Sample records for subscales-sexual exploitation sexual

  1. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  2. Commercial sexual exploitation of children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauricio Rojas Betancur; Raquel Mendez Villamizar; Diana Lucía Moreno


      We study the sexual exploitation of children contributing to the understanding of risk and situations favouring the entry and permanence of children and adolescents from the reconstruction of the...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse .... its own peacekeeping personnel are engaging in acts of sexual exploitation and abuse, including such crimes as rape.

  4. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses. (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul


    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  5. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media. (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Miller, Bonnie B; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam


    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989-2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called 'customers' or 'consumers,' and occasionally 'predators'; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a 'victimless crime,' maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade.

  6. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment (United States)

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy


    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis,…

  7. Sexual exploitation and abuse by UN peacekeepers: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, ...

  8. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading. (United States)

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent


    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. Copyright

  9. The Dark Side of Courtship: Violence and Sexual Exploitation. (United States)

    Lloyd, Sally A.


    Reviews literature on physical violence and sexual exploitation between premarital partners. Suggests that two features of dating encourage exploitative behavior: different context of courtship for males versus females encourages male control of relationships and female compliance, and highly romanticized nature of courtship encourages partners to…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs


    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen


    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

  11. Assisting children born of sexual exploitation and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rumble


    Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter


    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  13. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin


    .... Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels...

  14. Women in mining still exploited and sexually harassed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doret Botha


    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment.Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions.Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry.Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews.Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion.Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts.Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.

  15. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs. (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen


    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  16. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India (United States)

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin


    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues. PMID:18817576

  17. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia Harleen


    Full Text Available Abstract Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  18. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India. (United States)

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin


    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  19. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems. (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R


    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Sexual exploitation in children: Nature, prevalence and distinguishing characteristics reported in young adulthood


    Ireland, Carol Ann; Alderson, Kirsty; Ireland, Jane Louise


    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and extent of sexual exploitation in a university student sample, whilst being clear that sexual exploitation is sexual abuse. Overall, 47% of participants (96 out of 204) reported having been approached by an adult in a sexual manner when they were under the age of 16. The study predicted that a number of individual characteristics would increase a young person’s vulnerability for sexual exploitation. These included low self-esteem, external lo...

  1. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara


    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels. PMID:26726289



    Janez Mekinc; Katarina Music


    The underlying causes of sexual exploitation and prostitution are poverty, inequality between women and men, high population growth and rural - urban migration. Victims are, predominantly, women and children with lower socio-economic status. One particular form of sexual exploitation is child sex tourism. This ruthless exploitation of children can be found throughout the world, predominantly in the third world and developing countries. Children, mainly between the ages of 6 to 14 years, are t...

  3. Screening for Child Sexual Exploitation in Online Sexual Health Services: An Exploratory Study of Expert Views. (United States)

    Spencer-Hughes, Victoria; Syred, Jonathan; Allison, Alison; Holdsworth, Gillian; Baraitser, Paula


    Sexual health services routinely screen for child sexual exploitation (CSE). Although sexual health services are increasingly provided online, there has been no research on the translation of the safeguarding function to online services. We studied expert practitioner views on safeguarding in this context. The aim was to document expert practitioner views on safeguarding in the context of an online sexual health service. We conducted semistructured interviews with lead professionals purposively sampled from local, regional, or national organizations with a direct influence over CSE protocols, child protection policies, and sexual health services. Interviews were analyzed by three researchers using a matrix-based analytic method. Our respondents described two different approaches to safeguarding. The "information-providing" approach considers that young people experiencing CSE will ask for help when they are ready from someone they trust. The primary function of the service is to provide information, provoke reflection, generate trust, and respond reliably to disclosure. The approach values online services as an anonymous space to test out disclosure without commitment. The "information-gathering" approach considers that young people may withhold information about exploitation. Therefore, services should seek out information to assess risk and initiate disclosure. This approach values face-to-face opportunities for individualized questioning and immediate referral. The information-providing approach is associated with confidential telephone support lines and the information-gathering approach with clinical services. The approach adopted online will depend on ethos and the range of services provided. Effective transition from online to clinic services after disclosure is an essential element of this process and further research is needed to understand and support this transition.

  4. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction


    Michael Salter


    One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have bee...

  5. Turismo on line, identidad virtual y explotación sexual/ Online tourism, virtual identity and sexual exploitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N C Castillo Murillejo


    .... Its main objectives are to identify and establish relations of intertextuality between online tourism and commercial sexual exploitation, and to define categories of analysis for the interpretation of both phenomena...

  6. Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Children and Adolescents: A Narrative Review. (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth; Iqbal, Zarah; Bruce, Janine; Anoshiravani, Arash; Kolhatkar, Gauri; Greenbaum, Jordan

    Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children and adolescents represent a severe form of child abuse and an important pediatric health concern. Youth who are commercially sexually exploited have a constellation of clinical risk factors and high rates of unmet physical and mental health needs, including conditions that directly result from their victimization. Common physical health needs among commercially sexually exploited children and adolescents include violence-related injuries, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and other acute infections. Common mental health conditions include substance use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and suicidality, and anxiety. The existing literature indicates that trauma-informed approaches to the care of commercially sexually exploited youth are recommended in all aspects of their health care delivery. Additionally, medical education that attunes providers to identify and appropriately respond to the unique needs of this highly vulnerable group of children and adolescents is needed. The available research on commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children and adolescents remains fairly limited, yet is expanding rapidly. Especially relevant to the field of pediatrics, future research to guide health professionals in how best to identify and care for commercially sexually exploited children and adolescents in the clinical setting signifies a key gap in the extant literature and an important opportunity for future study. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A California Multidisciplinary Juvenile Court: Serving Sexually Exploited and At-Risk Youth. (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D; Blacker, Dawn M; Landini, Jenny L; Urquiza, Anthony J


    Research suggests that 90% of youth in the juvenile justice system have experienced at least one traumatic event (Arroyo, ). One such traumatic event is the commercialized sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC). Over the past decade, governmental organizations and community agencies have recognized that the sexual exploitation of children is a significant problem in the United States. In California alone, human trafficking task forces have identified 1200 youth as victims of sexual exploitation from 2010 to 2012 (Walker, ). Youth who have experienced sexual exploitation often become involved in the juvenile justice system and present with unique challenges and needs. This article reviews recent public policy and community responses related to the needs of CSEC youth involved in the juvenile justice system. A case example from Sacramento, CA, is used to illustrate the key components, innovations, multidisciplinary collaborations, and challenges of creating a specialized court. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation


    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas


    International trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation is an eco- nomic activity driven by profit motives. Laws regarding commercial sex influence the profitability of trafficking and may thus affect the inflow of trafficking to a country. Using two recent sources of European cross country data we show that trafficking of persons for commercial sexual exploitation (as proxied by the data sets we are using) is least prevalent in coun...

  9. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth. (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A; Mannarino, Anthony P; Kinnish, Kelly


    Commercially sexually exploited children and adolescents ("commercially exploited youth")present numerous clinical challenges that have led some mental health providers to question whether current evidence-based treatments are adequate to address the needs of this population. This paper 1) addresses commonalities between the trauma experiences, responses and treatment challenges of commercially exploited youth and those of youth with complex trauma; 2) highlights the importance of careful assessment to guide case conceptualization and treatment planning for commercially exploited youth; and 3) describes strategies for implementing Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for complex trauma specific to these youth.

  10. Combating sexual exploitation at the macro and micro levels. (United States)

    Perpinan, M S


    The Third World Movement against the Exploitation of Women (TW-MAE-W) is an international nongovernmental organization based in the Philippines which conducts advocacy upon global issues such as the root causes of exploitation and campaigns against sex tourism and military prostitution. TW-MAE-W began providing direct services at the local level in 1987, and now has 7 drop-in centers and 3 homes around the country, run by 35 female staff members. In addition, the Bethany Transition Home in Quezon City, Manila, houses 10-20 women, all who have outside employment. The girls and women who come to TW-MAE-W's facilities have all been exploited in some way. For example, they may be battered wives, women who have experienced incest, or girls who have been sold or tricked into prostitution. They arrive after either calling a telephone hotline on their own or being referred by social workers and nongovernmental organizations. Following an initial 3-month course of recuperation, center residents are helped to either continue their academic training, receive vocational training, or find a job. Basic health services are provided to the residents and drop-in center clients.

  11. The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon. (United States)

    Mujica, Jaris


    This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks.

  12. Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review. (United States)

    McAlpine, Alys; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy


    Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation has been widely reported, especially in conflict-affected settings, which appear to increase women's and children's vulnerabilities to these extreme abuses. We conducted a systematic search of ten databases and extensive grey literature to gather evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings. International definitions of "sexual exploitation" and "sex trafficking" set the indicator parameters. We focused on sexual exploitation in forms of early or forced marriage, forced combatant sexual exploitation and sexual slavery. We extracted prevalence measures, health outcomes and sexual exploitation terminology definitions. The review adhered to PRISMA guidelines and includes quality appraisal. The search identified 29 eligible papers with evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in armed conflict settings in twelve countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The evidence was limited and not generalizable, due to few prevalence estimates and inconsistent definitions of "sexual exploitation". The prevalence estimates available indicate that females were more likely than males to be victims of sexual exploitation in conflict settings. In some settings, as many as one in four forced marriages took place before the girls reached 18 years old. Findings suggest that the vast majority of former female combatants were sexually exploited during the conflict. These studies provided various indicators of sexual exploitation compatible to the United Nation's definition of sex trafficking, but only 2 studies identified the exploitation as trafficking. None of the studies solely aimed to measure the prevalence of sex trafficking or sexual exploitation. Similar descriptions of types of sexual exploitation and trafficking were found, but the inconsistent terminology or measurements inhibited a meta-analysis. Findings indicate there are various forms of human trafficking and sexual exploitation in

  13. Inequality, Sexual Exploitation and the Risk of Contacting HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are various cultural practices that may be regarded as deliberate sexual violence and exploitation against women, which are not classified as violence like and other criminal acts such as rape. Nigerian society, like most patriarchal societies continues to ignore and refused to address properly, these important issues ...

  14. An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, Maria; Oostinga, Miriam Sharon Daniëlle


    Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137

  15. Little Adults: Child and Teenage Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Contemporary Brazilian Cinema (United States)

    da Silvia, Antonio Marcio


    This current study explores three contemporary Brazilian films' depiction of commercial sexual exploitation of young girls and teenagers. It points out how the young female characters cope with the abuses they suffer and proposes that these filmic representations of the characters' experiences expose a significant social problem of contemporary…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Mekinc


    Full Text Available The underlying causes of sexual exploitation and prostitution are poverty, inequality between women and men, high population growth and rural - urban migration. Victims are, predominantly, women and children with lower socio-economic status. One particular form of sexual exploitation is child sex tourism. This ruthless exploitation of children can be found throughout the world, predominantly in the third world and developing countries. Children, mainly between the ages of 6 to 14 years, are trapped in a vicious battle between large impoverished families who are dependent on their support, and a society that ruthlessly exploits them. In line with the trend in increasing child exploitation, there is, also, increasing exploitation of children for the purposes of child sex tourism. Based on the analysis of forms, reasons, impacts, consequences and trends of child sex tourism, it has been possible to develop from these findings some necessary measures to prevent this practice from occurring. Analysis of the phenomenon of child sex tourism has highlighted some fundamental conditions for preventing it becoming a social phenomenon. These include the strict implementation of laws against child labour and the political will to enforce them.

  17. The 'dirty downside' of global sporting events: focus on human trafficking for sexual exploitation. (United States)

    Finkel, R; Finkel, M L


    Human trafficking is as complex human rights and public health issue. The issue of human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This piece examines the issue from a public health perspective. This is a literature review of the 'most comprehensive' studies published on the topic. A PubMed search was done using MeSH terms 'human traffickings' and 'sex trafficking' and 'human rights abuses'. Subheadings included 'statistics and numerical data', 'legislation and jurispudence', 'prevention and control', and 'therapy'. Only papers published in English were reviewed. The search showed that very few well-designed empirical studies have been conducted on the topic and only one pertinent systematic review was identified. Findings show a high prevalence of physical violence among those trafficked compared to non-trafficked women. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV AIDS are prevalent and preventive care is virtually non-existent. Quantifying human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This is not to say that human trafficking for sex as well as forced sexual exploitation does not occur. It almost certainly exists, but to what extent is the big question. It is a hidden problem on a global scale in plain view with tremendous public health implications. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The name of the game: a review of sexual exploitation of females in sport. (United States)

    Bringer, J D; Brackenridge, C H; Johnston, L H


    Sexual harassment and abuse has been a recognized problem in the workplace, schools, and residential homes for more than three decades. Many professional policies highlight the potential for abusing positions of trust, and therefore forbid intimate relationships between, for example, doctors and patients, and psychologists and clients. Yet, abuse of power in the coach-athlete relationship has only recently been acknowledged. This paper discusses definitions of sexual exploitation, prevalence figures, methods used for entrapping athletes, potential risk factors, signs of abuse and harassment, and the consequences for survivors.

  19. Liking and hyperlinking: Community detection in online child sexual exploitation networks. (United States)

    Westlake, Bryce G; Bouchard, Martin


    The online sexual exploitation of children is facilitated by websites that form virtual communities, via hyperlinks, to distribute images, videos, and other material. However, how these communities form, are structured, and evolve over time is unknown. Collected using a custom-designed webcrawler, we begin from known child sexual exploitation (CE) seed websites and follow hyperlinks to connected, related, websites. Using a repeated measure design we analyze 10 networks of 300 + websites each - over 4.8 million unique webpages in total, over a period of 60 weeks. Community detection techniques reveal that CE-related networks were dominated by two large communities hosting varied material -not necessarily matching the seed website. Community stability, over 60 weeks, varied across networks. Reciprocity in hyperlinking between community members was substantially higher than within the full network, however, websites were not more likely to connect to homogeneous-content websites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Possibilities of collecting evidences about crime act of sexual exploitation in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša


    Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.

  1. Sex workers perspectives on strategies to reduce sexual exploitation and HIV risk: a qualitative study in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available Globally, female sex workers are a population at greatly elevated risk of HIV infection, and the reasons for and context of sex industry involvement have key implications for HIV risk and prevention. Evidence suggests that experiences of sexual exploitation (i.e., forced/coerced sex exchange contribute to health-related harms. However, public health interventions that address HIV vulnerability and sexual exploitation are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elicit recommendations for interventions to prevent sexual exploitation and reduce HIV risk from current female sex workers with a history of sexual exploitation or youth sex work. From 2010-2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with sex workers (n = 31 in Tijuana, Mexico who reported having previously experienced sexual exploitation or youth sex work. Participants recommended that interventions aim to (1 reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation by providing social support and peer-based education; (2 mitigate harms by improving access to HIV prevention resources and psychological support, and reducing gender-based violence; and (3 provide opportunities to exit the sex industry via vocational supports and improved access to effective drug treatment. Structural interventions incorporating these strategies are recommended to reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation and enhance capacities to prevent HIV infection among marginalized women and girls in Mexico and across international settings.

  2. Sex workers perspectives on strategies to reduce sexual exploitation and HIV risk: a qualitative study in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Engstrom, David; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    Globally, female sex workers are a population at greatly elevated risk of HIV infection, and the reasons for and context of sex industry involvement have key implications for HIV risk and prevention. Evidence suggests that experiences of sexual exploitation (i.e., forced/coerced sex exchange) contribute to health-related harms. However, public health interventions that address HIV vulnerability and sexual exploitation are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elicit recommendations for interventions to prevent sexual exploitation and reduce HIV risk from current female sex workers with a history of sexual exploitation or youth sex work. From 2010-2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with sex workers (n = 31) in Tijuana, Mexico who reported having previously experienced sexual exploitation or youth sex work. Participants recommended that interventions aim to (1) reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation by providing social support and peer-based education; (2) mitigate harms by improving access to HIV prevention resources and psychological support, and reducing gender-based violence; and (3) provide opportunities to exit the sex industry via vocational supports and improved access to effective drug treatment. Structural interventions incorporating these strategies are recommended to reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation and enhance capacities to prevent HIV infection among marginalized women and girls in Mexico and across international settings.

  3. Instruments to Identify Commercially Sexually Exploited Children: Feasibility of Use in an Emergency Department Setting. (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephanie


    This review examines the screening instruments that are in existence today to identify commercially sexually exploited children. The instruments are compared and evaluated for their feasibility of use in an emergency department setting. Four electronic databases were searched to identify screening instruments that assessed solely for commercial sexual exploitation. Search terms included "commercially sexually exploited children," "CSEC," "domestic minor sex trafficking," "DMST," "juvenile sex trafficking," and "JST." Those terms were then searched in combination with each of the following: "tools," "instruments," "screening," "policies," "procedures," "data collection," "evidence," and "validity." Six screening instruments were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Variation among instruments included number of questions, ease of administration, information sources, scoring methods, and training information provided. Two instruments were determined to be highly feasible for use in the emergency department setting, those being the Asian Health Services and Banteay Srei's CSEC Screening Protocol and Greenbaum et al's CSEC/child sex trafficking 6-item screening tool. A current dearth of screening instruments was confirmed. It is recommended that additional screening instruments be created to include developmentally appropriate instruments for preadolescent children. Numerous positive features were identified within the instruments in this review and are suggested for use in future screening instruments, including succinctness, a simple format, easy administration, training materials, sample questions, multiple information sources, designation of questions requiring mandatory reporting, a straightforward scoring system, and an algorithm format.

  4. Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alys McAlpine; Mazeda Hossain; Cathy Zimmerman


      Background Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation has been widely reported, especially in conflict-affected settings, which appear to increase women's and children's vulnerabilities to these extreme abuses...

  5. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs. (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne


    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  6. Sexualized and Dangerous Relationships: Listening to the Voices of Low-Income African American Girls Placed at Risk for Sexual Exploitation


    Anne Kruger; Erin Harper; Patricia Harris; DeShelle Sanders; Kerry Levin; Joel Meyers


    Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a mu...

  7. Assessing the Validity of Automated Webcrawlers as Data Collection Tools to Investigate Online Child Sexual Exploitation. (United States)

    Westlake, Bryce; Bouchard, Martin; Frank, Richard


    The distribution of child sexual exploitation (CE) material has been aided by the growth of the Internet. The graphic nature and prevalence of the material has made researching and combating difficult. Although used to study online CE distribution, automated data collection tools (e.g., webcrawlers) have yet to be shown effective at targeting only relevant data. Using CE-related image and keyword criteria, we compare networks starting from CE websites to those from similar non-CE sexuality websites and dissimilar sports websites. Our results provide evidence that (a) webcrawlers have the potential to provide valid CE data, if the appropriate criterion is selected; (b) CE distribution is still heavily image-based suggesting images as an effective criterion; (c) CE-seeded networks are more hub-based and differ from non-CE-seeded networks on several website characteristics. Recommendations for improvements to reliable criteria selection are discussed.

  8. The Peace and Power Conceptual Model: An Assessment Guide for School Nurses Regarding Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. (United States)

    Fraley, Hannah E; Aronowitz, Teri


    Human trafficking is a global problem; more than half of all victims are children. In the United States (US), at-risk youth continue to attend school. School nurses are on the frontlines, presenting a window of opportunity to identify and prevent exploitation. Available papers targeting school nurses report that school nurses may lack awareness of commercial sexual exploitation and may have attitudes and misperceptions about behaviors of school children at risk. This is a theoretical paper applying the Peace and Power Conceptual Model to understand the role of school nurses in commercial sexual exploitation of children.

  9. Development and Pilot Test of a Commercial Sexual Exploitation Prevention Tool: A Brief Report. (United States)

    Murphy, Molly; Bennett, Nicole; Kottke, Melissa


    Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a persistent problem in the United States, yet few youth-oriented CSEC prevention tools exist. The objectives of this project were to develop an educational website about CSEC for adolescents and evaluate it through pre- and posttests of adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about CSEC. Results demonstrated increases in participants' CSEC knowledge and decreases in their tolerance of CSEC after navigating the website and viewing an embedded video. Qualitative and quantitative results suggest that CSEC is deemed an important issue by adolescents and web-based content is a relevant and useful mode through which to educate adolescents about CSEC. Consideration should be given to further exploration of this and other tools for CSEC prevention tailored to adolescents' needs and preferences.

  10. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Health Care Use and Case Characteristics. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail; Sherfield, Jennifer


    The purpose of this study was to describe pediatric health care utilization, familial psychosocial factors, child sexual abuse case characteristics, and patient demographic characteristics of adolescents prior to or at the time of their most recent identification as a victim of commercialized sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). A retrospective chart review was conducted for the above detailed information of all adolescents presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) or Child Advocacy Center (CAC) of a pediatric hospital with concerns of suspected CSEC. Sixty-three adolescents were referred to the ED or CAC for CSEC concerns in the eighteen-month period. Nearly all (52, 82.5%) adolescents identified as potential CSEC victims received care at the pediatric hospital within one year of the CSEC concern being identified. Pediatric health care providers, including pediatric nurse practitioners, need to be more skilled in the prevention and identification of CSEC. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair


    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  12. Child Grooming and Sexual Exploitation: Are South Asian Men the UK Media’s New Folk Devils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha K Gill


    Full Text Available In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Media reporting on the trial focused on the fact that eight of the men were of Pakistani descent, while all the girls were white. Framing similar cases in Preston, Rotherham, Derby, Shropshire, Oxford, Telford and Middlesbrough as ethnically motivated, the media incited moral panic over South Asian grooming gangs preying on white girls. While these cases shed light on the broader problem of sexual exploitation in Britain, they also reveal continuing misconceptions that stereotype South Asian men as ‘natural’ perpetrators of these crimes due to culturally-specific notions of hegemonic masculinity. Examining newspaper coverage from 2012 to 2013, this article discusses the discourse of the British media’s portrayal of South Asian men as perpetrators of sexual violence against white victims, inadvertently construing ‘South Asian men’ as ‘folk devils’.

  13. HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation: a systematic review. (United States)

    Noreña-Herrera, Camilo; Rojas, Carlos Alberto; Cruz-Jiménez, Lizeth


    The aim of this review was to describe HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, and the studies' characteristics in terms of place, time, population, and sample design. This was a systematic review, not a meta-analysis, based on an article search in 10 electronic databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, and Ebsco. A complementary search was also performed in the libraries of schools of public health and webpages of U.N. agencies, besides the reference lists from the selected articles. We selected observational studies focused on children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, ranging in age from 10 to 20 years, with the results for HIV prevalence rates. A total of 9,829 references were retrieved, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria and comprise this descriptive summary. Of these 15 articles, 12 were conducted in children and youth living on the street and three in children subject to commercial sexual exploitation. All 15 were cross-sectional studies. HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street ranged from 0% in Dallas, USA and Cochabamba, Bolivia to 37.4% in St. Petersburg, Russia. In children and youth living subject to commercial sexual exploitation, prevalence ranged from 2% in Toronto, Canada to 20% in Kolkata, India. In conclusion, HIV infection is present in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation. Measures are needed for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment as a public health priority and an ethical responsibility on the part of governments and society.

  14. Sexual Exploitation of Children: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session, Serial No. 12. (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    These House hearings deal with a number of similar bills prohibiting the sexual exploitation of children and the transporting in interstate and foreign commerce of photographs of film depicting such exploitation. These practices, including physical sexual abuse of children of both sexes and all ages, are seen to be proliferating. The hearings…

  15. Challenges to the rapid identification of children who have been trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne


    Child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) is a complex phenomenon, requiring multifaceted programs and policies by various stakeholders. A number of publications have focused on preventing this heinous crime. Less attention, however, has been paid to the recovery and rehabilitation of children who have been traumatized as a result of being trafficked for CSE. This article focuses on the first step in the protection and recovery process, which is to ensure that procedures are in place for their identification, so that they might access timely and appropriate assistance. It highlights three situational and two child-related challenges to identification. In addition, it describes the additional victimization experienced by children who are wrongly arrested for crimes associated with prostitution or illegal border crossings, rather than being identified as victims. An extensive literature review was conducted, and included academic publications, as well as governmental and non-governmental reports. In addition, field-based qualitative research was undertaken in South and Southeast Asia, and involved interviews with representatives from United Nations and governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and aftercare recovery programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: health care needs of victims. (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Crawford-Jakubiak, James E


    Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) are major public health problems in the United States and throughout the world. Despite large numbers of American and foreign youth affected and a plethora of serious physical and mental health problems associated with CSEC, there is limited information available to pediatricians regarding the nature and scope of human trafficking and how pediatricians and other health care providers may help protect children. Knowledge of risk factors, recruitment practices, possible indicators of CSEC, and common medical and behavioral health problems experienced by victims will help pediatricians recognize potential victims and respond appropriately. As health care providers, educators, and leaders in child advocacy, pediatricians play an essential role in addressing the public health issues faced by child victims of CSEC. Their roles can include working to increase recognition of CSEC, providing direct care and anticipatory guidance related to CSEC, engaging in collaborative efforts with medical and nonmedical colleagues to provide for the complex needs of youth, and educating child-serving professionals and the public. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. On the relationships between commercial sexual exploitation/prostitution, substance dependency, and delinquency in youthful offenders. (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R


    Researchers have consistently linked commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of youth and involvement in prostitution with substance dependency and delinquency. Yet, important questions remain regarding the directionality and mechanisms driving this association. Utilizing a sample of 114 CSE/prostituted youth participating in the Pathways to Desistance study-a longitudinal investigation of the transition from adolescence to adulthood among serious adolescent offenders-the current study examined key criminal career parameters of CSE/prostitution including age of onset and rate of recurrence. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore concurrent associations and causal links between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement. Findings show a general sequential pattern of the ages of onset with substance use and selling drugs occurring prior to CSE/prostitution, evidence that a small group with chronic CSE/prostitution account for the majority of CSE/prostitution occurrences, and high rates of repeated CSE/prostitution. SEM results suggest CSE/prostituted youth persist in drug involvement from year to year but infrequently experience perpetuation of CSE/prostitution from year to year. Concurrent associations between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement were found across the length of the study. Additionally, drug involvement at one year was linked to CSE/prostitution during the subsequent year during early years of the study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Subsequent Sexual Exploitation and Prevention/Treatment Programmes: a Literature Review


    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen


    Evidence that the sexual abuse of children is universally widespread, and is most frequently perpetrated by family members, neighbours and others known to the child or adolescent is indisputable. Studies have consistently found that victims are vulnerable to subsequent sexual revictimization in adolescence and adulthood. They are also more likely than non-victims to engage in potentially harmful and damaging high-risk sexual behaviours, such as early age at first intercourse, multiple partn...

