerprinting analysis and mass profiling of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dietary supplement raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, Vanisree; Calderón, Angela I

    2012-09-15

    Chemical fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify biologically active compounds in botanical dietary supplements is gaining much attention in recent years. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) has been reported to be rich in health-beneficial chemical constituents. We have developed LC/MS based fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify fatty acids, anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin polyphenols in three processed raw materials; non-organic açaí powder (ADSR-1), raw-organic açaí powder (ADSR-2) and freeze-dried açaí powder (ADSR-3) that are used in the preparation of botanical dietary supplements. For LC/MS analysis of fatty acids and non-anthocyanin polyphenols, the açaí samples were extracted sequentially with dichloromethane followed by methanol. To study fingerprinting analysis of anthocyanins, açaí samples were extracted with acidic methanol-water. The LC separation of fatty acids, non-anthocyanin polyphenols and anthocyanins in açaí raw materials was achieved using a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of solvents A (0.1% formic acid in water), and B (0.1% formic acid in methanol). MS experiments were carried out with negative and positive mode electrospray ionization. LC/MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts of (ADSR-1), (ADSR-2) and (ADSR-3) açaí powders have shown to contain fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. Whereas, the fingerprinting analysis of methanol extracts of ADSR-1, ADSR-2 and ADSR-3 led to the identification of phenolic acids, anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenols. The results from our study may be useful for the authentication and quality assessment of açaí dietary supplement raw materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining the effect of Ru substitution on the thermal stability of CeFe[subscript 4-x]Ru[subscript x]Sb[subscript 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Jessica A.; Walker, James D.S.; Hayes, John R.; Gaultois, Michael W.; Grosvenor, Andrew P. (Saskatchewan)

    2011-11-14

    The ternary, rare-earth filled (RE) Skutterudites (REM{sub 4}Pn{sub 12}; M = Fe-Os; Pn = P-Sb) have been proposed for use in high-temperature thermoelectric devices to convert waste heat to useful power. CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} has been one of the most popular materials proposed for this application; however, it oxidizes at relatively low temperatures. The thermal stability of Skutterudites can be enhanced by selective substitution of the constituent elements and Eu(Fe,Ru){sub 4}Sb{sub 12} variants have been found to oxidize at temperatures above that of CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}. Unfortunately, these materials have poor thermoelectric properties. In this study, the thermal stability of CeFe{sub 4-x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} was examined depending on the value of x. (These compounds have similar thermoelectric properties to those of CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}.) It has been found by use of TGA and XANES that the temperature at which point CeFe{sub 4-x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} oxidizes increases with greater Ru substitution. XANES was also used to confirm the general charge assignment of Ce{sup 3+}Fe{sub 4-x}{sup 2+}Ru{sub x}{sup 2+}Sb{sub 12}{sup 1-}.

  15. DIS[subscript 2]ECT: A Framework for Effective Inclusive Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Flannagan, Jenny Sue

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide special education and general education teachers a framework (DIS[subscript 2]ECT) for teaching science in inclusive settings. DIS2ECT stands for Design (Backwards); Individualization; Scaffolding and Strategies; Experiential learning; Cooperative Learning; and Teamwork. This framework was derived from our…

  16. 11 CFR 100.52 - Gift, subscription, loan, advance or deposit of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... money. 100.52 Section 100.52 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS..., advance or deposit of money. (a) A gift, subscription, loan (except for a loan made in accordance with 11 CFR 100.72 and 100.73), advance, or deposit of money or anything of value made by any person for the...

  17. GABA[subscript A] Receptor Downregulation in Brains of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediation of fast inhibitory action of GABA in the brain. Preliminary reports have demonstrated altered expression of GABA receptors in the brains of subjects with autism suggesting GABA/glutamate system dysregulation. We investigated the…

  18. CO[subscript 2] Rebreathing: An Undergraduate Laboratory to Study the Chemical Control of Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnik, N. J.; Turcotte, S. E.; Yuen, N. Y.; Iscoe, S.; Fisher, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    The Read CO[subscript]2 rebreathing method (Read DJ. "A clinical method for assessing the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide." "Australas Ann Med" 16: 20-32, 1967) provides a simple and reproducible approach for studying the chemical control of breathing. It has been widely used since the modifications made by Duffin and…

  19. Killeen's (2005) "p[subscript rep]" Coefficient: Logical and Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Michael; Gabriel, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In his article, "An Alternative to Null-Hypothesis Significance Tests," Killeen (2005) urged the discipline to abandon the practice of "p[subscript obs]"-based null hypothesis testing and to quantify the signal-to-noise characteristics of experimental outcomes with replication probabilities. He described the coefficient that he…

  20. Measurement of Levitation Forces of High-"T[subscript c] Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Koblischka, M. R.; Hartmann, U.

    2010-01-01

    We show the construction of a so-called levitation balance which is capable of measuring the levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a superconducting high-T[subscript c] thin film sample. The underlying theoretical basis is discussed in detail. The experiment is performed as an introductory physics experiment for school students as well…

  1. Optimization Performance of a CO[subscript 2] Pulsed Tuneable Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. H. F.; Lobo, R. F. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure is presented that will allow (i) the power and (ii) the energy of a pulsed and tuneable TEA CO[subscript 2] laser to be optimized. This type of laser represents a significant improvement in performance and portability. Combining a pulse mode with a grating tuning facility, it enables us to scan the working wavelength…

  2. Bond Order and Chemical Properties of BF, CO, and N[subscript 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinie, Ryan J.; Bultema, Jarred J.; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Vander Griend, Douglas A.; DeKock, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional chemical approaches, Lewis electron dot structures and molecular orbital theory, predict the relative bond orders of boron monofluoride, carbon monoxide, and dinitrogen to be BF less than CO less than N[subscript 2]. This is quantified by quantum mechanical, theoretical studies that show the bond orders to be approximately 1.4,…

  3. Enhancing the L[subscript 1] Primary Students' Achievement in Writing Paragraph by Using Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawaty

    2013-01-01

    Lecturing method is a very old method and makes students become bored during the teaching learning process especially in writing paragraphs. This case occurred in teaching learning process of L[subscript 1] learners on primary level in Indonesia. This problem is solved by using picture as media for teaching writing paragraphs. The scope of this…

  4. GABA[subscript A] Receptors Determine the Temporal Dynamics of Memory Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments studied the role of GABA[subscript A] receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate…

  5. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  6. Olfactory Bulb [alpha][subscript 2]-Adrenoceptor Activation Promotes Rat Pup Odor-Preference Learning via a cAMP-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawat, Amin MD.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Yuan, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three lines of evidence suggest a role for [alpha][subscript 2]-adrenoreceptors in rat pup odor-preference learning: olfactory bulb infusions of the [alpha][subscript 2]-antagonist, yohimbine, prevents learning; the [alpha][subscript 2]-agonist, clonidine, paired with odor, induces learning; and subthreshold clonidine paired with…

  7. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  8. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  9. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  10. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials; related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and…

  11. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  12. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XVIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  13. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  14. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  15. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  16. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. In addition, some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation are included. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality…

  18. mRNA and Protein Levels for GABA[subscript A][alpha]4, [alpha]5, [beta]1 and GABA[subscript B]R1 Receptors are Altered in Brains from Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Patel, Diven H.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We have shown altered expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) and gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA[subscript B]) receptors in the brains of subjects with autism. In the current study, we sought to verify our western blotting data for GABBR1 via qRT-PCR and to expand our previous work to measure mRNA and protein levels of 3…

  19. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins in Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dietary supplement raw materials and capsules by Q-TOF liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, Vanisree; Keller, William J; Calderón, Angela I

    2012-10-01

    Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Arecaceae) fruits and their dietary supplements are gaining much popularity internationally. Anthocyanins and their aglycons are responsible for the dense color of açaí fruit and are associated with a wide spectrum of health promoting effects. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins in açaí dietary supplement raw materials; processed açaí powder (ADSR-1), organic açaí powder (ADSR-2), and nonorganic açaí powder (ADSR-3) by quadrupole-time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (Q-TOF LC/MS) have been reported in this study. The chromatographic separation for anthocyanins was achieved using a C-18 column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). MS and MS/MS experiments were carried out on an electrospray ionization-Q-TOF LC/MS. Except for ASDR-2, all the açaí samples were found to have cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), cyanidin 3-sambubioside (2), cyanidin 3-rutinoside (3), and peonidin 3-rutinoside (4). ASDR-2 contained anthocyanins 1 and 3. Among the açaí samples quantified, ADSR-3 showed higher concentration of anthocyanins compared to other raw materials and capsules tested in this study. The anthocyanins 1-4 present in ADSR-3 were 27.13 ± 0.37, 1.76 ± 0.04, 31.07 ± 0.49, and 3.46 ± 0.08 mg/100 g dry wt, respectively. The LOQ values for anthocyanins 1-4 were in the range of 2.44-9.76 ng/mL. Accuracy of the method was assessed by performing a recovery experiments. The intraday and interday variations (RSDs) were <10%. This is the first report on quantitation of anthocyanins in açaí dietary supplement raw materials and capsules.

  20. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2006-01-01

    In conjunction with an AOAC Presidential Task Force on Dietary Supplements, a method was validated for measurement of 3 plant sterols (phytosterols) in saw palmetto raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements. AOAC Official Method 994.10, "Cholesterol in Foods," was modified for purposes of this validation. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The presence of the phytosterols was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 1.00 mg/100 g based on 2-3 g of sample. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.00250 to 0.200 mg/mL. The calibration curves for all phytosterols had correlation coefficients greater than or equal to 0.995. Precision studies produced relative standard deviation values of 1.52 to 7.27% for campesterol, 1.62 to 6.48% for stigmasterol, and 1.39 to 10.5% for beta-sitosterol. Recoveries for samples fortified at 100% of the inherent values averaged 98.5 to 105% for campesterol, 95.0 to 108% for stigmasterol, and 85.0 to 103% for beta-sitosterol.

  1. Prediction of VO[subscript 2peak] from the 20-m Shuttle-Run Test in Youth with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Guerra, Myriam; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 20-m shuttle-run performance, sex, body mass index (BMI), age, height, and weight are associated with peak oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2peak]) in youth with Down syndrome (DS; n = 53; 25 women, age 8-20 years) and whether these variables can be used to develop an equation to predict VO[subscript 2peak]. BMI, 20-m…

  2. Understanding perception and factors influencing private voluntary health insurance policy subscription in the Lucknow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Tanuj; Paul, Ujjwal Kanti; Prasad, Himanshu Narayan; Das, Subodh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health insurance has been acknowledged by researchers as a valuable tool in health financing. In spite of its significance, a subscription paralysis has been observed in India for this product. People who can afford health insurance are also found to be either ignorant or aversive towards it. This study is designed to investigate into the socio-economic factors, individuals’ health insurance product perception and individuals’ personality traits for unbundling the paradox which inhibits people from subscribing to health insurance plans. Methods: This survey was conducted in the region of Lucknow. An online questionnaire was sent to sampled respondents. Response evinced by 263 respondents was formed as a part of study for the further data analysis. For assessing the relationships between variables T-test and F-test were applied as a part of quantitative measuring tool. Finally, logistic regression technique was used to estimate the factors that influence respondents’ decision to purchase health insurance. Results: Age, dependent family members, medical expenditure, health status and individual’s product perception were found to be significantly associated with health insurance subscription in the region. Personality traits have also showed a positive relationship with respondent’s insurance status. Conclusion: We found in our study that socio-economic factors, individuals’ product perception and personality traits induces health insurance policy subscription in the region. PMID:25674567

  3. Self-assessed learning style correlates to use of supplemental learning materials in an online course management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Caitlin; Kriebel, Richard; Cuzzolino, Robert; Coughlin, Patrick; Fresa-Dillon, Kerin

    2011-01-01

    The benefit of online learning materials in medical education is not well defined. The study correlated certain self-identified learning styles with the use of self-selected online learning materials. First-year osteopathic medical students were given access to review and/or summary materials via an online course management system (CMS) while enrolled in a pre-clinical course. At the end of the course, students completed a self-assessment of learning style based on the Index of Learning Styles and a brief survey regarding their usage and perceived advantage of the online learning materials. Students who accessed the online materials earned equivalent grades to those who did not. However, the study found that students who described their learning styles as active, intuitive, global, and/or visual were more likely to use online educational resources than those who identified their learning style as reflective, sensing, sequential, and/or verbal. Identification of a student's learning style can help medical educators direct students to learning resources that best suit their individual needs.

  4. Determination of synephrine in bitter orange raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M; Hildreth, Jana

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantify synephrine in bitter orange raw material, extracts, and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for p-synephrine and 5 other biogenic amines: octopamine, phenylephrine (m-synephrine), tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, which may be present in bitter orange. p-Synephrine was found to be the primary biogenic amine present in all materials tested, accounting for >80% of the total biogenic amine content in all samples except a finished product. Repeatability precision for synephrine was between 1.48 and 3.55% RSD. Synephrine recovery was between 97.5 and 104%. The minor alkaloids were typically near the LOQ of the method (300-900 microg/g) in the test materials, and between-day precision for the minor compounds was poor because interferences could sometimes be mistakenly identified as one of the minor analytes. Recoveries of the minor components ranged from 99.1 to 103% at approximately 6000 microg/g spike level, to 90.7 to 120% at 300 microg/g spike level.

  5. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  6. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for the determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements at levels >1.00 mg/100 g based on a 2-3 g sample. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic KOH solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with hydrogen flame ionization detection. Twelve blind duplicates, one of which was fortified, were successfully analyzed by 10 collaborators. Recoveries were obtained for the sample that was fortified. The results were 99.8, 111, and 111% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. For repeatability, the relative standard deviation (RSDr) ranged from 3.93 to 17.3% for campesterol, 3.56 to 22.7% for stigmasterol, and 3.70 to 43.9% for beta-sitosterol. For reproducibility, the RSDR ranged from 7.97 to 22.6%, 0 to 26.7%, and 5.27 to 43.9% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. Overall, the Study Director approved 5 materials with acceptable HorRat values for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol ranging from 1.02 to 2.16.

