Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Darakjy, Salima; Jones, Bruce H
Epidemiological studies often have to rely on a participant's self-reporting of information. The validity of the self-report instrument is an important consideration in any study. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores. The APFT is administered to all soldiers in the U.S. Army twice a year and consists of the maximum number of push-ups completed in 2 minutes, the maximum number of sit-ups completed in 2 minutes, and a 2-mile run for time. Army mechanics responded to a questionnaire in March and June 2004 asking them to report the exact scores of each event on their most recent APFT. Actual APFT scores were obtained from the soldier's military unit. The mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of actual and self-reported numbers of push-ups was 61 +/- 14 and 65 +/- 13, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported numbers of sit-ups were 66 +/- 10 and 68 +/- 10, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported run times (minutes) were 14.8 +/- 1.4 and 14.6 +/- 1.4, respectively. Correlations between actual and self-reported push-ups, sit-ups, and run were 0.83, 0.71, and 0.85, respectively. On average, soldiers tended to slightly over-report performance on all APFT events and individual self-reported scores could vary widely from actual scores based on Bland-Altman plots. Despite this, the close correlations between the actual and self-reported scores suggest that self-reported values are adequate for most epidemiological military studies involving larger sample sizes.
Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash
Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales
Kahraman, Nilufer; Kamata, Akihito
In this study, the precision of subscale score estimates was evaluated when out-of-scale information was incorporated. Procedures that incorporated out-of-scale information and only information within a subscale were compared through a series of simulations. It was revealed that more information (i.e., more precision) was always provided for…
Adilay, Utku; Guclu, Bulent; Goksel, Murat; Keskil, Semih
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores with chronic low back pain. In this study, 75 patients admitted with the complaint of chronic low back pain (patient group) and 75 healthy persons (control group) were evaluated. SCL-90-R anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons were measured. The mean values were paired and using two tailed t test they were statistically evaluated. The difference between SCL-90-R anxiety subscale subscores of patients having choronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05).The difference betweenSCL-90-R depression subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05). The difference between SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically significant (p 0.05). Our data show that SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores were higher in patients with low back pain. The treatment of low back pain can be more successful when combined with the treatment of somatization.
Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’) was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption. PMID:22935297
Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan
The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy-balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). A four-item automaticity subscale (the 'Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index'; 'SRBAI') was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.
Marco, Catherine A; Nagel, Jacqueline; Klink, Ellen; Baehren, David
Pain is a common presenting complaint among emergency department (ED) patients. The verbal numeric pain scale is commonly used in the ED to assess self-reported pain. This study was undertaken to describe and compare pain scores in a variety of painful conditions and identify factors associated with self-reported pain scores. The study was a prospective, observational, descriptive survey study conducted at an urban university hospital ED. Eligible participants included consenting adults 18 years and older, with an acute painful condition, who spoke English, and were not in severe distress. Through a structured interview, collected data included pain score; diagnosis; medical history; previous painful experiences; and demographic information including age, insurance status, and highest level of education completed. Among 268 eligible participants, 263 (98%) consented and completed the study protocol. Seventy-one percent of participants were 50 years old or younger; 55%, women; and 68%, white. Fifty-four percent had private insurance, and 81%, high school education or higher. The most common chief complaints were soft tissue injury (33%), abdominal pain (18%), and chest pain (13%). The median self-reported pain score was 7/10 (mean, 6.7; interquartile range, 6-9; range, 0-10). The most common previous painful experiences were childbirth (21%), major trauma (18%), and surgery (14%). Participants cited reasons for self-reported pain scores, including current feeling of pain (62%), comparison to previous pain (31%), and comparison to hypothetical pain (12%). The number of previous ED visits was positively correlated with current pain score (Spearman correlation R = 0.28; P associated with the highest pain scores included dental pain (mean pain score, 8.5) and back pain (mean pain score, 7.6). Chief complaints associated with the lowest pain scores included chest pain (mean pain score, 5.2) and other medical conditions (mean pain score, 5.3). Factors associated with
Erford, Bradley T.; Schein, Hallie; Duncan, Kelly
The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale", which was designed to assess general self-efficacy in students aged 10 to 17 years. Confirmatory factor analysis on cross-validated samples was conducted revealing a marginal fit of the data to the…
Pre-to-post race changes in self-reported depression scores in ultra-distance triathletes - a pilot study. AM Harrison, DT Yaldoo, CM Fiesler, JT Connor. Abstract. SA Sports Medicine Vol.15(3) 2003: 11-16. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Isa, Ameena; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham
Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65-0.91). As a result, the clinicians' assessments of the various symptoms became
Ali, Mir M; Verrill, Linda; Zhang, Yuanting
Hand washing is a simple and effective but easily overlooked way to reduce cross-contamination and the transmission of foodborne pathogens. In this study, we used the propensity score matching methodology to account for potential selection bias to explore our hypothesis that always washing hands before food preparation tasks is associated with a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness. Propensity score matching can simulate random assignment to a condition so that pretreatment observable differences between a treatment group and a control group are homogenous on all the covariates except the treatment variable. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2010 Food Safety Survey, we estimated the effect of self-reported hand washing behavior on the probability of self-reported foodborne illness. Our results indicate that reported washing of hands with soap always before food preparation leads to a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness.
Sarkin, J A; Nichols, J F; Sallis, J F; Calfas, K J
Prevalence estimates of meeting the guidelines for physical activity based on various self-report measures were compared, and the effects of various scoring protocols on the estimates were evaluated. A sample of 575 university students aged 24.5 +/- 1.9 yr (56% women, 54% Euro-American) completed the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall interview (PAR), Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and National Health Interview Survey 1991 (NHIS). To determine the prevalence of meeting the ACSM (1990) fitness and the CDC/ACSM (1995) health-related guidelines, various scoring protocols were employed that closely approximated the recommendations. Protocols varied by whether frequency and duration or duration only were considered. For the health-related guidelines, scoring protocols also varied depending on the intensity of activities considered. Depending on the scoring protocol and instrument used, the proportion meeting the fitness guidelines ranged from 32 to 59%. The NHIS, YRBS, and PAR resulted in significantly different proportions of those meeting the health-related guideline, ranging from 4 to 70%. The type of measure as well as the scoring protocol affected prevalence estimates of meeting the physical activity guidelines. This study indicates the difficulty of comparing prevalence rates across studies using different measures.
van der Heide, A.; Jacobs, J. W.; van Albada-Kuipers, G. A.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Geenen, R.; Bijlsma, J. W.