  19. Characteristics of child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking victims presenting for medical care in the United States. (United States)

    Varma, Selina; Gillespie, Scott; McCracken, Courtney; Greenbaum, V Jordan


    The objective of the study is to describe distinguishing characteristics of commercial sexual exploitation of children/child sex trafficking victims (CSEC) who present for health care in the pediatric setting. This is a retrospective study of patients aged 12-18 years who presented to any of three pediatric emergency departments or one child protection clinic, and who were identified as suspected victims of CSEC. The sample was compared with gender and age-matched patients with allegations of child sexual abuse/sexual assault (CSA) without evidence of CSEC on variables related to demographics, medical and reproductive history, high-risk behavior, injury history and exam findings. There were 84 study participants, 27 in the CSEC group and 57 in the CSA group. Average age was 15.7 years for CSEC patients and 15.2 years for CSA patients; 100% of the CSEC and 94.6% of the CSA patients were female. The two groups significantly differed in 11 evaluated areas with the CSEC patients more likely to have had experiences with violence, substance use, running away from home, and involvement with child protective services and/or law enforcement. CSEC patients also had a longer history of sexual activity. Adolescent CSEC victims differ from sexual abuse victims without evidence of CSEC in their reproductive history, high risk behavior, involvement with authorities, and history of violence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexualized and Dangerous Relationships: Listening to the Voices of Low-Income African American Girls Placed at Risk for Sexual Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kruger


    Full Text Available Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe.1 The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12-14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Methods: Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls’ own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development.Results: The girls’ language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity.Conclusion: Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the

  1. Sexualized and dangerous relationships: listening to the voices of low-income african american girls placed at risk for sexual exploitation. (United States)

    Kruger, Anne; Harper, Erin; Harris, Patricia; Sanders, Deshelle; Levin, Kerry; Meyers, Joel


    Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe. The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12-14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls' own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development. The girls' language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity. Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the perspectives of these girls should generate future research and

  2. Exploiting a moment of weakness: male spiders escape sexual cannibalism by copulating with moulting females. (United States)

    Uhl, Gabriele; Zimmer, Stefanie M; Renner, Dirk; Schneider, Jutta M


    Sexual cannibalism is a particularly extreme example of conflict between the sexes, depriving the male of future reproduction. Theory predicts that sexual conflict should induce counter-adaptations in the victim. Observations of male spiders mating with moulting and hence largely immobile females suggest that this behaviour functions to circumvent female control and cannibalism. However, we lack quantitative estimates of natural frequencies and fitness consequences of these unconventional matings. To understand the importance of mating while moulting in cannibalistic mating systems, we combined mating experiments and paternity assessment in the laboratory with extensive field observations using the sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. Copulations with moulting females resulted in 97% male survival compared with only 20% in conventional matings. Mating while moulting provided similar paternity benefits compared with conventional matings. Our findings support the hypothesis that mating with moulting females evolved under sexual conflict and safely evades sexual cannibalism. Despite male benefits, natural frequencies were estimated around 44% and directly predicted by a male guarding a subadult female. Since only adult females signal their presence, the difficulty for males to locate subadult females might limit further spreading of mating with moulting females.

  3. Mental Health Services as a Vital Component of Psychosocial Recovery for Victims of Child Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation. (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne


    There has been a plethora of outcomes associated with child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation; however little attention has been paid to how outcomes are addressed for children who are placed into residential aftercare recovery programs following their identification as victims. Field-based qualitative research was undertaken in South and Southeast Asia, and involved interviews with 213 representatives from U.N. and governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and residential aftercare recovery programs. Findings highlight the mental health needs of child victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation, describe the availability and quality of mental health services and supports in aftercare programs to address prevailing needs and repair the psychological damage caused by trafficking, and report on lessons learned pertaining to elements of good practice and related challenges associated with the availability and quality of mental health services and supports. It concludes by highlighting the implications of the findings for mental health policy and practice and offers suggestions for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. (Methylthio)phenol semiochemicals are exploited by deceptive orchids as sexual attractants for Campylothynnus thynnine wasps. (United States)

    Bohman, Björn; Phillips, Ryan D; Flematti, Gavin R; Peakall, Rod


    Until recently, (methylthio)phenols as natural products had only been reported from bacteria. Now, four representatives of this class of sulfurous aromatic compounds have been discovered as semiochemicals in the orchid Caladenia crebra, which secures pollination by sexual deception. In this case, field bioassays confirmed that a 10:1 blend of 2-(methylthio)benzene-1,4-diol (1) and 4-hydroxy-3-(methylthio)benzaldehyde (2) sexually attracts the male thynnine wasp Campylothynnus flavopictus (Tiphiidae:Thynnineae), the exclusive pollinator of C. crebra. Here we show with field bioassays that another undescribed species of Campylothynnus (sp. A) is strongly sexually attracted to a 1:1 blend of compounds 1 and 2, which elicits very high attempted copulation rates (88%). We also confirm that this Campylothynnus species is a pollinator of Caladenia attingens subsp. attingens. Chemical analysis of the flowers of this orchid revealed two (methylthio)phenols, compound 2 and 2-(methylthio)phenol (3), as candidate semiochemicals involved in pollinator attraction. Thus, (methylthio)phenols are likely to be more widely used than presently known. The confirmation of this Campylothynnus as a pollinator of C. attingens subsp. attingens at our study sites was unexpected, since elsewhere this orchid is pollinated by a different thynnine wasp (Thynnoides sp). In general, sexually deceptive Caladenia only use a single species of pollinator, and as such, this unusual case may offer a tractable study system for understanding the chemical basis of pollinator switching in sexually deceptive orchids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Violence and sexual exploitation of children and adolescents: a conceptual analysis


    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry


    A criminalização de condutas afetas a situações em que crianças e adolescentes são vítimas de abusos, violências ou explorações de natureza sexual não se exaurem no Código Penal, visto que o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente tem, em suas contínuas reformulações, se ocupado do tema. A compreensão de humanidade passa pela compreensão e respeito à infância/adolescência em todas as suas etapas. Neste sentido, a violência sexual constitui uma forma extrema de agressão, de desconstituição desta ...

  6. Slavery in the 21st century. Human trafficking for sexual exploitation


    González Merchán, María


    [ES] Este trabajo tiene por objeto el tratamiento que reciben desde el punto de vista procesal las víctimas de trata con fines de explotación sexual. La Comunidad Internacional, la Comunidad Europea y el propio legislador español muestran gran preocupación por la excesiva violación de los derechos humanos derivada de esta nueva forma de esclavitud, especialmente de la dignidad humana, lo que ha hecho necesario avanzar en la regulación adoptando un enfoque centrado en la protección y en la asi...

  7. Is Tourism Marriage of Young Girls in Egypt a Form of Child Sexual Abuse? A Family Exploitation Perspective. (United States)

    Soliman, Hussein Hassan; Alsharqawi, Nagwa Ibrahim; Younis, Mustafa Ahmed


    Tourism marriage in Egypt is considered a part of the child marriage phenomenon, as parents following false interpretations of Islamic teachings offer up their daughters for short-term sexual relationships in return for money from tourists. This exploratory study used qualitative methods to interview 42 parents who reside in the city of Darasa, Giza, Egypt, whose daughters were persuaded to engage in tourism marriage. Eight social work students utilized an interview guide that contained 10 questions exploring how parents strike deals with tourists and avoid all legal and traditional procedures of marriage in Egypt. The findings of this study were summarized in six distinct themes, which show evidence of family exploitation of young women. This experience likely increases the child's vulnerability to psychological, social, and physical consequences.

  8. Human trafficking: Commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic labour in African literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urama Evelyn Nwachukwu


    Full Text Available Just like social occurrences such as human sacrifice and slavery enhanced retardation of progress in Africa in the past, trafficking is another social occurrence addressed in contemporary African literature that impedes progress and tarnishes the image of the victims. Human trafficking is rampant in Africans and some part of the world in this 21st century. This paper examines how Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Trafficked (2008 and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters′ Street (2009 highlight social occurrences and how they contribute to the spread of girl trafficking in Africa. It also explores how both men and women are partners in trafficking, forming trafficking networks that lure girls from Nigeria to Europe and make huge profits from their misery. These pimps use ‘juju magic’ and rituals as a threat to exert complete control over the girls and also to ensure their compliance. The trafficked girls share their life experiences by telling their tales of woes exposing the shame that accompanies the sex trade and the stigmatization they suffer in the society. Their experiences are presented by the authors to highlight the trafficked girls′ pains, misery and struggle for freedom in order to appeal to everybody in the society to fight against human trafficking. The paper also examines how these exploited and depressed trafficked girls that have lost their self-esteem can still live fulfilled lives if government agencies and nongovernmental organizations come to their rescue.

  9. Redefining Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwala, Rina


    -employed workers are organizing as workers. They are fighting labor exploitation by redefining the concept to include additional exploitation axes (from the state and middle class) and forms (including sexual). In doing so, they are redefining potential solutions, including identities and material benefits, to fit...... their unique needs. By expanding the category of “workers” beyond those defined by a narrow focus on a standard employer-employee relationship, these movements are also fighting exclusion from earlier labor protections by increasing the number of entitled beneficiaries. These struggles provide an important...

  10. Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children: findings from a nationally representative sample of law enforcement agencies in the United States. (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis


    This article explores the variety of ways in which the Internet is used to facilitate the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and provides national incidence estimates for the number of arrests involving such technology-facilitated crimes in 2006. The National Juvenile Online Victimization Study is a nationally representative longitudinal study of more than 2,500 local, county, state, and federal law enforcement agencies across the United States. The current article utilizes Wave 2 data, which surveyed arrests in 2006 for Internet-related sex crimes against minors. Detailed data were collected via telephone interviews with investigators about 1,051 individual arrest cases. Findings show that an estimated 569 arrests for Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children (IF-CSEC) occurred in the United States in 2006. Offenders in IF-CSEC cases fell into two main categories: (1) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell access to identified children for sexual purposes including child pornography (CP) production (36% of cases), and (2) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell CP images they possessed but did not produce (64% of cases). Offenders attempting to profit from child sexual exploitation were more likely than those who were purchasing to have (a) prior arrests for sexual and nonsexual offenses, (b) a history of violence, (c) produced CP, (d) joined forces with other offenders, and (e) involved female offenders. Although the number of arrests for IF-CSEC crimes is relatively small, the victims of these crimes are a high-risk subgroup of youth, and the offenders who try to profit from these crimes are particularly concerning from a child welfare perspective.

  11. Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community Based Responses and Challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl


    Full Text Available A review of the following book: Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community based responses and challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, Bremen 2012


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Nicholas DeMarco


    Full Text Available Objective: The engagement and use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs has increased exponentially across societies worldwide with implications for social and psychological development in young people. In this context, the risk of negative sexual experience and victimisation online is known to have real world consequences for young people. This article seeks to: explore the nature of adolescent risk taking online behaviour from a group of young adults in different European countries; develop types of online risk profiles; explore the impact of help-seeking and to consider the potential real world harmful consequences. Method: A survey was administered across the United Kingdom, Ireland and Italy of 18 to 25 year olds in higher education, asking them about their online experiences between the ages of 12 and 16. Risky behaviour on and off-line, types of victimisation (on and offline and sexual solicitation requests online were analysed together with help-seeking behaviour. Results: Four profiles concerning adolescent risky behaviours were identified through cluster analysis. Each were distinguishable by a pattern of latent constructs linked to risk offline and online. Two were considered normative (adapted adolescents and inquisitive online and two high risk (risk-taking aggressive and sexually inquisitive online. Additionally, regression analysis demonstrated significant factors linked to predicting both likelihood of meeting an adult for sexual purposes, and help-seeking behaviour. Conclusions: The profiles developed are a useful tool for educators, police and health and social care practitioners in identifying adolescents at risk in order to undertake preventative work. Common help-seeking behaviour from peers could be used to effect interventions.

  13. Commercial sexual exploitation of children: Meanings and practices of people who work and reside in downtown Medellin (Colombia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Ossa-Estrada


    Full Text Available La explotación sexual comercial es un problema de salud pública y una vulneración de los derechos de niños, niñas y adolescentes. La respuesta a este problema se ha visto afectada por los significados y las prácticas de los actores implicados. Como aporte a una mejor comprensión del problema, entre 2014 y 2015 se realizó una investigación social cualitativa, con el enfoque de la teoría fundamentada, cuyo objetivo fue comprender los significados y las prácticas sobre esta problemática de las personas que permanecen en un sector del centro de la ciudad con alta presencia de explotación sexual comercial de niños, niñas y adolescentes. Las técnicas usadas fueron observación participante y entrevista semiestructurada. Encontramos que predominan concepciones que conducen a prácticas que agravan y perpetúan la vulneración de derechos. Aunque también se identificaron prácticas de protección a las víctimas, estas son limitadas por asuntos críticos del contexto. Las acciones para erradicar la explotación sexual deben trabajar con la comunidad sus significados para potenciar las prácticas protectoras que realizan y reducir las barreras.

  14. Os agentes sociais da rede de proteção e atendimento no enfrentamento da exploração sexual comercial Social agents from protection networks in fighting commercial sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Pereira Alberto


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentam-se dados de pesquisa sobre a percepção dos Agentes Sociais que atuam no enfrentamento da exploração sexual comercial de crianças e adolescentes. As entidades caracterizam-se por Organizações Governamentais, Organizações Não-Governamentais, Sistema de Justiça e Instâncias de Direitos. Compõem uma Rede de 15 instituições e foram entrevistados 31 Agentes Sociais de 12 delas. Utilizou-se um questionário composto de questões abertas e fechadas sobre: Conhecimento do Sistema de Proteção; Percepção da ESCCA; Formas de Enfrentamento da ESCCA; Procedimentos e Medidas em casos de suspeitas, identificações, denúncias e notificações. A maioria dos Agentes Sociais tem conhecimento do papel da instituição, embora alguns desconheçam parte da Legislação e as formas de se efetivar na prática o papel daquelas e a articulação interinstitucional.This article shows the data collected in a research regarding the perception of Social Agents who act in fighting children and adolescents' commercial sexual exploitation. The networking is composed by Governmental Organizations, Non-governmental Organizations, Justice System and Human Rights entities. They compose a network of 15 institutions, and 31 Social Agents who belonged to 12 of them were interviewed. It was used a questionnaire composed by open and closed questions about protection systems knowledge; perception of children and adolescents' commercial sexual exploitation; forms of fighting children and adolescents' commercial sexual exploitation; procedures and actions in case of suspicion, identification, denunciation and notification. Most of the Social Agents who make part of the network know the role of the institution where they work, although some of them do not know part of the Legislation which deals with this problematic and they also do not know the forms to effectuate in practice the purpose of the Legislation and its inter

  15. Factores causales de la explotación sexual infantil en niños, niñas y adolescentes en Colombia (causal factors of child sexual exploitation in boys, girls, and adolescents in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora H. Londoño


    Full Text Available Resumen: El propósito de la presente investigación fue identificar factores causales de la explotación sexual comercial en la infancia y la adolescencia en Colombia. Para ello se analizaron tres casos de estudio: Medellín, Sincelejo y Magangué. Se realizaron talleres y se aplicaron encuestas en cada una de las ciudades en Instituciones gubernamentales encargadas de intervenir el fenómeno y en algunas instituciones educativas, con la participación de funcionarios, profesionales, docentes, directivos y estudiantes. Para el análisis de datos se realizó una matriz explicativa con la participación de 4 jurados. Las categorías de análisis fueron factores medioambientales, familiares e individuales. Abstract: The purpose of this piece of research aimed to identify causal factors of trade sexual exploitation on children and adolescents in Colombia. For this purpose, three case studies were analyzed: Medellín, Sincelejo, and Magangué. Workshops were conducted and surveys were implemented in each of the cities in both governmental institutions, in charge of intervening the phenomenon and in some educational institutions, with the participation of officials, professionals, teachers, directors, and students. As for the data analysis, an explanatory matrix was carried out, with the participation of 4 judges. The categories of analysis were those related to the environment, the family, and the individual.

  16. Synaesthesia and Sexuality: The influence of synaesthetic perceptions on sexual experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eNielsen


    Full Text Available Introduction. Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4 %. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences.Aims. To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes.Methods. In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55. Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (german version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV. Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes.Main Outcome Measures. Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse.Results. Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale sexual appetence but coevally significant lower subscale scores for sexual satisfaction. Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales oceanic boundlessness and visionary restructuralization than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions. Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however,

  17. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... sexual kissing, touching, and oral, anal, or vaginal sex. Not all sexual abuse involves body contact, though. Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography ...

  18. Adolescents in prostitution situation: an analyses of the commercial sexual exploitation in the contemporary society / Adolescentes em situação de prostituição: uma análise sobre a exploração sexual comercial na sociedade contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Coimbra Libório


    Full Text Available The present research had as main objective to understand the processes that lead to the production of the commercial sexual exploitation of adolescents in the contemporary society. An analysis of the literature of the area and field study was accomplished which counted on the participation by fourteen female adolescents who were involved in the prostitution modality. We used as instruments: questionnairy-interviews, oral reports, observation and information of the social educators. The social-demographic profile of the adolescents and their families was elaborated and was created expressive thematic categories of the identified contents. We confirmed that in the production of the phenomenon there are multiple factors that intersect themselves in a synergic way in the adolescents' path life. Affronting policies require macro-structural and focal actions, besides it is necessary that we rethink the conceptions, concerning to children and adolescents rights, about the sexuality experiences, cultural and social values that end allowing the emergency and perpetuation of the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.

  19. Characteristics Associated with Psychological, Physical, Sexual Abuse, Caregiver Neglect and Financial Exploitation in U.S. Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the Population-Based Cohort Study in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong


    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-demographic and health related characteristics of elder mistreatment (EM in a community-dwelling older Chinese population. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, the PINE study conducted in-person interviews with 3,159 U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011–2013. Participants answered questions regarding psychological, physical and sexual mistreatment, caregiver neglect, and financial exploitation. Definitional approaches for EM subtypes were constructed from least restrictive to most restrictive. Results: The sociodemographic and health-related characteristics associated with EM differed by type of mistreatment and by the operational definition used. Living with fewer people, having been born in countries other than China, poorer health status, and lower quality of life were significantly correlated with physical mistreatment. Only higher education was positively and significantly associated with sexual mistreatment and only poorer health status was consistently correlated with psychological mistreatment among all definitions. Male gender, higher educational levels, higher income, fewer children, and having been in the U.S. for fewer years were significantly correlated with financial exploitation. As for caregiver neglect, older age, having more children, having been in the U.S. for more years, poorer health status, lower quality of life, and worsening health over the past year were consistently correlated with caregiver neglect with different definitions. Conclusions: Prevention and intervention programs on EM should be geared towards specific types of mistreatment. Studies on EM should conduct a thorough analysis to justify the operational definition used.

  20. Sexualidade do trabalhador da construção civil: percepções sobre a exploração sexual de crianças e adolescentes Sexuality of construction workers: perceptions about sexual exploitation of children and adolescents

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    Elder Cerqueira-Santos


    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou investigar os condicionantes da exploração sexual de crianças e adolescentes (ESCA sob a percepção de trabalhadores de grandes obras (TGOs e analisar comparativamente grupos de perpetradores e não-perpetradores. Foram entrevistados 288 TGOs em diferentes regiões brasileiras. Dos entrevistados, 67% apontaram o envolvimento dos colegas de trabalho com ESCA e 25,4% relataram o próprio envolvimento. As principais variáveis correlacionadas ao problema foram o envolvimento com prostituição, o uso de drogas e o tempo alojado nas obras. O envolvimento com prostitutas despontou como variável mais importante na predição do envolvimento com ESCA. Intervenções nesta área requerem maior conhecimento acerca dos perpetradores, auxiliando na elaboração de perspectivas de enfrentamento mais eficazes.This study aimed to understand the reasons for sexual exploitation of children and adolescents from the perception of Brazilian construction workers and compare groups of perpetrators and non-perpetrators. Two hundred eighty-eight construction workers were interviewed in different Brazilian regions. 67% of respondents indicated the involvement of co-workers with the issue and 25.4% reported their own involvement with it. Main variables correlated to the issue were the involvement with prostitutes, drug use and time out-of-home. Being involved with prostitutes was pointed as the most important variable explaining the involvement with the issue. Interventions in this area require more knowledge about the perpetrators, which may contribute to the development of more effective strategies of confrontation.

  1. Childhood sexual abuse.


    Evrim Aktepe


    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  2. Adolescentes em situação de prostituição: uma análise sobre a exploração sexual comercial na sociedade contemporânea Adolescents in prostitution situation: an analyses of the commercial sexual exploitation in the contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Coimbra Libório


    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo principal compreender os processos que conduzem à produção da exploração sexual comercial de adolescentes na sociedade contemporânea. Realizamos uma análise da literatura da área e um estudo de campo, que contou com a participação de 14 adolescentes do sexo feminino, que se encontravam em situação de prostituição. Foram utilizados como procedimentos metodológicos: aplicação de questionários-entrevista, realização de entrevistas abertas, observações e informações de educadoras sociais. Elaboramos o perfil sócio-demográfico das adolescentes e suas famílias e criamos categorias temáticas expressivas dos conteúdos identificados. Constatamos que na produção do fenômeno encontram-se presentes múltiplos fatores que se entrecruzam de forma sinérgica nas trajetórias de vida das adolescentes. Ações de enfrentamento ao fenômeno requerem ações macro-estruturais e focais, nos mostrando a necessidade de repensarmos as concepções sobre os direitos das crianças e adolescentes, vivência de sexualidade, valores culturais e sociais, que acabam por permitir a emergência e perpetuação da exploração sexual comercial de crianças e adolescentes.The present research had as main objective to understand the processes that lead to the production of the commercial sexual exploitation of adolescents in the contemporary society. An analysis of the literature of the area and field study was accomplished which counted on the participation by fourteen female adolescents who were involved in the prostitution modality. We used as instruments: questionnairy-interviews, oral reports, observation and information of the social educators. The social-demographic profile of the adolescents and their families was elaborated and was created expressive thematic categories of the identified contents. We confirmed that in the production of the phenomenon there are multiple factors that intersect

  3. Tackling sexual violence, abuse and exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henia Dakkak


    Full Text Available Iraqi women are being attacked in the name of religion. The gendered dimension of sectarian conflict – derived from women’s role in cultural and biological reproduction and as symbols of group identity – is exposing them to crimes which constitute an open wound for humanity.

  4. The Ethics of Exploitation

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    Paul McLaughlin


    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  5. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER (United States)


    exploits. We saw this as an advantage of our dataset because we had to confirm that either a bug was exploitable or not exploitable. For the 28 CHAPTER 5...corruption which demonstrates that there is very little activity within c-ares to take advantage of after the heap corruption. This idea is in line with the...remote code execution POCs. 42 Bibliography [1] Analyze crashes to find security vulnerabilities in your apps . https: //


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman


    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Sexual violence and girls' performance in Rwandan schools: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As for the nature of sexual violence faced, the study indicates that a half of adolescent schoolgirls experience either sexual abuse or sexual exploitation. The major causes of sexual violence include perpetrators who pretend to be inoffensive while committing sexual abuse; curiosity of adolescents to perform sexual acts and ...

  8. Viruses exploiting peroxisomes. (United States)

    Lazarow, Paul B


    Viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including HIV, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. Peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. Viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (HIV's Nef and influenza's NS1) or use the peroxisomal membrane for RNA replication. The Nef interaction correlates strongly with the crucial Nef function of CD4 downregulation. Viral exploitation of peroxisomal lipid metabolism appears likely. Mostly, functional significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recently, peroxisomes were discovered to play a crucial role in the innate immune response by signaling the presence of intracellular virus, leading to the first rapid antiviral response. This review unearths, interprets and connects old data, in the hopes of stimulating new and promising research. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  10. Combating Sexual Assault (United States)


    brain structures are related to the motivation to have sex with children . Personality Traits: Psychopathic Empathy, Callousness, Narcissism...surveillance is possible with emerging tools such as those used by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children that employ a deep hash algorithm... Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 338-351. 6 Widman, L., & McNulty, J. (2010). Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual

  11. Hacking the art of exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon


    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  12. The implications of sexual narcissism for sexual and marital satisfaction. (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura


    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.