  7. Supplemental material: afterburner for generating light (anti-)nuclei with QCD-inspired event generators in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This note complements the paper titled: ``Production of deuterons, tritons, $^{3}$He nuclei and their anti-nuclei in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~0.9, 2.76 and 7~TeV'' with additional material related to Monte Carlo simulations necessary to compare the results with lower energy experiments. It describes a coalescence-based afterburner for QCD-inspired event generators, which allows the generation of light nuclei, hyper-nuclei and their charge conjugates in proton--proton (pp) collisions at LHC energies. The event generators with the afterburner are able to reproduce the differential cross sections of light (anti-)nuclei ($A<4)$ with the same degree of agreement as those of protons and anti-protons at the same momentum per nucleon. They also explain the transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameters as the result of hard scattering effects.

  8. Roles of publishers, subscription agents, and institutional subscribers in the academic journal business : Opinions after reading the “Series: Perspectives on serials crisis and scholarly communication practice”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Nobuyuki

    Roles of publishers, subscription agents, and institutional subscribers in the academic journal business : Opinions after reading the “Series: Perspectives on serials crisis and scholarly communication practice”

  9. Gathering the needles: evaluating the impact of gold open access content with traditional subscription journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Bobal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the Project COUNTER Release 4 JR1-GOA report, two librarians explore these data in comparison to journal package subscriptions represented via the JR1 reports. This paper outlines the methodology and study undertaken at the Portland State University Library and the University of Nebraska Medical Center Library using these reports for the first time. The initial outcomes of the study are provided in various Tables for 2014 and 2015. The intent of the study was to provide both institutions with a baseline from which to do further study. In addition, some ideas are given for how these reports can be used in vendor negotiations going forward.

  10. Promoting public transport as a subscription service: Effects of a free month travel card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers, book clubs, telephone services and many other subscription services are often marketed to new customers by means of a free or substantially discounted trial period. This article evaluates this method as a means to promote commuting by public transport in a field experiment and based...... that had an effect was the free month travel card, which led to a significant increase in commuting by public transport.As expected, the effect was mediated through a change in behavioural intentions rather than a change in perceived constraints. As expected, the effect became weaker when the promotion...

  11. The Role of Subscription-Based Patrol and Restitution in the Future of Liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Guillory

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Market anarchists are often keen to know how we might rid ourselves of the twin evils institutionalized in the state: taxation and monopoly. A possible future history for North America is suggested, focusing upon the implications of the establishment of a subscription-based patrol and restitution business sector. We favor Rothbard over Higgs regarding crises and liberty. We favor Barnett over Rothbard regarding vertical integration of security. We examine derived demand for adjudication, mediation and related goods; and we advance the thesis that private adjudication will tend to libertarianly just decisions. We show how firms will actively build civil society, strengthening and coordinating Nisbettian intermediating institutions.

  12. Comparing Subscription-Based Anatomy E-Resources for Collections Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Caitlin; Stieda, Vivian; Talsma, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a chart-based approach for health sciences libraries to compare anatomy e-resources. The features, functionalities, and user experiences of seven leading subscription-based e-resources were assessed using a chart that was iteratively developed by the investigators. Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy, Thieme Winking Skull, and Visible Body were the preferred products as they respectively excel in cadaver-based videos, self-assessment, and 3D graphical manipulation. Moreover, each product affords a pleasant user experience. The investigative team found that resources specializing in one aspect of anatomy teaching are superior to those that contain a wealth of content for diverse audiences.

  13. Magazine "Companion Websites" and the Demand for Newsstand Sales and Subscriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyzed the relationship of visits to a magazine's online companion website and total circulation, subscription, and kiosk sales using bivariate vector autoregressions estimated on 67 German magazines that were observed monthly in the period May 1998 to November 2009. Their econometric...... that the negative relationships between website visits and total circulation as well as kiosk sales are primarily associated with magazines that have a mainly male and Internet–affine readership and by magazines that are published with a less than weekly periodicity....

  14. A comparison of subscription and open access journals in construction management and related fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Bjork

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has profoundly changed the technical infrastructure for the publishing of scientific peer reviewed journals. The traditional business model of selling the content to subscribers is increasingly being challenged by Open Access journals, which are either run at low cost by voluntary academics or which sell dissemination services to authors. In addition authors in many fields are taking advantage of the legal possibilities of uploading free manuscript versions to institutional or subject-based repositories, in order to increase readership and impact. Construction Management is lagging behind many other fields in utilising the potential of the web for efficient dissemination results, in particular to academics outside the leading universities in industrialised countries. This study looks closer at the current publishing situation in construction management and related fields and compares empirical data about 16 OA journals and 16 traditional subscription journals. Of the articles published in 2011 in the subscription journals only 9 % could be found as OA copies. The overall OA availability (including article in OA journals was 14 % for Construction Management and Economics and 29 for construction IT scholarship.

  15. A comparison of subscription and open access journals in construction management and related fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Christer Bjork

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has profoundly changed the technical infrastructure for the publishing of scientific peer reviewed journals. The traditional business model of selling the content to subscribers is increasingly being challenged by Open Access journals, which are either run at low cost by voluntary academics or which sell dissemination services to authors. In addition authors in many fields are taking advantage of the legal possibilities of uploading free manuscript versions to institutional or subject-based repositories, in order to increase readership and impact. Construction Management is lagging behind many other fields in utilising the potential of the web for efficient dissemination results, in particular to academics outside the leading universities in industrialised countries. This study looks closer at the current publishing situation in construction management and related fields and compares empirical data about 16 OA journals and 16 traditional subscription journals. Of the articles published in 2011 in the subscription journals only 9 % could be found as OA copies. The overall OA availability (including article in OA journals was 14 % for Construction Management and Economics and 29 for construction IT scholarship. 

  16. Operational Experience of an Open-Access, Subscription-Based Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the successful adoption of a subscription-based, open-access model of service delivery for a mass spectrometry and proteomics facility. In 2009, the Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Facility at the University of Melbourne (Australia) moved away from the standard fee for service model of service provision. Instead, the facility adopted a subscription- or membership-based, open-access model of service delivery. For a low fixed yearly cost, users could directly operate the instrumentation but, more importantly, there were no limits on usage other than the necessity to share available instrument time with all other users. All necessary training from platform staff and many of the base reagents were also provided as part of the membership cost. These changes proved to be very successful in terms of financial outcomes for the facility, instrument access and usage, and overall research output. This article describes the systems put in place as well as the overall successes and challenges associated with the operation of a mass spectrometry/proteomics core in this manner.

  17. An Arts-Based Supplemental Resource's Effect on Teachers' Perceptions of Curriculum Integration, Instructional Materials Development, Learning Activities Selections, and Critical Thinking Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutsler, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Indiana's declining SAT scores prompted the publisher of a statewide magazine covering the literary, performing, and visual arts to take action and create a program to use the magazine as a supplemental resource for students. It was believed that such a supplemental resource could enhance critical thinking and writing skills and help raise SAT…

  18. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  19. Chemical profiling and quantification of monacolins and citrinin in red yeast rice commercial raw materials and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography-accurate QToF mass spectrometry: Chemometrics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Feng, Wei; Wang, Mei; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Shuangcheng, Ma; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-11-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR) is prepared by fermenting rice with various strains of the yeast Monascus spp of the Aspergillaceae family. Depending on the Monascus strains and the fermentation conditions, the products may contain monacolins, pigments and citrinin as secondary metabolites. Authentic and commercial RYR samples were analyzed using UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS for monacolins, pigments and citrinin. A separation by UHPLC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. Accurate mass QToF spectrometry was used to distinguish isobaric monacolins. Principle component analysis (PCA), a chemometric technique was used to discriminate between authentic RYR, commercial RYR raw materials and dietary supplements. Three authentic RYR samples, 31 commercial RYR raw materials and 14 RYR dietary supplements were analyzed. Monacolin K content in 600mg of authentic RYR samples ranged from 1.2mg to 1.38mg. Amounts of monacolin K in dietary supplements labeled as containing 600mg of RYR varied more than 40-fold from 0.03mg to 2.18mg. Monacolin K content of dietary supplements labeled as containing 1200mg RYR varied more than 20-fold from 0.22mg to 5.23mg. In addition to large variations in quantity of monacolin K found in dietary supplements, RYR dietary supplements contained ratios of monacolins that differed significantly from authentic samples. The results indicated that RYR commercial products are of variable quality and the analytical method is suitable for quality control testing of a variety of RYR products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Economics of Access versus Ownership: The Costs and Benefits of Access to Scholarly Articles via Interlibrary Loan and Journal Subscriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Bruce R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study of State University of New York libraries that determined the cost effectiveness of journal ownership versus access by calculating financial costs of interlibrary loan versus subscriptions. Journal subscriptions in the fields of mathematics and sciences that historically have high prices and low levels of use were studied. (LRW)

  1. The L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Ca [subscript V] 1.2 Mediates Fear Extinction and Modulates Synaptic Tone in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Stephanie J.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, Ca[subscript V]1.2 and Ca[subscript V] 1.3, using transgenic mice have…

  2. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent certain birth defects in their babies. To take a supplement as safely as possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  3. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. END MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,

    1995-01-01

    Includes: Announcing a New Journal, Journal of Agricultural Economics Issues; Guidelines for Submission of Manuscripts; Southern Agricultural Economics Association 1995 Executive Committee and Membership/Subscription Information

  5. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  6. Peer review quality and transparency of the peer-review process in open access and subscription journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the

  7. Controlled Synthesis of Nanomaterials at the Undergraduate Laboratory: Cu(OH)[subscript 2] and CuO Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anderson G. M.; Rodrigues, Thenner S.; Parussulo, Andre´ L. A.; Candido, Eduardo G.; Geonmonond, Rafael S.; Brito, Hermi F.; Toma, Henrique E.; Camargo, Pedro H. C.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate-level laboratory experiments that involve the synthesis of nanomaterials with well-defined/controlled shapes are very attractive under the umbrella of nanotechnology education. Herein we describe a low-cost and facile experiment for the synthesis of Cu(OH)[subscript 2] and CuO nanowires comprising three main parts: (i) synthesis of…

  8. A GC-MS Analysis of an S[subscript N]2 Reaction for the Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    The S[subscript N]2 reaction of 1-bromohexane and 1-bromobutane with potassium acetate is introduced to address the shortage of suitable laboratory experiments in organic laboratory. The experiment offers a review of some common laboratory techniques including the use of infrared spectroscopy to identify functional groups, the use of GC-MS…

  9. Observation and Analysis of N[subscript 2]O Rotation-Vibration Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The linear molecule N[subscript 2]O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotation-vibration spectroscopy experiment. Utilizing a 0.5 cm[superscript -1] resolution teaching grade FTIR spectrometer, 15 vibrational bands, corresponding to 1229 rotation-vibration transitions, have been…

  10. The A[subscript 1c] Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The glycated hemoglobin blood test, usually designated as the A[subscript 1c] test, is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.…

  11. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  12. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  13. Preparing, Characterizing, and Investigating Luminescent Properties of a Series of Long-Lasting Phosphors in a SrO-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] System: An Integrated and Inquiry-Based Experiment in Solid State Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Zi; Jia, Li; Ma, Kai-Guo; Wang, Hai-Hong; Jing, Xi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    An integrated and inquiry-based experiment on solid state chemistry is applied to an inorganic chemistry lab course to provide insight into the characteristics of the solid phase reaction. In this experiment, students have the opportunity to synthesize long-lasting phosphors with formula xSrO·yAl[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]:Eu[superscript 2+],…

  14. Libraries Can Make Open Access Happen Today by Simply Redirecting Subscription Funds: An Update on the SCOAP3 Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the SCOAP3 initiative which aims to redirect the subscription funds used for the core journals in High Energy Physics, to make them Open Access. This model re-interprets the role of librarians in the Open Access debate. As they are the pivot of the current system, by keeping the lifeblood of scientific information flowing to their scientists, the authors argue that they are the best placed to make it change and take advantage of it.

  15. Effect of Eight Weekly Aerobic Training Program on Auditory Reaction Time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine the effect of eight weekly aerobic exercises on auditory reaction time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in visual impairments. Forty visual impairment children that have blind 3 classification from the Turkey, experimental group; (age = 15.60 ± 1.10 years; height = 164.15 ± 4.88 cm; weight = 66.60 ± 4.77 kg) for twenty…

  16. [Reading behavior and preferences regarding subscriptions to scientific journals : Results of a survey of members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, U; Klinger, C; Buhr, H J; Post, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of surgical literature is to publish the latest study results and to provide continuing medical education to readers. For optimal allocation of resources, institutional subscribers, professional societies and scientific publishers require structured data on reading and subscription preferences of potential readers of surgical literature. To obtain representative data on the preferences of German general and visceral surgeons regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. All members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) were invited to participate in a web-based survey. Questions were asked on the affiliation and position of the member, individual journal subscriptions, institutional access to scientific journals, preferences regarding electronic or print articles and special subscriptions for society members. Answers were descriptively analyzed. A total of 630 out of 4091 (15 %) members participated in the survey and 73 % of the respondents had at least 1 individual subscription to a scientific journal. The most frequently subscribed journal was Der Chirurg (47 % of respondents). The institutional access to journals was deemed insufficient by 48 % of respondents, predominantly in primary care hospitals and outpatient clinics. Almost half of the respondents gave sufficient importance to reading printed versions of articles for which they would pay extra fees. A group subscription for society members was perceived as advantageous as long as no relevant extra costs were incurred. This structured survey among members of the DGAV provides data on preferences regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. Individual subscriptions to journals are still common, possibly due to suboptimal institutional access particularly at smaller non-academic institutions. In an age of online publications it seems surprising that many respondents place a high value on printed versions. The results are relevant for

  17. Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread and without supplementation (normal bread, as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural. We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

  18. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  19. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bulletin of Materials Science. Current Issue : Vol. 40, Issue 6. Current Issue Volume 40 | Issue 6. October 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Online submission at ematersci · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  20. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bulletin of Materials Science. Current Issue : Vol. 40, Issue 5 · Current Issue Volume 40 | Issue 5. September 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Online submission at ematersci · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  1. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 29, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  2. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 22 (1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  3. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 21 (1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  4. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 28, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and nonprint materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  5. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XIX (1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  6. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 26, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of governmental, private concerns, and…

  7. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 23 (1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  8. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XX (1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  9. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 24 (l985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  10. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Includes May 1979 edition and Supplements 1-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracts/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  11. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 27, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  12. END MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1995-01-01