Self report scores of physical disability and the use of devices or assistance in performing activities are sometimes integrated in one index of physical function, although they are aimed at measuring different dimensions of physical disability. The properties of both parameters were evaluated in
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ has become one of the most widely used measurement tools in child and adolescent mental health work across the globe. The SDQ was originally developed and validated within the UK and whilst its reliability and validity have been replicated in several countries important cross cultural issues have been raised. We describe normative data, reliability and validity of the Chinese translation of the SDQ (parent, teacher and self report versions in a large group of children from Shanghai. Methods The SDQ was administered to the parents and teachers of students from 12 of Shanghai's 19 districts, aged between 3 and 17 years old, and to those young people aged between 11 and 17 years. Retest data was collected from parents and teachers for 45 students six weeks later. Data was analysed to describe normative scores, bandings and cut-offs for normal, borderline and abnormal scores. Reliability was assessed from analyses of internal consistency, inter-rater agreement, and temporal stability. Structural validity, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results Full parent and teacher data was available for 1965 subjects and self report data for 690 subjects. Normative data for this Chinese urban population with bandings and cut-offs for borderline and abnormal scores are described. Principle components analysis indicates partial agreement with the original five factored subscale structure however this appears to hold more strongly for the Prosocial Behaviour, Hyperactivity – Inattention and Emotional Symptoms subscales than for Conduct Problems and Peer Problems. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's α coefficient were generally low ranging between 0.30 and 0.83 with only parent and teacher Hyperactivity – Inattention and teacher Prosocial Behaviour subscales having α > 0.7. Inter-rater correlations were similar to those reported previously (range 0.23 – 0
Kahraman, Nilufer; Thompson, Tony
A practical concern for many existing tests is that subscore test lengths are too short to provide reliable and meaningful measurement. A possible method of improving the subscale reliability and validity would be to make use of collateral information provided by items from other subscales of the same test. To this end, the purpose of this article…
Johannessen, Hege Hølmo; Norderval, Stig; Stordahl, Arvid; Falk, Ragnhild Sørum; Wibe, Arne
St Mark's incontinence score (SMIS) was originally designed and validated for use in an interview setting (iSMIS), and there is conflicting evidence for the validity of the self-administered SMIS (sSMIS). Our objective was to compare self-administered and interview-based reports of anal incontinence (AI) symptoms. A total of 147 women reported symptoms of AI on a sSMIS before inclusion in a clinical study investigating the effect of conservative treatment for AI 1 year after delivery. After clinical investigations, an iSMIS was completed by one of two consultant surgeons blinded to the sSMIS results. The correlation and agreement among the individual items of the iSMIS and the sSMIS were assessed using Spearman's rho and weighted kappa statistics, respectively. The mean iSMIS and sSMIS reported was 4.0 (SD: 3.6) and 4.3 (SD: 4.0), respectively. Spearman's rho showed a strong relationship between the two total SMIS scores (r = 0.769, n = 147, p incontinence, women reported more frequent AI symptoms on the sSMIS than on the iSMIS. The assessment of consistency among the individual items of the iSMIS and sSMIS showed substantial agreement (κ ≥ 0.60) for all items except for fair agreement for the item about formed stool incontinence (κ = 0.22), and moderate for the item about any change in lifestyle (κ = 0.5). The level of consistency between the two methods of reporting anal incontinence symptoms suggests that the St Mark's score may be used as both an interview-based and a self-administered incontinence score.
Hajós, Tibor R S; Polonsky, William H; Pouwer, Frans
OBJECTIVE To determine a cutoff score for clinically meaningful fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) on the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey Worry subscale (HFS-W). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on the HFS-W, history of hypoglycemia, emotional well-being (World Health Organization-5 well-being index...
William R Hobbs
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We validate an online, personalized mortality risk measure called "RealAge" assigned to 30 million individuals over the past 10 years. METHODS: 188,698 RealAge survey respondents were linked to California Department of Public Health death records using a one-way cryptographic hash of first name, last name, and date of birth. 1,046 were identified as deceased. We used Cox proportional hazards models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves to estimate the relative scales and predictive accuracies of chronological age, the RealAge score, and the Framingham ATP-III score for hard coronary heart disease (HCHD in this data. To address concerns about selection and to examine possible heterogeneity, we compared the results by time to death at registration, underlying cause of death, and relative health among users. RESULTS: THE REALAGE SCORE IS ACCURATELY SCALED (HAZARD RATIOS: age 1.076; RealAge-age 1.084 and more accurate than chronological age (age c-statistic: 0.748; RealAge c-statistic: 0.847 in predicting mortality from hard coronary heart disease following survey completion. The score is more accurate than the Framingham ATP-III score for hard coronary heart disease (c-statistic: 0.814, perhaps because self-reported cholesterol levels are relatively uninformative in the RealAge user sample. RealAge predicts deaths from malignant neoplasms, heart disease, and external causes. The score does not predict malignant neoplasm deaths when restricted to users with no smoking history, no prior cancer diagnosis, and no indicated health interest in cancer (p-value 0.820. CONCLUSION: The RealAge score is a valid measure of mortality risk in its user population.
Skodje, Gry I; Henriksen, Christine; Salte, Trude; Drivenes, Thea; Toleikyte, Ieva; Lovik, Astrid M; Veierød, Marit B; Lundin, Knut E A
The condition non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is clinically similar to coeliac disease, but lack objective diagnostic criteria. Symptom relief on gluten-free diet followed by gluten containing food challenge may confirm the condition in clinical settings. To describe the results of an open bread challenge in patients with suspected NCGS, and to compare the results with recently suggested cut-offs for symptom change. Fifty-six patients (12 males) self-instituted on gluten-free diet with negative coeliac disease diagnostics were examined for NCGS by an open bread challenge. Symptoms were reported by Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, IBS-version (GSRS-IBS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Results were retrospectively compared to the Salerno and Monash cut-offs for symptom change. Forty-seven patients were diagnosed with NCGS. Total GSRS-IBS score and overall symptoms by VAS increased significantly in NCGS (p < .001), but not in non-NCGS patients (p < .12 and p = .08, respectively). Total GSRS-IBS challenge score and overall symptoms by VAS were significantly higher in NCGS than in non-NCGS patients (53 vs. 37, p = .004 and 76 vs. 39 mm, p = .02, respectively). Applying the Salerno and Monash cut-offs, 63 and 75% would be classified with NCGS, respectively. According to total GSRS-IBS absolute agreement was lowest between clinician's diagnosis and Salerno cut-off (63%) and highest between Salerno and Monash cut-offs (88%). Clinician diagnosed 85% with NCGS. The proportion of NCGS was lower according to the Salerno and Monash cut-offs. The Salerno cut-off should be the starting point for a common definition of symptom change.
Tucker, Graeme; Adams, Robert; Wilson, David
Purpose A number of previous studies have shown inconsistencies between sub-scale scores and component summary scores using traditional scoring methods of the SF-36 version 1. This study addresses the issue in Version 2 and asks if the previous problems of disagreement between the eight SF-36 Version 1 sub-scale scores and the Physical and Mental Component Summary persist in version 2. A second study objective is to review the recommended scoring methods for the creation of factor scoring weights and the effect on producing summary scale scores Methods The 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey dataset was used for the production of coefficients. There were 3,014 observations with full data for the SF-36. Data were analysed in LISREL V8.71. Confirmatory factor analysis models were fit to the data producing diagonally weighted least squares estimates. Scoring coefficients were validated on an independent dataset, the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Problems of agreement were observed with the recommended orthogonal scoring methods which were corrected using confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions Confirmatory factor analysis is the preferred method to analyse SF-36 data, allowing for the correlation between physical and mental health. PMID:23593428
Cooper, Dale J; Scammell, Brigitte E; Batt, Mark E; Palmer, Debbie
The impracticalities and comparative expense of carrying out a clinical assessment is an obstacle in many large epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a series of electronic self-reported line drawing instruments based on the modified Beighton scoring system for the assessment of self-reported generalised joint hypermobility. Five sets of line drawings were created to depict the 9-point Beighton score criteria. Each instrument consisted of an explanatory question whereby participants were asked to select the line drawing which best represented their joints. Fifty participants completed the self-report online instrument on two occasions, before attending a clinical assessment. A blinded expert clinical observer then assessed participants' on two occasions, using a standardised goniometry measurement protocol. Validity of the instrument was assessed by participant-observer agreement and reliability by participant repeatability and observer repeatability using unweighted Cohen's kappa (k). Validity and reliability were assessed for each item in the self-reported instrument separately, and for the sum of the total scores. An aggregate score for generalised joint hypermobility was determined based on a Beighton score of 4 or more out of 9. Observer-repeatability between the two clinical assessments demonstrated perfect agreement (k 1.00; 95% CI 1.00, 1.00). Self-reported participant-repeatability was lower but it was still excellent (k 0.91; 95% CI 0.74, 1.00). The participant-observer agreement was excellent (k 0.96; 95% CI 0.87, 1.00). Validity was excellent for the self-report instrument, with a good sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81, 0.91) and excellent specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00). The self-reported instrument provides a valid and reliable assessment of the presence of generalised joint hypermobility and may have practical use in epidemiological studies.