  13. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform (United States)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore


    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  14. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  15. Image exploitation for MISAR (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.


    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  16. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    CERN Document Server

    Balapure, Aditya


    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  17. Self-esteem, general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Azarbayejani, Abas; Shafiei, Katayoun; Ziaei, Tayebe; Shayegh, Bahar


    People with visual disability have lower self-esteem and social skills than sighted people. This study was designed to describe self-esteem and general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014. In this study, 138 visually impaired people participated from Isfahan Province Welfare Organization and were interviewed for measuring of self-esteem and self-concept using Eysenck self-esteem and Rogers' self-concept questionnaires. The correlation between above two variables was measured using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software by Pearson correlation test. Mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 30.9 ± 8 years. The mean (±SD) of general self-concept score was 11 ± 5.83. The mean (±SD) of self-esteem score was 16.62 ± 2.85. Pearson correlation results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and general self-concept (r = 0.19, P = 0.025). The mean of sexual self-concept scores in five subscales (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear, and sexual depression) were correspondingly 11 ± 4.41, 19.53 ± 4.53, 12.96 ± 4.19, 13.48 ± 1.76, and 5.38 ± 2.36. Self-esteem and self-concept had significant positive correlation with sexual anxiety (r = 0.49; P sexual fear (r = 0.25; P = 0.003) (r = 0.18; P = 0.02) and negative correlation with sexual self-efficacy (r = -0.26; P = 0.002) (r = -0.28; P = 0.001) and sexual-esteem (r = -0.34; P Self-esteem and self-concept had significant correlation with sexual anxiety and sexual fear; and negative correlation with sexual self-efficacy and sexual-esteem.

  18. Size structure and sexual maturity of the golden crab (Chaceon chilensis exploited off Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile Estructuras de tallas y madurez en el cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis explotado alrededor de la isla Robinson Crusoe, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Guerrero


    Full Text Available Golden crab (Chaceon chilensis specimens were analyzed after being caught with traps by artisanal fishermen off Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Of the 13,027 individuals caught between 300 and 1,000 m depth, 97.9% were male (12,754 and the rest female (273. The carapace length (CL of the sampled crabs was measured and, on average, the males (CL: 118.9 mm were larger than the females (CL: 94.3 mm. On the north side of the island, the specimens presented lower average sizes (112.2 mm whereas, in the remaining zones, the average carapace lengths were similar (CL: 117.1-119.5 mm. In bathymetric terms, an increasing trend was seen between average size and depth, with sizes over 123 mm CL found beginning at 750 m depth. A comparison of linear regressions between the carapace length and chela length of males revealed physical maturity at 100 mm CL, whereas a numerical analysis showed the size at first sexual maturity (SSM50% to be 109 mm CL.Se analizaron ejemplares de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis capturados mediante trampas por pescadores artesanales en torno a la isla Robinson Crusoe del archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, entre 300 y 1.000 m de profundidad. Se midió la longitud cefalotorácica (LC de 13.027 individuos de los cuales 12.754 correspondieron a machos y únicamente 273 a hembras, con un claro predominio de machos (97,9%, fueron de talla promedio superior a las hembras (118,9 y 94,3 mm de LC, respectivamente. En el sector norte de la isla, se encontraron ejemplares con menor talla media (112,2 mm que en las zonas restantes, la longitud cefalotorácica media presentó valores similares (117,1 a 119,5 mm de LC. Se encontró una tendencia creciente entre la talla media y la profundidad, registrándose a partir del estrato de 750 m tallas promedio superiores a 123 mm de LC. Mediante la comparación de regresiones lineales entre la longitud cefalotorácica y la longitud de la quela, en machos se estableci

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  20. Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage. (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura


    There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally.

  1. Sexual Health (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Survey Newest CDC data on teen risk behaviors Publications Check here to find the latest sexual ... Health (Medline Plus) Teen Sexual Health (Medline Plus) Teen Sexual Risk Behaviors Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS [1] WHO working ...

  2. Sexual Health (United States)

    ... health By Mayo Clinic Staff Sexual health basics Sexuality is part of being human. Love, affection and ... infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of ...

  3. Sexual Exploitation of Children and Youth. Human Resources Series. (United States)

    Friend, Shelley A.


    This issue brief explores the problem of child pornography and teenage prostitution and examines some of the strategies federal, state, and local governments employ to address these social problems. After a brief review of Congressional actions and Supreme Court decisions, state statutes affecting pornography and prostitution are reviewed, and…

  4. Exploitation et obligation de travailler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Étienne Vandamme


    Full Text Available Cet article défend une définition de l’exploitation, restreinte aux relations de travail, en tentant d’une part d’expliciter une certaine compréhension de sens commun du concept (rémunération inéquitable en fonction du travail presté, et d’autre part d’échapper aux difficultés qui ont affecté la définition marxiste traditionnelle de l’exploitation comme extorsion de la plus-value (dans ses diverses variantes. Il explore ainsi le lien entre l’exploitation et l’obligation matérielle de travailler pour subvenir à ses besoins fondamentaux. Après avoir mis en garde contre les politiques d’activation des chômeurs, il conclut que l’exploitation est un phénomène contre lequel on peut lutter à l’aide de mécanismes relativement simples, même dans les sociétés capitalistes. Il rappelle toutefois que cela ne suffit pas à réaliser la justice sociale, resituant l’exploitation parmi d’autres enjeux fondamentaux pour une philosophie politique égalitariste

  5. Proactive Undercover Policing and Sexual Crimes against Children on the Internet


    Vendius, Trine Thygesen


    The Internet has made it easier for child sex offenders to get into direct contact with their victims, including the exchanging and distributing of “child pornography”. On a European level, child sexual exploitation is one of the three main priorities of EC3, Europol's Cybercrime Centre. Directive 2011/93/EU on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children further prescribes that the EU Member States shall ensure that sexual offences against children are effectively investiga...

  6. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation. (United States)

    Charlton, T H


    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion.

  7. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Partha


    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Network exploitation using WAMI tracks (United States)

    Rimey, Ray; Record, Jim; Keefe, Dan; Kennedy, Levi; Cramer, Chris


    Creating and exploiting network models from wide area motion imagery (WAMI) is an important task for intelligence analysis. Tracks of entities observed moving in the WAMI sensor data are extracted, then large numbers of tracks are studied over long time intervals to determine specific locations that are visited (e.g., buildings in an urban environment), what locations are related to other locations, and the function of each location. This paper describes several parts of the network detection/exploitation problem, and summarizes a solution technique for each: (a) Detecting nodes; (b) Detecting links between known nodes; (c) Node attributes to characterize a node; (d) Link attributes to characterize each link; (e) Link structure inferred from node attributes and vice versa; and (f) Decomposing a detected network into smaller networks. Experimental results are presented for each solution technique, and those are used to discuss issues for each problem part and its solution technique.

  9. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy


    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up...... vision of the sexual. Following a historic outline, we examine the theories that inspired by Laplanche, once more discuss infantile sexuality, and argue that infantile sexuality is clarified by combining the concept of the drive with what in effect is an inter-subjective point of view....

  10. Exploitation of natural resources and conflict in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Sandoval


    Full Text Available Colombia has increasingly been specializing in the extraction of mineral and energy resources such as gold, coal, oil and ferronickel. These activities, in the context of state weakness, have engendered conflicts of different dimensions. This paper proposes an indicator of conflict related to mineral exploitation that classifies five dimensions of conflict: social, economic, cultural, political and environmental. The aggregate indicator shows that murders, displacement of Afrodescendent populations, flooding, pollution, fires, infant mortality, coca crops and sexual offenses are highly and positively correlated with the number of conflicts.

  11. Sexual Violence (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  12. Sexual abuse


    Iztok Takač; Darjan Kos; Darja Arko


    Background: Due to its complexity, sexual abuse is a significant public health problem. Treatment of victims of sexual abuse is a complex process that demands an experienced physician and is supported by the guidelines of various organizations in this field. Difficulties in the management of victims of sexual abuse come from the fact that the role of the doctor is not only in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse, but also the collection of possible evide...

  13. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair


    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  14. Sexual Health (United States)

    ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Taking Care of Your Body: Answers for Girls With Autism Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Tampons, Pads, and Other Period Supplies Telling Parents You're Pregnant Toxic Shock Syndrome Transgender People ...

  15. Enigmatic Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy


    Clinical Encounters in Sexuality makes an intervention into the fields of clinical psychoanalysis and sexuality studies, in an effort to think about a range of issues relating to sexuality from a clinical psychoanalytic perspective. This book concentrates on a number of concepts, namely identity......, desire, pleasure, perversion, ethics and discourse. The editors, Noreen Giffney and Eve Watson, have chosen queer theory, a sub-field of sexuality studies, as an interlocutor for the clinical contributors, because it is at the forefront of theoretical considerations of sexuality, as well as being both...... a self-reflective attitude in clinical readers about sexuality which historically has tended toward reification. The central questions we present to readers to think about are: 1. What are the discourses of sexuality underpinning psychoanalysis, and how do they impact on clinical practice? 2. In what...

  16. Intellectual disability, sexuality and sexual abuse prevention - a study of family members and support workers. (United States)

    Eastgate, Gillian; Scheermeyer, Elly; van Driel, Mieke L; Lennox, Nick


    People with intellectual disability experience difficulty forming intimate relationships and are prone to sexual exploitation and abuse. This study sought information from people involved in the care of adults with intellectual disability regarding how they supported them in the areas of sexuality, relationships and abuse prevention. Semistructured interviews and focus groups were held with 28 family members and paid support workers caring for adults with intellectual disabilities. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed qualitatively. Major themes emerging included views on sexuality and intellectual disability, consent and legal issues, relationships, sexual knowledge and education, disempowerment, exploitation and abuse, sexual health and parenting. People with intellectual disability were described as lonely, disempowered and vulnerable to abuse. The sex industry, internet and mobile telephones were identified as new forms of risk. While this study looked at the views of both family members and support workers, the sample was too small to identify any meaningful differences between the two groups.

  17. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen


    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  18. Duplo Padrão Sexual e Contraceção nos Adolescentes


    Frias, Ana


    Several areas of knowledge have exploited differences/similarities between men and women and the reflexes that these aspects have in the sexuality experience. Human cultures, structured and shaped on the basis of sexual differences, separate roles, tasks and privileges between both sexes, emerging sexual patterns characterized in each eco-cultural space. Some authors say, female sexuality formula have a higher dose of culture regarding the biological substrate facet, than male sexuality. Obje...

  19. The Exploitation of Evolving Resources

    CERN Document Server

    McGlade, Jacqueline; Law, Richard


    The impact of man on the biosphere is profound. Quite apart from our capacity to destroy natural ecosystems and to drive species to extinction, we mould the evolution of the survivors by the selection pressures we apply to them. This has implications for the continued health of our natural biological resources and for the way in which we seek to optimise yield from those resources. Of these biological resources, fish stocks are particularly important to mankind as a source of protein. On a global basis, fish stocks provide the major source of protein for human consumption from natural ecosystems, amounting to some seventy million tonnes in 1970. Although fisheries management has been extensively developed over the last century, it has not hitherto considered the evolutionary consequences of fishing activity. While this omission may not have been serious in the past, the ever increasing intensity of exploitation and the deteriorating health of fish stocks has generated an urgent need for a better understanding...

  20. Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Lundberg

    Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.

  1. Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna


    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.

  2. Female sexuality (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.


    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Female sexuality. (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M


    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  4. Compulsory sexuality. (United States)

    Emens, Elizabeth F


    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.

  5. Internet Sexualities (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  6. Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for ...

  7. Sexual pain. (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K


    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  8. Preventing Offenses of Sexual Abuse, Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU


    Full Text Available The objectives pursued within this paper aimed at the general examination of the European legislative act, and preventing child victimization by the enforcement of national and European law. Preventing victimization of children was approached on three main ways, namely the information, during the criminal proceedings, and at the end of these procedures. The conducted research is a novelty in the field, generally targeting the European normative act, the establishment and enforcement between Member States of complex of preventive measures, that needed to be taken internally first legislatively and then logistically by each Member State. Since internally the Romanian legislation does not provide many of the examined provisions, we believe that the work can be useful to the internal or European institutions working in the field, academic environment as a starting point in achieving other analysis and to the Romanian legislator. The essential contribution to the work, the originality, consists of the examined novelty items that will contribute to the improvement of future Romanian legislation in this particularly sensitive area.

  9. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.


    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  10. A Descriptive, Cross-sectional Study to Assess Quality of Life and Sexuality in Turkish Patients with a Colostomy. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Emel; Çelebi, Dilruba; Kaya, Yavuz; Baydur, Hakan


    A stoma affects personality, self-esteem, and body image, inevitably impacting lifestyle and quality of life (QOL). A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between May 1, 2015 and May 1, 2016 to evaluate the effect of a stoma on sexual function and QOL among patients receiving care in a general surgery clinic of a university hospital in the western region of Turkey.Eligibility requirements included patients willing to participate, >18 years of age, with a colostomy for at least 4 months, who were married and/or with a sexual partner and in otherwise good physical and mental health with no rectal nerve damage or receiving radio- or chemotherapy. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews. Demographic variables (age, gender, body mass index [BMI], educational status, income level); and clinical information (duration of the precipitating disease, and stoma duration, cause, and type) were collected, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) measure; the Index of Female Sexual Function (IFSF); and a Stoma Quality of Life Scale (SQOLS) were completed. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and the Mann-Whitney U test. Of the 57 study participants, 57.9% were >60 years old (mean age: 59.81 ± 10.12), more than half (57.92%) were male, 33.3% had a permanent stoma, and the mean duration of the stoma was 9.60 ± 6.40 months. Scores for all 3 outcomes were low; mean IIEF score was 3.64 ± 2.47 (range 2-10), mean IFSF score was 13.04 ± 5.19 (range 9-29), and mean SQOLS was 45.10 ± 18.88 (range 0-100). Eighteen (18) of the 33 men (54.5%) had severe, 5 (15.2%) had moderate, and 9 (27.3%) had mild erectile dysfunction. The IFSF total score for all female patients was sexual dysfunction. A negative correlation between age and the SQOLS subscale sexuality/body image was found (rs = -0.305, P sexual desire (rs = 0.474, P sexuality concerns among patients with a colostomy.

  11. In Search of Critical Pedagogy in Sexuality Education: Visions, Imaginations, and Paradoxes (United States)

    Sanjakdar, Fida; Allen, Louisa; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Brömdal, Annette; Aspin, Clive


    The broad aim of most sexuality educational programs is to improve and promote health among students (Epstein and Johnson 1998; Allen 2005; Aggleton and Campbell 2000). Various education programs aim for young people to receive preparation for their sexual lives and be educated against sexual abuse and exploitation (Carmody 2009; Bay-Cheng 2003),…

  12. Sexuality and Down Syndrome (United States)

    ... NDSS Events Shop NDSS Contact NDSS > Resources > Sexuality Sexuality Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual’s self- ... community standards for adult behavior. How Can Healthy Sexuality be Encouraged for Individuals with Down Syndrome? Creating ...

  13. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.


    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its

  14. Lesbian sexuality. (United States)

    Califia, P


    A study was conducted to determine what physical sexual activities lesbians engage in and what attitudes lesbians have toward various aspects of their sexuality. The sample consisted of 286 homosexual women. This article reports results in the following areas: first orgasm, first sexual experience with another women, sexual fantasies, number of sex partners, faking orgasm, sex toys, initiating sex, techniques used to reach orgasm with partners, and the attitudes of respondents toward their own lesbianism, erotica, female genitals, masturbation, emotional involvement with sex partners, monogamy, sex toys, oral sex, tribadism, group sex, and sadomasochism. The study suggests that the sample group has very positive attitudes about their lesbianism, their own bodies, masturbation, and the various ways in which they express sexuality with their partners.

  15. Sexual prejudice. (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A


    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  16. Adolescent sexuality and sexual behavior. (United States)

    Feldmann, Jennifer; Middleman, Amy B


    Adolescence is a time of self-discovery and physical, as well as cognitive, development. It is within this context that adolescent sexual development and sexual behavior occur. While curiosity and experimentation are normal, sexual behaviors, both coital and non-coital, place adolescents at risk for undesired consequences including sexually transmitted disease acquisition and pregnancy. Trends in adolescent sexual behavior are changing, and health care professionals must be aware of these trends to provide necessary medical care and education to this population. While the sexual activity of teenagers garners much attention, attention must also be directed at non-coital activities such as masturbation, mutual masturbation and oral sex, as the riskier of these behaviors appear to be increasing. The trends in sexual activity and contraceptive use are encouraging with a decrease in the proportion of adolescents reporting sexual activity, and an increase in the proportion reporting using contraception. These trends, however, are not shared equally among racial groups with the greatest decline reported in the in lowest risk groups. Sexual minority youth continue to report a higher prevalence of high-risk behaviors, both sexual and non-sexual, as compared to their heterosexual peers. These findings highlight the multiple roles health care professionals can play in caring for this unique population: firstly as health care providers, offering age appropriate, confidential health care; secondly, as reproductive health care educators providing factual, balanced, and realistic information to both teenagers and the community; and thirdly, as advocates lobbying for greater education and services for this at-risk population.

  17. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  18. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians. (United States)

    Barnhart, Anthony S


    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation.

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization. (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.


    An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

  20. Exploration, Exploitation, and Organizational Coordination Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Popadiuk


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical relationship among exploration, exploitation, and organizational coordination mechanisms, classified as the centralization of decision-making, formalization, and connectedness. In order to analyze the findings of this survey, we used two techniques: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM. Our analysis was supported by 249 answers from managers of companies located in Brazil (convenience sampling. Contrary to expectations, centralization and exploitation were negatively associated. Our data supports the research hypothesis that formalization is positively associated with exploitation. Although the relationship between formalization and exploration were significant, the result is contrary to the research hypothesis that we made. The relationships among connectedness and exploitation, and connectedness and exploration were both positive and significant. This relationship means that the more connectedness increases, the higher the likelihood of exploitation and exploration.

  1. Sexual Health (United States)

    ... as an inability to maintain enough of an erection to carry out sexual intercourse. How Common are ... 2012 © 2018 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • Terms of Use • Disclaimer ...

  2. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001......) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... was involved in 60% of the cases. One-third of the victims had experienced a previous sexual assault(s). Women were more likely to report to the police when they were assaulted by a stranger (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-2.6) and sustained a physical injury (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1...

  3. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač


    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  4. Sexual Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss


    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  5. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.


    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  6. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide. (United States)

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu


    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age of Sexual Consent Law in Canada: Population-Based Evidence for Law and Policy


    Miller, Bonnie B.; Cox, David N.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.


    This study evaluated the implications of the 2008 increase in age for sexual consent in Canada using a population health survey of Canadian adolescents. Government rationales for the increase asserted younger adolescents were more likely to experience sexual exploitation and engage in risky sexual behaviour than adolescents 16 and older. Using data from sexually experienced adolescents in the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BC AHS, N=6,262; age range 12 – 19; 52% female), anal...

  8. Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Literature Review


    Lalor, Kevin


    Objective. This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Method. English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are examined. Reports from international and local NGOs and UN agencies are also examined. Results. Few published studies on the sexual abuse of children ...

  9. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment (United States)


    1i TITLE ( lude Security Ca .fcation) Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment rt 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) w]ba1oa A Limor Fix axd...editions are obsolete. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment * Limor Fix Fred B. Schneider TR 94-1409 February 1994 Department of Computer...agencies. Limor Fix is also supported, in part, by a Fullbright post-doctoral award. Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment ---- NITIS GRA&I

  10. “Disabled People Are Sexual Citizens Too”: Supporting Sexual Identity, Well-being, and Safety for Disabled Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Shah


    Full Text Available Disabled young people are sexual beings, and deserve equal rights and opportunities to have control over, choices about, and access to their sexuality, sexual expression, and fulfilling relationships throughout their lives. This is critical to their overall physical, emotional, and social health and well-being. However, societal misconceptions of disabled bodies being non-normative, other, or deviant has somewhat shaped how the sexuality of disabled people has been constructed as problematic under the public gaze. The pervasive belief that disabled people are asexual creates barriers to sexual citizenship for disabled young people, thereby causing them to have lower levels of sexual knowledge and inadequate sex education compared to their non-disabled peers. As a consequence, they are more vulnerable to “bad sex”—relationships, which are considered to be exploitative and disempowering in different ways. Access to good sex and relationships education for disabled young people is, therefore, not only important for them to learn about sexual rights, sexual identity, and sexual expression but also about how to ensure their sexual safety. In so doing, it will contribute to the empowerment and societal recognition of disabled people as sexual beings, and also help them resist and report sexual violence. Therefore, it is critical that parents, educationalists, and health and social care professionals are aware and appropriately equipped with knowledge and resources to formally educate disabled young people about sexuality and well-being on par to their non-disabled peers.

  11. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds


    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Life History Theory and Exploitative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds


    Full Text Available Exploitative strategies involve depriving others of resources while enhancing one’s own. Life history theory suggests that there are individual differences (life history strategy and environmental characteristics (life history contingencies [LHCs] that influence the use of exploitative strategies. However, past work manipulating LHCs has found mixed evidence for the influence of this information on exploitative behavior. We present three studies that help clarify the effects of this type of information. Results indicated that younger individuals are most sensitive to LHC information. We also found, contrary to predictions, that communicating slow LHC information (i.e., high population density, intraspecific competition, and resource scarcity increased rather than decreased the temptation to engage in exploitative behavior. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  13. Offender and victim characteristics of registered female sexual offenders in Texas: a proposed typology of female sexual offenders. (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen


    Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.

  14. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars


    the reader will gain: The review focuses on strategies that exploit characteristic features of solid tumors, such as abnormal vasculature, overexpression of receptors and enzymes, as well as acidic and thiolytic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Take home message: It is concluded that the design...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....

  15. Relationships between suspects and victims of sex trafficking. Exploitation of prostitutes and domestic violence parallels in Dutch trafficking cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.; van Gestel, B.; de Jong, D.; Kleemans, E.R.


    This article centres on the hypothesis that human trafficking for sexual exploitation is not only an organised crime activity, but a crime of relational nature as well. Therefore this study explores the relationships that exist between suspects and victims of sex trafficking, and examines to what

  16. Sexual sadism. (United States)

    Berner, Wolfgang; Berger, Peter; Hill, Andreas


    Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism versus masochism. In forensic settings the diagnosis of a sadistic character disorder (sadistic personality disorder [SPD] according DSM-III-R) is found to a much higher degree than in other clinical samples (50-fold). Our own follow-up study on a forensic sample implies that sadism as a paraphilia is of relevance for relapse-rates of sex-offenders. Symptoms of SPD can be combined with sexual sadism, or occur independently. This may corroborate arguments in favor of a dimensional concept of sexual sadism. Symptoms of SPD may then be a sign of generalization of sadistic traits at least in some cases. A concept of two factors contributing to sadistic pleasure is suggested, one taking the aspect of bodily gratification by sexual-aggressive stimuli as decisive, and the other taking inner representation of hostile objects into consideration (stressing the antisocial-anger-rage aspect).

  17. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female's maternal care instinct or foraging motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Elsayed, Rehab


    by producing a nuptial gift that resembles the female's eggsac. In mating experiments we examined whether males exploit the female's foraging motivation or the female's maternal care instinct. We carried out a gift-switching experiment, where males presented an eggsac, a wrapped fly or an unwrapped fly...... as nuptial gifts. Females fed on eggsacs as well as on prey gifts. Mating success was similar for males with both wrapped and unwrapped gifts, indicating that wrapping per se does not increase male mating success. In a food manipulation experiment, we investigated the effect of the female's hunger level......Nuptial feeding can evolve as sensory traps where the male exploits the female's foraging motivation in a sexual context. The nuptial prey gift of the nursery-web spider Pisaura mirabilis is wrapped in white silk, and it has been suggested that males initially exploit the maternal care instinct...

  18. The Exploitive Mating Strategy of the Dark Triad Traits: Tests of Rape-Enabling Attitudes. (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Girgis, Mary; Milne-Home, Josephine


    The Dark Triad traits have been repeatedly labeled as facilitating an exploitive mating strategy. However, various researchers have repeatedly conflated short-term mating or casual sex with an exploitive mating strategy. In this study using Mechanical Turk participants (N = 252; 142 men, 110 women), we provided a better test of just how sexually exploitive those high on the Dark Triad traits might be by examining how the traits related to rape-enabling attitudes. We examined how each trait may facilitate rape, whether these associations were robust to partialing the variance associated with the Big Five traits and similar in men and women, and showed that one reason why men may be more likely to rape than women is they are characterized by the Dark Triad traits more than women are. In so doing, we test the confluence model of rape that asserts that personality traits similar to the Dark Triad traits act as one pathway to rape.