    Includes: 1995 Reviewers; Announcing a New Journal: Journal of Agricultural Economics Issues; Guidelines for Submission of Manuscripts; Southern Agricultural Economics Association 1995 Executive Committee, Membership and Subscription Information, Back Cover

  13. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VII (1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction as well as some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can…

  14. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VI (1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction as well as some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can…

  15. Economics of access versus ownership the costs and benefits of access to scholarly articles via interlibrary loan and journal subscriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Kingma, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The Economics of Access Versus Ownership offers library professionals a model economic analysis of providing access to journal articles through interlibrary loan as compared to library subscriptions to the journals. This model enables library directors to do an economic analysis of interlibrary loan and collection development in their own libraries and to then make cost-efficient decisions about the use of these services.This practical book's analysis and conclusions are based on 1994/95 academic year research conducted by the State University of New York libraries at Albany, Binghamton, Buffa

  16. Obtaining Journal Titles via Big Deals Most Cost Effective Compared to Individual Subscriptions, Pay-Per-View, and Interlibrary Loan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Reed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if “Big Deal” journal subscription packages are a cost-effective way to provide electronic journal access to academic library users versus individual subscriptions, pay-per-view, and interlibrary loans (ILL. Design – Cost-per-article-use analysis. Setting – Public research university in the United States of America. Subjects – Cost-per-use data from 1 journals in seven Big Deal packages, 2 individually subscribed journals, 3 pay-per-view from publishers’ websites, and 4 interlibrary loans. Methods – The authors determined cost-per-use for Big Deal titles by utilizing COUNTER JR1 metric Successful Full-Text Article Request (SFTAR reports. Individual journal subscription cost-per-use data were obtained from individual publishers or platforms. Pay-per-view cost was determined by recording the price listed on publishers’ websites. ILL cost-per-use was established by reviewing cost-per-article obtained from libraries outside of reciprocal borrowing agreement networks. With the exception of pay-per-view numbers, title cost-per-use was averaged over a three-year period from 2010 through 2012. Main Results – Cost-per-article use for journals from Big Deals varied from $2.11 to $9.42. For individually subscribed journals, the average cost-per-article ranged from $0.25 to $84.00. Pay-per-view charges ranged from $15.00 to $80.00, with an average cost of $37.72. Conclusion – The authors conclude that Big Deals are cost effective, but that they consume such a large amount of funds that they limit the purchase of other resources. The authors go on to outline the options for libraries thinking about Big Deal packages. First, libraries should keep Big Deal packages in place if the average cost-per-article is less than individual subscriptions. Second, libraries could subscribe only to the most-used journals in Big Deals, cancel the packages, and rely on ILL and pay-per-view access. Third, consortia could be joined

  17. Gastric Injury From Oral Iron Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-22

    gastritis is a known complication of oral supplementation but is not well recognized Leaming Objective 2: Recognize that the toxic effect of iron on...pill gastritis is a known complication of oral supplementation but is not well recognized Learning Objective 2: Recognize that the toxic effect of iron...material that stained positive for iron. Patient’s endoscopy findings were most consistent with pill gastritis from an oral iron supplement that had been

  18. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7-8) versus Group B: 8 (7-9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The results did not change after adjustment

  19. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pastorino

    Full Text Available Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals.In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design, and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12, and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26; the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15, and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32. We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA checklist.Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7-8 versus Group B: 8 (7-9; p = 0.5 and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1. The results did not change after

  20. Structure and properties of Fe-modified Na[subscript 0.5]Bi[subscript 0.5]TiO[subscript 3] at ambient and elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksel, Elena; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Kowalski, Benjamin; Deluca, Marco; Damjanovic, Dragan; Jones, Jacob L. (SFIT); (Montanuniversität); (Florida)

    2012-03-15

    Sodium bismuth titanate (NBT) ceramics are among the most promising lead-free materials for piezoelectric applications. This work reports the crystal structure and phase evolution of NBT and Fe-modified NBT (from 0-2 at.% Fe) using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The crystallographic results are discussed with reference to permittivity and piezoelectric thermal depolarization measurements of the same compositions. Changes in the depolarization temperature due to Fe substitution were detected by Raman spectroscopy and were found to correlate closely with depolarization temperatures obtained from converse piezoelectric coefficient and permittivity measured in situ. The depolarization temperatures obtained from direct piezoelectric coefficient measured ex situ as well as the phase transition temperatures obtained from synchrotron x-ray diffraction were found to be at higher temperatures. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between permittivity and piezoelectric depolarization to structural transitions observed in Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction are discussed.

  1. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... much do we know about dietary supplements for diabetes? Many studies have investigated dietary supplements, including vitamins, ...

  2. EAMJ Supplement June 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-06

    Jun 6, 2010 ... the effects of supplemental oxygen administered via the anaesthetic machine and the breathing system on maternal arterial oxygen saturation, and Apgar scores of babies born to women having Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ethical approval was obtained from ...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Sharing of Learning Material on Mobile Devices Through Bluetooth Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdallh Otair; Mohamad Al-Jedaiah; A.Y. Al-Zoubi; Anas Al-Refaee

    2010-01-01

    Education institutions are faced with the challenges of introducing new technology-enhanced learning services and utilize emerging technologies to enhance the efficiency of the learning process. Mobile learning provides the ability for users to learn anytime and anywhere using handheld devices with direct access to learning material. In developing countries, internet subscription is still expensive, which makes mobile learning as the most suitable bridge to access learning materials without m...

  19. An investigation of components of the studio model and supplemental online materials, on student achievement and attitudes in science at the high school level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Salvatore T.

    With the increase of the student population, and meeting the demands driven by society public schools are scrambling to find ways to enhance learning and improve student achievement (Lee, 1993). Schools are examining and investing more time in the development of new approaches needed to strengthen, reach, and spark the interest of students both in and outside of classroom. One direction public schools are taking is to incorporate technology and more peer-directed group activities into instruction. Technological advancements today have enhanced the learning process by providing alternatives that stimulate the interest of the learner. Having these technology options available, allows the student to move at his or her own pace giving them time to reflect and make connections between what they already know and what they have learned in class. Using the conceptual framework of the Studio Model, which was developed in the 1980s at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute for undergraduate and graduate level science courses, this study investigated the nature and extent to which the components in the Studio Model (cooperative collaboration and online materials) can be extended to the high school science level. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was selected for this study. Classes were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups, an experimental "Studio Model" condition in which students worked cooperatively and had access to online materials, an "Augmented Only" condition in which students had access to online materials only, a "Cooperative Only" condition in which students worked in cooperative groups only, and a "Control" condition in which students neither had access to online materials nor worked cooperatively. The data was collected for this study using 77 ninth-grade students studying Earth Science. Students were trained for a period of 20 weeks in the procedures of their particular treatment. To determine the effects of each treatment on student

  20. Comparison of VO[subscript 2] Maximum Obtained from 20 m Shuttle Run and Cycle Ergometer in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Faught, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO[subscript 2] maximum) is the most widely used indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to compare two protocols for its estimation, cycle ergometer testing and the 20 m shuttle run, among children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD). The…

  1. PI[subscript 3]-Kinase Cascade Has a Differential Role in Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear Memory in Juvenile and Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouzkey, Ilana; Maroun, Mouna

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (P[subscript 3]K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear…

  2. Using the "K[subscript 5]Connected Cognition Diagram" to Analyze Teachers' Communication and Understanding of Regions in Three-Dimensional Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah; Viglietti, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that introduces and applies the "K[subscript 5]Connected Cognition Diagram" as a lens to explore video data showing teachers' interactions related to the partitioning of regions by axes in a three-dimensional geometric space. The study considers "semiotic bundles" (Arzarello, 2006), introduces "semiotic connections,"…

  3. A Pictorial Visualization of Normal Mode Vibrations of the Fullerene (C[subscript 60]) Molecule in Terms of Vibrations of a Hollow Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Janette L.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the normal mode vibrations of a molecule is important in the analysis of vibrational spectra. However, the complicated 3D motion of large molecules can be difficult to interpret. We show how images of normal modes of the fullerene molecule C[subscript 60] can be made easier to understand by superimposing them on images of the normal…

  4. Responsibility Towards The Customers Of Subscription-Based Software Solutions In The Context Of Using The Cloud Computing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ștefan Ionescu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuously transformation of the contemporary society and IT environment circumscribed its informational has led to the emergence of the cloud computing technology that provides the access to infrastructure and subscription-based software services, as well. In the context of a growing number of service providers with of cloud software, the paper aims to identify the perception of some current or potential users of the cloud solution, selected from among students enrolled in the accounting (professional or research master programs with the profile organized by the Bucharest University of Economic Studies, in terms of their expectations for cloud services, as well as the extent to which the SaaS providers are responsible for the provided services.

  5. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Methods and Findings Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals’ websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors’ ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal’s impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. Conclusions The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic

  6. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M

    2016-01-01

    Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals' websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors' ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal's impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic quality in new journals.

  7. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelte M Wicherts

    Full Text Available Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA and traditional (subscription journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process.Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals' websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors' ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal's impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ. Results show high reliability across items (α = .91 and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar.The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic quality in new journals.

  8. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000?August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including gl...

  9. Modeling Rare and Unique Documents: Using FRBR[subscript OO]/CIDOC CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Both the library and the museum communities have developed conceptual models for the information they produce about the collections they hold: FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) and CIDOC CRM (Conceptual Reference Model). But neither proves perfectly adequate when it comes to some specific types of rare and unique materials:…

  10. Sol-Gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst: A Simple Experiment for Introducing Undergraduate Students to Materials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a laboratory course, undergraduate students were asked to use baker's yeast cells as biotemplate in preparing TiO[subscript 2] powders and to test the photocatalytic activity of the resulting materials. This laboratory experience, selected because of the important environmental implications of soft chemistry and photocatalysis, provides…

  11. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    , and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  12. Sharing of Learning Material on Mobile Devices Through Bluetooth Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdallh Otair

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Education institutions are faced with the challenges of introducing new technology-enhanced learning services and utilize emerging technologies to enhance the efficiency of the learning process. Mobile learning provides the ability for users to learn anytime and anywhere using handheld devices with direct access to learning material. In developing countries, internet subscription is still expensive, which makes mobile learning as the most suitable bridge to access learning materials without much additional cost to be connected with the learning materials. In this paper, a new mobile learning system which aids teachers to transfer learning material files to students’ mobile devices through Bluetooth technology is developed.

  13. An investigation of the Fe and Mo oxidation states in Sr[subscript 2]Fe[subscript 2]Mo[subscript x]O[subscript 6] (0.25 [less than] x [less than] 1.0) double perovskites by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, John R.; Grosvenor, Andrew P. (Saskatchewan)

    2012-10-25

    Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} double perovskite systems are widely studied because of their interesting and technologically relevant physical properties. Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} is just a single composition in the Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2-x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 6} solid-solution, and it is important to understand how the composition impacts the transition-metal valence states. Variations in the lattice parameters of these materials were studied using powder X-ray diffraction and it was found that a large change in the lattice constant occurs between Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.50}Mo{sub 0.50}O{sub 6} and Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.35}Mo{sub 0.65}O{sub 6} that likely coincides with a transition from a cubic to a tetragonal unit cell, in agreement with previous studies. Fe K- and Mo K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectra were also collected to investigate how the oxidation state and coordination environment change with composition. When the Mo content is low, Fe adopts a 3+ oxidation state and Mo adopts a 6+ oxidation state. As the Mo content is increased, the Fe and Mo cations are both partially reduced, resulting in a mixture of Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} and Mo{sup 5+} and Mo{sup 6+}. The reduction of the metal centers apparently drives the change in unit cell. The influence of preparation method on the oxidation states of Fe and Mo was also investigated by annealing the materials under vacuum. The results reported here show that the oxidation states of Fe and Mo are strongly impacted by both composition and preparation method, which may account for the wide variety of oxidation state and magnetic properties that have been reported previously.

  14. Can Vanadium Be Substituted into LiFePO[subscript 4]?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omenya, Fredrick; Chernova, Natasha A.; Upreti, Shailesh; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Whittingham, M. Stanley (Binghamton); (BNL); (Maryland)

    2015-10-15

    Vanadium is shown to substitute for iron in the olivine LiFePO{sub 4} up to at least 10 mol %, when the synthesis is carried out at 550 C. In the solid solution LiFe{sub 1-3y/2}V{sub y}PO{sub 4}, the a and b lattice parameters and cell volume decrease with increasing vanadium content, while the c lattice parameter increases slightly. However, when the synthesis is performed at 650 C, a NASICON phase, Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, is also formed, showing that solid solution is a function of the synthesis temperature. X-ray absorption near-edge structure indicates vanadium is in the 3+ oxidation state and in an octahedral environment. Magnetic studies reveal a shift of the antiferromagnetic ordering transition toward lower temperatures with increasing vanadium substitution, confirming solid solution formation. The addition of vanadium enhances the electrochemical performance of the materials especially at high current densities.

  15. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  16. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Nutrition > Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ... variety of iron-rich foods so that, eventually, supplementation won't be necessary. Additional Information ... & Nutrition Tips: Your 2-Year-Old Vitamin D Deficiency ...

  17. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pills (15.9 percent), and ginseng (14.1 percent). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data ... 53 percent of American adults took at least one dietary supplement, most commonly multivitamin/multimineral supplements (taken by 39 percent of all adults). Women were more likely than ...

  18. Supplementation in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The use of L-arginine and potassium chloride separately as supplements has been reported to result in altered vascular reactivity. The concentration of either agent used has varied widely and there has been no report on the outcome of combined supplementation with both agents on vascular reactivity.

  19. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  20. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  1. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    viruses which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  2. Supplements for exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  4. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  5. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Lactation Consultant Association About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While breastfeeding ...

  6. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Joint FDA/WebMD resource Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  7. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  8. Vitamin Supplement - Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette

    2012-01-01

    This Vitamin Supplement presents some of the main information presented at The First International Vitamin Conference in Copenhagen, May, 2010. The theme of the conference was ‘Vitamins in foods and supplements: Analytical possibilities versus nutritional needs in human research, food databases, and labeling’. All 13 vitamins were represented. Although vitamin D and folate that in recent years have been heavily debated, also were the one in focus and is represented in 8 of the 17 papers inclu...

  9. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  10. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  11. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  12. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention a...