Raykos, Bronwyn; Erceg-Hurn, David; McEvoy, Peter; Byrne, Susan M
The Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA 3.0) is the most widely used instrument assessing psychosocial impairment secondary to eating disorder symptoms. However, there is conflicting advice regarding the dimensionality and optimal method of scoring the CIA. We sought to resolve this confusion by conducting a comprehensive factor analytic study of the CIA in a community sample ( N = 301) and clinical sample comprising patients with a diagnosed eating disorder ( N = 209). Convergent and discriminant validity were also assessed. The CIA and measures of eating disorder symptoms were administered to both samples. Factor analyses indicated there is a general impairment factor underlying all items on the CIA that is reliably measured by the CIA Global score. CIA Global demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. CIA Global is a reliable and valid measure of psychosocial impairment secondary to eating disorder symptoms; however, subscale scores should not be computed.
Dale J. Cooper
Full Text Available Abstract Background The impracticalities and comparative expense of carrying out a clinical assessment is an obstacle in many large epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a series of electronic self-reported line drawing instruments based on the modified Beighton scoring system for the assessment of self-reported generalised joint hypermobility. Methods Five sets of line drawings were created to depict the 9-point Beighton score criteria. Each instrument consisted of an explanatory question whereby participants were asked to select the line drawing which best represented their joints. Fifty participants completed the self-report online instrument on two occasions, before attending a clinical assessment. A blinded expert clinical observer then assessed participants’ on two occasions, using a standardised goniometry measurement protocol. Validity of the instrument was assessed by participant-observer agreement and reliability by participant repeatability and observer repeatability using unweighted Cohen’s kappa (k. Validity and reliability were assessed for each item in the self-reported instrument separately, and for the sum of the total scores. An aggregate score for generalised joint hypermobility was determined based on a Beighton score of 4 or more out of 9. Results Observer-repeatability between the two clinical assessments demonstrated perfect agreement (k 1.00; 95% CI 1.00, 1.00. Self-reported participant-repeatability was lower but it was still excellent (k 0.91; 95% CI 0.74, 1.00. The participant-observer agreement was excellent (k 0.96; 95% CI 0.87, 1.00. Validity was excellent for the self-report instrument, with a good sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81, 0.91 and excellent specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00. Conclusions The self-reported instrument provides a valid and reliable assessment of the presence of generalised joint hypermobility and may have practical use in epidemiological
Chou, Ming Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Lee, I Hui; Yao, Wei Jen; Chen, Po See; Chang, Kang-Wei; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Yang, Yen Kuang
Serotonin is one of the key neuromodulators involved in fundamental cerebral functions and behaviors. Previous study has demonstrated that somatization symptoms are probably associated with central serotonergic circuits, which are implicated in anxiety and nociception regulation. This study aims to examine the correlation between somatization subscale score and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in healthy volunteers. Sixty-four healthy participants, 26 males and 38 females, were enrolled from the community and were administered the single somatization subscale of the Chinese symptom checklist 90 revised (SCL90-R). Single photon emission computed tomography with [(123)I] 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine was also performed to examine SERT availability. The somatization scores were negatively correlated with SERT availability (Spearman's ρ = -0.35, p = 0.005), particularly in males (Spearman's ρ = -0.54, p = 0.004). This result reconfirmed the correlation between central serotonergic activity and the intensity of somatization symptoms, even in healthy participants. However, a gender difference exists in this correlation.
Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Stuart, Gregory L
Psychological aggression in females' dating relationships has received increased empirical attention in recent years. However, researchers' have used numerous measures of psychological aggression and various scoring methods with these measures, making it difficult to compare across studies on psychological aggression. In addition, research has yet to examine whether different scoring methods for psychological aggression measures may affect the psychometric properties of these instruments. This study examined three self-report measures of psychological aggression within a sample of female college students (N = 108), including their psychometric properties when scored using frequency, sum, and variety scores. Results showed that the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) had variable internal consistency depending on the scoring method used and good validity; the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and the Follingstad Psychological Aggression Scale (FPAS) both had good internal consistency and validity across scoring methods. Implications of these findings for the assessment of psychological aggression and future research are discussed.
Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M
Academic achievement has been found to have a pervasive and substantial impact on a wide range of developmental outcomes and has also been implicated in the critical transition from adolescence into early adulthood. Previous research has revealed that self-reported grades tend to diverge from official transcript grade point average (GPA) scores, with students being more likely to report inflated scores. Making use of a sample of monozygotic twin (N = 282 pairs), dizygotic twin (N = 441 pairs), and full sibling (N = 1,757 pairs) pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; 65 % White; 50 % male; mean age = 16.14), the current study is the first to investigate the role that genetic and environmental factors play in misreporting grade information. A comparison between self-reported GPA (mean score of 2.86) and official transcript GPA scores (mean score of 2.44) revealed that self-reported scores were approximately one-half letter grade greater than official scores. Liability threshold models revealed that additive genetic influences explained between 40 and 63 % of the variance in reporting inflated grades and correctly reporting GPA, with the remaining variance explained by the nonshared environment. Conversely, 100 % of the variance in reporting deflated grade information was explained by nonshared environmental influences. In an effort to identify specific nonshared environmental influences on reporting accuracy, multivariate models that adequately control for genetic influences were estimated and revealed that siblings with lower transcript GPA scores were significantly less likely to correctly report their GPA and significantly more likely to report inflated GPA scores. Additional analyses revealed that verbal IQ and self-control were not significantly associated with self-reported GPA accuracy after controlling for genetic influences. These findings indicate that previous studies that implicate verbal IQ and self
Kim, O-S; Kim, M S; Lee, J E; Jung, H
The prevalence of night-eating syndrome (NES) and depression is increasing worldwide. Although nurses, in particular, are exposed to work in an environment of irregular eating, shift work, and stressful settings, limited research exist. In fact, the prevalence of NES among Korean nurses has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NES as well as the association between NES and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among South Korean female nurses. The Korea Nurses' Health Study, following the protocols of the Nurses' Health Study led by the Harvard University, collected data on Korean female nurses. Survey responses from 3617 participants were included, and 404 responses were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using propensity score matching. Descriptive, Spearman's and Cramer's correlations, propensity score matching, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression were conducted as statistical analysis. The prevalence of both NES and self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses were higher compared with nurses in prior studies. Nurses with NES were 1.65 times more likely to have greater severity of depressive symptoms than those without NES (95% confidence interval [1.19-2.10], odds ratio = 1.65) after adjusting for covariates including sociodemographic characteristics, health behavioural factors, and shift work. This study suggests significant association between NES and the severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among Korean female nurses after adjusting for covariates. Policy makers and hospital managers need to develop strategies to reduce depression and NES among nurses for enhancement of nurses' mental and physical health as well as for improvement of care quality. Copyright Â© 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K
Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study...... was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS...... questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (
Rao, Raghavendra Mohan; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Nagendra, H R; Usharani, M R; Gopinath, K S; Diwakar, Ravi B; Patil, Shekar; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Rao, Nalini
To compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy on self-reported symptoms of depression in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. Ninety-eight breast cancer patients with stage II and III disease from a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy (n = 53) over a 24-week period during which they underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both. The study stoppage criteria was progressive disease rendering the patient bedridden or any physical musculoskeletal injury resulting from intervention or less than 60% attendance to yoga intervention. Subjects underwent yoga intervention for 60 min daily with control group undergoing supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and symptom checklist were assessed at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. We used analysis of covariance (intent-to-treat) to study the effects of intervention on depression scores and Pearson correlation analyses to evaluate the bivariate relationships. A total of 69 participants contributed data to the current analysis (yoga, n = 33, and controls, n = 36). There was 29% attrition in this study. The results suggest an overall decrease in self-reported depression with time in both the groups. There was a significant decrease in depression scores in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery, RT, and CT (P surgery, RT, and CT. The results suggest possible antidepressant effects with yoga intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.
Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.
Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures,…
Díez Rodriguez-Labajo, A; Castarlenas, E; Miró, J; Reinoso-Barbero, F
Parental report on a child's secondary chronic pain is commonly requested by anesthesiologists when the child cannot directly provide information. Daily pain intensity is reported as highest, average and lowest. However, it is unclear whether the parents' score is a valid indicator of the child's pain experience. Nineteen children (aged 6-18years) with secondary chronic pain attending our anesthesiologist-run pediatric pain unit participated in this study. Identification of highest, average and lowest pain intensity levels were requested during initial screening interviews with the child and parents. Pain intensity was scored on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Agreement was examined using: (i) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and (ii) the Bland-Altman method. The ICC's between the children and the parents' pain intensity reports were: 0.92 for the highest, 0.68 for the average, and 0.50 for the lowest pain intensity domains. The limits of agreement set at 95% between child and parental reports were respectively +2.19 to -2.07, +3.17 to -3.88 and +5.15 to -5.50 for the highest, average and lowest pain domains. For the highest pain intensity domain, agreement between parents and children was excellent. If replicated this preliminary finding would suggest the highest pain intensity is the easiest domain for reporting pain intensity when a child cannot directly express him or herself. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sara Pullen Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Background: HIV-related chronic pain has emerged as a major symptom burden among people living with HIV (PLHIV. Physical therapy (PT has been shown to be effective as a non-pharmacological method of chronic pain management in the general population; however, there is a gap in research examining the role of PT for chronic pain among PLHIV. Materials and methods: This study examined the effect of PT on self-reported pain scores and pain medication usage in PLHIV enrolled in a multidisciplinary HIV clinic. Data were collected via reviews of patient medical records within a certain timeframe. Data were gathered from patient charts for two points: initial PT encounter (Time 1 and PT discharge or visit ≤4 months after initial visit (Time 2. Results: Subjects who received PT during this timeframe reported decreased pain (65.2%, elimination of pain (28.3%, no change in pain (15.2%, and increased pain (6.5%. Three-quarters of the subjects reported a minimal clinically important difference (MCID in pain score, and more than half reported a decrease in pain score over the MCID. Subjects showed a trend of decreasing pain medication prescription and usage during the study period. Conclusion: Results of the current study indicate that in this sample, PT intervention appears to be an effective, cost-effective, non-pharmacological method to decrease chronic pain in PLHIV. Keywords: HIV, pain, physical therapy, opioids
Michael J. Frederick
Full Text Available Early development can have long-term effects on physiology and behavior. While severe disturbances predictably lead to dysfunction, recent work in humans and animals has led to a growing appreciation for the more subtle ways in which early conditions can modulate behavioral tendencies later in life. Life history theory predicts that early cues signaling a stressful or suboptimal environment might lead an organism to adopt a strategy favoring short-term gains and early reproduction. Fifty college men reported their birth weight, completed the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Self-Report Scale, and answered a series of questions about their sexual history and attitudes towards short-term sexual encounters. Lower birth weights were associated with higher scores on the ADHD scale (r = −.352; p ≤ .05 and more favorable attitudes towards casual sex (r = −.456; p ≤ 0.001. There was a significant interaction between birth weight and casual sex favorability in predicting number of sexual partners (F1,46 = 4.994; p ≤ .05. This suggests that, although men who are smaller at birth may otherwise be at a disadvantage in reproductive terms, they may offset their reduced fitness by being more willing to engage in casual sex.
Relationships of National Teacher Examination Communication Skills and General Knowledge Scores with High School and College Grades, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Characteristics, and Self-Reported Skill Ratings and Academic Problems.
Schurr, K. Terry; And Others
Relationships among National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Communication Skills and General Knowledge test scores, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator characteristics, self-reported academic problems, and 14 skill self-ratings were examined for 161 college teaching majors. After several other variables were controlled, personality variables accounted for a…
King, Alan R; Breen, Cody M; Russell, Tiffany D; Nerpel, Brady P; Pogalz, Colton R
Neuropsychological research can be advanced through a better understanding of relationships between executive functioning (EF) behavioral competencies and the expression of aggressive behavior. While performance-based EF measures have been widely examined, links between self-report indices and practical real-life outcomes have not yet been established. Executive Functioning Index subscale scores in this sample (N = 579) were linked to trait hostility (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), aggression in the natural environment (Lifetime Acts of Violence Assessment), and conduct disorder symptoms prior to age 15. Significant associations were found between all of the EFI subscales (Motivational Drive, Organization, Strategic Planning, Impulse Control, and Empathy), trait aggression, and conduct disturbance. Lifetime acts of aggression were predicted by all but Organization scores. Physical injuries inflicted on other(s) were 2 to 4 times more likely to occur among respondents generating low (z < -1) EFI subscale scores. While these EFI relationships were modest in size, they are pervasive in scope. These findings provide support for the potential role of perceived EF deficits in moderating lifetime aggression.
Full Text Available Hitoshi Takahashi,1 Hisashi Higuchi,2 Kazuhiro Sato,3 Mitsuhiro Kamata,3 Keizo Yoshida,4 Katsuji Nishimura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, 2Suzuki Jikoh Hospital, Ome-shi, Tokyo, 3Akita Kaiseikai Hospital, Akita-shi, 4Health Care Promotion Division, DENSO Corporation, Kariya-shi, Aichi, Japan Objective: We investigated the association between serotonin- or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT-related gene polymorphisms and response to antidepressant treatment in a specific symptom cluster of major depression by using the three-factor model of the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, ie, dysphoria (items of sadness, pessimistic thoughts, and suicidal thoughts, retardation (items of lassitude, inability to feel, apparent sadness, and concentration difficulties, and vegetative symptoms (items of reduced sleep, reduced appetite, and inner tension. Methods: This study was an open-label and nonrandomized trial. A total of 160 patients with baseline MADRS scores of ≥21, who were treated with fluvoxamine or milnacipran for 6 weeks, were included in the statistical analysis. Polymorphisms within a 5-HT transporter (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats in the second intron of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTVNTR, and 5HT2A receptor (1438G/A were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Results: The 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms affected the MADRS score change in dysphoria, but not in retardation, vegetative, or total symptoms. Dysphoria scores significantly decreased in patients with the S/S genotype compared to those in patients with the short (S/long (L + L/L genotype. However, 5-HTTVNTR and 1438G/A polymorphisms were not significantly associated with the treatment response to any cluster of depressive symptoms. When a Bonferroni correction was made, however, our results did not reach the criteria
Raghavendra Mohan Rao; Nagarathna Raghuram; H.R. Nagendra; M R Usharani; Gopinath, K. S.; Diwakar, Ravi B; Shekar Patil; Bilimagga, Ramesh S.; Nalini Rao
Aim: To compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy on self-reported symptoms of depression in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. Patients and Methods: Ninety-eight breast cancer patients with stage II and III disease from a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy (n = 53) over a 24-week period during which they underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both. The stud...
Harris, Kristina; Lim, Christopher R; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Beard, David J; Price, Andrew J
In this study, we examined whether the OKS demonstrated a floor or a ceiling effect when used to measure the outcome of knee replacement surgery in a large national cohort. NHS PROMs database, containing pre- to 6 month post-operative OKS on 72,154 patients, mean age 69 (SD 9.4), undergoing knee replacement surgery, was examined to establish the proportion of patients achieving top or bottom OKS values pre- and post-operatively. Pre-operatively, none of patients achieved the maximum/'best' (48) and minimum (0) scores. Post-operatively, no patients (0 %) achieved the minimum/'worst' score, but the percentage achieving the maximum score increased to 2.7 %. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the highest post-operative overall ceiling percentage was 3 %, in a subgroup of patients between 60 and 79 years of age and 13.7 % in a group of patients who had a pre-operative OKS above 41. Furthermore, 10.8 % of patients achieved the top post-operative OKS-PCS and 4.7 % top post-operative OKS-FCS. Based on NHS PROMs data, the OKS does not exhibit a ceiling or floor effect overall, or for both its pain and function subscales, and remains a valid measure of outcomes for patients undergoing TKA. Large-scale retrospective observations study, Level II.