  19. Proactive Undercover Policing and Sexual Crimes against Children on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen


    The Internet has made it easier for child sex offenders to get into direct contact with their victims, including the exchanging and distributing of “child pornography”. On a European level, child sexual exploitation is one of the three main priorities of EC3, Europol's Cybercrime Centre. Directive...... 2011/93/EU on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children further prescribes that the EU Member States shall ensure that sexual offences against children are effectively investigated. However, when it comes to investigative measures such as undercover policing, national police forces...

  20. Ethical issues in sexual misconduct by clinicians. (United States)

    Gutheil, T G


    Sexual misconduct by clinicians in the form of sexual relations with patients has long been recognized as an ethics violation and an activity suitable for assessment by the ethics committees of institutions and local and national professional organizations. The issue can be examined from the vantage point of several types of duties which bear ethical implications; these ethical duties proceed from the following four notions in this area: Sexual misconduct represents a violation of professional ethics as a fiduciary breach, abuse of a power asymmetry, exploitation of vulnerability and use of undue influence. While objections to these criteria may be raised in terms of freedom of association and consent, the violation of ethical principles by sexual misconduct remains clear.

  1. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen


    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: (1) how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? (2) In the light of the answer to (1), how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is the argument that surrogates from economically disadvantaged countries cannot validly consent because their background circumstances are coercive. Several versions of this argument are examined and I conclude that at least one has some merit. The article's overall conclusion is that while ethically there is something to be concerned about, paid surrogacy is in no worse a position than many other exploitative commercial transactions which take place against a backdrop of global inequality and constrained options, such as poorly-paid and dangerous construction work. Hence, there is little reason to single surrogacy out for special condemnation. On a policy level, the case for prohibiting international commercial surrogacy is weak, despite legitimate concerns about consent and background poverty.

  2. sexual assault

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2014 ... BACKGROUND: Sexual assault affects one out of every five women, and it is a substantial public health ... public health and human rights problem around ..... against women of a younger age, especially those aged 15 to 19, living in single parent households and grandparent headed households (17).

  3. Sexual Health (United States)

    ... affect your sexuality. Many older couples report greater satisfaction with their sex life because they have fewer distractions, more time and ... Ask your doctor for a referral. Expand your definition of sex. ... have a fulfilling sex life. Touching, kissing and other intimate contact can be ...

  4. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  5. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account. (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven


    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts.

  6. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli


    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  7. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children


    Robinson, A.; WATKEYS, J.; Ridgway, G.


    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.
DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.

  8. Governing sexual behaviour through humanitarian codes of conduct. (United States)

    Matti, Stephanie


    Since 2001, there has been a growing consensus that sexual exploitation and abuse of intended beneficiaries by humanitarian workers is a real and widespread problem that requires governance. Codes of conduct have been promoted as a key mechanism for governing the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers and, ultimately, preventing sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). This article presents a systematic study of PSEA codes of conduct adopted by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and how they govern the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers. It draws on Foucault's analytics of governance and speech act theory to examine the findings of a survey of references to codes of conduct made on the websites of 100 humanitarian NGOs, and to analyse some features of the organisation-specific PSEA codes identified. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  9. Sexual assault. (United States)


    This document provides information on issues related to sexual assault in the US. The specific topics briefly discussed are incidence, psychological impact, assault assessment kits, medical evaluation, legal concerns, counseling, follow-up, and special circumstances. It is stated that a woman who is sexually assaulted would experience intense anxiety, anger or fear, and rape-trauma syndrome. The physician evaluating the victim should be aware of the state statutory requirements, which may involve the use of kits for gathering evidence. Informed consent from the victim and meticulous physical examination of the entire body should be performed with photographs and drawings made in the injured areas. In counseling, the physician should talk with the patient concerning the degree of the injury and the probability of infection or pregnancy. There is a need for patients to be reevaluated concerning her medical and psychological status.

  10. Growth, Mortality and Exploitation Rates of Sarotherodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Sarotherodon melanotheron population of Dominli Lagoon in the Western Region of Ghana was studied for its growth and mortality parameters as well as exploitation rate. The study generally aimed at providing basic information necessary for the assessment and management of the fish stock in the lagoon.

  11. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 13, 2014 ... Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from Pleurotus ostreatus in agricultural soils. A. Mauricio-Gutiérrez1, T. Jiménez-Salgado2, A. Tapia-Hernández2, J. Cavazos-Arroyo1 and. B. Pérez-Armendáriz1*. 1Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting, Autonomus Popular University of State ...

  12. Exploiting a natural auxotrophy for genetic selection. (United States)

    Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry; Manoil, Colin


    We exploited the natural histidine auxotrophy of Francisella species to develop hisD (encodes histidinol dehydrogenase) as a positive selection marker. A shuttle plasmid (pBR103) carrying Escherichia coli hisD and designed for cloning of PCR fragments replicated in both attenuated and highly virulent Francisella strains. During this work, we formulated a simplified defined growth medium for Francisella novicida.

  13. Courseware Design: Exploiting the Colour Micro. (United States)

    Kidd, Marilyn E.; Holmes, Glyn


    Discusses the impact of the presentation of data on the educational effectiveness of computer assisted learning systems, describes some of the existing systems for controlling the display of instructional data on CRTs, and outlines a project undertaken at the University of Western Ontario to exploit the capabilities of microcomputer color…

  14. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle. (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  15. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J


    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  16. Exploiting indigenous knowledge in the environmental conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of agriculture and reared livestock (especially goats). Over several years, they developed sustainable and effective exploitation mechanisms of the existing biodiversity resources to satisfy their individual needs and those of their societies in general. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  17. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis (southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Full Length Research Paper. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis. (southeastern Nigeria): Issues and challenges. O. P. Aghamelu*, H. N. Ezeh and A. I. Obasi. Department of Geology and Exploration Geophysics, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B., 053,. Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Accepted 24 September ...

  18. The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207


    This essay discusses the involvement of organized crime in natural resource exploitation and trade. This is accomplished by examining case studies from different tropical regions in the world: Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and DR Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), and Latin America (Brazilian

  19. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (United States)

    ... Have you experienced the tragedy of a missing child? We're here to help. Learn More >> × KidSmartz New Parent Tips to Help Kids Set Physical Boundaries! Download Resources >> × Subscribe EN SP Blog Media About Us Contact Us Legal T&C Careers Copyright © National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. All ...

  20. Finding All Elementary Circuits Exploiting Transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair and current mirror basically exploit the transconductance of transistors. This paper aims at finding ALL elementary transconductance based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port circuits with

  1. Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram


    Commonly used elementary circuits like single-transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair, and current mirrors basically exploit the transconductance property of transistors. This paper aims at finding all elementary transconductance-based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port

  2. Puberty and adolescent sexuality. (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer Pornography and Child Exploitation Prevention Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on S. 1305 (October 1, 1985). (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The Computer Pornography and Child Exploitation Prevention Act would establish criminal penalties for the transmission by computer of obscene matter, or by computer or other means, of matter pertaining to the sexual exploitation of children. Opening statements by Senators Trible, Denton, Specter, and McConnell are presented. The text of the bill…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse and the Law in India: A commentary


    Belur, J. S.


    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has only recently been publicly acknowledged as a problem in India. A welcome development has been the enactment of a special law—Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO) 2012—criminalising a range of acts including child rape, harassment, and exploitation for pornography. The law mandates setting up of Special Courts to facilitate speedy trials in CSA cases. The paper highlights the intended benefits and the unintended consequences that might arise from...

  5. Sexual abuse and incest. What can you do? (United States)

    Finkel, K. C.


    The problem of child sexual abuse is of increasing relevance to family physicians. Apart from the need to recognize and manage child victims and their families, it is important to be aware of the incidence and nature of the many sequelae of childhood sexual exploitation. Common signals include physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Some physicians must deal with their own childhood victimization if the best interests of their patients are to be served. PMID:8038637

  6. Sexuality and Young Children. (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling


    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  7. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja


    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  8. Trolling may intensify exploitation in crappie fisheries (United States)

    Meals, K. O.; Dunn, A. W.; Miranda, Leandro E.


    In some parts of the USA, anglers targeting crappies Pomoxis spp. are transitioning from mostly stationary angling with a single pole around submerged structures to using multiple poles while drifting with the wind or under power. This shift in fishing methods could result in a change in catch efficiency, possibly increasing exploitation rates to levels that would be of concern to managers. We studied the catch statistics of anglers fishing while trolling with multiple poles (trollers) and those fishing with single poles (polers) in Mississippi reservoirs. Specifically, we tested whether (1) various catch statistics differed between trollers and polers, (2) catch rates of trollers were related to the number of poles fished, and (3) trollers could raise exploitation rates to potentially unsustainable levels. Results showed that participation in the crappie fisheries was about equally split between polers and trollers. In spring, 90% of crappie anglers were polers; in summer, 85% of crappie anglers were trollers. The size of harvested crappies was similar for the two angler groups, but the catch per hour was almost three times higher for trollers than for polers. Catch rates by trollers were directly correlated to the number of poles fished, although the relationship flattened as the number of poles increased. The average harvest rate for one troller fishing with three poles was similar to the harvest rate obtained by one poler. Simulations predicted that at the existing mix of about 50% polers and 50% trollers and with no restrictions on the number of poles used by trollers, exploitation of crappies is about 1.3 times higher than that in a polers-only fishery; under a scenario in which 100% of crappie anglers were trollers, exploitation was forecasted to increase to about 1.7 times the polers-only rate. The efficiency of trolling for crappies should be of concern to fishery managers because crappie fisheries are mostly consumptive and may increase exploitation

  9. Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviors and sexual revictimization. (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, L J; Lynskey, M T


    The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence. A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective reports of CSA were obtained from sample members. Over the course of the 18 year study information was gathered on: (a) childhood, family, and related circumstances; and (b) the young women's history of sexual experiences from 14 to 18 years. Young women reporting CSA, and particularly severe CSA involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault after the age of 16. Logistic regression analyses suggested that the associations between CSA and sexual outcomes in adolescence arose by two routes. First, exposure to CSA was associated with a series of childhood and family factors including social disadvantage, family instability, impaired parent child relationships, and parental adjustment difficulties that were also associated with increased sexual vulnerability in adolescence. Second, there appeared to be a causal chain relationship between CSA and sexual experiences in which CSA was associated with early onset sexual activity which, in turn, led to heightened risks of other adverse outcomes in adolescence. The findings of this study suggest that those exposed to CSA have greater sexual vulnerability during adolescence. This appears to arise because: (a) the childhood and family factors that are associated with CSA are also associated with increased sexual risks during adolescence; and (b) exposure to CSA may encourage early onset sexual activity which places those exposed to CSA at greater sexual risk over the period of adolescence.

  10. Peran Ecpat (End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography, and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes) Dalam Menangani Kasus Prostitusi Anak Di Meksiko Tahun 2005-2015


    Yirdam R, Mutia; Yealta, Den


    Mexico is one of the leading hot spot for sexual exploitation of children. ECPAT as NGO which fights against sexual exploitation of children have some role in cases of child prostitution in Mexico. Based on the high level of child prostitution in Mexico and ECPAT have some role in that cases, the authors conducted a study to find out some role that ECPAT done for this child sexual exploiations case.This study use a constructivist perspective and International organizations theory. This study ...

  11. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability (United States)

    ... 2015 Home / News & Policy / Policy / Position Statements / Sexuality Sexuality Joint Position Statement of AAIDD and The Arc ... and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well- ...

  12. Women and sexual problems (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000663.htm Women and sexual problems To use the sharing features on this page, ... feel better about your sex life. Common Sexual Problems You may have sexual dysfunction if you are ...

  13. Female Sexual Dysfunction (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  14. Compulsive Sexual Behavior (United States)

    ... access to sexual content. Advances in technology and social media allow access to increasingly intensive sexual imagery and information. Privacy. Secrecy and privacy of compulsive sexual activities ... gambling addiction Family conflicts or family members with problems such ...

  15. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...

  16. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior (United States)

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  17. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship. (United States)

    Richardson, Diane


    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.

  18. Sexual Trafficking in the United States: A Domestic Problem with Transnational Dimensions (United States)

    Hodge, David R.


    The trafficking of young women and children for prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation is one of the most significant human rights abuses in contemporary society. In keeping with the social work profession's commitment to social justice, this article examines the issue of sexual trafficking in the United States. The transnational…

  19. Rethinking the Routine Provision of Psychotherapy to Children/Adolescents Labeled "Sexually Abused" (United States)

    Oellerich, Thomas


    Whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, children labeled sexually abused are routinely offered treatment at considerable financial cost. One result of this is that mental health professionals are being charged with exploiting the problem of child sexual abuse (CSA). Is the routine provision of psychotherapy for children and adolescents labeled…

  20. Exploring sexual risks in a forensic mental health hospital: perspectives from patients and nurses. (United States)

    Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda


    Patients utilising forensic mental health inpatient services experience a range of sexual risks, including vulnerability to sexual exploitation and exposure to sexually transmissible infections. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the issue of sexual risks from the standpoint of patients and the nurses who work closely with them in inpatient secure settings. This article presents findings from a qualitative exploratory study, which investigated the views of patients and nurses about sexual relationships in forensic mental health settings. Risk was a major theme arising from the data and is the focus of this article. Subthemes from nurse participants included sexual safety, sexual vulnerability, unplanned pregnancies, and male sexuality issues. Subthemes from patients included risks associated with sexual activity, access to information and sexual health care, unplanned pregnancies, vulnerability, and male sexuality issues. Knowledge about these sexual risks by patients and nurses were well articulated, however information and assistance were considered by patients to be less than satisfactory in improving their knowledge or in providing the support they considered important to reduce sexual risks. The issue of risk needs to be addressed, and nurses would be well placed to contribute; however they require education to improve their ability to provide sexual health education to patients along with strategies to ensure patients receive the support and services they require to reduce their exposure to sexual risks.

  1. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian


    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour....

  2. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela


    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  3. Organizational Factors for Exploration and Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadindu Pandey


    Full Text Available The Purpose of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework which suggests a relationship between organisational factors and exploratory and exploitative innovation types. We searched major databases like ABI/INFORM global, EBSCO, Elsevier’s science direct, Springer link and Emerald full text. Most of studies were included from published sources. We explored the literature of organisational culture, motivational bases of the rewards system and leadership values which are responsible for increasing creative and productive output. Our study has attempted to identify common patterns and themes in the literature regarding the drivers that increase both sides of the organisational creativity. The paper discusses the role of culture, system and styles in the initiation and implementation phases of the innovation called herein exploitative and exploratory innovation.

  4. Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF. (United States)

    A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence.

  5. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz


    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... ecosystem approach whichutilizes synergies in natural and technical sciencedisciplines. DTU Aqua advises the Danish Ministry ofFood, Agriculture and Fisheries and other publicauthorities, the commercial fisheries, theaquaculture industry and international commissions.DTU Aqua deals with all types ofaquatic...... in the ocean and how these factors impact the living conditions formarine organisms. Population genetics aims at gaining knowledge on how to preserve and managebiodiversity sustainably. Individual biology deals with the biology of aquatic organisms and theirinteraction with other organisms...

  6. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce


    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  7. Automatic exploitation system for photographic dosemeters; Systeme d`exploitation automatique des dosimetres photographiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, Y.; Devillard, D.; Godefroit, J.L.; Barillet, C.


    The Laboratory of Dosimetry Exploitation (LED) has realized an equipment allowing to exploit automatically photographic film dosemeters. This system uses an identification of the films by code-bars and gives the doses measurement with a completely automatic reader. The principle consists in putting in ribbon the emulsions to be exploited and to develop them in a circulation machine. The measurement of the blackening film is realized on a reading plate having fourteen points of reading, in which are circulating the emulsions in ribbon. The exploitation is made with the usual dose calculation method, with special computers codes. A comparison on 2000 dosemeters has shown that the results are the same in manual and automatical methods. This system has been operating since July 1995 by the LED. (N.C.).

  8. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Ha


    Full Text Available Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  9. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics. (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Liu, Bin


    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  10. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics


    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin


    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  11. Flare Systems Exploitation and Impact on Permafrost (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.


    Mathematical models and numerical algorithms of horizontal and vertical flare systems exploitation in northern oil and gas fields located in permafrost zone are developed. Computations of long-term forecasts of permafrost degradation around such constructions have been carried out for various types of operation, including emergency situations, which cause a short-term increase in the heat flow near the ground surface, which leads to an additional soil temperature increasing.

  12. Stuck in Traffic: Sexual Politics and Criminal Injustice in Social Movements Against Human Trafficking


    Kinney, Edith Celine Marie


    Stuck in Traffic: Sexual Politics and Criminal Injustice in Social Movements Against Human TraffickingThis dissertation analyzes the sexual politics of transnational movements against human trafficking. I track the periodic securitization of women's migration and commercial sexual exploitation in international affairs from the Victorian-era movement against "White Slavery" to the contemporary campaign against "modern day slavery" and sex trafficking, using the case of Thailand to investigate ...

  13. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick


    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  14. Criminal acts related to the exploitation of child pornography through abuse of computer systems and networks: International and domestic criminal legislation framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana


    Full Text Available The paper points out the importance of newly adopted international norms and standards that State Parties should undertake to aim a more adequate protection of children from sexual exploitation especially a pornography exploitation. A specific section of this paper is dedicated to the overview of the domestic criminal legislation framework regarding the protection of children victims of crimes related to their exploitation in pornography through abuse of computer systems and networks, and considering the recent changes in the criminal legislation in the Republic of Serbia. In this paper the author particularly analyses the compliance of certain provisions of the Criminal Code with the assumed international obligations.

  15. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men. (United States)

    Sternberg, P


    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  16. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background- Sexual abuse and exploitation of male children is one of the emerging social problems affecting the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of children in Addis Ababa. The magnitude of the problem seems much worse among the street boys because of their precarious living conditions. However, very ...

  17. Return to the Grindhouse: Tarantino and the modernization of 1970s Exploitation Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Platz


    Full Text Available Exploitation films from the 1970s and early 80s such as Foxy Brown (Jack Hill, 1974 and Switchblade Sisters (Jack Hill, 1975 were the first films to allow women to actively control the narrative and course of events in a film. Men become secondary characters who had no or little control over the course of events in these films. Because the films were made during the rapidly changing social climate of the 1970s, the films also became a barometer in their treatment of female characters of social mores. Director Quentin Tarantino’s films Death Proof (2007, Kill Bill I and II (2003 and 2004, Jackie Brown (1997, and Inglourious Basterds (2009 attempt to modernize the active women from exploitation films of the 1970s, reworking the female characters’ mobilization against typical gender roles, and attributing her with the abilities to compete, and even challenge men in a patriarchic society.However, Tarantino’s films mostly fail to progress beyond the trappings of the classic exploitation films of the 1970s, still relying heavily on the excessive display of female bodies, and subjugating women to the male camera and spectator gaze. In Tarantino’s attempt to remove female characters from the gender restraints of most Hollywood films, he creates the female action star, and inadvertently reverses the work of classic exploitation films by limiting the traits strong women are able to possess. By contrast, the female leads of 1970s exploitation films, although still heavily sexualized, are able to be physically powerful while retaining their feminine identifications as a wives, mothers, lovers, and beauty queens. Tarantino’s portrayal of strong women is more limited, however when strong sexuality and typical feminine traits are not connected to the powerful female characters. Instead female sexuality and feminine appearances are shown as weaknesses that contribute to the female characters’ deaths or lack of individuality. Tarantino allows one

  18. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk


    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  19. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge


    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  20. Addressing Sexual Harassment (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.


    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  1. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P


    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  2. Sexual Problems of Counselees. (United States)

    Heritage, Jeannette G.; West, W. Beryl

    Approximately 50% of American marriages have some sexual dysfunction. Because sexuality is an important part of a person's life, counselors should be sensitive to sexual concerns of their clients. Taking an adequate sex history and highlighting problem areas may increase counseling efficiency. When counselors teach courses on human sexuality, they…

  3. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik


    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  4. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy? (United States)

    Davis, Terri


    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Aphid Heritable Symbiont Exploits Defensive Mutualism. (United States)

    Doremus, Matthew R; Oliver, Kerry M


    Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS), and each of its seven common HFS species has been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa , another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps. Using experimental aphid lines comprised of all possible infection combinations in a uniform aphid genotype, we investigated whether the most common strain of X-type provides any of the established benefits associated with aphid HFS as a single infection or superinfection with H. defensa We found that X-type does not confer protection to any tested threats, including parasitoid wasps, fungal pathogens, or thermal stress. Instead, component fitness assays identified large costs associated with X-type infection, costs which were ameliorated in superinfected aphids. Together these findings suggest that X-type exploits the aphid/ H. defensa mutualism and is maintained primarily as a superinfection by "hitchhiking" via the mutualistic benefits provided by another HFS. Exploitative symbionts potentially restrict the functions and distributions of mutualistic symbioses with effects that extend to other community members. IMPORTANCE Maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts are widespread and can have major impacts on the biology of arthropods, including insects of medical and agricultural importance. Given that host fitness and symbiont fitness are tightly linked, inherited symbionts can spread within host populations by providing beneficial services. Many insects, however, are frequently infected with multiple heritable symbiont species, providing potential

  6. Geothermal resources: exploration and exploitation. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This comprehensive bibliography contains 5476 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books concerned with the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources. The coverage dates back as far as useful references could be obtained and extends through June 1976. References are arranged in broad subject categories and are made up of complete bibliographic citations. These are followed by a listing of subject descriptors used to describe the subject content of each reference. Four indexes are included: Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. Also included is a list of journals from which articles were selected. (LBS)

  7. Taking a sexual history. (United States)

    Presswell, N; Barton, D


    Significant social changes have resulted in increased exposure to sexual issues and greater tolerance of sexual behaviours such as premarital sex and homosexuality. These changes are not universal, however. We live in a multicultural society with widely varying sexual mores and frequent clashes of culture across generations. The media has contributed to unrealistic expectations about body image and sexual performance while at the same time increasing awareness of sexually transmitted diseases. Consequently, patients seek help with these issues and will discuss them freely if the general practitioner is comfortable in the area of sexual health. This article outlines an approach to sexual assessment and ways of addressing the barriers faced in taking a sexual history. All sexual disorders involve biological, psychological and social factors. General practice can provide a safe, non-judgmental environment for the patient to divulge sexual difficulties and have these dealt with holistically. However, this takes time, a significant obstacle in current practice.

  8. Genetic architecture of sensory exploitation: QTL mapping of female and male receiver traits in an acoustic moth. (United States)

    Alem, S; Streiff, R; Courtois, B; Zenboudji, S; Limousin, D; Greenfield, M D


    The evolution of extravagant sexual traits by sensory exploitation occurs if males incidentally evolve features that stimulate females owing to a pre-existing environmental response that arose in the context of natural selection. The sensory exploitation process is thus expected to leave a specific genetic imprint, a pleiotropic control of the original environmental response and the novel sexual response in females. However, females may be subsequently selected to improve their discrimination of environmental and sexual stimuli. Accordingly, responses may have diverged and the original genetic architecture may have been modified. These possibilities may be considered by studying the genetic architecture of responses to male signals and to the environmental stimuli that were purportedly 'exploited' by those signals. However, no previous study has addressed the genetic control of sensory exploitation. We investigated this question in an acoustic pyralid moth, Achroia grisella, in which a male ultrasonic song attracts females and perception of ultrasound likely arose in the context of detecting predatory bats. We examined the genetic architecture of female response to bat echolocation signals and to male song via a cartographic study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing these receiver traits. We found several QTL for both traits, but none of them were colocalized on the same chromosomes. These results indicate that - to the extent to which male A. grisella song originated by the process of sensory exploitation - some modification of the female responses occurred since the origin of the male signal. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse


    Sunanda Jalote


    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  10. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang


    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.

  11. Compressed sensing MRI exploiting complementary dual decomposition. (United States)

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok


    Compressed sensing (CS) MRI exploits the sparsity of an image in a transform domain to reconstruct the image from incoherently under-sampled k-space data. However, it has been shown that CS suffers particularly from loss of low-contrast image features with increasing reduction factors. To retain image details in such degraded experimental conditions, in this work we introduce a novel CS reconstruction method exploiting feature-based complementary dual decomposition with joint estimation of local scale mixture (LSM) model and images. Images are decomposed into dual block sparse components: total variation for piecewise smooth parts and wavelets for residuals. The LSM model parameters of residuals in the wavelet domain are estimated and then employed as a regional constraint in spatially adaptive reconstruction of high frequency subbands to restore image details missing in piecewise smooth parts. Alternating minimization of the dual image components subject to data consistency is performed to extract image details from residuals and add them back to their complementary counterparts while the LSM model parameters and images are jointly estimated in a sequential fashion. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in preserving low-contrast image features even at high reduction factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  13. Exploiting time in electronic health record correlations. (United States)

    Hripcsak, George; Albers, David J; Perotte, Adler


    To demonstrate that a large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal fine temporal patterns in clinical associations; to illustrate several types of associations; and to ascertain the value of exploiting time. Lagged linear correlation was calculated between seven clinical laboratory values and 30 clinical concepts extracted from resident signout notes from a 22-year, 3-million-patient database of electronic health records. Time points were interpolated, and patients were normalized to reduce inter-patient effects. The method revealed several types of associations with detailed temporal patterns. Definitional associations included low blood potassium preceding 'hypokalemia.' Low potassium preceding the drug spironolactone with high potassium following spironolactone exemplified intentional and physiologic associations, respectively. Counterintuitive results such as the fact that diseases appeared to follow their effects may be due to the workflow of healthcare, in which clinical findings precede the clinician's diagnosis of a disease even though the disease actually preceded the findings. Fully exploiting time by interpolating time points produced less noisy results. Electronic health records are not direct reflections of the patient state, but rather reflections of the healthcare process and the recording process. With proper techniques and understanding, and with proper incorporation of time, interpretable associations can be derived from a large clinical database. A large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal clinical associations, time is an important feature, and care must be taken to interpret the results.