  13. Supplements and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality.

  14. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could...... influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  17. Group Theory and Crystal Field Theory: A Simple and Rigorous Derivation of the Spectroscopic Terms Generated by the t[subscript 2g][superscript 2] Electronic Configuration in a Strong Octahedral Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Simone

    2007-01-01

    The principles of symmetry and group theory are applied to the zero-order wavefunctions associated with the strong-field t[subscript 2g][superscript 2] configuration and their symmetry-adapted linear combinations (SALC) associated with the generated energy terms are derived. This approach will enable students to better understand the use of…

  18. Journal subscription expenditure of UK higher education institutions [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4v0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Lawson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The academic libraries of higher education institutions (HEIs pay significant amounts of money each year for access to academic journals. The amounts paid are often not transparent especially when it comes to knowing how much is paid to specific publishers. Therefore data on journal subscription expenditure were obtained for UK HEIs using a series of Freedom of Information requests. Data were obtained for 141 HEIs’ expenditure with seven publishers over a five-year period. The majority of institutions have provided figures but some are still outstanding. The data will be of interest to those who wish to understand the economics of scholarly communication and see the scale of payments flowing within the system. Further research could replicate the data collection in other jurisdictions.

  19. Journal subscription expenditure of UK higher education institutions [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5lj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Lawson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The academic libraries of higher education institutions (HEIs pay significant amounts of money each year for access to academic journals. The amounts paid are often not transparent especially when it comes to knowing how much is paid to specific publishers. Therefore data on journal subscription expenditure were obtained for UK HEIs using a series of Freedom of Information requests. Data were obtained for 153 HEIs’ expenditure with ten publishers over a five-year period. The majority of institutions have provided figures but some are still outstanding. The data will be of interest to those who wish to understand the economics of scholarly communication and see the scale of payments flowing within the system. Further research could replicate the data collection in other jurisdictions.

  20. Oral Supplementation of Myoinositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, G.; Bertelsen, B.; Harbo, H.

    1983-01-01

    28 young diabetics with short disease duration participated in a double-blind study by taking 6 g of myoinositol or placebo daily for 2 months. The aim was to demonstrate a possible beneficial effect of this compound on subclinical diabetic neuropathy. Measurement of vibratory perception threshol...... of myoinositol in their muscle tissue remained uninfluenced by oral supplementation of myoinositol....

  1. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  2. Omega-3 Supplements: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Supplements in the United States What the Science Says If You Are Considering Omega-3 Supplements NCCIH-Funded Research For More Information Key References ©Thinkstock Introduction Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are a ...

  3. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can ... Don’t do this: Don’t take antioxidant vitamin supplements such as A, C and E . Scientific evidence ...

  4. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  5. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know The majority of adults in the United States take one or more dietary supplements either every day or occasionally. Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, ...

  6. Probiotic supplements and debridement of peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Lindgren, Susann; Widén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplements in adjunct to conventional management of peri-implant mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with peri-implant mucositis were consecutively recruited...... debridement and oral hygiene reinforcement resulted in clinical improvement of peri-implant mucositis and a reduction in cytokine levels. Probiotic supplements did not provide added benefit to placebo....

  7. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  8. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  9. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were

  10. Improving the Prediction of Prostate Cancer Overall Survival by Supplementing Readily Available Clinical Data with Gene Expression Levels of IGFBP3 and F3 in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Core Needle Biopsy Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhuochun; Andersson, Karl; Lindholm, Johan; Dethlefsen, Olga; Pramana, Setia; Pawitan, Yudi; Nistér, Monica; Nilsson, Sten; Li, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    A previously reported expression signature of three genes (IGFBP3, F3 and VGLL3) was shown to have potential prognostic value in estimating overall and cancer-specific survivals at diagnosis of prostate cancer in a pilot cohort study using freshly frozen Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples. We carried out a new cohort study with 241 prostate cancer patients diagnosed from 2004-2007 with a follow-up exceeding 6 years in order to verify the prognostic value of gene expression signature in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) prostate core needle biopsy tissue samples. The cohort consisted of four patient groups with different survival times and death causes. A four multiplex one-step RT-qPCR test kit, designed and optimized for measuring the expression signature in FFPE core needle biopsy samples, was used. In archive FFPE biopsy samples the expression differences of two genes (IGFBP3 and F3) were measured. The survival time predictions using the current clinical parameters only, such as age at diagnosis, Gleason score, PSA value and tumor stage, and clinical parameters supplemented with the expression levels of IGFBP3 and F3, were compared. When combined with currently used clinical parameters, the gene expression levels of IGFBP3 and F3 are improving the prediction of survival time as compared to using clinical parameters alone. The assessment of IGFBP3 and F3 gene expression levels in FFPE prostate cancer tissue would provide an improved survival prediction for prostate cancer patients at the time of diagnosis.

  11. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  13. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  14. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  15. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Ivanova

    Full Text Available DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious.We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components.All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS. NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components.Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should

  16. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.

  17. A crystalline-to-crystalline phase transition in Ca(OH)[subscript 2] at 8 GPa and room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalli, K.; Shim, S.-H.; Prakapenka, V.B. (MIT); (UC)

    2008-07-02

    X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal that Ca(OH){sub 2}-portlandite transforms to a crystalline phase with an ordered OH sublattice between 8 and 14 GPa at room temperature under quasi-hydrostatic stress conditions in an Ar pressure medium. The amorphization previously reported at 11 GPa under no pressure medium was not observed up to 26 GPa. The width and separation of the fluorescence peaks from the ruby chips embedded in Ca(OH){sub 2} without a medium suggest that deviatoric stress is responsible for the previously observed amorphization. Our study demonstrates that the behavior of hydrous phases in the subducting slab could be sensitive to local deviatoric stresses. Together with similar reports on quartz, our observation on Ca(OH){sub 2} indicates that deviatoric stress is an important factor to consider for P-induced amorphization reported in a wide range of materials.

  18. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  19. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  20. CESM Lakes Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a README file to indicate the locations of codes, data sets, and other supporting materials. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Spero...

  1. Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement | Ackom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was done to investigate the processing of pineapple pulp waste from a processing plant, into a powdered product to be used as a dietary fibre supplement. The proximate composition and the functional properties of the raw material and final product were determined. The pasting characteristics or properties of ...

  2. Effects of ovariectomy and ascorbic acid supplement on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on bone mineral density (BMD) and oxidative state in rats, and the alterations in these effects that vitamin C supplementation may produce. Materials and methods: Twenty female Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (C, ...

  3. The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on tibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobela Tryphina TT. Nkukwana

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... supplementation as a possible alternative to antibiotic growth promoters on bone breaking strength (BBS), tibia bone ... composite material of 30% organic matrix and 70% hydroxyapatite, composed mainly of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) ...... What development potential for Moringa products? October ...

  4. 37 CFR 1.805 - Replacement or supplement of deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deposit. 1.805 Section 1.805 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.805 Replacement or supplement of deposit. (a) A depositor, after receiving...

  5. Outdoor Education, A Bibliography of ERIC Abstracts: Supplement No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    A supplement to seven previous bibliographies, this bibliography provides a guide to some of the latest resource material, research findings, and/or developments in outdoor education. Part I contains 68 citations and abstracts which appeared in "Resources in Education" (RIE) from the January 1977 issue through the October 1977 issue. Part II…

  6. The effect of caffeine supplementation on trained individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intense physical training increases oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting into muscle and cellular damage. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine supplementation on trained young individuals subjected to two treadmill maximal tests. Materials and Methods: It was a double-blind and ...

  7. Exploring Possibilities for Transforming Established Subscription-based Scientific Journals into Open Access Journals. Present Situation, Transformation Criteria, and Exemplary Implementation within Trans-O-MIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Kuballa, Stefanie; Schulze, Mareike; Böhm, Claudia; Gefeller, Olaf; Haaf, Jan; Henning, Peter; Mielke, Corinna; Niggemann, Florian; Schürg, Andrea; Bergemann, Dieter

    2016-12-07

    Based on today's information and communication technologies the open access paradigm has become an important approach for adequately communicating new scientific knowledge. Summarizing the present situation for journal transformation. Presenting criteria for adequate transformation as well as a specific approach for it. Describing our exemplary implementation of such a journal transformation. Studying the respective literature as well as discussing this topic in various discussion groups and meetings (primarily of editors and publishers, but also of authors and readers), with long term experience as editors and /or publishers of scientific publications as prerequisite. There is a clear will, particularly of political and funding organizations, towards open access publishing. In spite of this, there is still a large amount of scientific knowledge, being communicated through subscription-based journals. For successfully transforming such journals into open access, sixteen criteria for a goal-oriented, stepwise, sustainable, and fair transformation are suggested. The Tandem Model as transformation approach is introduced. Our exemplary implementation is done in the Trans-O-MIM project. It is exploring strategies, models and evaluation metrics for journal transformation. As instance the journal Methods of Information in Medicine will apply the Tandem Model from 2017 onwards. Within Trans-O-MIM we will reach at least nine of the sixteen criteria for adequate transformation. It was positive to implement Trans-O-MIM as international research project. After first steps for transforming Methods have successfully been made, challenges will remain, among others, in identifying appropriate incentives for open access publishing in order to support its transformation.

  8. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  9. extracts as potential dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Strugała

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.

  10. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • WEIGHT-LOSS SUPPLEMENTS FACT SHEET FOR CONSUMERS Bitter orange Bitter orange contains synephrine (a stimulant), and is claimed to ... breakdown of fat, and decrease appetite. Products with bitter orange usually also contain caffeine and other ingredients. Bitter ...

  11. Added Value via SPI supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplement that indicates where to find the source data sets on the EPA system. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bowden, J., K.D. Talgo, T....

  12. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, ... to Your Health Care Provider Stay Educated, Make Smart Decisions Labels and Contents for Dietary Supplements Independent ...

  13. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  14. Herbal Supplements: Cause for Concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Borrione, Paolo; Luigi, Luigi Di; Maffulli, Nicola; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  16. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration, DHHS, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Dietary Supplements Tips for the Savvy Supplement User: Making Informed ... that supplements include botanical/herbal as well as vitamin/mineral ... may see sold as dietary supplements. It is not possible to list them all ...

  18. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  19. Stockpile Dismantlement Database Training Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document, the Stockpile Dismantlement Database (SDDB) training materials is designed to familiarize the user with the SDDB windowing system and the data entry steps for Component Characterization for Disposition. The foundation of information required for every part is depicted by using numbered graphic and text steps. The individual entering data is lead step by step through generic and specific examples. These training materials are intended to be supplements to individual on-the-job training.

  20. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  1. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Wayne W; Bruton, Benny D; Russo, Vincent M

    2009-08-26

    Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v) directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 micromol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene), but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 micromol/ml amino nitrogen) in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v) sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar) or up to 35% (w/v) sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results of this investigation indicate that watermelon

  2. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mantovani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folic acid (FA supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB, preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

  3. Measuring CO[subscript 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taterka, Bruce; Cory, Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents simple tools and concepts to engage students in inquiry-based learning about the carbon cycle, thawing permafrost, and climate change. The lessons focus on learning in Earth science, environmental science, chemistry, and biology and align with the "Next Generation Science Standards".

  4. Customs and Courtesies of the Service, Supplemental Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    overemployment of slang or local expressions. Swearing is to be avoided. 5 y11 % When conversing informally, guard against making derogatory *statements about...groups, the PTA, youth activity clubs, and other organizations, they may enrich their lives, be helpful to others, and leave their mark for the betterment

  5. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  6. Environmental Report 2000 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A H; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Larson, J M; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B; Ring Peterson, S; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Williams, R A

    2001-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 2000'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air surveillance, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  7. Environmental Report 1999 Data Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J M; Biermann, A H; Harrach, R J; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brandstetter, E R; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Christofferson, E; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Garcia, L M; Giesing, T A; Grayson, A R; Hall, L C; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, R J; Williams, R A

    2000-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 1999'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  8. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  9. Quality control of plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzini, Elisabetta; Badea, Mihaela; Santos, Ariana Dos; Restani, Patrizia; Sievers, Hartwig

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to guarantee the safety of unprocessed plants and food supplements if consumers' health is to be protected. Although botanicals and their preparations are regulated at EU level, at least in part, there is still considerable discretion at national level, and Member States may choose to classify a product either as a food supplement or as a drug. Accurate data concerning the finished products and the plant used as the starting point are of major importance if risks and safety are to be properly assessed, but in addition standardized criteria for herbal preparation must be laid down and respected by researchers and manufacturers. Physiologically active as well as potentially toxic constituents need to be identified, and suitable analytical methods for their measurement specified, particularly in view of the increasing incidence of economically motivated adulteration of herbal raw materials and extracts. It remains the duty of food operators to keep up with the scientific literature and to provide sufficient information to enable the adaptation of specifications, sampling schemes and analytical methods to a fast-changing environment.

  10. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  11. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  12. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ammoniated wheat-straw with maize-meal and/or .... experiment, in order to investigate the effects of straw treatment (untreated, supplemented with 2% urea or ..... High levels of soy bean meal and maize gluten meal were, however, found to suppress the ...

  13. Removing Supplementary Materials from Montessori Classrooms Changed Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.; Heise, Megan J.

    2016-01-01

    Montessori classrooms vary in the degree to which they adhere to Maria Montessori's model, including in the provision of materials. Specifically, some classrooms use only Montessori materials, whereas others supplement the Montessori materials with commercially available materials like puzzles and games. A prior study suggested such…

  14. Audio-Visual Materials for Chinese Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Eugene, Comp.; Ching, Nora C., Comp.

    This publication is designed for teachers of Chinese language and culture who are interested in using audiovisual materials to supplement classroom instruction. The listings objectively present materials which are available; the compilers have not attempted to evaluate them. Content includes historical studies, techniques of brush painting, myths,…

  15. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dietary ingredient, the possibility of contamination (by pesticides, heavy metals such as lead, bacteria, etc.), and the improper packaging and labeling of a product. What methods are used to evaluate the health benefits and safety of a botanical dietary supplement? Like ...

  16. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the promised ‘antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment of the ben......In contrast to the promised ‘antioxidant miracle' of the 1980s, several randomised controlled trials have shown no effect of antioxidant supplements on hard endpoints such as morbidity and mortality. The former over-optimistic attitude has clearly called for a more realistic assessment...... of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...