Dietze, Paul; Stoové, Mark; Miller, Peter; Kinner, Stuart; Bruno, Raimondo; Alati, Rosa; Burns, Lucy
To examine the self-reported personal wellbeing of a sample of Australian injecting drug users (IDU) using a standardized instrument and determine the key correlates of variations in self-reported personal wellbeing. Cross-sectional survey of 881 Australian IDU. Self-reported personal wellbeing collected using the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI). IDU scored significantly lower than the general Australian population on the PWI and all subscales. Lower PWI scores were associated with a range of socio-demographic, drug use and other health and social characteristics. Across all PWI subscales, lower personal wellbeing scores were associated with unemployment, past 6-month mental health problems and more frequent injecting (all P PWI is sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between IDU and the general population, and to identify key correlates of PWI among IDU. Some domains canvassed within the scale, such as health, standard of living and life achievements, are well within the scope of current intervention strategies, such as pharmacotherapy maintenance treatment and housing and employment support services. This suggests that the PWI could be useful in clinical settings by allowing structured identification of the areas of a person's life to be addressed as a part of a treatment regimen. In order to inform targeted prevention and intervention efforts, longitudinal studies of PWI and its correlates among IDU are required. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka; Rydell, Roland; Löfqvist, Anders
This randomized case-control study compares teachers with self-reported voice problems to age-, gender-, and school-matched colleagues with self-reported voice health. The self-assessed voice function is related to factors known to influence the voice: laryngeal findings, voice quality, personality, psychosocial and coping aspects, searching for causative factors of voice problems in teachers. Subjects and controls, recruited from a teacher group in an earlier questionnaire study, underwent examinations of the larynx by high-speed imaging and kymograms; voice recordings; voice range profile; audiometry; self-assessment of voice handicap and voice function; teaching and environmental aspects; personality; coping; burnout, and work-related issues. The laryngeal and voice recordings were assessed by experienced phoniatricians and speech pathologists. The subjects with self-assessed voice problems differed from their peers with self-assessed voice health by significantly longer recovery time from voice problems and scored higher on all subscales of the Voice Handicap Index-Throat. The results show that the cause of voice dysfunction in this group of teachers with self-reported voice problems is not found in the vocal apparatus or within the individual. The individual's perception of a voice problem seems to be based on a combination of the number of symptoms and of how often the symptoms occur, along with the recovery time. The results also underline the importance of using self-assessed reports of voice dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tarescavage, Anthony M; Fischler, Gary L; Cappo, Bruce M; Hill, David O; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S
The current study examined the predictive validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in police officer screenings. We utilized a sample of 712 police officer candidates (82.6% male) from 2 Midwestern police departments. The sample included 426 hired officers, most of whom had supervisor ratings of problem behaviors and human resource records of civilian complaints. With the full sample, we calculated zero-order correlations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and scale scores from the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1956) and Inwald Personality Inventory (Inwald, 2006) by gender. In the hired sample, we correlated MMPI-2-RF scale scores with the outcome data for males only, owing to the relatively small number of hired women. Several scales demonstrated meaningful correlations with the criteria, particularly in the thought dysfunction and behavioral/externalizing dysfunction domains. After applying a correction for range restriction, the correlation coefficient magnitudes were generally in the moderate to large range. The practical implications of these findings were explored by means of risk ratio analyses, which indicated that officers who produced elevations at cutscores lower than the traditionally used 65 T-score level were as much as 10 times more likely than those scoring below the cutoff to exhibit problem behaviors. Overall, the results supported the validity of the MMPI-2-RF in this setting. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. 2015 APA, all rights reserved
Marsh, P; Carlisle, R; Avery, A J
The best way for practices to determine the health status of patients living in areas with different socioeconomic characteristics is unclear. To see how much SF-36 health status varies between electoral wards, how much of this variation can be explained by census-derived Jarman and Townsend scores, and compare the performance of census scores with direct socioeconomic information. A postal questionnaire survey of 3000 randomly selected 18 to 75-year-olds residing in 15 electoral wards and registered with two urban practices. The response rate was 73%. Only two of the eight SF-36 domains were significantly associated with Jarman scores, whereas seven domains were associated with the Townsend score. Of the four socioeconomic variables derived directly from the survey, unemployment showed the weakest association, housing tenure was associated with seven domains, and car ownership and low income were associated with all eight. Income explained between 47% to 71% of the variation across the eight domains. The most accurate predictions about health status were made from direct socioeconomic information. Nonetheless, the association between Townsend score and health status was strong enough to be of practical importance. This study cautions against assuming the Jarman score of a population has a clear relationship with its health status.
Arne E. Nakling
Full Text Available Background: Following stroke, clinicians are challenged to detect and untangle symptoms of cognitive dysfunction and mood disorders. Additionally, they need to evaluate the informative value of self-reports to identify patients in need of further attendance. Aims: To examine the association between neuropsychological measures, symptoms of depression, and self-reported cognitive function. Methods: One-hundred and five chronic stroke patients underwent assessment covering 6 cognitive domains and answered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Memory and Thinking Scale from the Stroke Impact Scale 1 year after stroke. Age and gender difference in cognitive impairment were examined; linear regression was used to predict depression scores. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were used to validate self-reported functioning against performance on cognitive tests. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 60% of the patients in at least 1 cognitive domain. Cognitive performance was associated with symptoms of depression as well as with self-reported cognitive function. The final analyses revealed low sensitivity and specificity for the Memory and Thinking subscale from the Stroke Impact Scale. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment occurs frequently even in patients in a chronic phase after stroke and predicts symptoms of depression. Using the Stroke Impact Scale, clinicians should be aware of low sensitivity of self-reported cognitive function.
Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth
The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....
Kazman, Josh Ben; Abraham, Preetha Anna; Zeno, Stacey Anne; Poth, Merrily; Deuster, Patricia Anne
African Americans (AA) experience a high mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), even without an increase in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The potential role of sleep impairment in this phenomenon has not been studied. The current study examined the relationship between self-reported sleep and MetS components among AAs. Sleep variables included total sleep quality and specific symptoms: loud snoring, difficulty breathing, and sleep duration. Anthropometric (BMI, BP, waist circumference, body fat percent) and biologic (fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL) measures were obtained from 248 community-recruited AA (63% female; mean age 44 years). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 19-item scale with a total sleep quality score and 7 subscales, was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. Analyses were controlled for age and sex. PSQI total sleep quality predicted neither presence of MetS (Beta=.04, P=.29) nor individual CVD variables. However, symptomatic snoring corresponded with MetS (Beta=.38, SE=.12, P<.001; OR: 2.57), as well as with fasting glucose, BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. Among AA, overall sleep quality as self-reported may not contribute to MetS, but symptomatic snoring appears to be important. Further work in this area should focus on sleep at the symptomatic level, and include racial and sex variables, as well as physiologic and etiologic mechanisms.
Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, E M
The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football division) were independently associated with lower self-reported Tegner Activity Scale (P history of knee injury had significantly worse KOOS scores (P < 0.001 for all subscales). In future studies, a clear description of how the Tegner Activity Scale was administered is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender.