  14. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor


    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  15. Sexuality and Islam. (United States)

    Dialmy, Abdessamad


    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  16. Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Thoughts About Sexual Pleasure. (United States)

    Saliares, Ellen; Wilkerson, J Michael; Sieving, Renee E; Brady, Sonya S

    Little research on adolescents has examined developmentally normative facets of sexuality that are not obviously linked to physical health. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to qualitatively analyze adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure. The study sample consisted of 56 sexually experienced, ethnically diverse, predominantly female adolescents who were participating in a Web-based intervention to promote healthy sexual decision making. Comments on one message board, "Sexual Pleasure: Does It Matter to You?," provided an opportunity to examine adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure, as well as their communication with partners about that topic. Adolescents' comments demonstrated that they experience difficulties with pleasure in their sexual relationships. Adolescents generally believed that men are more likely than women to feel pleasure due to differences that include biology, understanding of one's body, and control over partnered sexual behavior. Adolescents defined inequality of received pleasure differently and discussed contexts in which inequality may be acceptable. Adolescents expressed motivation to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure. However, their statements suggested they often lack the skills to do so. Future prevention and intervention programs should equip adolescents with skills to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure.

  17. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O


    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano


    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  19. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  20. The locus of sexual selection: moving sexual selection studies into the post-genomics era. (United States)

    Wilkinson, G S; Breden, F; Mank, J E; Ritchie, M G; Higginson, A D; Radwan, J; Jaquiery, J; Salzburger, W; Arriero, E; Barribeau, S M; Phillips, P C; Renn, S C P; Rowe, L


    Sexual selection drives fundamental evolutionary processes such as trait elaboration and speciation. Despite this importance, there are surprisingly few examples of genes unequivocally responsible for variation in sexually selected phenotypes. This lack of information inhibits our ability to predict phenotypic change due to universal behaviours, such as fighting over mates and mate choice. Here, we discuss reasons for this apparent gap and provide recommendations for how it can be overcome by adopting contemporary genomic methods, exploiting underutilized taxa that may be ideal for detecting the effects of sexual selection and adopting appropriate experimental paradigms. Identifying genes that determine variation in sexually selected traits has the potential to improve theoretical models and reveal whether the genetic changes underlying phenotypic novelty utilize common or unique molecular mechanisms. Such a genomic approach to sexual selection will help answer questions in the evolution of sexually selected phenotypes that were first asked by Darwin and can furthermore serve as a model for the application of genomics in all areas of evolutionary biology. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

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    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj


    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  2. Parental Sexual Attitudes, Family Sexual Communication, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Some researchers have reported that when parents are the main source of sex education, their adolescent children are less likely to engage in premarital sexual activity and are more likely to use effective contraception. This study used the variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes (liberal or conservative) to categorize 349 college…

  3. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas systems for biotechnology. (United States)

    Sampson, Timothy R; Weiss, David S


    The Cas9 endonuclease is the central component of the Type II CRISPR/Cas system, a prokaryotic adaptive restriction system against invading nucleic acids, such as those originating from bacteriophages and plasmids. Recently, this RNA-directed DNA endonuclease has been harnessed to target DNA sequences of interest. Here, we review the development of Cas9 as an important tool to not only edit the genomes of a number of different prokaryotic and eukaryotic species, but also as an efficient system for site-specific transcriptional repression or activation. Additionally, a specific Cas9 protein has been observed to target an RNA substrate, suggesting that Cas9 may have the ability to be programmed to target RNA as well. Cas proteins from other CRISPR/Cas subtypes may also be exploited in this regard. Thus, CRISPR/Cas systems represent an effective and versatile biotechnological tool, which will have significant impact on future advancements in genome engineering. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exploiting HRM in support of lean manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in HRM practices are-and could potentially be-exploited to support lean manufacturing in practice. First, a review of the pertinent literature regarding HRM, SHRM, and lean manufacturing is presented to provide an understanding of the mechanisms...... by which HRM practices could, theoretically, be used to support a lean implementation. Data presented in the paper are derived from 1) a longitudinal case study on lean implementation and 2) from managers currently involved with lean manufacturing in a second company. The relevant literature and the data......'s contribution to the change process itself and through bundling particular HRM practices that are aligned with the lean strategy. The paper contributes to both theory and practice, by suggesting specific ways in which HRM can be strategically aligned with a major change implementation such as lean manufacturing....

  5. Automatic image exploitation system for small UAVs (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Esswein, M.; Krüger, W.; Saur, G.


    For surveillance and reconnaissance tasks small UAVs are of growing importance. These UAVs have an endurance of several hours, but a small payload of about some kilograms. As a consequence lightweight sensors and cameras have to be used without having a mechanical stabilized high precision sensor-platform, which would exceed the payload and cost limitations. An example of such a system is the German UAV Luna with optical and IR sensors on board. For such platforms we developed image exploitation algorithms. The algorithms comprise mosaiking, stabilization, image enhancement, video based moving target indication, and stereo-image generation. Other products are large geo-coded image mosaics, stereo mosaics, and 3-D-model generation. For test and assessment of these algorithms the experimental system ABUL has been developed, in which the algorithms are integrated. The ABUL system is used for tests and assessment by military PIs.

  6. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung


    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  7. Exploitation of bioremediation in the environment protection

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    Alena Luptáková


    Full Text Available Soils and waters contaminated with toxic metals pose a major environmental problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Many areas remain contaminated with no remediation in sight because it is too expensive to clean them up with available technologies. Bioremediation may provide an economically viable solution for remediation of some of these sites. The bioremediation is an application of the biological treatment to the cleanup of hazardous chemicals and is an example of the environmental biotechnology. The aim of this paper is to give a theoretical and practical view concerning the possibility of the bioremediation exploitation in the environment protection. This paper includes some results of the bioremediation of the acid mine drainage by sulphate-reducing bacteria.

  8. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    Management, however, requires models that can link the ecosystem level to the operation level, so this paper examines an ecosystem production model and shows that it is suitable for applying ground rent theory. This model is the simplest possible that incorporates the principles of size as the main...... at the ecosystem level in the present management. Therefore, economic predictions for an ecosystem managed as a common pool resource must be that  the exploitation probably are conducted at lower sized than optimum. In addition, given its population stock approach, the present management probably overlooks...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež


    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  10. Safeguarding children and youth in residential and foster care: Supporting healthy sexual development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels

    In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... (in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...

  11. Indian concepts on sexuality (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha


    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  12. Indian concepts on sexuality. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha


    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  13. Alcohol and Sexual Assault (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam


    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  14. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development. (United States)

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L


    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  15. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  16. Causes of sexual dysfunction (image) (United States)

    Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.

  17. [Sexuality in aging]. (United States)

    Berner, Yitshal N


    During aging, impairment in many physiological functions is manifested. This is exhibited in sexual functioning, which is an intricate interaction involving a number of systems: endocrinal, motor, sensor, physical and sensual. Sexual activity is a component of the well-being of the individual, while sexuality is part of self-identity at any age. Sexual activity is a primary base to human relations, and it is a basic right of every person in society. Sexuality and sexual activity are considered to be part of youth, hence, the combination of sexuality and aging is considered strange. In many instances, sexual activity in the elderly is considered exceptional and possibly requiring certain intervention of the society establishment. Recent technological advances enable sexual activity, despite physiological and even anatomical shortcomings. Knowledge of the changes in sexual activity with aging, as well as having open communication on the subject, are the best tools for maintaining sexual activity with appropriate limitation during aging. The purpose of this short review is to present the different aspects of sexuality and sexual activity in aging.

  18. The trafficking of women and girls in Taiwan: characteristics of victims, perpetrators, and forms of exploitation. (United States)

    Huang, Lanying


    Prior to the passing of 2009 Human Trafficking Prevention Act (HTPA), human trafficking was underestimated in Taiwan. In the past, domestic trafficking in women and girls often targeted vulnerable groups such as young girls from poor families or minority groups. Since the 1990s, an increasing flow of immigrant women, mainly from Vietnam and Indonesia and some from China, into Taiwan has created a new group of Human Trafficking victims. The current study intends to identify, describe, and categorize reported and prosecuted human trafficking cases involving women and girls according to the HTPA in Taiwan. Using the court proceedings of prosecuted trafficking in women and girls cases under Taiwan's HTPA from all 21 districts in Taiwan from 2009 to 2012 under the title keyword of 'Human Trafficking', this current study aims to categorize different patterns of existing trafficking in women and girls in Taiwan. The analysis is based on 37 court cases, involving 195 victimized women and girls and 118 perpetrators. This study identifies six forms of Human Trafficking victims according to their country of origin, vulnerability status, and means of transport. This study found that women and girls suffer from both labor and sexual exploitation, from mainly domestic male perpetrators. While sexual exploitation is more evenly distributed among citizens and immigrants and affects both adults and minors, labor exploitation seems to be an exclusive phenomenon among women immigrant workers in the data. Human Trafficking cases in Taiwan share many of the similarities of Human Trafficking in other regions, which are highly associated with gender inequality and gender-based vulnerability.

  19. Frogs Exploit Statistical Regularities in Noisy Acoustic Scenes to Solve Cocktail-Party-like Problems. (United States)

    Lee, Norman; Ward, Jessica L; Vélez, Alejandro; Micheyl, Christophe; Bee, Mark A


    Noise is a ubiquitous source of errors in all forms of communication [1]. Noise-induced errors in speech communication, for example, make it difficult for humans to converse in noisy social settings, a challenge aptly named the "cocktail party problem" [2]. Many nonhuman animals also communicate acoustically in noisy social groups and thus face biologically analogous problems [3]. However, we know little about how the perceptual systems of receivers are evolutionarily adapted to avoid the costs of noise-induced errors in communication. In this study of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis; Hylidae), we investigated whether receivers exploit a potential statistical regularity present in noisy acoustic scenes to reduce errors in signal recognition and discrimination. We developed an anatomical/physiological model of the peripheral auditory system to show that temporal correlation in amplitude fluctuations across the frequency spectrum ("comodulation") [4-6] is a feature of the noise generated by large breeding choruses of sexually advertising males. In four psychophysical experiments, we investigated whether females exploit comodulation in background noise to mitigate noise-induced errors in evolutionarily critical mate-choice decisions. Subjects experienced fewer errors in recognizing conspecific calls and in selecting the calls of high-quality mates in the presence of simulated chorus noise that was comodulated. These data show unequivocally, and for the first time, that exploiting statistical regularities present in noisy acoustic scenes is an important biological strategy for solving cocktail-party-like problems in nonhuman animal communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scleroderma and Sexuality (United States)

    Scleroderma and Sexuality INTRODUCTION If you or your partner have been diagnosed with scleroderma, you may be wondering how this will ... will continue to find satisfaction and enjoyment through sexuality. If you are single, you may wonder how ...

  1. Sexuality in Older Adults (United States)

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and ...

  2. Sexual Orientation (For Parents) (United States)

    ... the same sex, as they explore their own sexuality. But these experiences, by themselves, do not necessarily ... of the process of sorting through their emerging sexuality. And despite gender stereotypes, masculine and feminine traits ...

  3. [Sexuality and dementia]. (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian


    Sexuality, love, companionship and intimacy remain important parts of life in older people and demented patients. The most frequent sexual disorder reported by spouses of patients with dementia is sexual indifference related to apathy and blunted affect. Increase of sexual demands is rare and many behaviors considered as inappropriate or expressing hypersexuality actually express affective needs or result from cognitive disturbances. Permanence of sexual activity is most often a factor of adjustment for married dementia sufferers and their caregivers. However, some sexual behaviors are stressing for the spouses, mainly women spouses. In nursing homes or long term care facilities, expressing sexuality by demented subjects and dealing with inappropriate sexual expression are source of concerns for the nursing staff, other residents, and families. Information about sex and dementia and a psychobehavioral approach can decrease the strain of families and caregivers.

  4. Sexual Harassment in Academe. (United States)

    Tuana, Nancy


    The extent and nature of sexual harassment of students by college faculty are examined, and practical suggestions for institutions to eradicate academic sexual harassment are made, including a published code of conduct and educational programs. (MSE)

  5. Sexual Assault against Females (United States)

    ... Management (MOVE!) Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Veterans Canteen Service (VCS) Research Research Home About VA Research ... to develop new relationships. Performance at work and school can also be affected. Sexual problems Sexual problems ...

  6. Military Sexual Trauma (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Military Sexual Trauma Overview Programs & Services Articles & Fact Sheets Other Resources ... local Veterans Benefits Administration Regional Office . Overview Military sexual trauma (MST) is the term that the Department of ...

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections (United States)

    ... et al. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008 . Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(3): 187–193. Centers for Disease Control ...

  8. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V (United States)

    Goor, Erwin


    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (, the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  9. An Overview of Sexual Harassment (United States)

    Stier, William F., Jr.


    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  10. [Sexuality of pregnant women]. (United States)

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy


    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  11. Sexual Desire Disorders


    Montgomery, Keith A.


    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...

  12. Indian concepts on sexuality


    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha


    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffu...

  13. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases


    Shelton, Andrew A.


    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  14. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis


    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  15. [Sexual injuries during consensual sexual activity]. (United States)

    Savaş, Aysun; Efesoy, Ozan; Cayan, Filiz; Cayan, Selahittin


    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate sexual injury treated in our clinic. We evaluated the results of 31 patients (17 males, 14 females; mean age 31,97±11,64; range 18 to 60 years) with sexual injury during consensual sexual activity, who presented to the emergency department between January 2004 and December 2010. Patients' age, etiology of injury, time passed since trauma, physical/operative examination results, type of treatment, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications were investigated. Sexual injury occurred in women as vaginal laceration and in man as penile fracture. All of the cases were treated with early surgical repair. Vaginal injuries were formed in virginal girls during the first sexual intercourse. Cases usually complained of vaginal pain and then bleeding during sexual activity. The commonest site of injury was the posterior vaginal fornix. Etiology of penile fracture was sexual intercourse and masturbation. Sudden pain in the penis, edema, color change, and sudden detumescence were the main complaints. Eleven patients had right, 5 had left and 1 had bilateral tunical ruptures, with defects of 0.5-3 cm in length. The patient with bilateral injury had accompanying incomplete urethral rupture. Sexual injury can be diagnosed effectively based on history and physical examination, and may be treated successfully with early surgical procedure.

  16. Sexuality educators: Taking a stand by participating in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Beyers


    Full Text Available Life Orientation teachers play a critical role in the teaching and learning of sexuality education in South African schools. Using an experiential participatory approach with 125 teachers in the Motheo district, Free State, I explored three questions: What messages did the teachers learn about sex and sexuality? How do these messages inform the teachers' values? How do the teachers teach sexuality education? Despite its own problems and limitations, the participatory approach exploits and reinforces the life-space model proposed by Kurt Lewin. I will argue that past and future events have an impact on teachers' present behaviour and how they teach. I conclude with a frameworkfor the teaching of sexuality education using participatory methods, which can help support teachers interested in working with such an approach.

  17. Tonic dopamine modulates exploitation of reward learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler


    Full Text Available The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this closed economy paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior.

  18. Efficient Media Exploitation Towards Collective Intelligence (United States)

    Mylonas, Phivos; Solachidis, Vassilios; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas; Hoser, Bettina; Chapman, Sam; Ciravegna, Fabio; Staab, Steffen; Smrz, Pavel; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Avrithis, Yannis

    In this work we propose intelligent, automated content analysis techniques for different media to extract knowledge from the multimedia content. Information derived from different sources/modalities will be analyzed and fused, in terms of spatiotemporal, personal and even social contextual information. In order to achieve this goal, semantic analysis will be applied to the content items, taking into account the content itself (e.g., text, images and video), as well as existing personal, social and contextual information (e.g., semantic and machine-processable metadata and tags). The above process exploits the so-called “Media Intelligence” towards the ultimate goal of identifying “Collective Intelligence”, emerging from the collaboration and competition among people, empowering innovative services and user interactions. The utilization of “Media Intelligence” constitutes a departure from traditional methods for information sharing, since semantic multimedia analysis has to fuse information from both the content itself and the social context, while at the same time the social dynamics have to be taken into account. Such intelligence provides added-value to the available multimedia content and renders existing procedures and research efforts more efficient.

  19. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 9103); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPP's as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts. This report summarizes the activities of our group during a part of the first year's effort to meet the objectives stated in our proposal. We will comment on three research foci, time compression studies, subgrid scale model studies, and distributed climate ensemble studies and additional significant technical matters.

  20. The Spanish network for Gaia Science Exploitation (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; REG Executive Committee Team; Gaia UB Team


    The ''Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia'' (REG) continues to intensify its activities facing the imminent publication of the first and second Gaia data releases (14 September, 2016 and Q4-2017, respectively). The network, supported by the MINECO under contract Acciones de dinamizaci ´on, Redes de Excelencia (2016-2017), has as major priority the task to coordinate and support the collective activities developed by its more than 150 members. At present, REG plays a prominent role in the preparation of the Spanish community for the use of the Gaia data archive (a task lead by the Spanish team), in the work to exploit the Gaia-ESO survey collected during the last four years and in supporting the preparation of the science case and survey plan for WEAVE, the new multi-object spectrograph for the WHT at Canary Islands (commissioning, 2018). These activities are described together with the schedule of future national and international science meetings and the outreach activities being organized for the first and second Data Releases

  1. Exploiting Genome Structure in Association Analysis (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung


    Abstract A genome-wide association study involves examining a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify SNPs that are significantly associated with the given phenotype, while trying to reduce the false positive rate. Although haplotype-based association methods have been proposed to accommodate correlation information across nearby SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium, none of these methods directly incorporated the structural information such as recombination events along chromosome. In this paper, we propose a new approach called stochastic block lasso for association mapping that exploits prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure in the genome such as recombination rates and distances between adjacent SNPs in order to increase the power of detecting true associations while reducing false positives. Following a typical linear regression framework with the genotypes as inputs and the phenotype as output, our proposed method employs a sparsity-enforcing Laplacian prior for the regression coefficients, augmented by a first-order Markov process along the sequence of SNPs that incorporates the prior information on the linkage disequilibrium structure. The Markov-chain prior models the structural dependencies between a pair of adjacent SNPs, and allows us to look for association SNPs in a coupled manner, combining strength from multiple nearby SNPs. Our results on HapMap-simulated datasets and mouse datasets show that there is a significant advantage in incorporating the prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure for marker identification under whole-genome association. PMID:21548809

  2. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics. (United States)

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B


    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual Harassment in Schools. (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.


    Reviews the legal principles and precedents that frame current sexual harassment laws as they relate to schools. Discusses school district liability and responsibility for providing school environments safe from sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for developing and implementing school policies regarding sexual harassment. (CFR)

  4. Sexual Orientations in Perspective. (United States)

    Garnets, Linda D.


    Discuess how sexuality is determined by multiple influences, including sociocutural factors. Presents a new paradigm that analyzes categories of human sexual behavior. A model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity and examines overlapping identities and statuses of culture, age, race, ethnicity, class, and disability.…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... A child who is the victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or distorted view of sex. The child may become withdrawn and mistrustful of adults, ... except on sexual terms. Some sexually abused children become child abusers ...

  6. Sexual Behavior in Adolescence (United States)

    Hopkins, J. Roy


    Surveys conducted between the 1930's and 1970's on the sexual behavior of adolescents indicate the following: (1) older adolescents are more sexually experienced now than in earlier generations; (2) there has been a greater increase in incidence of premarital sex for females than males; and (3) there is a trend toward earlier sexual experience for…

  7. Migration, sexual exploitation, and women's health: a case report from a community health center. (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita


    An estimated 50,000 women and children are annually trafficked into the United States, resulting in complex health and social consequences and significant risk for violence. This article presents a case of a trafficked woman identified in the U.S. health system and describes the vulnerabilities to forced prostitution as a result of trafficking and the challenges in providing an effective and comprehensive response to meet safety and health care needs. Health care providers are in a unique position to identify and support U.S. sex trafficking victims; thus, education and training for health care professionals on trafficking is needed.

  8. Untold stories: biases and selection effects in research with victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. (United States)

    Brunovskis, Anette; Surtees, Rebecca


    Recent discussions of trafficking research have included calls for more innovative studies and new methodologies in order to move beyond the current trafficking narrative, which is often based on unrepresentative samples and overly simplified images. While new methods can potentially play a role in expanding the knowledge base on trafficking, this article argues that the solution is not entirely about applying new methods, but as much about using current methods to greater effect and with careful attention to their limitations and ethical constraints. Drawing on the authors' experience in researching trafficking issues in a number of projects over the past decade, the article outlines and exemplifies some of the methodological and ethical issues to be considered and accommodated when conducting research with trafficked persons -- including unrepresentative samples; access to respondents; selection biases by "gatekeepers" and self selection by potential respondents. Such considerations should inform not only how research is undertaken but also how this information is read and understood. Moreover, many of these considerations equally apply when considering the application of new methods within this field. The article maintains that a better understanding of how these issues come into play and inform trafficking research will translate into tools for conducting improved research in this field and, by implication, new perspectives on human trafficking.

  9. Human trafficking: Commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic labour in African literature


    Urama Evelyn Nwachukwu; Nwachukwu Chukwuka Ogbu


    Just like social occurrences such as human sacrifice and slavery enhanced retardation of progress in Africa in the past, trafficking is another social occurrence addressed in contemporary African literature that impedes progress and tarnishes the image of the victims. Human trafficking is rampant in Africans and some part of the world in this 21st century. This paper examines how Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Trafficked (2008) and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters′ Street (2009) highlight social occ...

  10. Protection from sexual exploitation and abuse in humanitarian crises: the humanitarian community’s response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Levine


    Full Text Available The grave allegations of widespread sexualexploitation and abuse of refugee and internallydisplaced women and children by humanitarianworkers and peacekeepers in West Africa havehighlighted the vulnerability of refugees, IDPs andothers, especially women and girls.

  11. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative? (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey


    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative.

  12. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather


    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  13. [Aging and sexuality]. (United States)

    Bucher, T


    This contribution describes sexual desire, activity and satisfaction of people aged 45-91 years on the basis of an empirical study conducted in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Sexual desire and activity diminish with age but there is a great variability. Sexual satisfaction remains stable in elderly people. Physical, hormonal and neuronal changes cause a greater vulnerability for sexual problems but relationship, psychosocial and biographical factors as well as coping strategies have a strong moderating effect. The medicalization of the sexuality of aging people is critically depicted. Recommendations for health care practitioners are given.

  14. Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform (United States)

    Goor, Erwin; Dries, Jeroen


    VITO and partners developed the Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) as an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the Proba-V (a Copernicus contributing mission) EO-data archive (, the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data on a powerful and scalable processing environment. Furthermore data from the Copernicus Global Land Service is in scope of the platform. From November 2015 an operational Proba-V MEP environment, as an ESA operation service, is gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Since autumn 2016 the platform is operational and yet several applications are released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of Proba-V bands and derived vegetation parameters from the Copernicus Global Land Service for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains on a powerfull Hadoop/Spark backend e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - Virtual Machines can be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes (GDAL, QGIS, GrassGIS, SNAP toolbox, …) and support for R and Python. This allows users to immediately work with the data without having to install tools or download data, but as well to design, debug and test applications on the platform. - A prototype of jupyter Notebooks is available with some examples worked out to show the potential of the data. Today the platform is used by several third party projects to perform R&D activities on the data, and to develop/host data analysis toolboxes. In parallel the platform is further improved and extended. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will

  15. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina


    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  16. Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.

  17. Beyond Fair Benefits: Reconsidering Exploitation Arguments Against Organ Markets. (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J


    One common objection to establishing regulated live donor organ markets is that such markets would be exploitative. Perhaps surprisingly, exploitation arguments against organ markets have been widely rejected in the philosophical literature on the subject. It is often argued that concerns about exploitation should be addressed by increasing the price paid to organ sellers, not by banning the trade outright. I argue that this analysis rests on a particular conception of exploitation (which I refer to as 'fair benefits' exploitation), and outline two additional ways that the charge of exploitation can be understood (which I discuss in terms of 'fair process' exploitation and complicity in injustice). I argue that while increasing payments to organ sellers may mitigate or eliminate fair benefits exploitation, such measures will not necessarily address fair process exploitation or complicity in injustice. I further argue that each of these three forms of wrongdoing is relevant to the ethics of paid living organ donation, as well as the design of public policy more generally.