  17. Carbohydrase and protease supplementation increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-09-15

    Sep 15, 2014 ... Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science ... control birds was 12% higher than that of the positive control, while diets supplemented with single enzyme ... The inclusion of exogenous proteases in maize-soya-based diets increases protein digestion by.

  18. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and

  19. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  20. Abuse liability of the dietary supplement dimethylamylamine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolan, Sean B; Gatch, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a component of many dietary supplements and has recently been associated with numerous adverse effects, prompting the US military and World Anti-Doping Agency to ban its use as a supplement...

  1. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  2. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  3. Food supplements: survey of the ASL TO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valfrè, R; Bioletti, L; Spagna, S; Rolle, M; Zucaro, D; Vietti, F; Laurenti, P

    2014-01-01

    supplements at gyms located on the territory of ASLTO3: 59 gyms are available on territory, but only in one of them supplements are sold. Some customers of these gyms have filled a questionnaire concerning the consumption of supplements. The processing of the questionnaires showed that 27% of respondents in the past 2 years used only occasionally food supplements. For 42% of the subjects the use of these products was to achieve weight loss, for 33% for athletes and 17% have used specific products in the case of particular physiological situations such as pregnancy and lactation. The reasons that lead to the use of dietary supplements, in all cases, are attributed to the improvement of health status. In addition, in 50% of cases the pharmacist has led to the use of these products or, alternatively, friends and relatives. The general practitioner is often not informed even in case of disturbances introduced after their use (seen in 8% of our sample). The majority of the sample (58%) said that they had benefited from the use of supplements and they are aware (68%) that there could be contraindications. A greater knowledge of the topic, with attention focused on the entire supply chain of the product, is essential to ensure the safety of consumers in the use of food supplements. For these reasons a more detailed check on the procedure is essential: selection and verification of suppliers (especially for raw materials coming from Eastern countries, because they are not subjected to a thorough inspection); traceability of products marketed; correspondence between manufactured and authorized products. Finally, promote an awareness campaign at all levels is necessary, including general practitioners for a conscious purchase.

  4. Reconfiguration on nanocrossbar using material implication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sadhana. Current Issue : Vol. 42, Issue 12 · Current Issue Volume 42 | Issue 12. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  5. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  6. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment. 141.809... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and...

  7. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Calcium supplementation to prevent pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Calcium supplementation to prevent pre-eclampsia - a systematic review. G J Hofmeyr, A Roodt, A N Atallah, L Duley. Background. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may prevent high blood pressure and preterm labour. Objective. To assess the effects of calcium supplementation.

  9. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoako, Prince O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Uden, Peter C., E-mail: pcuden@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Tyson, Julian F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  11. [Trade of food supplement: food or drug supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Margherita; Petrelli, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade. So we try to disentangle the intricate legislation with the national (and European) Court contributions. In particular, after a brief analysis of the rulings of the Competition and Market Authority on misleading advertising and by the Supreme Court in relation to crimes against health damage, it will come to the analysis of interpretative problems of a purely criminal law nature, in light of the recent proposal for reform about agribusiness crimes. Finally, it will be inevitable to analyze briefly the recent implementation of the d.lgs. n. 17/2004 concerning the distance trade of non-prescription medicines. There is no doubt that now, internet represents the preferred distribution channel for pharmaceutical products (including food supplement) and the most tempting "place" (because of control difficulties) for the realization of criminal conduct. The conclusion will be that the need to achieve more targeted and homogeneous regulatory measures, while also having to protect - public and individual - health through the protection of the legal security in one with the protection of the right to information.

  12. Identification and Determination of Synthetic Pharmaceuticals as Adulterants in Eight Common Herbal Weight Loss Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Khazan, Marjan; Hedayati, Mehdi; Kobarfard, Farzad; Askari, Sahar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adulterated herbal weight loss products with containing undeclared synthetic drugs are common and responsible for many serious health damages. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine five synthetic adulterants in eight common herbal weight loss supplements, which are currently sold in Iran markets, to verify their presence in supplements, without mentioning on the labels. Materials and Methods: Eight common herbal weight loss samples were obtained from the Iran pharm...

  13. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  14. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  15. Synthetic androgens as designer supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed.

  16. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed. PMID:26074745

  17. Designing through Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    -set behind the project and the experiments builds upon contemporary and earlier discussion about the relation between (digital) drawing and making in architecture. “Bringing with me the conviction that architecture and the visual art were closely allied, I was soon struck by what seemed at the time...... of architectural tools is indeed changing. Digital drawing and design tools have either replaced or supplemented sketching and drawing by hand. Alone however these new tools still – with Evans’s words – put the architects at the disadvantage of newer working directly with the object of their thoughts...... as an opportunity to connect the digital environment with the reality of materials – and use realisation and materialisation to generate architectural developments and findings through an iterative mode of thinking about the dialogue between drawing, materials and fabrication. Consequently the interest and mind...

  18. Clenbuterol marketed as dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria K; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Guddat, Sven; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-03-01

    In several studies it has been demonstrated that products containing pharmaceutically active ingredients are marketed as dietary supplements. Most of these products contain anabolic steroids. Recently products for weight loss containing active drugs have also appeared on the market. In the present case a healthy male ordered the product 'Anabolic burner' via the Internet. The product was received from a German dispatcher and paid by bank transfer to a German bank account. After ingesting one tablet he reported tremor and delivered a urine sample. This urine was found to contain 2 ng/mL of clenbuterol utilizing LC-MS/MS analysis. Additionally the product itself was analyzed with GC-MS for clenbuterol, yielding a content of about 30 microg per tablet. The beta-2 agonist clenbuterol is only legally available on prescription and is classified as prohibited doping substance in sports. The present case for the first time confirms the presence of clenbuterol in a dietary supplement. It again demonstrates the common problem with products on the supplement market, where non-licensed pharmaceuticals and doping substances are easily available. The ingestion of these products containing additions of therapeutic drugs can lead to side effects and/or interactions with conventional medicines.

  19. Meeting Local Needs in Materials Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al-Mahrooqi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks are viewed as an essential tool in ELT. Despite the abundance of commercial textbooks, very few of them seem to meet the local needs of students and teachers in a certain context, owing to certain pitfalls in the materials. When a program adopts a certain commercial textbook the teachers soon realize that they have to supplement the materials to bridge the gap between what these materials offer and the local needs. Sometimes the supplementation yields greater volumes of materials than the book itself, causing teachers and learners to lose focus. An added complexity is the fact that there are always new, more attractive titles in the market, leaving the program in a dilemma of whether to keep their old, well supplemented textbooks or to replace them with new ones and start another cycle of supplementation. The ideal solution is for a program to produce its own teaching materials. However, writing quality local materials that can compete with commercial ones can be a real challenge. It requires clear vision, creativity, commitment and team work.

  20. A Bibliography of Free Loan Materials for Agriculture Education. Vocational Education Resource Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Roger H.; And Others

    This bibliography, part of the Vocational Education Resource Materials system, is designed to: (1) Encourage and support curriculum development and instructional activities in vocational education and career development through collection and dissemination of appropriate materials, (2) supplement and complement efforts of the (Wisconsin) State…

  1. Garlic supplemented diet attenuates gentamicin nephrotoxicity ın rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Seckiner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To demonstrate the effect of a 4% pulverized garlic supplemented diet on the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Materials and Methods Twenty four healthy male Wistar rats, weighing between 220 - 260grams, were divided into three groups. The rats were randomly assigned to either the gentamicin injection without garlic supplementation group (Group I, n = 8, gentamicin injection with garlic supplementation group (Group II, n = 8, and control group (Group III, n = 8. Urine from the rats was collected and the volume (mL, microalbumin (mg/L, creatinine (mg/dL, Na (mmol/L, K (mmol/L, Cl (mmol/L, P (mg/dL, N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG (U/L and pH values were measured. Then urea (mg/dL, creatinine (mg/dL, total protein (g/dL and cystatin (mg/L values were measured for the blood samples obtained from tail veins. Results The median NAG value for the control group (52.050 U/L was similar to value for Group II (56.400 U/L, which received gentamicin and the garlic diet. However, the median NAG value for Group I (77.030 U/L, which received gentamicin without garlic supplementation, was determined to be statistically significantly higher (p = 0.010 than the value for the control group. In addition, the mean cystatin value for Group II (1.360 U/L was found to be statistically significantly lower than the value for the Group I (2.240 U/L (p = 0.015. Conclusions In this study we showed the effect of 4% pulverized garlic supplemented diet for preventing nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats by using as parameters NAG in urine samples and cystatin C in serum samples.

  2. Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, A; Hasick, N; Kazlauskas, R; Goebel, C

    2011-01-01

    A number of supplements are now available which are sold as fat burners or pre-workout boosters and contain stimulants which are banned in sport. Many contain methylhexaneamine under one of many pseudonyms including Geranamine, geranium oil or extract, or a number of chemical names such as 1,3-dimethylpentylamine. This has resulted in many athletes returning an adverse finding and having sanctions imposed. Other stimulants such as caffeine, phenpromethamine, synefrine, and phenethylamines are also to be found in supplements. This communication shows that geranium oils do not contain methylhexaneamine and that products labelled as containing geranium oil but which contain methylhexaneamine can only arise from the addition of synthetic material. Since the usual dose of methylhexaneamine is large, the drug is excreted at relatively high amounts for more than 29 h, the time for which the excretion was studied. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, F. [Continental Cement Co., Inc., Hannibal, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  4. Zinc supplementation in pediatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banupriya Newton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Knowledge about the essentiality of zinc in human health and diseases is emerging. Children are more prone to infectious diseases like diarrhoea, pneumonia, common cold and sepsis that lead to enormous deaths in the developing world. Zinc is mainly required for the maturation of B and T cells and its deficiency adversely affects the growth and functions of immune cells leading to impaired immune functions and increased susceptibility to infection. This review makes a summary of the effects of zinc supplementation in diarrhoea, common cold focusing more on the future perspective of zinc in sepsis.

  5. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghirri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation.

  6. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  7. Effect of taking dietary supplement on hematological and biochemical parameters in male bodybuilders an equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Maracy, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Yeroshalmi, Shemouil; Zamani-Moghaddam, Ali; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: The improved physical action following administration of supplements to bodybuilders was supported by changes in laboratory parameters. Despite the fact that these supplements are sometimes associated both advantage and side effects, this study were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the possible effects of some commonly used supplements in bodybuilders on the hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 40 male bodybuilders as cases and 40 controls in the age group of 20-40 years. They used different kinds of supplements for 1 year. In general, all the supplements used were classified into two groups: hormonal and non-hormonal. Laboratory tests were requested for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: In an equation model, we found that weight (P = 0.024), duration of bodybuilding (P bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in athletes. PMID:26793253

  8. Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, B M; Overton, R F; Carraway, V G; Cash, B C

    2007-01-01

    This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). A survey was used to assess sport-related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training room and weight training facilities. Pearson chi2 was used to evaluate differences in frequency distribution of responses by sex. Sport-related injuries were experienced by 91% of athletes (93% males, 88% females). Overall, 17% of participants were interested in supplements to improve circulation, 34% for joint and soft tissue repair, and 22% to reduce inflammation. Significant sex differences were not found for any supplements in any categories evaluated. Males were more likely than females to rely on strength coaches (37%, 20%) for supplement information. Athletic trainers (71% of athletes), coaches (60%), and physicians (41%) were the primary professionals, and the internet (79%), magazines (68%), and television (52%) the most popular sources of media for supplement information. The majority of athletes experience injury during their college athletic career and 17% to 34% express an interest in supplements for injury treatment. Athletes would benefit from scientifically sound guidance to identify appropriate supplements for injury treatment and internet sites for supplement information. Future research should identify if athletes are more likely to increase supplement use when they are injured or if supplement use is more prevalent among athletes who are prone to injury.

  9. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  10. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supplements Drug Related Topics HIV/AIDS Medicines Antibiotics Antidepressants Blood Pressure Medicines Blood Thinners Cancer Alternative Therapies Cancer Chemotherapy Cold and Cough Medicines Complementary ...

  11. Common Herbal Dietary Supplement-Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Gary N; Corbett, Amanda H; Hawke, Roy L

    2017-07-15

    Nearly 25% of U.S. adults report concurrently taking a prescription medication with a dietary supplement. Some supplements, such as St. John's wort and goldenseal, are known to cause clinically important drug interactions and should be avoided by most patients receiving any pharmacologic therapy. However, many other supplements are predicted to cause interactions based only on in vitro studies that have not been confirmed or have been refuted in human clinical trials. Some supplements may cause interactions with a few medications but are likely to be safe with other medications (e.g., curcumin, echinacea, garlic, Asian ginseng, green tea extract, kava kava). Some supplements have a low likelihood of drug interactions and, with certain caveats, can safely be taken with most medications (e.g., black cohosh, cranberry, ginkgo, milk thistle, American ginseng, saw palmetto, valerian). Clinicians should consult reliable dietary supplement resources, or clinical pharmacists or pharmacologists, to help assess the safety of specific herbal supplement-drug combinations. Because most patients do not disclose supplement use to clinicians, the most important strategy for detecting herb-drug interactions is to develop a trusting relationship that encourages patients to discuss their dietary supplement use.

  12. The effectiveness of dietary supplements for athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Papanikolaou, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is dealing with supplements specifically the ones for athletes. To make the selection as useful as possible, I basically chose the supplements according to the sales in sport centers. On these foundations, I made the decision which supplements to research. The next step was to find out the real efficiency of these supplements and if the dosage is set properly. To do so I went through existing science papers, meta-analysis when available, and I made a conclusion. The aim of the con...

  13. MedlinePlus: Herbs and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin K Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database W Whey Protein Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Wild Yam Natural Medicines ...

  14. Weight Loss Supplements: Boon or Bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed; Omar, Norfaizatul Shalida

    2017-01-01

    Dietary health supplements for weight loss seem to be the future nowadays. However, this industry is plagued by lack of regulations and ignorance regarding the constituents of the supplements. Of all the supplements consumed, the ones for weight loss are most commonly found in the market. Reports of liver failure, kidney impairment and worsening of chronic ailments in patients who consume these supplements are surfacing recently which make us question the credibility of these products. The safety of these products lie in the clear stating of the ingredients by the manufacturer, well informed patient, knowledgeable physician and tight regulations from the regulatory board. PMID:28814927

  15. Periodontal materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darby, I

    2011-01-01

    .... However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone...