Globe, Denise R; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P; Varma, Rohit
To assess the association between presenting binocular visual acuity (VA) and self-reported visual function as measured by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). A population-based, prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older residing in La Puente, California (Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES]). Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in La Puente. All participants completed a standardized interview, including the NEI-VFQ-25 to measure visual functioning, and a detailed eye examination. Two definitions of visual impairment were used: (1) presenting binocular distance VA of 20/40 or worse and (2) presenting binocular distance VA worse than 20/40. Analysis of variance was used to determine any systematic differences in mean NEI-VFQ-25 scores by visual impairment. Regression analyses were completed (1) to determine the association of age, gender, number of systemic comorbidities, depression, and VA with self-reported visual function and (2) to estimate a visual impairment-related difference for each subscale based on differences in VA. The NEI-VFQ-25 scores in persons with visual impairment. Of the 5287 LALES participants with complete NEI-VFQ-25 data, 6.3% (including 20/40) and 4.2% (excluding 20/40) were visually impaired. In the visually impaired participants, the NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores ranged from 46.2 (General Health) to 93.8 (Color Vision). In the regression model, only VA, depression, and number of comorbidities were significantly associated with all subscale scores (R(2) ranged from 0.09 for Ocular Pain to 0.33 for the composite score). For 9 of 11 subscales, a 5-point change was equivalent to a 1- or 2-line difference in VA. Relationships were similar regardless of the definition of visual impairment. In this population-based study of Latinos, the NEI-VFQ-25 was sensitive to differences in VA. A 5-point difference on the NEI-VFQ-25 seems to be a
Hansen, Jesper Bent; Bech, Per
, and their corresponding definite versions of the self-rating questionnaires DMQ and DHAM6 were accepted by the Rasch analysis, and only these four valid scales discriminated significantly between the effect of citalopram and placebo treatment. Our results are limited to patients with moderate depression. Two new self......-reporting versions (definitely and semidefinitely anchored) corresponding to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Subscale (HAM6), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were compared to each other and the clinician-rated version. The unidimensional property of the sum score in each scale...... was tested by the item-response theory model ad modum Rasch. The scales were also tested for their sensitivity to discriminate between placebo and citalopram therapy. The sum scores and the sum score variances of the definite self-rating versions did not differ significantly from the sum scores...
Costa, Patrício; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio; Schweller, Marcelo; Thiemann, Pia; Salgueira, Ana; Benson, John; Costa, Manuel João; Quince, Thelma
Understanding medical student empathy is important to future patient care; however, the definition and development of clinical empathy remain unclear. The authors sought to examine the underlying constructs of two of the most widely used self-report instruments-Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy version for medical students (JSE-S)-plus, the distinctions and associations between these instruments. Between 2007 and 2014, the authors administered the IRI and JSE-S in three separate studies in five countries, (Brazil, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the United Kingdom). They collected data from 3,069 undergraduate medical students and performed exploratory factor analyses, correlation analyses, and multiple linear regression analyses. Exploratory factor analysis yielded identical results in each country, confirming the subscale structures of each instrument. Results of correlation analyses indicated significant but weak correlations (r = 0.313) between the total IRI and JSE-S scores. All intercorrelations of IRI and JSE-S subscale scores were statistically significant but weak (range r = -0.040 to 0.306). Multiple linear regression models revealed that the IRI subscales were weak predictors of all JSE-S subscale and total scores. The IRI subscales explained between 9.0% and 15.3% of variance for JSE-S subscales and 19.5% for JSE-S total score. The IRI and JSE-S are only weakly related, suggesting that they may measure different constructs. To better understand this distinction, more studies using both instruments and involving students at different stages in their medical education, as well as more longitudinal and qualitative studies, are needed.
Sprangers, M.; Hoogstraten, J.
Examined whether 3 measures of self-reported change (post minus pre difference scores, post minus then difference scores, and direct improvement scores) are susceptible to training related S bias. 19 university students were assigned to a study planning (experimental) group, 19 to a text studying
Full Text Available Purpose Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016, the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI-II. Method We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt (n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed and Canada (n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998 factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. Results We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective (F(1,121 = 9.51, p = .003 and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales (F(1,121 = 42.80, p < .001. Post hoc analyses revealed that depressed Egyptian men reported lower scores on the cognitive-affective subscale of the BDI-II compared to their depressed Canadian male counterparts. Conclusions These results suggest that males across cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.
Lix, Lisa M; Wu, Xiuyun; Hopman, Wilma; Mayo, Nancy; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Liu, Juxin; Prior, Jerilynn C; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Josse, Robert G; Towheed, Tanveer E; Davison, K Shawn; Sawatzky, Richard
Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF), which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent) level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF) and mental health (MH) sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample. Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health) produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects. The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size. SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.
Full Text Available In tennis, mental toughness is often considered highly important in achieving the elite level. The current study is the first to examine behavioural expressions of mental toughness on the court and their relationships with self-reported measures. Based on the input of five experienced tennis coaches of junior tennis players and behaviours used in previous studies, we developed a taxonomy consisting of six positive behaviours and ten negative ones. To investigate the relationship between these on-court behaviours of mental toughness and how the players rated their own mental toughness, emotional control in particular, six talented tennis players (aged 10-13 were recorded during tennis matches and filled out the self-reported measure of mental toughness (MTQ48. The intra- and inter-rater reliability of the taxonomy was high. With regard to the relationships between on-court behaviours and self-reported mental toughness (total score and subscale emotional control, results revealed no significant correlations between the ratios of positive and negative behaviours (range r = -0.49 - 0.11, p > 0.05 or between the variability of negative behaviours (r = 0.54 & r = 0.10, p > 0.05 and the self-reported measure. However, interestingly, we found negative correlations between the variability of positive behaviours and self-reported mental toughness (r = -0.93 & r = -0.84, ρ < 0.05. These results indicate that variability in on-court behaviours provides interesting information about tennis players’ mental toughness, more specifically on the (instability of their psychological state during a match.
Houwer, Ruben; Kramer, Tamara; den Hartigh, Ruud; Kolman, Nikki; Elferink-Gemser, Marije
Abstract In tennis, mental toughness is often considered highly important in achieving the elite level. The current study is the first to examine behavioural expressions of mental toughness on the court and their relationships with self-reported measures. Based on the input of five experienced tennis coaches of junior tennis players and behaviours used in previous studies, we developed a taxonomy consisting of six positive behaviours and ten negative ones. To investigate the relationship between these on-court behaviours of mental toughness and how the players rated their own mental toughness, emotional control in particular, six talented tennis players (aged 10-13) were recorded during tennis matches and filled out the self-reported measure of mental toughness (MTQ48). The intra- and inter-rater reliability of the taxonomy was high. With regard to the relationships between on-court behaviours and self-reported mental toughness (total score and subscale emotional control), results revealed no significant correlations between the ratios of positive and negative behaviours (range r = -0.49 - 0.11, p > 0.05) or between the variability of negative behaviours (r = 0.54 & r = 0.10, p > 0.05) and the self-reported measure. However, interestingly, we found negative correlations between the variability of positive behaviours and self-reported mental toughness (r = -0.93 & r = -0.84, ρ < 0.05). These results indicate that variability in on-court behaviours provides interesting information about tennis players’ mental toughness, more specifically on the (in)stability of their psychological state during a match. PMID:28210346
Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Jerliu, Naim; Sørensen, Kristine; Ramadani, Naser; Hysa, Bajram; Brand, Helmut
The aim was to describe health literacy among the older population of Kosovo, an Albanian speaking post-war country in the Western Balkans, in the context of self-perceived health status and self-reported chronic morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including 1753 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (886 men, 867 women; mean age 73.4 ± 6.3 years; response rate: 77%). Participants were asked to assess, on a scale from 1 to 5, their level of difficulty with regard to access, understanding, appraisal and application of health information. Sub-scale scores and an overall health literacy score were calculated for each participant. Information on self-perceived health status, presence and number of chronic diseases and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Mean values of the overall health literacy score and all sub-scale scores (access, understanding, appraisal and application) were lower among older people who reported a poorer health status or at least one chronic condition compared with individuals who perceived their health status as good or had no chronic conditions (p Kosovo and other transitional settings to replicate these findings and properly address the causal relationship between health literacy and health status. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Larson, M R
The present study examines the relationship between the desire to conform to perceived societal norms and the misreporting of weight and height. Self-reported and measured weights and heights for 56 young, healthy non-obese volunteers were assessed and compared to scores on the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). Discrepancies between actual and self-reported weights for females were directly related to actual weight (r = 0.66, Pdesire to conform to perceived societal norms.