  18. A Systematic Review of Financial Exploitation Measures in Prevalence Studies. (United States)

    Jackson, Shelly L


    The financial exploitation of older adults has garnered the attention of society as well as state and federal governments in a way that elder abuse has never been able to achieve. It is frequently asserted that financial exploitation deserves this attention in part because it is the most prevalent form of elder abuse. This article systematically reviews the measurement of financial exploitation in comparison with other forms of elder abuse and concludes that its measurement is considerably more variable than other forms of abuse. Consequently, improvements in the measurement of financial exploitation are warranted.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Minors for Online Sexual Solicitations and Interactions With Adults. (United States)

    de Santisteban, Patricia; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel


    The research on online child sexual victimization has mainly focused on the sexual solicitation of minors (i.e., sexual requests by an adult), with scarce information available on sexual interactions (e.g., cybersex or meeting in person) in which a minor is exploited by an adult. In the present study, we analyzed the prevalence and risk factors associated with both sexual solicitations and interactions of minors with adults. The sample included 2,731 minors between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). The minors completed several self-report questionnaires about sexual solicitations and interactions with adults, including possible risk factors (e.g., sociodemographic variables, Internet use, and psychological adjustment). Of the participants, 15.6% of girls and 9.3% of boys reported sexual solicitations, and 8.2% of girls and 7.4% of boys reported sexualized interactions with adults. Among the variables studied, several appeared related to both sexual solicitations and interactions: older age, having been involved in sexting, being a victim of cyberbullying, having unknown people in friends list, using chat, time spent online on a weekday, and depression symptoms. Gender (being female), using video chat, and instant messaging by computer were significant variables for sexual solicitation but not for sexual interaction; participation in online games was significant only for sexual interactions. Finally, minors reporting sexual interactions presented a higher risk profile than those reporting only sexual solicitations. These findings highlight the relevance of distinguishing between sexual solicitations and sexual interactions and suggest important avenues for prevention programs.

  20. Spina bifida and sexuality. (United States)

    von Linstow, Michael Ernst; Biering-Sørensen, Ida; Liebach, Annette; Lind, Marianne; Seitzberg, Aase; Hansen, Rikke Bølling; Biering-Sørensen, Fin


    To evaluate sexual function amongst adult individuals with spina bifida and to register their subjective satisfaction with their sexual life and relationships. Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. Cohort study. Medical record information, neurological examination, personal interview, Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) on quality of life, and questions on sexual function and related topics. Study cohort: Fifty-three participants (27 women, 26 men) with spina bifida (mean age 27.1, range 18-35) years. Response rate 74%. Fifty-one percent of subjects regarded their sexual life as a failure or dysfunctional. However, 45% reported being satisfied with their sexual life. Participants with partners were more satisfied with their sexual life than those without partners. Faecal, but not urinary, incontinence was associated with poorer sexual function and less satisfaction. Forty-nine percent of subjects indicated that the sexual education they received at puberty was useful; however, 32% lacked knowledge about their sexual functioning with regard to their disability. There is a need for further sexual education and counselling for adults with spina bifida in order to improve their sexuality and quality of life.

  1. Sexual activity and aging. (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne


    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Drugs and sexual behavior. (United States)

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A


    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed.

  3. Applying crime scene analysis to the prediction of sexual recidivism in stranger rapes. (United States)

    Lehmann, Robert J B; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter


    The current study sought to improve the predictive accuracy of sexual recidivism using the Static-99 risk assessment tool by the addition of detailed crime scene analysis (CSA). CSA was carried out using a Behavioral Thematic Analysis (BTA) approach, the gold-standard in CSA. BTA was conducted on a sample of 167 stranger rape cases using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The BTA procedure revealed three behavioral themes of hostility, criminality, and sexual exploitation, consistent with previous research in sexual offending CSA. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the criminality theme was significantly predictive of sexual recidivism and also significantly correlated with previous sexual offense history. Further, the criminality theme led to a significant increase in the incremental validity of the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment instrument for the prediction of sexual recidivism.

  4. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.


    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  5. Sexual revictimization: the role of sexual self-esteem and dysfunctional sexual behaviors. (United States)

    Van Bruggen, Lisa K; Runtz, Marsha G; Kadlec, Helena


    Disproportionately high rates of sexual revictimization have been noted among former victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), yet researchers have yet to determine the source of this apparent vulnerability to reexperience sexual violence. This study explores this issue by examining sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and sexual behaviors among 402 university women. Compared to women without a history of CSA (n = 348), women with a history of CSA (n = 54) had lower sexual self-esteem, poorer sexual adjustment, and were 2 times more likely to have experienced sexual assault since the age of 14 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between child abuse (i.e., CSA and child psychological maltreatment) and sexual revictimization was partially mediated by sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and high-risk sexual behaviors. This study emphasizes the need for further research on child maltreatment, revictimization, and women's sexual adjustment.

  6. Psychosexual correlates of sexual double standard endorsement in adolescent sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, Peggy; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom


    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the sexual double standard, more insight is needed into the conditions

  7. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens) (United States)

    ... end of it. But if your crush starts pressuring you to send sexual pictures, then it's getting ... it doesn't feel right, talk to a parent, teacher, guidance counselor, or someone else you trust. ...

  8. Exploiting for medical and biological applications (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  9. Youth Who Sexual Offended (United States)

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer


    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  10. [Sexuality and eating disorders]. (United States)

    Mazzei, Chiara; Castellini, Giovanni; Benni, Laura; Godini, Lucia; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Pracucci, Chiara; Talamba, Gabriela Alina; Ricca, Valdo; Faravelli, Carlo


    The aim of the present study is to explore the sexual functioning of an Eating Disorders (ED) sample composed by Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) patients. 98 patients (AN: 23; BN: 14; EDNOS: 61) have been compared with 88 health subjects. All participants have filled in the following questionnaires: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Eating Disorders Examination (EDE-q), Binge Eating Scale (BES), Emotional Empathy Scale (EES). For the evaluation of the sexual activity Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was applied. 67 patients (68.4%) and 80 healthy controls (90.9%) reported a sexual activity with a partner or masturbation in the four latest weeks. Only one healthy control (1.1%) reported masturbation and 79 (89.8%) controls showed sexual activity with a partner, on the contrary 11 patients (11.2) reported masturbation and 56 (57.1%) patients showed sexual activity with a partner. Moreover patients showed higher scores on every FSFI subscales. No significant differences were observed between AN, BN and BED in terms of FSFI scores. Women with ED show a lower sexual activity with a partner, a six-fold increase in the risk of sexual dysfunction and an higher frequency of masturbation as the only sexual activity when compared with healthy controls. The cognitive distraction produced by the discomfort to show own body during a sexual intercourse with the partner may explain our results.

  11. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan]. (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L


    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  12. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues. (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled


    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Masculinity, Femininity, Androgyny and Sexuality. (United States)

    Rockford, Marcia; Galbraith, Gary G.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between masculinity, feminity, and androgyny and measures of sexual behavior, attitudes and knowledge. Sexual attitudes and knowledge were assessed by use of the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test, and sexual behavior was assessed by means of the Sexual Experiences Inventory. Subjects…

  14. Spina bifida and sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Michael Ernst; Biering-Sørensen, Ida; Liebach, Annette


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sexual function amongst adult individuals with spina bifida and to register their subjective satisfaction with their sexual life and relationships. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort study. Medical record information......, neurological examination, personal interview, Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) on quality of life, and questions on sexual function and related topics. Study cohort: Fifty-three participants (27 women, 26 men) with spina bifida (mean age 27.1, range 18......-35) years. Response rate 74%. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of subjects regarded their sexual life as a failure or dysfunctional. However, 45% reported being satisfied with their sexual life. Participants with partners were more satisfied with their sexual life than those without partners. Faecal...

  15. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten


    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomies can result in urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, these issues have been studied separately, and the sexual problem that has received the most focus has been erectile dysfunction. AIM: To summarize the literature on sexually related side...... effects and their consequences after radical prostatectomy and focus on the occurrence and management of problems beyond erectile dysfunction. METHODS: The literature on sexuality after radical prostatectomy was reviewed through a Medline search. Original research using quantitative and qualitative...... methodologies was considered. Priority was given to studies exploring aspects of sexuality other than erectile function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence, predictive factors, and management of post-prostatectomy sexual problems beyond erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Most patients will develop urinary...

  16. [Sexual function, physical handicap]. (United States)

    Sevène, Arnaud


    While the right to a sexual life for disabled people is not contested, their sexuality cannot be summed up in a debate for or against sexual assistance. In a similar way, sexual function can only be understood in light of all the difficulties related to disability. Medical progress can improve sexual function and solve many problems in order to facilitate access to procreation. However, these are not well known and are reserved to specialized teams. Many disabled persons are totally autonomous in their sexuality, but for some who require medical assistance, it is necessary to support them in a process of creation where therapeutic interventions consist of facilitating or stimulating the patient's own resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti


    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult. 

  18. Sexuality in cancer patients. (United States)

    Walbroehl, G S


    The sexual concerns of patients with cancer may be overlooked during the acute stage of illness. Both the general stress of hospitalization and the specific threat of surgery can affect sexuality. Breast cancer and cancer of the reproductive organs cause the most concern, although other tumors can be as devastating. "Ostomies" and limb amputations raise special questions, and radiation therapy affects sexual and reproductive function. Underlying depression has a profound effect.

  19. Sexual Abuse Of Children


    Herbert, Carol P.


    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...

  20. Evolution and human sexuality. (United States)

    Gray, Peter B


    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Decriminalizing Indoor Prostitution: Implications for Sexual Violence and Public Health


    Scott Cunningham; Manisha Shah


    Most governments in the world including the United States prohibit prostitution. Given these types of laws rarely change and are fairly uniform across regions, our knowledge about the impact of decriminalizing sex work is largely conjectural. We exploit the fact that a Rhode Island District Court judge unexpectedly decriminalized indoor prostitution in 2003 to provide the first causal estimates of the impact of decriminalization on the composition of the sex market, rape offenses, and sexuall...

  2. Sexual deviance and psychopathy as risk factors for sexual violence


    Jackson, Karla Jean


    This study examined the co-occurrence of psychopathy and sexual deviance in sexual offenders (N = 76). The relationship between psychopathy and sexual deviance was assessed in terms of their independence and whether they interacted to increase sexual recidivism significantly. The predictive values of psychopathy and sexual deviance as individual risk factors were also explored. Psychopathy and sexual deviance as general constructs were independent, although a number of specific aspects of psy...

  3. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik


    Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...... such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby...

  4. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior. (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G


    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  6. Sexuality after hysterectomy. (United States)

    Katz, Anne


    To review the literature regarding sexuality after hysterectomy and identify areas for future research. Articles published between 1970 and 2000 on sexuality and hysterectomy were located using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Psychlit, and Sociofile databases. English language research dealing with the topic was reviewed. Study findings were categorized and include studies of the effect of hysterectomy on sexuality, women's perspectives on hysterectomy, and information sharing with women prior to surgery. A number of studies have explored sexuality after hysterectomy. Many of these studies have methodologic flaws, including vague measures of sexual satisfaction and potential for recall bias. A major source of bias is that the first measure of sexual satisfaction/functioning was performed in the immediate preoperative period when symptoms are more likely to affect sexual functioning. There are a number of gaps in the knowledge base pertaining to this topic. Future research in this area is needed to provide direction for nurses in the clinical area. Topics for future research include what women and their partners want to know about sexuality following hysterectomy and the most efficient methods to provide them with this information. In addition, sexuality in premorbid women needs to be more fully described.

  7. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  9. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini


    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  10. Chronic disease and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mabel Carrillo González


    Full Text Available This study explored the level of production and contents of information available within the global context on the approach of sexuality in individuals with chronic disease (CD. The following main themes were identified: sexuality as a human right and fundamental part of health for individuals with CD, factors present in situations of CD that generate alterations in sexuality, and the models for assessment, measurement, and intervention of the phenomenon. Scientific production is scarce and limited on sexuality during CD, with the most part of said production from recent years.

  11. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  13. Prime time sexual harrassment. (United States)

    Grauerholz, E; King, A


    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.

  14. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  15. Sexual behaviour and contraception inadolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selene Sam-Soto; Mauricio Osorio-Caballero; Rosa Estela Rodríguez- Guerrero


    .... Sexual education in Mexico is not uniform and lacks an integral vision. There is no culture of prevention with respect to sexual and reproductive rights, sexual health, nor gender equality focused on adolescents...

  16. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli


    .... The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design...

  17. Sexual Harrassment in the Schools. (United States)

    Cooper, G. Robb; And Others


    Provides a discussion of the definition of sexual harassment, the types of sexual harassment, the "reasonable woman standard," and employer liability for sexual harassment. Provides some suggestions for avoiding liability. (MLF)

  18. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... ResourcesMedlinePlus, Sexual abuse in children – what to knowRape, Abuse & Incest National Network, Child Sexual AbuseThe U.S. Department of Justice National Sex Offender Public Website, Recognizing Sexual Abuse Last Updated: ...

  19. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moreau


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Results Half of females (48% reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57% of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality—more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. Conclusion While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  20. Pluriactivite et mode de financement des exploitations agricoles


    Stéphane Krebs


    Cet article se propose de mettre en relation les décisions de pluriactivité des familles d’agriculteurs et les choix qu’ils opèrent en matière de financement de leurs exploitations. Les résultats obtenus à partir d’un panel d’exploitations individuelles françaises font ressortir d’importantes spécificités des exploitations pluriactives, tant en matière d’autofinancement que d’endettement. The aim of this article is to study the possible interrelationships between the off-farm work decision...

  1. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused. (United States)

    Krajewski, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10-40% of girls and 5-20% of boys. The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms 'child abuse' in conjunction with 'urinary tract', 'urologist', 'urological dysfunction', 'urologic symptoms', 'LUTS' or 'urinary infection'. Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse.

  2. Understanding Sexual Violence (United States)

    ... public health problems like sexual violence. Step 1: Define the problem Before we can prevent sexual violence, we need ... and who it affects. CDC learns about a problem by gathering and studying ... and supports research to answer this question. We can then develop ...

  3. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In dioecious species, the two sexes often make different investments in reproduction, or have different reproductive strategies, leading to divergent selection pressures across sexes. This, combined with a shared genome, can poten- tially result in an intragenomic conflict called sexual conflict. (Chapman et al. 2003). Sexual ...

  4. Sexual disorders and crime. (United States)

    Taborda, José G V; Michalski-Jaeger, Camila A


    Highlighting the relationship between sexual disorders and crime, reviewing and summarizing the articles published throughout 2011 which add to the current knowledge on this subject. Studies on specific populations confirm the association between sexual disorders and crime, particularly between paraphilias and sexual crimes regarding male offenders. Female offenders are less likely to be diagnosed with a sexual disorder. Some case reports focus on unusual paraphilias and lead us to question the vast possibilities of paraphilic contents and sexual arousal patterns. The variations of paraphilic-associated sexual arousal patterns, unconventional sex behaviors or paraphilic disorders are constantly changing. In this sense, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 current proposals for a sexual dysfunction diagnostic category are under intense discussion because of their important clinical and forensic consequences. Sexual violence is a theme not well understood yet. Because of its nature, researching it can raise many ethical problems. There is no possibility of clinical trials and of case-control studies. Even cohort studies may be problematic in themselves. So, most of the research involves biased samples or case reports, or is merely theoretical. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the subject, so that preventive and rehabilitative measures can be taken.

  5. Sexual harassment in sports


    Brackenridge, CH


    The purpose of this talk today is to give you an overview of the current state of research on sexual harassment in sport and to raise questions about the links between harassment, sexual abuse and women's health and safety is sport.

  6. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of child abuse rockets. The Daily News 1996; 11 July: 15. 2. Kiser LJ, Heston J, Millsap PA, Pruitt DB. Physical and sexual abuse in childhood: relationship with post-traumatic stress disorder. J. An Acad Child. Adolesc Psychiatry 1991; 30: 776-783. 3. Kendall-Tackett W, Myers L. Finkelhor D. Impact of sexual ...

  7. Sexual selection in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.


    Sexual selection is an important factor that drives evolution, in which fitness is increased, not by increasing survival or viability, but by acquiring more or better mates. Sexual selection favours traits that increase the ability of an individual to obtain more matings than other individuals that

  8. Teaching Sexuality through Media (United States)

    Cragin, Becca


    A central project of feminism has been raising awareness of the role cultural formations of sexuality play in women's inequality (Ritzenhoff and Hermes). Feminists who regularly include discussions of sexuality in their teaching are familiar with the pedagogical challenges of the subject as well as its importance. This article is intended for…

  9. [Female child sexual abuse]. (United States)

    Enyedy, Andrea; Csorba, Roland


    The prevalence of child sexual abuse is 12-13% worldwide (18% by girls, 8% by boys). The exact knowledge of sexual abuse and the spread of the adequate medical diagnosis is an essential medical, social and national requirement. In our present study we examine the medical diagnosis of female child sexual abuse. Selective literature research in the available international and domestic databases. Majority of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse have normal genital and anal findings. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of child sexual abuse is a chronic multiple event, caused by a family member. The task of the medical staff is difficult and various, due to the diagnostic challenges of child sexual abuse. The difficulties of the medical diagnosis, evaluation and therapy, the complexity of the legal proceedings and prosecution, the isolation of the profession and the victim and the issue treated like a taboo subject often lead to failure. The physicians dealing with children have suboptimal knowledge of child sexual abuse, the characteristics of victims and perpetretors, the medical diagnosis and therapy of sexual abuse and the rehabilitation of victims. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 910-917.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Complications of untreated/improperly treated sexually transmitted infections include male and female infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, lower abdominal pain and cervical cancer2. Sexually transmitted infections rank among the five top diseases for which Nigerians seek medical attention, and the major ...

  11. Compulsive Sexual Behavior (United States)

    ... impulse control, and you feel like your sexual behavior is slipping out of control You are suicidal — if you're thinking of attempting suicide, call ... treatment early for mental health disorders. Compulsive sexual behavior may be ... or anxiety. Identify and seek help for alcohol and drug abuse ...

  12. [Sexuality in ostomy patients]. (United States)

    Martínez Poyato, M C; Mercader Martínez, J; Hernández Martínez, J; Olmos García, L


    Seventy adult patients out of 446 with surgical stomas were investigated to ascertain the degree of sexual disfunction caused by the operation. A questionnaire of 74 items was given to all patients. Statistical analysis was done for crossing variables using Chi Square calculations. Sexual activity decreased much more in males than in females, independently of age but in relation to the type of operation.

  13. Sexuality Sensitive Schooling (United States)

    McCaughtry, Nate; Dillon, Suzanna; Jones, Elizabeth; Smigell, Sara


    American schools, especially their physical education and sport programs, provide some of the most hostile social geographies in all of society for gay youth. With the aim of transforming schools toward more democratic and sexuality sensitive institutions, this paper reviews the literature on sexuality and education. In the review, three themes,…

  14. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison


    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  15. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and

  16. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis) (United States)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.


    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  17. HIV/AIDS, reproductive and sexual health, and the law. (United States)

    Gable, Lance; Gostin, Lawrence O; Hodge, James G


    The law is a frequently overlooked tool for addressing the complex practical and ethical issues that arise from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The law intersects with reproductive and sexual health issues and HIV/AIDS in many ways. Well-written and rigorously applied laws could benefit persons living with (or at risk of contracting) HIV/AIDS, particularly concerning their reproductive and sexual health. Access to reproductive health services should be a legal right, and discrimination based on HIV status, which undermines access, should be prohibited. Laws against sexual violence and exploitation, which perpetuate the spread of HIV and its negative effects, should be enforced. Finally, a human rights framework should inform the drafting of laws to more effectively protect health.

  18. Assessing the Relationship Between Sexual Concordance, Sexual Attractions, and Sexual Identity in Women. (United States)

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Dawson, Samantha J; Chivers, Meredith L


    On average, there is a gender difference in sexual concordance, with men exhibiting greater agreement between genital and self-reported sexual arousal, relative to women. Much less is known about the substantial variation in women's sexual concordance; women's genital and self-reported sexual responses may correlate strongly and positively, not at all, or even strongly negatively. The within-gender variation in sexual concordance suggests that individual differences may be related to sexual concordance. We examined whether sexual concordance varies as a function of sexual orientation (based on self-reported sexual attractions and sexual identity labels) in a sample (N = 76) that included exclusively androphilic, predominantly androphilic, ambiphilic, and predominantly/exclusively gynephilic women. Participants viewed sexual and nonsexual stimuli that varied by actor gender while their vaginal vasocongestion and subjective sexual responses were measured. Women's sexual concordance varied as a function of their sexual attractions; women with any degree of gynephilia exhibited higher sexual concordance than exclusively androphilic women across a variety of sexual concordance measures, and these effects were demonstrated using correlation and multi-level modeling analyses. Only sexual concordance based on overall feelings of arousal varied by sexual identity, with heterosexual women exhibiting the lowest sexual concordance. Stimulus gender significantly influenced sexual concordance for most groups of women: Ambiphilic and predominantly/exclusively gynephilic women exhibited greater sexual concordance to female stimuli and exclusively androphilic women exhibited greater sexual concordance to male stimuli. These findings suggest that sexual orientation (particularly one's degree of gynephilia) may explain some of the within-gender variation seen in women's sexual concordance.

  19. Characterization of contact offenders and child exploitation material trafficking on five peer-to-peer networks. (United States)

    Bissias, George; Levine, Brian; Liberatore, Marc; Lynn, Brian; Moore, Juston; Wallach, Hanna; Wolak, Janis


    We provide detailed measurement of the illegal trade in child exploitation material (CEM, also known as child pornography) from mid-2011 through 2014 on five popular peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing networks. We characterize several observations: counts of peers trafficking in CEM; the proportion of arrested traffickers that were identified during the investigation as committing contact sexual offenses against children; trends in the trafficking of sexual images of sadistic acts and infants or toddlers; the relationship between such content and contact offenders; and survival rates of CEM. In the 5 P2P networks we examined, we estimate there were recently about 840,000 unique installations per month of P2P programs sharing CEM worldwide. We estimate that about 3 in 10,000 Internet users worldwide were sharing CEM in a given month; rates vary per country. We found an overall month-to-month decline in trafficking of CEM during our study. By surveying law enforcement we determined that 9.5% of persons arrested for P2P-based CEM trafficking on the studied networks were identified during the investigation as having sexually offended against children offline. Rates per network varied, ranging from 8% of arrests for CEM trafficking on Gnutella to 21% on BitTorrent. Within BitTorrent, where law enforcement applied their own measure of content severity, the rate of contact offenses among peers sharing the most-severe CEM (29%) was higher than those sharing the least-severe CEM (15%). Although the persistence of CEM on the networks varied, it generally survived for long periods of time; e.g., BitTorrent CEM had a survival rate near 100%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki


    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  1. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and ... with oil exploration and exploitation have had adverse effects on the environment ... the confused atmosphere to unleash reign of terror on innocent citizens.

  2. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...

  3. 77 FR 36491 - Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation (United States)


    ... Americans'') seeks information on consumer financial products and services, financial literacy efforts, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer...

  4. L'exploitation des cephalopodes: situation et perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mesnil, B


    Sans attendre que soit atteint ce degre de precision, nous avons voulu aborder une etape plus elementaire en reunissant les informations relatives a l'etat actuel de l'exploitation des cephalopodes at...

  5. Matching Terminological Heterogeneous Ontologies by Exploiting Partial Alignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadd, Frederik Christiaan; Roos, Nico


    Matching ontologies which utilize significantly heterogeneous terminologies is a challenging task for existing matching techniques. These techniques typically exploit lexical resources in order to enrich the ontologies with additional terminology such that more terminological matches can be found.

  6. Sustainable Exploitation of Natural Resources and National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Constantinescu


    ... to a country’s national security and long term development. The aim of this article is to outline the links and interactions between the availability of natural resources, their sustainable exploitation...

  7. A Practical Guide for Exploiting FBCB2 Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leibrecht, Bruce


    ... Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2). The Leader's Primer for Exploiting FBCB2 describes twenty-two major FBCB2 capabilities, the tactical significance of each capability, the digital operator and user tasks involved in employing each...

  8. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia


    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  9. Challenges in sexual medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria


    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have...... placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain...... several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field...

  10. Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0320 EXPLOITING ELEMENTARY LANDSCAPES FOR TSP , VEHICLE ROUTING AND SCHEDULING Darrell Whitley COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP , Vehicle Routing and Scheduling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0088...Traveling Salesman Problem ( TSP ) and Graph Coloring are elementary. Problems such as MAX-kSAT are a superposition of k elementary landscapes. This

  11. Typologie des exploitations agricoles familiales : cas de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La gestion durable d'une formation forestière nécessite la prise en compte des activités humaines s'exerçant aux alentours en raison de leurs impacts sur la pérennité et la qualité des produits exploités. Cette étude visait ainsi à caractériser les exploitations agricoles familiales adjacentes de la forêt de Baban rafi. Pour y.

  12. “Brazil has its eye on you”: sexual panic and the threat of sex tourism in Rio de Janeiro during the FIFA World Cup, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Blanchette


    Full Text Available The present article draws upon ethnographic research undertaken in the principal sexual commercial zones of the city of Rio de Janeiro and in the institutions and agencies responsible for combating sexual exploitation in Rio during the 2012-2014 period, as well as the analysis of media stories, to explain how and why carioca authorities have not been able to discover and repress the sex crimes they claim exist on a massive scale. We seek to show what effects the moral panic over child sexual exploitation during the 2015 World Cup has had in transforming security in Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.