  16. Analytic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  17. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... words like: Acid Alkali Carcinogenic Caution Corrosive Danger Explosive Flammable Irritant Radioactive Unstable Warning A label called the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) will tell you if a material is ...

  18. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safe are contrast materials? Contrast materials are safe drugs; adverse reactions ranging from mild to severe do occur but ... the use of medications such as Beta blockers , NSAIDs , interleukin 2 having received a large amount of ...

  19. Vitamin D Supplementation in Australia: Implications for the Development of Supplementation Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, Kellie; Talbot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000–2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety o...

  20. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  1. Using Iron Supplements for Prevention of Dental Caries: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilzadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Dental carries are the most widespread disease among humans, caused by the bacteria growing in the dental plaque. Streptococcus mutans is known as the main bacteria-inducing dental carries. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of some commercially available iron supplements on the growth of this bacteria and dental carries. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial effects of six different types of iron supplements were assessed using the well-diffusion method. Furthermore, the effects of these supplements on the beginning and progression of the process of dental carries were investigated. The SPSS software package version 20 was used for statistical tests. Results At the concentration of 100%, the highest and the lowest inhibitory effect were for Ferrokids-drops (32 mm and Irovit (26 mm, respectively. At a concentration of 50%, Vitane (26 mm supplement and Irovit supplement (21 mm had the highest and lowest effectiveness, respectively. Moreover, at a concentration of 10%, the highest and the lowest inhibitory effect were for Vitane and Irovit, respectively. The positive control group had the highest number of decayed teeth, while the group that received Vitane iron supplements was the one with the lowest number of decayed teeth. There were no decayed teeth in the negative control group. Conclusions In spite of what the parents believe, iron supplements not only do not cause dental carries but also they have preventive and inhibitory effects on them. Furthermore, it is highly recommended that supplements containing both iron and zinc elements should be preferred over supplements containing only iron elements.

  2. The potential of replacing conventional dairy supplements with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cows fed commercial supplements had higher milk yield than cows fed forage legume supplements. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in cows fed lablabbased supplements than cows fed other supplements. Milk protein, total solids and lactose content of cows fed commercial supplements was significantly ...

  3. Materials data handbook on Inconel Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Handbook is divided into twelve chapters. Scope of information presented includes physical- and mechanical-property data at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. This is supplemented with useful information in such areas as material procurement, metallurgy of alloy, corrosion, environmental effect, fabrication, and joining techniques. Design data are presented, as available.

  4. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  5. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  6. 16 CFR 1.86 - Supplemental statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Procedures for Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.86 Supplemental statements. Except for proposals for legislation, as provided in CEQ Regulation (40 CFR 1502.9(c)), the Commission shall publish supplements to either draft or final environmental statements if: (a) The Commission...

  7. Supplement use and mortality: the SENECA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A.; Kaluza, J.; Knoops, K.T.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is hypothesis that in relatively healthy older people supplement usage can be consider as healthy life style habit and as such can positively influence longevity. Aim of the study To determine whether supplement use was associated with all-cause mortality in the participants of the

  8. 18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the Council...

  9. 40 CFR 152.132 - Supplemental distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental distribution. 152.132... Supplemental distribution. The registrant may distribute or sell his registered product under another person's name and address instead of (or in addition to) his own. Such distribution and sale is termed...

  10. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  11. Phosphorus supplementation of Karakul sheep grazing natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divided into four groups of 20 ewes each, viz. ewes supplemented with P+ and P- which lambed during May and October. All lambs born were slaughtered. The nutritive value (% CP and DOM) of the natural pasture of P- and P+ groups was similar. The average daily intake of supplement. (g/sheep) by the P- and P+ groups ...

  12. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  13. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  14. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  15. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  16. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  17. Determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy is highly prevalent among antenatal clinic attendees in Enugu, Nigeria despite the practice of routine iron supplementation in pregnancy. The major problem with iron supplementation in pregnancy is compliance, and this may be a potential driver to the persistent high prevalence of ...

  18. Should infant girls receive micronutrient supplements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Lund, Sofia; Fisker, Ane

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have proposed the hypothesis that the combination of vitamin A supplementation and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination may be associated with increased mortality in girls. Recent zinc/folic acid (FA) and iron supplementation trials did not find any beneficial effects...

  19. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADHD children were further assessed by Wechsler intelligence scale for children, Conners' parent rating scale, and Wisconsin card sorting test. Then magnesium deficient patients were ... minor side effects from magnesium supplementation. Conclusion: Magnesium supplementation in ADHD, proves its value and safety.

  20. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47 Section 2.47 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In...

  1. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey. ... indicate that supplementing growing turkey feed- containing 18%CP and 2800 Keal/kg ME with 0.05% methionine enhances productive performances, good carcass yield and production cost.

  2. Oestrogen supplementation in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2005-02-06

    Feb 6, 2005 ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and recombinant luteinising hormone (LH) as first-line treatment for induction of superovulation. Not much is known about oestrogen supplementation for endometrial support. Prospective randomised studies on this subject mostly investigated oestrogen supplementation.

  3. Supplement consumption in body builder athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

  4. Blueberries extract supplementation improves physical performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... supplementation on physical performance and exercise-induced oxidative stress. 40 male Swiss mice .... was generated by circulating water with a pump, and the strength of the current was adjusted to 8 ... Table 1. Effect of BBE supplementation on the antioxidant enzymes of skeletal muscle of mice. Group.

  5. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary supplements and chemical agents have been used for a number of decades among athletes striving to achieve increased strength and performance. This has led to a huge, growing market for the food supplement industry. The latter's products are classified as 'foods' rather than drugs and are therefore free of the ...

  6. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Zinc is a vital micronutrient in humans and its deficiency in children can thwart their growth and development, compromise their immunity and cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of studies about the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functions. This study is an attempt to quantify the impact of zinc supplementation on cognitive performance of schoolchildren. Materials and Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial was carried out in public elementary school in Mashhad- Iran to investigate the effect of Zinc on cognition of 45 healthy children. The cognitive test used in the trial was Raven IQ (Intelligence Quotient test. A total of 45 first grade children aged 6 to 8 years were enrolled and divided into two experiment and control groups. The cases group, received 20 mg of zinc sulfate syrup vs.  the control group  received a placebo each day for 6 months. Raven IQ test was administered under basal conditions before and after the supplementation of zinc or placebo. Results The memory and intellectual development in the experimental group was significantly more than in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate the positive relationship between zinc administration and some aspects of intellectual development and personality features, emphasizing the significance of this element in the normal psychological status of children.

  7. Use of Waste Materials in Highway Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Imtiaz

    1991-01-01

    This study synthesizes the information on the use of waste materials in highway construction. The information was obtained from a review of published literature supplemented by: recent unpublished reports, presentations of research updates by professionals at different forums, anti personal meetings with the experts. In addition, a questionnaire regarding the use of waste materials was prepared and distributed to each of the state highway agencies. A majority of states responded to the questi...

  8. Evaluation of ventriculography as a supplement to computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakstad, P.; Sortland, O.; Hovind, K.

    1982-04-01

    The diagnostic value of ventriculography (VGR) as a supplement to computed tomography (CT) is evaluated in 42 patients. CT was slightly superior for diagnosing expanding lesions and could tell more about the size and nature of the processes in this selected material which includes only lesions adjacent to the ventricular system. VGR yielded more information about the attachment of a tumor to the wall, floor, or roof of the ventricles. Stenosis or occlusion of the Sylvian aqueduct, communicating hydrocephalus, and basal adhesive arachnoiditis were diagnosed by VGR, while the correct diagnosis could be suggested only by CT in these cases.

  9. Sows’ parity and coconut oil postnatal supplement on piglets performance

    OpenAIRE

    Luan S Santos; Caldara,Fabiana R.; Machado,Sivanilza T.; Irenilza A Nääs; Luciana Foppa; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Rafael Moura; Simone P Machado

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of sows’ of different parities and the supplement of coconut oil for piglets, on the development of litter. Materials and methods. A total of 51 sows of different parities and their 642 piglets were used in the trial. Each piglet was weighed and identified at birth in a sequential order. They were randomly distributed in two treatments (CG=control group and TG=test group). TG piglets had the first access to a dosage of 3.0 ml of cocon...

  10. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  11. A Case of Supplement-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Kuei Frank Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old Caucasian male presented with a two-week history of jaundice and right-upper quadrant (RUQ abdominal pain. Transaminases and biliary enzymes were markedly elevated with hyperferritinemia and mildly elevated INR. Imaging tests showed no significant abnormality. He denied prescription or over-the-counter (OTC medication use, but he had been taking at least 9 dietary supplements for 12 months. Other causes of liver disease were excluded. His supplements were discontinued, and his liver-associated enzymes significantly markedly improved over the next 6 weeks and remained normal after one year suggesting supplement-induced hepatotoxicity. Due to the number of supplements, no specific agent could be identified as the primary cause of his liver injury. This case illustrates the importance of inquiring and educating patients of the potential harmful risks of over-the-counter medications and supplements.

  12. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  13. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  14. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  15. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  16. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  17. Nano Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu; and others

    2006-02-15

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  18. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  19. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  20. Effects of supplemental vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different diets each containing 37.4% crude protein were formulated from locally available feed materials to contain 0 (control), 23, 46 and 92 mg/Kg supplemental Ascorbic acid (AA) respectively. Catfish with average weight of 2 - 6g were stocked and fed twice daily to satiation initially with Coppens fish feed for the first ...

  1. 75 FR 25160 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property (DFARS Case 2008-D050) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... partial, advance, progress, or performance- based payments; (5) Intellectual property or software; or (6...-furnished property identified in the contract when the Government-furnished material and Government...

  2. Open Wide and Trek Inside. Grades 1-2. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This document, an inquiry-based curriculum supplement that includes materials for both teachers and students, is designed to develop an understanding among students about oral health. Contents include: (1) "About the National Institutes of Health"; (2) "About the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research"; (3) "Introduction to Open…

  3. Detection of adulterated Ginkgo biloba supplements using chromatographic and spectral fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fingerprints of 18 commercially available Ginkgo biloba supplements, 12 samples of raw Ginkgo biloba leaves, and 3 Ginkgo biloba Standard Reference Materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were acquired directly (no chromatography) by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry a...

  4. 77 FR 76941 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Poland (DFARS Case 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country--Poland (DFARS Case 2012-D049) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... beneficial and consistent with national laws, regulations, policies, and international obligations. The agreement does not cover construction or construction material. Poland is already a designated country under...

  5. Outdoor Education, a Selected Bibliography (with ERIC Abstracts). ERIC/CRESS Supplement No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    A supplement to 5 previous bibliographies, this bibliography provides access to some of the latest resource material, research findings, and/or developments in outdoor education. Part I contains 143 citations and abstracts which appeared in "Resources in Education" (RIE) from the January 1975 issue through the December 1975 issue. Part…

  6. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  7. Do Calcium Supplements Predispose to Urolithiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Paridis, Dionysios; Karatzas, Anastasios; Soukias, Georgios; Dailiana, Zoi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of calcium supplements, with or without vitamin D, in urinary stone formation in healthy population and in osteoporotic patients as well. Moreover, this review aims to clarify whether or not, and above which dose, they are associated with the risk of lithiasis. A research in Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases up to September 2015 was conducted using the following keywords: calcium, supplements, vitamin D, complications, lithiasis, and urinary stone. All types of studies were taken into account (cohort studies, reviews, meta-analyses), and in case they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were included in our review. The analysis of the data showed that calcium supplements, probably in association with anti osteoporotic treatment, do not create a predisposition towards lithiasis formation among women suffering from osteoporosis, neither among non-osteoporotic older men. In healthy postmenopausal as well as younger women, the supplements might increase susceptibility to urinary stone formation in long-term basis. The consumption of calcium supplements with the meals could play a protective role in women and younger males. There is certain evidence that supplements containing citrate may be more beneficial over the rest of calcium supplements, particularly when consumed during the meal. Osteoporotic women and healthy men are not at risk of stone formation. On the contrary, healthy women should be aware of the potential risk of developing urinary lithiasis in long-term basis.

  8. Iron supplementation: overcoming technical and practical barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Jose O

    2002-04-01

    Iron supplementation is probably the best available option to effectively address iron deficiency in pregnant women and young children because it can be targeted specifically to these high-risk groups. However, technical and practical barriers exist: limited information on the effectiveness of supplementation interventions, side effects that affect compliance, and supply/distribution constraints. An innovative approach to addressing these constraints is the use of sprinkles of powdered, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate that can be added directly to any semi-liquid food without changing their taste or consistency. This technique has been tested in initial trials in Ghana and found to be as effective as iron drops. Another approach to improve the effectiveness of iron interventions is through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. These interventions can help modify consumer behavior in some cases, but in some countries, geographic location, variations in language and population size can make the cost of IEC programs very high. IEC strategies in Indonesia aimed at increasing demand for iron supplements by systematic dissemination of specific messages, improving the quality and variety of tablets, increasing the availability and access to supplements by engaging the commercial sector, enrolling traditional birth attendants and other community volunteers in selling supplements. Key issues to be addressed include clarifying optimal starting points and duration of supplementation interventions--based on individual status or population prevalence, defining hemoglobin and ferritin cutoffs at which treatment should be instigated and evaluating the effectiveness of intermittent supplementation with multiple micronutrients.

  9. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...

  10. Ferroic Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reasonably nontechnical language. The vast application potential of ferroic materials is highlighted. Introduction. Materials possess symmetry, and sometimes .... tive sign, and even of variable magnitude. Thus the magnetisation is no more a single-valued function of the applied field. This behaviour, brought about by the ...

  11. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    . The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  12. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    , and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change....... Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  13. Periodontal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I

    2011-06-01

    Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  15. Bioresponsive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  16. Touching Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2012-01-01

    . Drawing on anthropological writings, the article argues that the objects of materiality are part of important but non-verbalised memories of schooling. The Dutch philosopher Eelco Runia’s notions of presence and metonymy are incorporated as tools for approaching objects of materiality in memory studies.......Dripping ink pens, colourful paint on skin, vegetables pots on a school roof. In interviews with three generations of former school pupils, memories of material objects bore a relation to everyday school life in the past. Interwoven, these objects entered the memorising processes, taking...... the interviewer and interviewee beyond an exclusively linguistic understanding of memory. This article analyses how the shifting objects of materiality in personal and generational school memories connects to material as well as sensuous experiences of everyday school life and its complex processes of learning...