    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  14. Perceptions of female sexual health and sexual dysfunction in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 2, 2011 ... Interest in human sexuality began in the 18th century, but formal and more rigorous studies on sexual satisfaction and sexual practices were not published until the early 1900s. Alfred Kinsey's pioneering work on sexuality, in which he surveyed over 10,000 .... being the nursing diploma. In all, there were 24 ...

  15. Sexual behaviour and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: It is recommended that sex education should start at primary school level to educate female teenagers on the dangers of early initiation of sexual activity; and ways of protecting themselves against the sexual advances of the male gender. Key Words: Female adolescents, Sexual behavior, knowledge, Sexually ...

  16. Unwanted online sexual solicitation and online sexual risk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Yan, Z.


    In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter

  17. Disability and sexuality as right to quality of life aspects view of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available All people – including young people – are sexual beings, regardless of whether or not they live with physical, mental, or emotional disabilities. And, all people need affection, love and intimacy, acceptance, and companionship. In this light, sex education plays a key role in acknowledging matters related not only with sexual activities, but also contraception, personal hygiene, sexual feelings, sexual education, masturbation, friendship, sex, marriage so as motherhood and parenthood. Without appropriate social skills, people with disabilities may have difficulty making and maintaining relations and feel lonely and ‘different’. Without important sexual health knowledge, people with disabilities may make unwise decisions and/or take sexual health risks. Hence, the key understanding is that everyone, including a person with mental disability, is sexual – and has sexuality related emotions and desires. Several foreign scholars have already emphasized the need of sex education for the people with mental, physical and/or emotional challenges, however Lithuanian scholars seem reluctant to analyse such issues and acknowledge the need of sex education for people with mental disabilities. For the last two decades, there has been more focus to promote healthy lifestyle, which in turn influences the sex education programs. Naturally, people with mental disabilities face different challenges than those without disabilities, because they are less informed about sexuality, have less sexual experience and are more prone to sexual exploitation. Hence, the questions under consideration in this paper remain whether sex education is important and necessary to an individual who has mental disabilities? Should parents be concerned about sex education for their disabled children? How issues on disability and sexuality are addressed in Lithuania and elsewhere? How sexuality is related with the quality of life for people with disabilities? The aim – to

  18. Sexual risk behavior among South African adolescents: is orphan status a factor? (United States)

    Thurman, Tonya R; Brown, Lisanne; Richter, Linda; Maharaj, Pranitha; Magnani, Robert


    There is concern that orphans may be at particular risk of HIV infection due to earlier age of sexual onset and higher likelihood of sexual exploitation or abuse; however, there is limited empirical evidence examining this phenomenon. Utilizing data from 1,694 Black South African youth aged 14-18, of whom 31% are classified as orphaned, this analysis explores the relationship between orphan status and sexual risk. The analysis found both male and female orphans significantly more likely to have engaged in sex as compared to non-orphans (49% vs. 39%). After adjusting for socio-demographic variables, orphans were nearly one and half times more likely than non-orphans to have had sex. Among sexually active youth, orphans reported younger age of sexual intercourse with 23% of orphans having had sex by age 13 or younger compared to 15% of non-orphans. Programmatic implications of these findings for the care and protection of orphans are discussed.

  19. Sanctification of sexuality: implications for newlyweds' marital and sexual quality. (United States)

    Hernandez, Krystal M; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I


    Research on the intersection of sexuality, religion, and spirituality has primarily examined whether global levels of religiousness (e.g., service attendance) deter premarital and extramarital sexual activity. Virtually no empirical work has addressed whether specific spiritual beliefs about sexuality enhance marital sexuality. Using a community sample of 83 individuals married between 4 and 18 months, we found that greater perceptions of sexuality as sanctified predicted greater marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, sexual intimacy, and spiritual intimacy beyond global religiousness and demographics. The findings open a new line of research on religion and family life, and extend theories on the possible benefits of the sanctification of intimate relationships.

  20. Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-León E.


    Full Text Available Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim to examine the question of whether our interpretations of our own sexual desires are constitutive of our sexual orientations. I will argue that whereas Wilkerson’s argument for the claim that sexual orientations are in part constituted by our chosen interpretations of our sexual desires is not sound, there are good reasons for endorsing a weaker claim, namely, that there are different but equally apt descriptions of the same sexual desires, depending on which concepts we have.

  1. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide. (United States)

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer


    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders.

  2. Exploitation of Full-Waveform LiDAR to Characterize / Exploit Under Canopy Targets - Foliage Penetration (FOPEN) (United States)


    specific targets, and (3) full waveform application in forestry . Exploitation of Full-waveform LiDAR to Characterize/Exploit under Canopy Targets...Foliage Penetration (FOPEN)   9    The review on current waveform processing methods, LiDAR-specific targets and forestry applications clearly indicates...proceedings of IGARSS 2012, Munich, Germany, July 23-27, 2012. Molnar, B., Laky, S., and Toth, Ch. (2011): Using Full Waveform Data in Urban Areas

  3. MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for Representation, Inference, and Learning (United States)


    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0127 MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for...MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2016 Final 26 September 2011 – 15 March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MATHEMATICS OF SENSING... mathematical foundation for unified representation, inference, and learning for ISR problems. The result of the project is an end-to-end system for scene and

  4. Managing female sexual dysfunction. (United States)

    Buster, John E


    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Women's sexual pain disorders. (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Granot, Michal; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; Binik, Yitzchak M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin


    Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. An expert committee, invited from six countries by the 3rd International Consultation, was comprised of eight researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, for the purpose of reviewing and grading the scientific evidence on nosology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Results. A comprehensive assessment of medical, sexual, and psychosocial history is recommended for diagnosis and management. Indications for general and focused pelvic genital examination are identified. Evidence-based recommendations for assessment of women's sexual pain disorders are reviewed. An evidence-based approach to management of these disorders is provided. Continued efforts are warranted to conduct research and scientific reporting on the optimal assessment and management of women's sexual pain disorders, including multidisciplinary approaches.

  6. Sexual abuse of boys. (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M


    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  7. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality


    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.


    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to eng...

  8. Sexualities and the ECHR: Introducing the Universal Sexual Legal Subject


    Grigolo, M


    Shifting from an essentialist to a constructionist perspective on sexual identities, I move from a consideration of the homosexual legal subject, as presently treated under the European Convention on Human Rights, to the elaboration of a universal sexual legal subject. The\\ud universal sexual legal subject enjoys two basic rights: the right to choose sexual activity and sexual identity and the right to establish relationships and families in accordance with this choice. The possibility of inc...

  9. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence. (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie


    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Sexual Harassment: A Hidden Issue. (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    A discussion of sexual harassment on college and university campuses addresses a number of questions and issues: myths of sexual harassment; what is sexual harassment, how widespread is it, and why are women reluctant to talk about it?; sexual harassment and the law; is harassment a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (for employees) or…

  11. Adolescent Sexuality and Public Policy. (United States)

    Olsen, Joseph A.; And Others


    Analyzed data from three national surveys of teenage sexual behavior. Defines sexually active teenager by frequency of sexual intercourse rather than one who has had intercourse. Found adolescents to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. Uses finding to examine various policy decisions in areas of sex education,…

  12. The ESA scientific exploitation element results and outlook (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Donlon, Craig; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Fernandez, Diego; Gascon, Ferran; Zehner, Claus; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Koetz, Benjamin; Pinnock, Simon


    The Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) element of ESA's fourth Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP4) prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community built up over the last 25 years exploiting ESA's EO missions. SEOM enables the science community to address new scientific research areas that are opened by the free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, key research studies have been launched over the last years to further exploit data from the Sentinels ( During 2016 several Science users consultation workshops have been organized, new results from scientific studies have been published and open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been distributed (SNAP 80000 users from 190 countries). In addition the first ESA Massive Open Online Courses on Climate from space have been deployed (20000 participants) and the second EO Open Science conference was organized at ESA in September 2016 bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. The new EOEP5 Exploitation element approved in 2016 and starting in 2017 is taking stock of all precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation and in particular a workplan for ESA scientific exploitation activities has been presented to Member States taking full benefit of the latest information and communication technology. The results and highlights from current scientific exploitation activities will be presented and an outlook on the upcoming activities under the new EOEP5 exploitation element will be given.

  13. Temperamento y conducta sexual


    Marcet Cabral, Consol; Delgado Martínez, María Ángeles


    EI objetivo de este estudio piloto es analizar las relaciones entre las dimensiones del temperamento y la conducta sexual. A un grupo de 28 parejas casadas se les administró el Cuestionario de Personalidad (EPI) de Eysenck, la Escala de Dimensiones del Temperamento (DOTS-R) de Windle y Lerner y el Cuestionario de Conducta Sexual de Eysenck y Wakelfield. En ambos sexos la dimensión temperamental relacionada mas significativa y positivamente con la conducta sexual es la cualidad positiva del hu...

  14. Sexual rights and disability. (United States)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.

  15. Television and adolescent sexuality. (United States)

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S


    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.

  16. Comportamiento sexual humano


    Gorguet Pi, Iliana Cecilia


    Libro que aborda los conceptos básicos de sexo, sexualidad, y salud sexual. Se exploran en varios capítulos, diversos aspectos de la sexualidad, actitudes y conductas en adolescentes, jóvenes, adultos y ancianos. Los problemas y trastornos sexuales, su valoración en las consultas de diagnóstico, orientación y terapia sexual. Así aborda la educación para la sexualidad cuyo objetivo es la preparación para la vida familiar, de pareja, matrimonial, para contribuir al desarrollo de la person...

  17. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only and International Index of Erectile Function (men only. They additionally reported how many days in the past month they engaged in penile-vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation. Salivary testosterone (T was assayed by luminescence immunoassays. Results: Poorer sleep quality correlated with greater unstimulated sexual arousal in men with higher T levels and in women with higher T levels not taking oral contraceptives. In women with lower T, poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with greater sexual dissatisfaction. In both sexes, sleep quality was uncorrelated with sexual desire and sexual frequency over the past month. Discussion: Consistently with other studies in humans and animals, the findings are congruent with the notion that lack of sleep can increase sexual arousal, but not sexual frequency. T might play a role in the sexual arousal caused by lack of appropriate sleep.

  18. Sexuality and Disability in Adolescents. (United States)

    Holland-Hall, Cynthia; Quint, Elisabeth H


    Healthy sexual development is important for adolescents with and without disabilities, yet the topic of sexuality is often ignored in the disabled population. Adolescents with mild or moderate degrees of disability have rates of sexual activity and reproductive health needs comparable to their typically developing peers. Their need for support, risk reduction, and education in sexual health may exceed that of their peers. The medical provider may support healthy sexual development through education, anticipatory guidance, menstrual and contraceptive management, and by expanding the notion of sexuality to include a broader conceptualization of sexual behavior and expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual behavior in later life. (United States)

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M


    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  20. Sexual disorders in infertile couples. (United States)

    Wischmann, Tewes H


    Sexuality and the desire for a child are strongly interconnected. The same applies to sexual disorders and the unfulfilled desire for a child. This article indicates the relations between sexual disorders and the unfulfilled desire for a child and outlines the potential effects of diagnostics and treatment in the context of reproductive medicine on the couples' sexuality. A research drive was undertaken in well-established medical and psychological literature database with the keywords "infertile" or "infertility" and "sexual dysfunction" or "sexual satisfaction." Sexual dysfunctions (of organic or of psychic origin) as a cause of involuntary childlessness are relatively unusual. By contrast (temporary) sexual disorders resulting from diagnosis and medical therapy are common in couples with fertility problems, with women more frequently affected than men. Counseling for couples with the unfulfilled desire for a child should invariably include explicit and appropriately tactful reference to sexuality and (functional) sexual disorders by the therapist.

  1. Determinants of female sexual orgasms


    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli


    Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality.Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, se...

  2. Analysing the disability- sexuality controversy


    Patrick Sibanda


    Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities form...

  3. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families (United States)

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.


    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  4. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang


    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  5. Sexuality and Down Syndrome (United States)

    ... About NDSS Mission & Vision NDSS History Our Team Media Kit Financials Newsroom ... sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, interpersonal relationships and social experiences relating to dating, marriage and the physical ...

  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Loading... Close Yeah, keep it Undo Close This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue Watch Queue Queue Remove ... Queue Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe ...

  7. Men and Sexual Trauma (United States)

    ... Management (MOVE!) Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Veterans Canteen Service (VCS) Research Research Home About VA Research ... or by authority figures in organizations such as schools, the church, or athletics programs. Those who sexually ...

  8. Media and Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Carvalho


    Full Text Available One of the distinctive marks of current capitalism is the presence of mass media constituting the psyche in different aspects. Today, we observe the multiplication of many contents with erotic appeal in the media and the effects of this process are still to be known, particularly in the matter of sexuality. Concretely, what we have is that the practices and the effective conceptions of sexuality are suffering an accelerated transformation that involves the abandonment of the traditional practices. In this context, we can ask about the sense that is attributed to sexuality experiences and evaluate the impact of the different "manners of being" which are referred to sexuality and systematically diffused by the media. Therefore, we can explore the implications of this new scenery for different social realities: the family institution, the affectionate and loving relationships, the school and professional everyday life, as well as the formulation of public politics in this field.

  9. Female Sexual Dysfunction (United States)

    ... in small amounts, after removal of the ovaries* Psychological and Emotional Mental distress: stress, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, past sexual abuse, fear of unwanted pregnancy Relationship issues: boredom, anger, ...

  10. [Adolescence and sexuality]. (United States)

    Kjellberg, G


    Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance.

  11. Culture and sexual behavior. (United States)

    Gomez, C A


    The effectiveness of many HIV prevention efforts, particularly those targeted at women, are often hampered by ignorance of cultural realities of sexual behaviors. In a recent study of unmarried Latino adults living in the United States, researchers began to explore these different factors. Predictors of condom use in this population included: socialization of sexuality, interpersonal power within relationships, and gender norms. The study, a telephone survey, found a pervasive sexual silence, especially among women. More than half reported that their mothers had never spoken to them about sex when they were younger. The survey also attempted to measure the experiences that could be considered coercive within the context of sex. The researchers found that successful interventions depend on abilities to educate beyond knowledge, counsel clients beyond risk assessment, and study sexual behavior beyond mere prevalence.

  12. Military Sexual Trauma (United States)

    ... issues. Race/ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and other cultural variables can also affect the impact of MST. ... asleep; disturbing nightmares Difficulties with attention, concentration, and memory : trouble staying focused; frequently finding their mind wandering; ...

  13. Elderly Sexual Offenders. (United States)

    Booth, Brad D


    With the ever-aging population, the number of elderly sexual offenders are also on the rise. The courts and correctional system are increasingly faced with older individuals who have offended sexually. Previously, these older offenders were thought to be similar to younger sexual offenders. However, closer analysis suggests that many of these individuals pose a much lower risk to recidivate than the risk to recidivate of their younger counterparts. Still, an individualized approach to manage the risk of older offenders is required, as some may have particular risk factors relevant for their treatment and future stability, such as dementia or other mental health issues. Further, this population often has particular physical health issues and requires special consideration when being placed in the community. Assessment, treatment, and risk management in this special population of sexual offenders are discussed.

  14. Sexual Abuse of Children. (United States)

    Csapo, Marg


    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  15. Lesbian and bisexual women's human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship: negotiating sexual health in England. (United States)

    Formby, Eleanor


    Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare. Key issues of importance in this respect are homophobic and heterosexist social contexts. Drawing on understandings of lesbian, gay and bisexual human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, it is argued that these are useful lenses through which to examine and address lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health and related inequalities.

  16. Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse. (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice


    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.

  17. Sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors of minority women with sexually transmitted diseases. (United States)

    Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T


    The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.

  18. Attitudes to sexuality. (United States)


    Many older people enjoy an active sex life although they are likely to experience problems relating to poor health or lack of understanding from healthcare professionals. Health issues include male sexual dysfunction resulting from medication and conditions such as diabetes, vascular disease or prostatic surgery. Older women may experience urogenital atrophy causing dryness, itching and pain on intercourse. Psychological problems such as depression are also associated with poor sexual function.

  19. Sexual violence in Lesotho. (United States)

    Brown, Lisanne; Thurman, Tonya; Bloem, Jeanette; Kendall, Carl


    The magnitude and characteristics of sexual violence in two urban areas of Lesotho are described based on a random household survey of 939 sexually active women aged 18-35. Sexual violence is defined as nonconsensual sex ranging from the use of threats and intimidation to unwanted touching and forced sex. Twenty-five percent of women surveyed reported ever being physically forced to have sex; 13 percent reported that forced sex was attempted; 31 percent said that they were touched against their will; and 11 percent reported being forced to touch a man's genitals. Boyfriends were the most common perpetrators of actual and attempted forced sex (66 percent and 44 percent, respectively); known community members were the most common perpetrators of touching the respondent against her will (52 percent). Currently married women and those with more education were less likely than others to report that sex was forced upon them by an intimate partner or by another type of perpetrator. Women living in areas where a program raising awareness about sexual violence was ongoing were more likely to report a history of sexual violence. Given the high prevalence of HIV in Lesotho, programs should address women's right to control their sexuality.

  20. Experimental Simulation of the Exploitation of Natural Gas Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun


    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates are cage-like crystalline compounds in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming solids at low temperature and high pressure. Natural gas hydrates are widely distributed in permafrost regions and offshore. It is estimated that the worldwide amounts of methane bound in gas hydrates are total twice the amount of carbon to be found in all known fossil fuels on earth. A proper understanding of the relevant exploitation technologies is then important for natural gas production applications. In this paper, the recent advances on the experimental simulation of natural gas hydrate exploitation using the major hydrate production technologies are summarized. In addition, the current situation of the industrial exploitation of natural gas hydrate is introduced, which are expected to be useful for establishing more safe and efficient gas production technologies.

  1. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek


    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  2. Rapid Evidence Assessment: What can be learnt from other jurisdictions about preventing and responding to child sexual abuse


    Radford, Lorraine; Richardson-foster, Helen; Barter, Christine Anne; Stanley, Nicky


    This Rapid Evidence Assessment was commissioned by the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales which is investigating whether public bodies and other non-state institutions have taken seriously their duties to care for and protect children and young people from child sexual abuse and exploitation. The question for the review was: What can be learnt from jurisdictions, outside of England and Wales, about the role of institutions, including accountable state and non-sta...

  3. Final Report, “Exploiting Global View for Resilience”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Andrew [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    Final technical report for the "Exploiting Global View for Resilience" project. The GVR project aims to create a new approach to portable, resilient applications. The GVR approach builds on a global view data model,, adding versioning (multi-version), user control of timing and rate (multi-stream), and flexible cross layer error signalling and recovery. With a versioned array as a portable abstraction, GVR enables application programmers to exploit deep scientific and application code insights to manage resilience (and its overhead) in a flexible, portable fashion.

  4. The human traffickers and exploitation of children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scala


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the traffic of children, who are kidnapped, cheated and purchased by their families to be exploited in many ways. These victims have severe mental and physical traumas. Many of them, slaves of their exploiters, remain invisible and live their lifes without fundamental rights and without any kind of support or help. The traffic in human beings is a new kind of slavery, which acts in the dark, is criminal and involves different subjects of different ages, different nationalities and generations. The traffic in human beings is managed by transnational criminal organizations and is a disturbing and growing phenomena around the world.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić


    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace (United States)


    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace Prashant R. Patel...Jun 2013]. The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace Prashant R. Patel, Project Leader David A. Sparrow I N S T I T U T E F O...making us appear weak and ineffective because we cannot stop these short-of- war actions. The A2AD systems increase the risk to our conventional forces

  7. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  8. Education for sexuality. (United States)

    Sapire, K E


    Sex education provides a means to reduce the growing incidence of sexual abuse and of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge, which differs from permission, may protect. Sex education needs to provide factual information about anatomy and physiology and sexual development and responses. Further, it must guide young people towards healthy attitudes that develop concern and respect for others. This should enable them to make sound decisions about sexual behavior based on both knowledge and understanding of their own sexual identity and interpersonal relationships. The recent research shows that teenagers exposed to sex education are no more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than are other adolescents, and those who become sexually active are more likely to use a contraceptive method at 1st intercourse and are slightly less likely to experience premarital pregnancies. The nonuse of contraceptives is related to ignorance, lack of awareness of the consequences of sexual activity, and inaccessibility of suitable services. Consequently, young people need help to learn about the risks of pregnancy, how to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and where to go for counseling and services before they become sexually active. The provision of contraceptives must be made to meet the needs of adolescents. Formal sex education should be given in schools only with parental knowledge and cooperation. Youth leaders can influence young people positively by teaching about health and hygiene and promoting responsible attitudes toward sex and religion. Doctors and nurses have a unique opportunity to provide counseling throughout their patients' lives. The Department of Health (Capetown, South Africa) has appointed 445 nurses who oversee the youth program. They give sex education at schools, teaching colleges, youth camps, and at clinics. They also provide individual and group counseling for never pregnant, pregnant, and parent adolescents and their parents and partners at 8 youth health

  9. Sexual self-concept and sexual self-efficacy in adolescents: a possible clue to promoting sexual health? (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Dekhtyar, Olga; Cupp, Pamela K; Anderman, Eric M


    This study examined the associations between sexual self-concept (sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) and sexual self-efficacy (situational and resistive) in a sample of 388 high school students (59% Caucasian, 28% African American). Males reported lower sexual esteem and lower sexual self-efficacy than females. Males and African Americans reported higher levels of sexual anxiety and lower levels of resistive self-efficacy than females and Caucasians. In regression models, higher sexual self-esteem uniquely predicted higher sexual self-efficacy scores, even after controlling for demographic variables, knowledge of sexual risk, and previous coital experience. In post hoc analyses, sexual self-esteem mediated the relation between knowledge of sexual risk and both types of sexual self-efficacy. Results suggest the need for interventions to promote male sexual self-efficacy and sexual esteem and the need for longitudinal research that explicates models of sexual health in adolescence.

  10. Sexual behaviors of physically disabled adolescents in the United States. (United States)

    Cheng, Mariah Mantsun; Udry, J Richard


    To examine differences in some aspects of sexual behavior between physically disabled and nondisabled adolescents in the United States. The 1994-1995 Wave I data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, multistage cluster, school-based sample of 7th to 12th graders, were used. Physical disabilities were measured in terms of functional limitation and activity restriction. A total of 1153 adolescents were identified as physically disabled, mainly with limb difficulties. We studied their exposure on school sex education, contraceptive knowledge, sex attitudes, and popularity. Their experiences in romantic attraction and sex were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression methods, controlling for age, pubertal development, and other sociodemographic variables. Although disabled adolescents are slower in pubertal development and more socially isolated, they are as sexually experienced as their nondisabled counterparts. Their exposure to school sex education is largely similar to that of the nondisabled, yet disabled boys are somewhat less knowledgeable about birth control. Severely disabled boys who are sexually active are popular among their same-sex peers, much like nondisabled boys. Although disabled adolescents are as sexually experienced, severely disabled boys and girls have less opposite-sex romantic attraction and are less sure about their sexual preference. Adolescents with mild disabilities have a higher tendency for same-sex attraction than do the nondisabled. Adolescent girls with physical disabilities consistently have higher odds of experiencing forced sex. Physically disabled adolescents' sexual development and their specific needs for sex education and guidance should not be overlooked. More attention should be paid to protect physically disabled girls from sexual abuses and exploitations.

  11. Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs? (United States)

    Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B


    The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.

  12. [Sexual harassment in medical organizations]. (United States)

    Rabinerson, David; Maman, Maor; Glezerman, Marek


    Sexual harassment is quite prevalent in medical organizations. The two most affected groups are medical students and nurses. In its broad perspective, sexual harassment is defined as any type of offensive behavior with sexual connotation aimed at any individual or minority. In Israel, sexual harassment is regarded as such only in the literal sense, although recently, courts tend to adopt a more comprehensive approach in their ruling. Final legislation of the law against sexual harassment, which includes employer liability for the actions of its workers, caused increased awareness of the phenomenon of sexual harassment and may serve in reducing its prevalence in the medical environment.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of bitumen exploitation on animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of Bitumen exploitation on wildlife resources in Ode-Irele forest area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there are 9 orders and 40 species of mammals in the study area. Primates recorded the highest specie number (13,) and rodentia as ...

  14. Exporting DNA – striking a balance between preventing exploitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three important points that complement the above need to be considered: (i) the details in the MTA must reflect what is stipulated in the informed consent ... they not only contain information that may be of importance from ... And how can we achieve a balance between preventing exploitation and promoting innovation?

  15. Exploitation of Bush Mango ( Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the exploitation of Bush Mango Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu (ogbono) among rural households in Enugu State, Nigeria. Interview schedule was used to collect data from 91 respondents and data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The mean ...

  16. Fishery benefits from exploiting spawning aggregations not solely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vulnerability of spawning aggregations to exploitation varies among fisheries as a result of differences in the population-density changes associated with this behaviour. However, vulnerability to fishing is also influenced by technology, environmental factors, and fish and fisher behaviours. Focusing on a fishery for the ...

  17. Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Víquez Zamora, A.M.


    Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits Ana Marcela Víquez Zamora Tomatoes are consumed worldwide and became a model for crop plant research. A part of the research aims at expanding genetic diversity in tomato; this can be done by incorporating

  18. Six scenarios of exploiting an ontology based, mobilized learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kismihók, G.; Szabó, I.; Vas, R.


    In this article, six different exploitation possibilities of an educational ontology based, mobilized learning management system are presented. The focal point of this system is the educational ontology model. The first version of this educational ontology model serves as a foundation for curriculum

  19. Exploiting network redundancy for low-cost neural network realizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, H; Jansen, WJ; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, H; Udding, JT


    A method is presented to optimize a trained neural network for physical realization styles. Target architectures are embedded microcontrollers or standard cell based ASIC designs. The approach exploits the redundancy in the network, required for successful training, to replace the synaptic weighting

  20. Software defined radio receivers exploiting noise cancelling: A tutorial review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram


    Traditional radio receivers were narrowband and dedicated to a single frequency band exploiting LC tanks, whereas software defined radios target a flexibly programmable frequency. The broadband noise cancelling circuit technique has proven useful to achieve this target, as it breaks the traditional

  1. Spatial dynamics of fuel wood exploitation in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the spatial and temporal changes in fuel wood exploitation as a result of environmental degradation, between 2008 and 2013 in Delta State, Nigeria. It utilised data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from a survey of selected settlements using a questionnaire.

  2. Exploiting Policies in an Open Infrastructure for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coi, Juri L.; Koesling, Arne; Kärger, Philipp; Olmedilla, Daniel


    De Coi, J. L., Kösling, A., Kärger, P., Olmedilla, D., (2007) Exploiting Policies in an Open Infrastructure for Lifelong Learning. In Duval, E., Klamma, R. and Wolpers, M. (Eds.), Second European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4753, pp.26-40.

  3. Traditional exploitation of edible freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, oyster`s shell, a main substrate for larval settlement and bed restoration, were left on riverbanks after exploitation, reducing stocks reconstitution potential. Appropriate measures were suggested to Reserve staff for sustainable management. Keywords: Freshwater mollusk, harvesting activities, human pressure, ...

  4. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited. (United States)

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia


    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.

  5. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe


    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF...

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Perceived Exploitation of College Athletes Questionnaire (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Derek; Atwood, Jason R.


    The exploitation of college athletes has been a topic of controversy within American higher education for over half of a century. Especially in the revenue-generating sports of men's basketball and football, critics have highlighted the surplus gains expropriated by colleges and universities on the backs of these young men, who are…

  7. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.B.G.; Arhonditsis, G.B.; Beusen, Arthur; Bolding, Karsten; Bruce, Louise; Bruggeman, Jorn; Couture, Raoul Marie; Downing, Andrea S.; Alex Elliott, J.; Frassl, M.A.; Gal, Gideon; Gerla, Daan J.; Hipsey, M.R.; Hu, Fenjuan; Ives, S.C.; Janse, J.H.; Jeppesen, Erik; Jöhnk, K.D.; Kneis, David; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kuiper, J.J.; Lehmann, M.K.; Lemmen, Carsten; Özkundakci, Deniz; Petzoldt, Thomas; Rinke, Karsten; Robson, B.J.; Sachse, René; Schep, S.A.; Schmid, Martin; Scholten, Huub; Teurlincx, Sven; Trolle, Dennis; Troost, T.A.; Dam, Van A.A.; Gerven, Van L.P.A.; Weijerman, Mariska; Wells, S.A.; Mooij, W.M.


    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality

  8. Efficient Depth Map Compression Exploiting Segmented Color Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milani, Simone; Zanuttigh, Pietro; Zamarin, Marco


    performances is still an open research issue. This paper presents a novel compression scheme that exploits a segmentation of the color data to predict the shape of the different surfaces in the depth map. Then each segment is approximated with a parameterized plane. In case the approximation is sufficiently...

  9. Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A Nigerian Coastal Settlement. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Result show that 90% of the total local energy requirement is from fuelwood, the average per capita production rate of fuelwood in the local area is 0.38m3 and the ...

  10. Desiring TESOL and International Education: Market Abuse and Exploitation (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le


    This book addresses how Western universities have constructed themselves as global providers of education, and are driven to be globally competitive. It examines how the term "international" has been exploited by the market in the form of government educational policies and agencies, host institutions, academia and the mass media. The…

  11. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact (United States)

    Cam, Hasan


    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  12. Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram


    Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render

  13. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman


    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  14. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and Economic Implications. ... This has tremendously disrupted the primary sources of livelihood of the people namely fishing and farming which has left them in abject poverty. It is this ...

  15. Exploitation Rates and Management Implications for the Fisheries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploitation rates of eight major component fishery species, Auchenoglanis occidentalis, Brycinus nurse, Clarias gariepinus, Hemichromis fasciatus, Marcusenius senegalensis, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia zillii, of gill net fishery of Bontanga reservoir, were studied from March 2004 to ...

  16. Sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and sexual behavior among people with physical disability. (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Taleporos, George


    This study investigated the association between the severity and duration of physical disability and sexual esteem, sexual depression, sexual satisfaction, and the frequency of sexual behavior. A total of 1,196 participants completed the study. There were 748 participants (367 males, 381 females) who had a physical disability and 448 participants (171 males, 277 females) who were able-bodied. The age range of participants was 18-69 years, with a mean age of 36.39 years (SD = 10.41). The results demonstrated that people with more severe physical impairments experienced significantly lower levels of sexual esteem and sexual satisfaction and significantly higher levels of sexual depression than people who had mild impairments or who did not report having a physical impairment. The study also found that people with more severe physical disabilities engaged in mutual sexual activity significantly less frequently. Women with physical disabilities had significantly more positive feelings about their sexuality and significantly more frequent mutual sexual experiences than their male counterparts. For people with physical disabilities, the frequency of oral sex and nude cuddling were significant predictors of sexual satisfaction in men, while the frequency of deep kissing predicted sexual satisfaction in women. Furthermore, the viewing of erotica was significantly related to sexual dissatisfaction in men. Finally, it was found that people who had experienced their physical impairment for a longer period of time reported significantly more positive feelings about their sexuality. Implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions are made for future research.

  17. The impact of sexual orientation on sexuality and sexual practices in North American medical students. (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, James F; Eisenberg, Michael L; Ando, Kathryn A; Rowen, Tami S; Shindel, Alan W


    There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF orientation. It is unclear whether the dissimilarities represent differing relative prevalence of sexual problems or discrepancies in patterns of sex behavior and interpretation of the survey questions.

  18. Postpartum Resumption of Sexual Activity, Sexual Morbidity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Jos campus, Jos,. Plateau State, Nigeria. Abstract. Background: Postpartum sexual abstinence ..... traditional practices suggests declining postpartum sexual abstinence after childbirth, which had been deeply rooted in our.

  19. Changes in women's sexual behavior following sexual assault. (United States)

    Deliramich, Aimee N; Gray, Matt J


    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity postassault. Such outcomes are not mutually exclusive possibilities but may instead reflect subtypes of sexual assault victims. A significant percentage of assault survivors did report increases in sexual activity following trauma. Assault survivors also reported increases in posttraumatic alcohol consumption relative to a comparison sample of motor vehicle accident survivors. In both groups, increases in posttraumatic alcohol usage predicted increases in posttraumatic sexual activity, suggesting that use of alcohol as a coping strategy may result in an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. If true, this maladaptive coping mechanism could help to account for some instances of revictimization.

  20. HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexuality in Later Life. (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Hawkes, Gail; Pitts, Marian


    In this article, we review recent evidence indicating that people over the age of 50 years are increasingly at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, and that-thanks to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapies-those infected with HIV are now living into older age. We show that health professionals and society in general have been reluctant to acknowledge sexuality in older adults. Sexuality until recently has been regarded as merely a matter of male potency and sexual function, whereas older women's sexuality and desires have been ignored. Changing patterns of sexual practices, including high rates of divorce and partner change in the older age groups, indicate that focus and concern with sex and sexuality in later life will become part of routine prevention and maintenance of sexual health.

  1. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted infections - the importance of traditional healers. R Zachariah, W Nkhoma, AD Harries, V Arendt,, A Chantulo, MP Spielmann, MP Mbereko, L Buhendwa ...

  2. Adolescent sexuality and disability. (United States)

    Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila


    Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must

  3. Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Ke; Wang, Huiyong; Huertas, Mar; Baker, Cindy F.; Jia, Liang; Hayes, Michael C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas


    Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers’ perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signaling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of vertebrate pheromone communication. Previous studies indicate that male signaling with the mating pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) may exploit a nonsexual attraction to juvenile-released 3kPZS that guides migration into productive rearing habitat. Here, we infer the distribution of male signaling with 3kPZS using a phylogenetic comparison comprising six of ten genera and two of three families. Our results indicate that only P. marinus and Ichthyomyzon castaneus release 3kPZS at high rates. Olfactory and behavioral assays with P. marinus, I. castaneus and a subset of three other species that do not use 3kPZS as a sexual signal indicate that male signaling might drive the evolution of female adaptations to detect 3kPZS with specific olfactory mechanisms and respond to 3kPZS with targeted attraction relevant during mate search. We postulate that 3kPZS communication evolved independently in I. castaneus and P. marinus, but cannot eliminate the alternative that other species lost 3kPZS communication. Regardless, our results represent a rare macroevolutionary investigation of a vertebrate pheromone and insight into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying pheromone communication.

  4. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  5. Counseling and Human Sexuality: A Training Model. (United States)

    Fyfe, Bill


    Presents a counseling and human sexuality course model that provides counselors with an information base in human sexuality and assists them in exploring the emotional aspects of sexuality. Human sexuality is a vital aspect of personal development. (Author)

  6. Sexual abuse in children - what to know (United States)

    Sexual abuse - children ... boys are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... anus or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  7. [Sexuality and prostate cancer]. (United States)

    Droupy, S; Al Said, B; Lechevallier, E; Colson, M-H; Giuliano, F


    All treatments for prostate cancer have a negative impact on sexuality. The objective of this review is to highlight recent developments in the management of sexual dysfunction associated with prostate cancer. We performed a literature search in the Pubmed database to select relevant articles. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of sexual, urinary, bowel and general quality of life, according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintenance of a satisfying sex life is a major concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatments. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before treating prostate cancer in order to deliver comprehensive information and consider early therapeutic solutions adapted to the couple's expectations. The results of randomized studies show that robotic radical prostatectomy allows a faster recovery of natural erections compared to classic laparoscopy. Active pharmacological erectile rehabilitation (intracavernous injections or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors [PDE5i] on demand, during the month following surgery) or passive (daily PDE5i after surgery) might improve the quality of erections especially in response to PDE5i. Unimpaired aspects of sexual response (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, represent an alternative allowing the couple to preserve intimacy and complicity. Androgen blockade is a major barrier to maintain or return to a satisfying sex. After the treatment of prostate cancer, one specific support sometimes assisted by networking will optimize satisfying sex life recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A fofoca, o estigma e o silêncio: crianças e adolescentes em situação de exploração sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Novais da Mata Machado


    Full Text Available A research program carried out in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, revealed that the sexual exploitation of children was a serious problem in the region. This article revisits some or those data, specially the imaginary essay to hide the exploitation, coming from the children interviewed. It is asked why, having openly lived the situation, the children choose to silence about it. But they know well about sexual exploitation, as demonstrated by interviews' analyses. They identify the exploiters' profiles, the overall situation in which the exploitation occurs and the sexual program, but avoid to report these facts as occurring to themselves. The article tries to understand how the silence was created and its purpose. By hypothesis, the circulation of gossips in the small towns arouses a stigmatization process from which the children try to escape. That is why they silence. In the other side, always under an imaginary cover, the silence protects the towns, its inhabitants and families, the clients and the enticers, assuring the maintenance of a vicious circle in which the children continue falling into situations of sexual (and economic exploitation. Finally, the article searches how to slip from this circle.

  9. Access to mental health and psychosocial services in Cambodia by survivors of trafficking and exploitation: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Aberdein, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy


    Emerging evidence indicates the extreme forms of violence and acute and longer-term mental health consequences associated with trafficking and exploitation. However, there has been little research on post-trafficking mental health and psychosocial support services for survivors. This study explored the availability and accessibility of mental health and psychosocial support services in Cambodia for women, men and children trafficked and exploited for sex or labour purposes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of representatives from seven service organizations providing mental health and psychosocial support services for people who have been trafficked. This qualitative method was selected to gain insights into the service approaches and challenges faced by the small number of post-trafficking service providers in Cambodia. A conceptual framework outlining access dimensions associated with service provision guided the structure of the study. Findings indicate that among the available post-trafficking services, there are few trained mental health specialists, an over-representation of shelter services in urban versus rural areas and limited services for males, people with disabilities, individuals exploited for labour (versus sexual exploitation) and those with more serious mental illnesses. Providers believe that discrimination and stigma related to both mental health and human trafficking hinder trafficked people's willingness to access services, but suggest that awareness-raising may reduce these prejudices. Care in this sector is precarious due to over-reliance on financial support by donors versus government. Recent increases in newly qualified professionals and providers suggest potential improvements in the quality and availability of psychological support for trafficking survivors. Psychological support for the growing number of identified trafficking survivors in Cambodia will depend on improved geographical

  10. Childhood sexual victimization, pedophilic interest, and sexual recidivism. (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; Renee Malcom, J; Lavoie, Kayla


    The goal of the current study was to examine the extent to which child sexual abuse (CSA) and particular characteristics of CSA are associated with pedophilic interest and sexual recidivism. Subjects were 462 adult male sexual offenders who had been incarcerated in Canadian federal prisons. Compared to sexual offenders who had not been sexually abused, those who had been sexually abused before age 16 sexually offended against significantly younger victims and had significantly more indicators of pedophilic interest. This was the case whether we examined self-reported or officially documented CSA. Offenders who had been sexually abused exclusively by a male had significantly more indicators of pedophilic interest than those who had been sexually abused exclusively by a female. These findings are consistent with past research and theory suggesting that CSA may play a role in pedophilia and sexual offending against children. CSA exclusively by a female abuser predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism than abuse by a male or both a male and female abuser. Among offenders with victims 15 years old or younger, a closer relationship between offender and abuser predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism. The relationship between CSA and sexual recidivism was significantly moderated by actuarial risk. More specifically, CSA predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism among higher risk offenders, but CSA did not predict sexual recidivism among lower risk offenders. This novel finding raises the possibility that CSA may play a role in sexual recidivism for some offenders. If future research replicates this CSA by risk interaction and identifies the constructs and processes involved, CSA may be worth considering in risk assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender and sexual vulnerability of young women in Africa: experiences of young girls in secondary schools in Uganda. (United States)

    Muhanguzi, Florence Kyoheirwe


    Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. The study reveals that through social and discursive practices, students construct complex gendered relations of domination and subordination that position boys and girls differently, often creating gender inequalities and sexual vulnerability for those gendered as girls. Girls' vulnerability is characterised by confusing and traumatic experiences fraught with double standards and silences. Typical of these experiences are complex tensions and contradictions surrounding constructions of sexuality that are predicated upon unequal power and gender relations characterised by homophobia, misogyny, control of female sexuality and sexual abuse and exploitation, all which work against girls' expression of sexuality. Gender sensitive sexuality education is identified as a valuable site of intervention to address such vulnerabilities and promote gender equality and equity in society.

  12. Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reproductive health information for adolescents is important in reducing teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases /human immunodeficiency virus. Aim: To ascertain the knowledge of sexuality among different categories of school teenagers and to assess the impact of knowledge of sexuality on ...

  13. Sexual networks and social capital: multiple and concurrent sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships (MCP) are prevalent in southern Africa and have been identified as a primary cause of high HIV prevalence in this region. Sexual liaisons with multiple partners serve to increase the size and diversity of an individual's sexual — and social — network and therefore to increase their ...

  14. Motivations and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of sexuality professionals. (United States)

    Luria, Mijal; Byers, E Sandra; Voyer, Susan D; Mock, Moshe


    This study examined the motivations for entering the field and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of an international group of sexuality professionals. Participants were 252 individuals attending the XVII World Congress of Sexology who completed a questionnaire in English, Spanish or French. Most participants' reported professional rather than personal motivations for entering the field in addition to interest. On average, participants reported little sexual communication with their parents as children. About one-third had experienced unwanted sexual activity as a child. Participants were mostly accepting of a range of sexual activities, although they were less accepting of some behaviors than of others. Twelve of the participants who had engaged in sexual activity with a casual or anonymous partner in the previous 2 years had not used a condom consistently. Participants reported high sexual satisfaction and good sexual communication with their partner. Nevertheless, 45% of the women and 35% of the men reported regularly experiencing one or more sexual problems. Few participants reported that their profession affected their sexual functioning negatively; in contrast most reported that it had positive effects on their sexual functioning. These results suggest that there are few differences between sexuality professionals and the general public.

  15. Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Reproductive Health Status among Prisoners Aged Between 18-49 Years in. Tabor Prison, Hawassa ... Keywords: Sexual and reproductive health, Sexually transmitted infections, Prisoners,. Hawassa, Ethiopia. 1. ... prisoners engage in sexual activities right inside prisons during incarceration, although one would think this ...

  16. 27 Sexual Health and Sexual Rights within Marriage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    defines marriage existing in all societies as a “formalized relationship with legal and/or social standing between individual men and women, in which sexual relations are legitimized and as an arena for reproduction and child rearing which has state recognition”. Sexual Health and Sexual Rights within Marriage ...

  17. Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths. (United States)

    Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.


    This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

  18. Health seeking and sexual behav iour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are known to facilitate the sexual transmission of HIV[1][2] and effective STI case management is known to reduce the incidence of HIV.[3] .... Clottey C, Dalabetta G. Sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus, epidemiologic synergy? Infect dis Clin North Am 1993 ...

  19. Sexual Health and Sexual Rights within Marriage | Olabisi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual Health and Sexual Rights within Marriage. ... This paper which relies on secondary data source, examines women's subordinate position in the institution of marriage among the three major tribes, Hausa, ... The paper concludes by stating the effects of persistent violation of women's sexual rights and the attendant

  20. The Role of Sexual Precedence in Verbal Sexual Coercion (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Buddie, Amy M.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol


    Experiences of verbal sexual coercion are common and have potential for negative consequences, yet are not well understood. This study used qualitative and descriptive statistics to examine verbal sexual coercion experiences among a community sample of 114 women and explored the role of sexual precedence in these experiences. Analyses revealed…

  1. Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual and Reproductive Health Status among Prisoners Aged Between 18-49 Years in Tabor Prison, Hawassa, Ethiopia. ... The magnitude of STIs was found as 5.1% among the respondents and 30 (14.5%) respondents were HIV positive. Keywords: Sexual ...

  2. Turismo sexual y turismo sexual infantil


    Mejías Martínez, Carlos


    El turismo sexual es un tipo de turismo que gran parte de la sociedad conoce a la perfección pero del que suelen tener un concepto cerrado; incluso los especialistas en este sector discrepan a la hora de definir este concepto. Aunque tenga una gran importancia económica y social apenas se puede conocer cómo ha ido evolucionando y el tamaño real que ocupa en los distintos países este tipo de turismo Grado en Turismo

  3. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished......This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...

  4. Sexual function and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S H; Wagner, G; Heitmann, B L


    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the relationship between obesity and sexual function. METHOD: A search in the medical literature from 1966 and onwards was carried out through Medline and Embase for publications on obesity, in combination with Medical Subject Heading words related to sexual...... function and dysfunction. COMMENTS: Four prospective and seven cross-sectional studies were found describing association between obesity and erectile dysfunction (ED). One cross-sectional study was found describing obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The prospective studies on ED all demonstrated...... activity among both men and women after weight loss intervention. CONCLUSION: Support for the assumption that obesity is associated with ED was found in both prospective and cross-sectional studies. FSD was not adequately described in the literature and prospective studies are needed here. Results from...

  5. Comportamiento sexual y ansiedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romina Justel


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se revisarán las investigaciones con animales no humanos que atañen a la relación existente entre comportamiento sexual y ansiedad. Por una parte, los resultados más relevantes indican que el comportamiento sexual posee un efecto de tipo ansiolítico o atenuante del estrés, que se manifiesta tanto en la conducta de los sujetos como a niveles fisiológicos o neuroendocrinos. Por otra parte, hay estudios que hacen referencia a la relación de signo contrario, es decir, cómo el estrés afecta el comportamiento sexual de los animales.

  6. Aging and sexuality. (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B


    Sexuality, although only one aspect of one's being, plays an integral role during the aging process. This role has physical and psychologic ramifications. A healthy sexual attitude combined with addressing physical health needs provides a greater potential for enjoying a more fulfilled lifestyle as one ages. With aging come significant potential medical problems and associated psychologic disturbances. These issues present a challenge to those in the medical profession who treat this age group. It is important to those physicians accepting this responsibility to become extremely familiar with all the nuances affecting those in the golden years of their lives. This enormous responsibility requires knowledge, caring, compassion, understanding, and sensitivity. With luck, we will all reach those golden years and receive the freedom to experience and express sexuality that is most certainly deserved.

  7. [Female sexuality and parenthood]. (United States)

    Colson, M-H


    From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Health Issues in Women (United States)

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.

  9. Sexual Health Issues in Men (United States)

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and prostate surgery may affect a man’s sexual function, lower libido, and make it difficult to get an erection. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems, during cancer treatment.

  10. Sexual desire disorders in women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cour, F; Bonierbale, M


    .... Female sexual desire is eminently multifactorial. The clinician should take into account the distress of the woman presenting with a SDD by relating this to the sexual history and the general context...

  11. Sexual violence in the media


    Judith Matloff


    Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  12. Sexual function after transvaginal cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders M; Jørgensen, Lars N; Meisner, Søren


    INTRODUCTION: Despite several benefits, patients are concerned that transvaginal cholecystectomy has a negative impact on sexual health. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the impact of transvaginal cholecystectomy on postoperative dyspareunia and sexual function. METHOD: A lit...

  13. Sexual violence in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Matloff


    Full Text Available Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  14. Sexual assault in the military. (United States)

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H


    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military.

  15. Family culture and adolescent sexuality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferreira, Manuela; Nelas, Paula; Duarte, João; Albuquerque, Carlos; Grilo, Célia; Nave, Filipe


    .... Their experience has different meanings in future quality of life. To analyze the relationship between the sociodemographic variables, of Sexual context and attitudes adopted by teenagers facing sexuality with the organizational culture of the family...

  16. Campus Climates for Sexual Minorities (United States)

    Rankin, Susan R.


    Sexual minorities encounter unique challenges due to their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression that often prevents them from achieving their full academic potential or participating fully in the campus community. (Contains 3 tables and 2 notes.)

  17. Adolescent sexuality and public policy. (United States)

    Olsen, J A; Jensen, L C; Greaves, P M


    In recent decades, various attempts have been made to determine the level of sexual activity among adolescents. This information has been used in the planning and evaluation of sex-related programs. However, there is a flaw in using only the initial estimates of the behavior--that a sexually active person is defined as one who has had sexual intercourse. This narrow definition distorts the perception of adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual activity can more accurately be designated by focusing on the actual frequency with which teenagers have sex. In this research report, adolescents were considered sexually active if they had had sex within the last four weeks. Using this definition, adolescents were found to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. This finding was then used to look at various policy decisions in the areas of sex education, family planning, and sexually transmitted disease prevention.

  18. Floral mimicry enhances pollen export: the evolution of pollination by sexual deceit outside of the orchidaceae. (United States)

    Ellis, Allan G; Johnson, Steven D


    Although the majority of flowering plants achieve pollination by exploiting the food‐seeking behavior of animals, some use alternative ploys that exploit their mate‐seeking behavior. Sexual deception is currently known only from the Orchidaceae and almost always involves pollination by male hymenoptera. An outstanding problem has been to identify the selective factors in plants that favor exploitation of mating versus feeding behaviors in pollinators. Here we show that the insectlike petal ornaments on inflorescences of the daisy Gorteria diffusa elicit copulation attempts from male bombyliid flies and that the intensity of the mating response varies across geographical floral morphotypes, suggesting a continuum in reliance on feeding through mating responses for pollination. Using pollen analogues applied to a morphotype with prominent insectlike petal ornaments, we demonstrate that mate‐seeking male flies are several‐fold more active and export significantly more pollen than females. These results suggest that selection for traits that exploit insect mating behavior can occur through the male component of plant fitness and conclusively demonstrates pollination by sexual deception in Gorteria, making this the first confirmed report of sexual deception outside of the Orchidaceae.

  19. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A


    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.

  20. Crowdsourcing Sexual Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissima Mathen


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the criminal offence of the non-consensual distribution of intimate images (what some call “revenge porn”. Focussing on the debate currently underway in Canada, it notes that such an offence would fill a grey area in that country’s criminal law. Arguing, more broadly, that the criminal law has an important expressive function, the paper posits that the offence targets the same general type of wrongdoing—sexual objectification—that undergirds sexual assault. While not all objectification merits criminal sanction, the paper explains why the non-consensual distribution of intimate images does and why a specific offence is legitimate.