  17. No evidence supports vitamin E indiscriminate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Yedidia; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    For many years, the prevailing concept was that LDL oxidation plays the central role in atherogenesis. As a consequence, supplementation of antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, became very popular. Unfortunately, major randomized clinical trials yielded disappointing results and recent meta-analyses concluded that indiscriminate, high dose vitamin E supplementation results in increased mortality. This conclusion raised (quite reasonable) criticism, much of which referred to the characteristics of meta-analysis. In our recent study, we used a Markov-model approach, which is free of most of the limitations of meta-analyses. Our major finding was that the average quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of vitamin E- supplemented individuals was 0.30 QALY (95%CI 0.21 to 0.39) less than that of untreated people. In our view, this supports the view that indiscriminate supplementation of high dose vitamin E can not be recommended to the general public.In the present communication we address several recent studies that demonstrated negative effects of vitamin E and raise possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the harmful effects of vitamin E supplementation. We also review recent studies conducted with specific groups of patients that gained from vitamin E supplementation, indicating that although, on the average, indiscriminate supplementation of high dose vitamin E is not beneficial, specific populations may gain from vitamin E. The challenge is to establish selection criteria that will predict who is likely to benefit from vitamin E supplementation. Such criteria may be based either on the assumption that antioxidants are likely to be beneficial for people under oxidative stress or on knowledge regarding the benefit of sick people with certain diseases. In short, we adopt the view that vitamin E is a "double-edge sword" that should not be consumed until criteria are defined to predict who is likely to benefit from high dose supplementation of vitamin E. (c) 2009

  18. Guide to mathematical tables supplement no 1

    CERN Document Server

    Burunova, N M; Fedorova, R M

    1960-01-01

    A Guide to Mathematical Tables is a supplement to the Guide to Mathematical Tables published by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1956. The tables contain information on subjects such as powers, rational and algebraic functions, and trigonometric functions, as well as logarithms and polynomials and Legendre functions. An index listing all functions included in both the Guide and the Supplement is included.Comprised of 15 chapters, this supplement first describes mathematical tables in the following order: the accuracy of the table (that is, the number of decimal places or significant

  19. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    -release vitamin C tablets had increased DNA repair activity (27 (95 % CI 12, 41) % higher incision activity). These subjects also benefited from the supplementation by reduced levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. In conclusion, nutritional status, DNA repair activity and DNA damage are linked, and beneficial...... of DNA repair incisions were 65.2 (95 % CI 60.4, 70.0) and 86.1 (95 % CI 76.2, 99.9) among the male smokers and well-nourished subjects, respectively. The male smokers also had high baseline levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. After supplementation, only the male smokers supplemented with slow...

  20. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  1. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...

  2. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  3. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Colombo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine (CyA is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John’s wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  4. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  5. Lessons Learned in Engineering. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James C.; Ryan, Robert S.; Schultzenhofer, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations. The supplemental CD contains accompanying PowerPoint presentations.

  6. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  7. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  8. 342 Effects of Improvised Materials on Students' Achievement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... In the science class, teaching aids are needed to supplement the teacher's oral explanation with the ... This is why Abdullahi. (1982) stated that scientific materials used in teaching enable the students to ..... This could be attributed to the fact that the improvised material provided visual and mental pictures in.

  9. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  10. Utopian Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard-Jensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    In various ways, this paper makes the counter-intuitive claim that the utopian and the material are thoroughlyinterdependent, rather than worlds apart. First, through a reading of Thomas More's Utopia, it is argued thatUtopia is the product of particular kinds of relations, rather than merely...... to its persuasive image of being the office of the future.The notion that utopia is achieved through material arrangements is finally related to the analysis of facts andfictions in ANT. It is argued, that even though Utopias are neither fact nor fiction, they are both material andeffective...

  11. Nutritional effects of folic acid controlled release from mesoporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Barat, José; Pérez-Esteve, Édgar; Bernardos,Andrea; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Folic acid deficiency causes serious disorders in humans and supplementation has numerous health benefits. However, there is initial evidence that suggest a negative impact of an increased exposure to folic with respect to certain developmental and degenerative disorders. In this line, controlled release of folic acid by using mesoporous silica materials, MCM-41, has been studied as an alternative to direct supplementation. For this purpose, various mesoporous solids MCM-41 loaded with f...

  12. Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in swimming and team sports, like hockey and football, that require high-intensity, intermittent effort over short ... and athletic performance? The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements for exercise and athletic ...

  13. Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided.

  14. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...... with placebo, by decreasing serum TSH and FT4 concentrations. Based on these findings, selenium supplementation is not warranted under conditions of marginal selenium deficiency. However, a role for selenium supplementation in the treatment of autoimmune thyroid diseases is still unresolved....

  15. 21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Required Manufacturers' Reports for Listed Electronic Products § 1002.11 Supplemental reports. Prior to the introduction into commerce of a new or modified model within a...

  16. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not yet) prohibited designer steroids and other performance-enhancing newer chemical entities will increase. Athletes, coaches and sports doctors should therefore be provided with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to ...

  17. Probiotic Supplements Failed to Prevent Babies' Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions. Probiotic supplements provide some of those same organisms. Most often, products contain strains of the bacteria ... the bottom line for parents is this: "Breast milk is best." "Breast milk contains human milk oligosaccharides, ...

  18. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  19. Studies Spotlight Diet, Supplements for Knee Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165863.html Studies Spotlight Diet, Supplements for Knee Pain Could fiber ... keep the bowels running smoothly, but a new study suggests it can also reduce knee pain from ...

  20. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  1. Chart Supplements - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Chart Supplements are searchable by individual airport in PDF format. They contain data on public and joint use airports, seaplane bases, heliports, VFR airport...

  2. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  3. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  4. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  5. Reproductive performance by dairy cows fed supplemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methionine (Cr-Met) in transition period. ... puerperal complications consisting of: mastitis, endometritis and ovarian cysts were determined. Results indicate that Cr supplementation significantly causes decrease in the numbers of open days (p < 0.05).

  6. Daily Report, Supplement, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-20

    petroleum , natural gas, iron ore) is completely negligible. From the standpoint of the volume of extracted mineral raw materials per square kilometer...long run. The police, Prosecutor’s Office, courts, Financial Guard, all kinds of inspectorates and inspectors are to corruption what aspirin is to

  7. Reference Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

  8. International survey of research university leadership views on supporting open access scholarly & educational materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This report looks closely at the attitudes on open access of a sample of 314 deans, chancellors, department chairmen, research institute directors, provosts, trustees, vice presidents and other upper level administrators from more than 50 research universities in the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland and Australia. The report gives detailed information on what they think of the cost of academic journal subscriptions, and how they understand the meaning of the term “open access.” The study also gives highly detailed data on what kind of policies the research university elite support or might support in the area of open access, including policies such as restricting purchases of very high-priced journals, paying publication fees for open access publications, mandating deposit of university scholarship into digital repositories, and developing open access educational materials from university resources. Just a few of the report’s many findings are that: • The lowest percentage of those interviewed considering...

  9. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  10. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  11. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  12. Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Sandia)-funded programs and two approved proposals for neutron scattering time at NIST. To enable future growth, optically adaptive materials for...Nanophase Particle ( SNAP ) Coatings.” Progress in Organic Coatings, 47(3-4), 337, 2003. Jong-Beom Baek and Loon-Seng Tan, “Linear-Hyperbranched...Silicates”, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume Date 2004, 840( Neutron and X-Ray Scattering as Probes of Multiscale Phenomena), 57

  13. Materials informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Rajan

    2005-01-01

    Seeking structure-property relationships is an accepted paradigm in materials science, yet these relationships are often not linear, and the challenge is to seek patterns among multiple lengthscales and timescales. There is rarely a single multiscale theory or experiment that can meaningfully and accurately capture such information. In this article, we outline a process termed ‘materials informatics’ that allows one to survey complex, multiscale information in a high-throughput, statistically...

  14. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    , viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous......This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry...

  15. The risk of abuse of vitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosz, Agnieszka; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies on potential risks associated with the abuse of vitamin supplements which until recently had been considered not only highly effica- cious, but also completely safe. Particular consideration is given to vitamins A, E, D and C. The necessity to control the intake of vitamin supplements and even to strictly super- vise the supply to high risk patients is highlighted.

  16. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin E deficiency in burn patients and supplementation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b ) to prevent or reverse oxidative...improve our understanding of the metabolism of alpha-tocopherol in thermally injured patients, and B ) demonstrate the mechanism by which vitamin E

  17. The use and misuse of vitamin supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M; Briggs, M

    1977-02-01

    Overt vitamin deficiency in Australia is a medical curiosity. Suspected hypovitaminoses in the general population requires education in nutrition, rather than supplementation by vitamin capsules. Vitamin supplementation, however, may be needed by patients receiving long-term drug treatment, or with chronic malabsorption conditions. The receipt of specific additional vitamins may also be beneficial during pregnancy, or in persons dedicated to a totally vegan diet.

  18. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient defi ciency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg / day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and / or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are confl icting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

  19. Efficacy of Supplementation in Filipino Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tayao, Charisse Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. Objective: The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (H...

  20. The use of tactile supplements in lipreading Swedish and English: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, G; Gnosspelius, J; Levitt, H

    2000-02-01

    The speech perception skills of GS, a Swedish adult deaf man who has used a "natural" tactile supplement to lipreading for over 45 years, were tested in two languages: Swedish and English. Two different tactile supplements to lipreading were investigated. In the first,"Tactiling," GS detected the vibrations accompanying speech by placing his thumb directly on the speaker's throat. In the second, a simple tactile aid consisting of a throat microphone, amplifier, and a hand-held bone vibrator was used. Both supplements led to improved lipreading of materials ranging in complexity from consonants in [aCa] nonsense syllables to Speech Tracking. Analysis of GS's results indicated that the tactile signal assisted him in identifying vowel duration, consonant voicing, and some manner of articulation categories. GS's tracking rate in Swedish was around 40 words per minute when the materials were presented via lipreading alone. When the lipreading signal was supplemented by tactile cues, his tracking rates were in the range of 60-65 words per minute. Although GS's tracking rates for English materials were around half those achieved in Swedish, his performance showed a similar pattern in that the use of tactile cues led to improvements of around 40% over lipreading alone.

  1. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products.

  2. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  3. Use of dietary supplements among preschool children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Yamagishi, Azumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Virgona, Nantiga; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Umegaki, Keizo

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics and use of dietary supplements by preschool children in Japan. A survey was conducted among 2,125 parents of preschool children to discover the status of dietary supplement use and their attitudes towards supplement use by their children. Logistic regression models were used to determine which characteristics predict supplement use in this population. For detailed characterization, child supplement users were also categorized as either the users of vitamins and minerals only or the users of other supplement components. For parents of non-user children, the parent's knowledge and attitudes toward supplements for children were investigated. Fifteen percent of children had used dietary supplements. Two parent-related factors were especially important, the frequency with which they referred to nutritional labels and their own supplement use, which had a significant encouraging effect on their children's supplement use. The parents of child supplement users showed limited awareness of the government system concerning diet and food, placed safety over efficacy, selected products with natural ingredients, and did not seek consultations with professionals. These parents, especially those who were aware of the specially designed supplements for children, exhibited positive responses to supplement use by their children. It is likely that parents' knowledge and attitudes toward dietary supplements and nutrition have a striking effect on their children's use of supplements. Unfortunately, their knowledge at present was less than satisfactory. More accurate information on nutrition, dietary intake and dietary supplements must be disseminated.

  4. 42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220... Programs § 403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance... determines whether or not a State regulatory program for Medicare supplemental health insurance policies...

  5. Tribometry of Materials for Bioengineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zivic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials for biomedical implants (metals, polymers, ceramics and composites is directly determined by characteristics and nature of the tissue, organs and systems that are being replaced or supplemented. Modern material investigations at micro- and nano- level enable introspection into new aspects of material behaviour and offer possibilities to significantly improve systems in use, from different aspects, such as improvement of manufacturing technologies or surface technologies modifications. Biomaterial investigations from a tribology point of view offer contribution to testing realised in this area, especially with use of novel devices for research in area of nanotribology.

  6. Effect of Endurance Exercise with Garlic Supplement Consumption on Intracellular and Vascular Adhesion Molecules in Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1 play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the sport activities with garlic supplementation on the levels of ICAMs and VCAMs in the sedentary women. Materials & Methods: In the pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 40 over-weight women referred to the health clinics in western Tehran were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via random sample selecting method, were randomly divided into four 10-person groups including sport exercise, exercise with garlic supplementation, supplementation, and control. Two 500mg supplementation capsules were daily administrated. In addition, including 5 sessions a week, 10-week 60-75% of maximum heart beat aerobic activity was conducted. The anthropometric indices, the levels of the adhesion molecules, and blood lipids of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 48 hours after the end of the exercises. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc, and dependent T tests. Findings: The ICAM-1 levels in exercise + supplementation and exercise groups, and the VCAM-1 levels in exercise + supplementation and supplementation groups were significantly reduced at the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage, as well as to control group. In addition, the mean weight, lipid percentage, BMI, and LDL-C in exercise and exercise + supplementation groups were significantly reduced. Nevertheless, the cholesterol level was significantly reduced in exercise + supplementation group only (p<0.05. Conclusion: 10-week sport activity with garlic supplementation reduces the levels of ICAM and VCAM in the sedentary women.

  7. Responses of Preterm Pigs to an Oral Fluid Supplement During Parenteral Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berding, Kirsten; Makarem, Patty; Hance, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrients and electrolytes in amniotic fluid swallowed by fetuses are important for growth and development. Yet, preterm infants requiring parenteral nutrition (PN) receive minimal or no oral inputs. With the limited availability of amniotic fluid, we evaluated the responses of preterm...... pigs receiving PN to an oral fluid supplement (OFS) based on the electrolyte and nutrient composition of amniotic fluid.Materials and Methods: Preterm pigs (92% of term) received a combination of PN (6 mL/kg-h) and 4 mL/kg-h of supplemental fluid as an experimental OFS (n = 9), lactated Ringer’s either......, or increase serum urea nitrogen values, but resulted in higher serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as improved glucoregulation and heavier intestines, livers, kidneys, and brains and lighter lungs. Conclusions: Providing supplemental fluid and electrolytes during PN either...

  8. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  9. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    . Butler, J. (1993) Bodies that Matter. On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. London: Routledge. Durkin, K. et al. (1998) Children, Media and Agression. Current Research in Australia and New Zealand. In: Carlson, U. & von Feilitzen, C. (red): Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International...... be discarded as analytical input to discussions about materiality? How far can we develop and stretch our conceptual understanding of the material? (Søndergaard 2009b) Theorizing creates new patterns of visibility and invisibility - with all the potentialities in between. Bullying research is a field that begs...... for new theorizing and new analytical tools. (Søndergaard 2008, 2009a) It is a field that deals with children’s individual and collective processes of becoming, of materializing and of entering in and as agentic part(ner)s of the human and non-human world. But current theoretical premises in that field...

  10. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  11. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  12. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    L -:• •.1 S..+.: s• S,’S .+m • , ++ d ’N .,.++.+ ii L+ i+- -..’ *4’.. ’-t. COMM4ITTEE ON MAGNETIC MATERIALS Chairman ROBERT M. WRITE, Principal...Motors; Sung Ho Jin, AT&T Bell Labs; G. Rodrigue, ... -- =.• Georgia Tech; J. Houze , Allegheny-Ludlum; R. Sundahl, AT&T Bell Labs; (. I... R. O’Handley...this report. Robert M. White Chairman *’-’ . ,i-.. .- ABSTRACT Magnetic materials play a fundamental role in many of the electrical and electronic

  13. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  14. Vitamins supplementation affects the onset of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhu-Mei; Ma, Zhen-Zhi; Liu, Guo-Jie; Wang, Lan-Ling; Guo, Yong

    2017-09-03

    Preeclampsia may affect between 2-8% of all pregnancies. It seriously affects maternal health after pregnancy. This meta-analysis was performed to define the efficacy of vitamins supplementation on the risk of preeclampsia. Potential articles were systematically searched on the databases of Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science up to May 2016. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to analyze the relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia. Cochran Q test was used to test inter-study heterogeneity. Begg's funnel plot was adopted to assess the potential publication bias. 28 eligible studies were selected. Pooled results indicated that vitamins supplementation could reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.64-0.86). The studies with non-randomized controlled trial (RCT) analysis also suggested the significant relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.42-0.85). However, negative results were observed in studies with RCT analysis. Subgroup analysis by vitamin type was performed among the studies with RCT analysis. The results indicated that vitamin D supplementation could significantly reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.22-0.78). Similar results were observed in the studies with multivitamins supplementation (RR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.51-0.93). Vitamins supplementation could reduce the onset of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Gomez Malave, Heber; Flores-Urrutia, Monica C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-10-19

    Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women in low- and middle-income countries. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation has been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2015), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 July 2015) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (31 July 2015). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. This review includes 27 trials from 15 countries, but only 21 trials (with 5490 women) contributed data to the review. All studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. The methodological quality of included studies was mixed and most had high levels of attrition.The overall assessment of the quality of the evidence for primary infant outcomes was low and for maternal outcomes very low.Of the 21 trials contributing data, three studies provided intermittent iron alone, 14 intermittent iron + folic acid and four intermittent iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals in comparison with the same composition of supplements provided in a daily regimen.Overall, for women receiving any intermittent

  16. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  17. Effect of Eight Weeks Forced Swimming Training with Methadone Supplementation on Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase, and Alkaline Phosphatase of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Hoseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Narcotics abuse can induce liver disorders; nevertheless, exercises improve liver disorders. The present research aimed to review the effect of eight weeks forced swimming training with methadone supplementation on liver enzymes of rats. Material & Method: In this experimental research, 48 rats were selected, and after one week adaptation to lab environment, they were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats including (1 forced swimming training, (2 methadone supplementation, (3 forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, and (4 control. Groups 2 and 3 used 2 mg/kg methadone daily for 8 weeks. Also, groups 1 and 3 swam for 8 weeks, three sessions per week and each session for 30 minutes. For statistical analysis of data, one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used (α≤0.05. Results: Findings showed that forced swimming training, methadone supplementation, and forced swimming training with methadone supplementation had no significant effect on AST (P=0.90 and ALT (P=0.99 enzymes; forced swimming training had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001; also, forced swimming training, compared with methadone supplementation and combination of forced swimming training with methadone supplementation, had significant effect on increase of ALP (P=0.001. Conclusion: Accordingly, 8 weeks of forced swimming training with methadone has possibly no significant effect on liver enzymes.

  18. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  19. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  20. Data Call Response for NEPA Supplement Analysis of CMRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is proposing to provide analytical chemistry (AC) and materials characterization (MC) capabilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by using a combination of existing space in two existing buildings: the Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building (RLUOB) and the Plutonium Facility, Building 4 (PF-4) in TA-55. This represents a change from decisions made by DOE as informed by previous National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses. In accordance with Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and DOE requirements, NNSA is preparing a Supplement Analysis (SA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action. The focus of this analysis is on determining whether the proposal to provide AC and MC laboratory capabilities in existing space in RLUOB and PF-4 rather than building a new nuclear facility (NF) is a substantial change that is relevant to environmental concerns or whether new circumstance or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts are significant. The end result of the analysis is a determination whether the existing Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Environmental Impact Statement (CMRR EIS) should be supplemented, a new EIS should be prepared, or no further NEPA analysis is necessary. This report provides data for incorporation into the Supplement Analysis being written by Leidos, Inc. under contract to NNSA. Responding to the data call requires several areas of expertise. Los Alamos subject matter experts estimate equipments lists, facility modifications, waste quantities, labor needs and radiological doses. Los Alamos NEPA experts assist Leidos in compiling existing data from the LANL Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) and CMRR EIS for public and other impacts. Bounding conditions are used to determine NEPA estimates.

  1. PRISM. Volume 4. Syria Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Syria by Judith S. Yaphe 32 The Rise of Syria’s Urban Poor; Why the War for Syria’s Future Will Be Fought Over the Country’s New Urban Villages by...Makers Who Would Tackle Syria by Robert Rocigliano and Karen Grattan FROM THE FIELD 132 Mapping the Information-Sharing Ecosystem in Syria by Lara...and Danish and Norwegian naval vessels were committed to transport the material to Italy , where the U.S. will assume custody and responsibility for

  2. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily...

  3. Creating Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Describes practical materials that relate to places within the English-as-a-Second-Language learner's own community, such as the supermarket, local fast food restaurants, pharmacy, and library. Each literacy booklet contains approximately 35 pages of activities that can be used as classroom handouts. (LB)

  4. Supplementary Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mraga

    1. Supplementary Material. A soluble-lead Redox Flow Battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors by A Banerjee et al (pp 163-. 170). Figure S1. SEM images for bare substrates: (a) graphite sheet, (b) 20 ppi RVC, (c) 30 ppi. RVC and (d) 45 ppi RVC.

  5. Is there a place for nutritional supplements in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Arcaniolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infertility affects 15% of couples in fertile age. Male factor is a cause of infertility in almost half of cases, mainly due to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The purpose of this study is to review the effects of nutritional supplements as medical treatment for idiopathic male infertility. Material and methods: A Pub Med and Medline review of the published studies utilizing nutritional supplements for the treatment of male infertility has been performed. Results: Clinical trials on Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin C. Arginine, Carnitine, N-Acetyl-Carnitine, Glutathione, Coenzyme Q10, Selenium and Zinc were reviewed. Although there is a wide variability in selected population, dose regimen and final outcomes, nutritional supplements both alone and in combination seems to be able to improve semen parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and morphology and pregnancy rate in infertile men. Conclusions: There are rising evidences from published randomized trials and systematic review suggesting that nutritional supplementation may improve semen parameters and the likelihood of pregnancy in men affected by OAT. This improvement, however, is not consistent and there is a wide variation in the treatment regimens used. Well designed and adequately powered RCTs are needed to better clarify the role of nutritional supplements as treatment for male infertility.

  6. Efficacy of supplementation in filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayao, Charisse Marie S

    2015-01-01

    At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25) of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12) of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13). Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC) count, with the level progression statistically significant. Overall, the results

  7. Efficacy of supplementation in Filipino children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Marie S Tayao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. Objective: The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb, hematocrit (Hct, reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Methodology: Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Study Design: Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. Results: A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25 of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12 of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13. Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC count

  8. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  9. Creatine supplementation in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute creatine-monohydrate supplementation on soccer-specific performance in young soccer players. Twenty young male soccer players (16.6 +/- 1.9 years) participated in the study and were matched and allocated to 2 randomly assigned trials: ingesting creatine-monohydrate supplement (3 x 10-g doses) or placebo for 7 days. Before and after the supplementation protocol, each subject underwent a series of soccer-specific skill tests: dribble test, sprint-power test, endurance test, and vertical jump test. Specific dribble test times improved significantly in the creatine group (13.0 +/- 1.5 vs. 10.2 +/- 1.8 s; p test times were significantly improved after creatine-monohydrate supplementation (2.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.5 s; p test times, along with vertical jump height, were superior in creatine versus placebo trial (p test results within or between trials (p > .05). There were no between-trial differences in the placebo trial (p > .05). The main finding of the present study indicates that supplementation with creatine in young soccer players improved soccer-specific skill performance compared with ingestion of placebo.

  10. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  11. The use of nutritional supplements among male collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Leila; Askari, Gholamreza; Hariri, Mitra; Bahreynian, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ehsani, Simin; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Rezai, Parva; Khorvash, Fariba

    2013-04-01

    The consumption of nutritional supplements is high in various sports, whereas, there are not enough documents supporting the beneficial effects of supplements in athletes. In addition, there is no information about taking supplements by Iranian students who participate in sports. Therefore, the goals of this study were to assess the type and prevalence of supplement use, the frequency of use, and relationships between consumption and age, body mass index, training load and type of sport. One hundred ninety two male students from "Isfahan University of Medical Sciences" participated in this study, voluntarily. A questionnaire that included questions about type and effects of supplements, recommendation resources, place of obtaining, and type of sports were sent to students. Descriptive data were calculated as frequencies (%). Chi-square (χ2) analysis was used to analyze the correlation between supplement use and the study variables. Forty-five percent of respondents used some forms of supplements. Supplement users consumed 14 different supplements and each used as many as 1.8 ± 1.2 various supplements during the past six months. Multivitamins (64%) and vitamin C (42%) were the most popular supplements. Students, who participated in individual sports, were more likely to consume dietary supplements (P athletes, took more recovery nutrients (P supplements stores" and 2.5% from their friends. It can be concluded that less than half of these students consumed supplements and their information resources were inappropriate.

  12. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  13. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...... supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...... RESULTS: We included six new RCTs in this review update. In total we included 16 RCTs (2084 participants) in this review. Most trials were at high risk of bias. The availability of outcome data was limited and trials involving selenium supplementation were, with the exception of one trial, small regarding...

  14. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  15. [Bariatric surgery: how and why to supplement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Livia Azevedo; Teixeira, Tatiana Fiche Sales; Bressan, Josefina; Mourão, Denise Machado

    2011-01-01

    Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery are at increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies from limited food intake and absorption of different nutrients. A systematic review of several database websites (PubMed and ISI Web of Science) was conducted from September 1983 to April 2010 to identify literature related to micronutrient deficiencies occurring after bariatric surgery. Keywords used individually or in various combinations in the search were bariatric surgery, obesity, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, protein deficiency, nutrient absorption and nutrient supplementation. Literature suggests that to prevent or treat nutritional deficiencies resulting from anatomical changes due to surgical techniques nutritional supplementation is usually necessary. The success of oral nutritional supplementation to correct or prevent nutritional deficiencies depends on several factors. Thus, to understand how nutrients can be administered is very important for clinical practice. This review aims to provide help for the best selection of nutrients to ensure an adequate replacement of nutrients in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery.

  16. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  17. Selenium supplementation induces mitochondrial biogenesis in trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Alisha; Dong, Lan-Feng; Holland, Olivia; Vanderlelie, Jessica; Pasdar, Elham A; Neuzil, Jiri; Perkins, Anthony V

    2015-08-01

    Placental oxidative stress has been implicated in pregnancy complications and previous work has shown that selenium can protect trophoblast mitochondria from oxidative stress. This report examines mitochondrial function and content in trophoblasts supplemented with selenium. Swan-71, JEG-3 and BeWo cells and placental tissue were incubated with sodium selenite or selenomethionine. Mitochondrial function was examined in a respirometer. Mitochondrial content was determined using RT-PCR. The levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis markers selenoprotein H, PGC-1α and NRF-1 was examined by western blotting. Mitochondrial respiration was significantly enhanced post selenium supplementation in cells and tissues. Selenium supplementation increased mitochondrial content and up-regulated mitochondrial biogenesis mediators in cells. These results emphasise the importance of selenium in mitochondrial regeneration in trophoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  19. Magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stinus

    2008-10-15

    New and improved magnetocaloric materials are one of the cornerstones in the development of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has been used since the 1930ies in cryogenic applications, but has since the discovery of room temperature refrigerants received enormous attention. This Ph.D. work has been mainly concerned with developing a new technique to characterize the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and using this technique in the investigations on new and improved magnetocaloric materials. For this purpose a novel differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with applied magnetic fields was developed for measuring heat capacity as function of magnetic field. Measurements using the developed DSC demonstrate a very high sensitivity, fast measurements and good agreement with results obtained by other techniques. Furthermore, two material systems have been described in this work. Both systems take basis in the mixed-valence manganite system La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} well known from research on colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The mixed-valence manganite crystallizes in the perovskite structure of general formula ABO{sub 3}. The first material system is designed to investigate the influence of low level Cu doping on the B-site. Six different samples were prepared with over-stoichiometric compositions La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1.05}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}, x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. All compositions crystallized well in the same perovskite structure, but the morphology of the samples changed drastically with doping. Investigation on the magnetocaloric properties revealed that small levels of Cu up to around 3% could improve the magnetocaloric performance of the materials. Furthermore, Cu could be used to tune the temperature interval without deteriorating the MCE, which is a much desired characteristic for potential use in magnetic refrigerators. A less comprehensive part of the work has been concerned with the investigation of doping on the A

  20. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with cystic fibrosis:1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders;2. improves general and respiratory health;3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 07 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of