Alghamdi, Samirah; Manassis, Katharina; Wilansky-Traynor, Pamela
Low self-esteem is associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, the association between domains of self-esteem (e.g., self perceptions) and depressive symptoms may vary by gender. This study evaluated self-perceptions in relation to self-reported depressive symptoms in boys and girls. School children in grades 3 to 6 (n = 140; 54% boys; 46% girls) completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and The Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) as part of a school-based intervention targeting anxious and depressive symptoms. The CDI was re-administered about 1 month later. Pearson correlations between the subscales of the SPPC and the average CDI T-scores were determined. Significant correlations were entered in stepwise regressions to predict depressive symptoms for the whole sample and then separately for boys and girls. Self-perceived scholastic competence, physical appearance, and behavioral conduct accounted for 19.8% of the variance in self-reported depressive symptoms overall. Behavioral conduct was a more salient predictor in boys (adjusted R(2) =0.146) whereas scholastic competence and physical appearance were more salient in girls (adjusted R(2) =0.203). Although replication is needed, boys and girls appear to have different self-perceptions in relation to depressive symptoms. Understanding these differences may help to inform clinical interventions.
Keith, NiCole R; Clark, Daniel O; Stump, Timothy E; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M
An accurate physical fitness survey could be useful in research and clinical care. To estimate the validity and reliability of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey; an instrument that estimates muscular fitness, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, BMI, and body composition (BC) in adults ≥ 40 years of age. 201 participants completed the SF-36 Physical Function Subscale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Older Adults' Desire for Physical Competence Scale (Rejeski), the SRFit survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test. BC, height and weight were measured. SRFit survey items described BC, BMI, and Senior Fitness Test movements. Correlations between the Senior Fitness Test and the SRFit survey assessed concurrent validity. Cronbach's Alpha measured internal consistency within each SRFit domain. SRFit domain scores were compared with SF-36, IPAQ, and Rejeski survey scores to assess construct validity. Intraclass correlations evaluated test-retest reliability. Correlations between SRFit and the Senior Fitness Test domains ranged from 0.35 to 0.79. Cronbach's Alpha scores were .75 to .85. Correlations between SRFit and other survey scores were -0.23 to 0.72 and in the expected direction. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.79 to 0.93. All P-values were 0.001. Initial evaluation supports the SRFit survey's validity and reliability.
Saunders, G. P.
This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here
Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Adult Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and its short scale in accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.
Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Kurita, Hiroshi
We developed the Japanese version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and report its psychometric properties. The ASRS-J and other questionnaires were administered to 48 adults with ADHD, 46 adults with non-ADHD psychiatric disorders, 96 non-clinical adults, and 894 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5. The ASRS-J, its subscales, and the short form, all had Cronbach's α values of around 0.80. Total scores on the ASRS-J and the ASRS-J-6 were highly correlated with readministration after a two-week interval. The total and 18 individual item scores in the ASRS-J were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the other three groups. ASRS-J scores were correlated with scores on the Japanese version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report subscales (0.59≤r≤0.77), with one exception. ASRS-J scores were also correlated (albeit more weakly; r=0.38) with Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores. Employing optimal cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 are all above 0.69. The ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 showed acceptable psychometric properties, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...
Roessler, K K; Andersen, T E; Lohmander, S; Roos, E M
Aim of the study was to access how individual's motives for participation in sports impact on self-reported outcomes 2 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Based on a longitudinal cohort study, this secondary analysis present data from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) study, a randomized controlled trial. At baseline, 121 patients recorded in an initial questionnaire that their motives for sports participation fell into four categories: achievement, health, social integration, or fun and well-being. These four categories were used as variables in the analyses. All 121 subjects completed the 2-year follow-up. The largest improvement was seen in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale sports and recreation function, with an effect size of 2.43. KOOS sports and recreation function was also the subscale score best predicted by the motives for sports participation. Baseline motives achievement and fun and well-being predicted worse levels of pain and function 2 years after the injury, even after adjusting for age, gender, treatment and baseline scores. Psychological aspects, such as motives for participation in sport, can be factors in predicting of patient-reported outcomes 2 years after injury. Evaluating motives for sports participation may help predict the outcome 2 years after ACL injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spresser, Carrie D; Keune, Kristen M; Filion, Diane L; Lundgren, Jennifer D
The purpose was to compare self-report and psychophysiological assessment techniques in the measurement of emotional response to body image cues. Female college students (n=53; % Caucasian=53.6; M body mass index=26.1 kg/m²) completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3) and viewed photos of themselves both unaltered and morphed to simulate weight gain. Response to the photos was assessed by self-report and the affect modulated startle paradigm. EDI-3 Drive for Thinness (DT) and Body Dissatisfaction (BD) scale scores were correlated with startled amplitude for the largest simulated weight gain photo. Startle eye blink amplitude predicted more variance in DT and BD subscales than self-reported response to the image. The affect modulated startle paradigm may provide unique information in the assessment of eating disorder symptomatology that cannot be captured via self-report techniques, and has potential to inform evaluation of treatment outcomes of eating and body image disorders. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mayville, Stephen B; Williamson, Donald A; White, Marney A; Netemeyer, Richard G; Drab, Danae L
Muscle dysmorphia has recently been described as a variant of body dysmorphic disorder that involves an intense preoccupation with one's perceived lack of muscle size. Currently, no assessment measures specific to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of the construct of muscle dysmorphia have been published. To address this need, the authors developed the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a brief 19-item self-report measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia symptoms. Psychometric evaluation of the MASS across two samples of male weight lifting participants (total N = 372) revealed a stable five-factor structure. An evaluation of factor content resulted in the following factor labels: Bodybuilding Dependence, Muscle Checking, Substance Use, Injury, and Muscle Satisfaction. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were established with the MASS total score and its subscales. The authors believe the MASS will be a useful measure for research and applied work relating to muscle dysmorphia.
Segal, Daniel L; June, Andrea; Payne, Matthew; Coolidge, Frederick L; Yochim, Brian
Anxiety is a common experience among older adults and can be a cause for major clinical concern. Brief and psychometrically sound screening instruments are needed to detect anxiety in later life. The purposes of this study were to develop a brief, self-report measure of anxiety for use with older adults (called the Geriatric Anxiety Scale [GAS]) and to report on its preliminary psychometrics. The GAS includes 30 self-report items of which 25 items represent three common domains of anxiety symptoms among older adults (cognitive, somatic, and affective) and 5 items represent common content areas of worry. The GAS total score and subscale scores demonstrated good internal reliability in community dwelling and in clinical samples. In addition, correlation analyses provided solid evidence of convergent and construct validity for the GAS in both samples. Present results support the preliminary validity of the GAS for clinical and research purposes. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and future research topics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Mingming; Soi-Kawase, Sayaka; Narita-Ohtaki, Ryoko; Itoh, Mariko; Kim, Yoshiharu
This study developed the Japanese version of the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ), a self-report measure of three emotional expressivity facets, and provided evidence of its reliability and validity. Five hundred and four students answered an online survey. To determine test-retest reliability, 241 of the participants completed the Japanese version of the BEQ again approximately 1 month after initial surveying was completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for the BEQ full scale, and 0.61-0.77 for subscales. Test-retest correlations were 0.61 for the full scale, and 0.57-0.61 for subscales. Construct validity was demonstrated by correlations between BEQ scores and scores on measures of emotional expressivity, self-monitoring, self-esteem, depression, "Big Five" (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) personality traits, and emotional control. The Japanese version of the BEQ has adequate internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was lower than that of the original scale. This study was the first in Japan to develop a self-rating questionnaire assessing multiple facets of emotional expressivity. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...... with individuals with higher SRCF, within each strata of leisure time physical activity and self-rated health, and SRCF significantly predicted CVD mortality independently of self-rated health and walking pace. A net reclassification improvement of 30.5% (95% CI, 22.1% to 38.9%) for CVD mortality was found when...
Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean
Sznitman, Sharon R; Bord, Shiran; Elias, Wafa; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shiftan, Yoram; Baron-Epel, Orna
Little evidence is available on whether respondents from divergent sociocultural populations report alcohol consumption in systematically similar ways. Therefore, this study examined whether the validity of self-reported alcohol use differed between Arab and Jewish Israeli pub patrons. The analytical sample consisted of 227 Arab and 900 Jewish Israeli pub patrons who were approached as they left pubs and asked to record their Breath Alcohol Content (BrAC) value and complete a questionnaire that probed into their alcohol use. Validity of self-reported alcohol use across the 2 groups was examined by testing the discrepancy in concordance between the self-reported number of drinks and BrAC scores through simple Pearson correlations and by performing a multi-group measurement invariance (MI) comparison. The Pearson correlation between the self-reported number of drinks and BrAC by the ethno-cultural group was almost identical across groups (Jews: r = 0.47, p < 0.01, df = 898; Arabs: r = 0.42, p < 0.01, df = 225). MI test results further confirmed that the factor loadings of the 2 drinking measures are similar across the 2 ethno-cultural groups. Self-reported alcohol consumption gives cross-culturally valid and acceptable estimates of alcohol consumption in this sample of Israeli Arabs and Jews. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G
Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.
Bellace, Dara L; Tesser, Rebecca; Berthod, Samantha; Wisotzke, Kimberly; Crosby, Ross D; Crow, Scott J; Engel, Scott G; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E; Peterson, Carol B; Simonich, Heather K; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Halmi, Katherine A
The YBC-EDS is a semistructured interview assessing core preoccupations and rituals related to eating disorders. We developed and conducted an examination of the reliability and validity of a self-report questionnaire (SRQ) version of the YBC-EDS. Convergent validity of YBC-EDS-SRQ with the YBC-EDS was examined for 112 eating disordered patients. All subscales and total scores were significantly intercorrelated. Thirty-one additional patients completed YBC-EDS-SRQ at admission and again 1 week later. All correlations revealed significant test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity of the SRQ was evaluated for a smaller subset of participants who completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). There were no significant correlations between various symptom dimensions of the YBC-EDS-SRQ and the BDI and STAI. Taken together, these findings indicate that the self-report form of the YBC-EDS is both valid and reliable. The SRQ can serve as a useful and efficient assessment of eating disorder patients for clinicians and researchers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bejerot, Susanne; Edman, Gunnar; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Berglund, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher; Hofvander, Björn; Humble, Mats B; Mörtberg, Ewa; Råstam, Maria; Ståhlberg, Ola; Frisén, Louise
The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children's version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date. The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population. The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category "Obsessive-compulsive related disorders", accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive-compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS. Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled "Symmetry", "Forbidden thoughts", "Contamination", "Magical thoughts" and "Dysmorphic thoughts". The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry.
Schwalbe, Craig S; Gearing, Robin E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan W
This study reports the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems among youths placed in juvenile correctional facilities in Jordan and describes the effect of length of stay on mental health outcomes. The Youth Self Report (YSR) was administered to 187 adolescent males (mean age=16.4, SD=1.0) in all five juvenile detention facilities in Jordan in 2011. Descriptive statistics were calculated to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems. Logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate the impact of placement length on mental health. Statistical models were weighted by the youth propensity to be 'long-stay' youths (>23 weeks) based on preplacement case characteristics. The prevalence of clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems was 84%. 46% had YSR scores above the clinical cutpoint in both the internalizing and externalizing subscales. 24% of youths reported suicidal ideation. The high prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders was stable across placement for most YSR subscales. The prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders among detained and incarcerated youth in Jordan mirrors the literature worldwide. These findings suggest that serious mental health problems for many youths persist throughout placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beye, R.; Verwerft, Marc; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Gronsky, R.
The subscale formed during high temperature rapid oxidation of gamma-titanium aluminum is revealed by transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis to consist of two phases: one hexagonal with unit cell dimensions a = 0.58 nm, c = 0.47 nm (+/- 0.005 nm), and a composition close to Ti6Al3O4; the
Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.
Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…
Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…
Rasmussen, Andrew; Ventevogel, Peter; Sancilio, Amelia; Eggerman, Mark; Panter-Brick, Catherine
The relative performance of local and international assessment instruments is subject to ongoing discussion in transcultural research on mental health and psychosocial support. We examined the construct and external validity of two instruments, one developed for use in Afghanistan, the other developed by the World Health Organization for use in resource-poor settings. We used data collected on 1003 Afghan adults (500 men, 503 women) randomly sampled at three sites in Afghanistan. We compared the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL), a culturally-grounded assessment of psychosocial wellbeing, with Pashto and Dari versions of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). We derived subscales using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) and tested total and subscale scores for external validity with respect to lifetime trauma and household wealth using block model regressions. EFA suggested a three-factor structure for SRQ-20--somatic complaints, negative affect, and emotional numbing--and a two-factor structure for ASCL--jigar khun (dysphoria) and aggression. Both factor models were supported by CFA in separate subsamples. Women had higher scores for each of the five subscales than men (p wealth (rs -.27 to -.39, and .05 to -.22, respectively). The three SRQ-20 subscales and the ASCL jigar khun subscale were equally associated with variance in trauma exposures. However, interactions between gender and jigar khun suggested that, relative to SRQ-20, the jigar khun subscale was more strongly associated with household wealth for women; similarly, gender interactions with aggression indicated that the aggression subscale was more strongly associated with trauma and wealth. Two central elements of Afghan conceptualizations of mental distress--aggression and the syndrome jigar khun--were captured by the ASCL and not by the SRQ-20. The appropriateness of the culturally-grounded instrument was more salient for women, indicating that the validity of
Joseph, Roody; Pan, Xueliang; Cenkus, Kathleen; Brown, Lindsey; Ellis, Thomas; Di Stasi, Stephanie
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a significant cause of disability in young adults. Hip arthroscopic surgery restores bony congruence and improves function in the majority of patients, but recent evidence indicates that women may experience worse pre- and postoperative function than men. The purpose of this study was to identify whether self-reported hip function differed between men and women with symptomatic FAI. The hypothesis was that mean self-reported hip function scores would improve after arthroscopic surgery but that women would report poorer function than men both before and up to 2 years after arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 229 patients (68.4% women; mean [±SD] age, 31.6 ± 10.8 years; mean [±SD] body mass index, 26.8 ± 11.9 kg/m(2)) underwent hip arthroscopic surgery for unilateral symptomatic FAI. All eligible and consenting patients with radiologically and clinically confirmed FAI completed the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) and the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) before hip arthroscopic surgery and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after arthroscopic surgery. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used to test for differences in self-reported hip function between men and women over the study period (P ≤ .05). There were no significant time × sex interactions for either the HOS-ADL (P = .12) or iHOT-33 (P = .64), but both measures showed significant improvements between the preoperative time point and each of the 4 follow-up points (P arthroscopic surgery (P ≥ .11). Post hoc independent t tests indicated that women reported poorer hip function than did men before surgery (P ≤ .003) both on the HOS-ADL (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 67.4 ± 1.9 [men] vs 60.5 ± 1.3 [women]) and iHOT-33 (mean ± SEM, 38.0 ± 1.9 [men] vs 30.9 ± 1.3 [women]); scores were not different between sexes at any other time point. These findings indicate improvements in
Tsuchiyagaito, Aki; Horiuchi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Toko; Kawanori, Yoshiya; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Hirooki; Nakagawa, Akiko
The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR) is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J). Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test-retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J) and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the strength of the correlation between the HRS-SR-J and the Japanese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and that between the HRS-SR-J and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 were significantly weaker than the correlation between the HRS-SR-J and the SI-R-J. These results demonstrate that the HRS-SR-J has good convergent and discriminant validity. The HRS-SR-J is a notable self-report scale for examining the severity of hoarding symptoms.
Schulte, Fiona; Wurz, Amanda; Reynolds, Kathleen; Strother, Douglas; Dewey, Deborah
To examine the discrepancy between survivor-parent and sibling-parent reports of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and the level of agreement (i.e., correlation) between child reports (i.e., survivor and sibling) and parent-proxy reports of HRQL. Fifty-one families participated. Pediatric cancer survivors (49% male; 6-18 years of age) and one sibling (47% male; 9-18 years of age) completed a measure of their HRQL. As well, one parent (14% male; 27-65 years of age) from each family completed a proxy report of their children's (i.e., survivor and sibling) HRQL. Consensus was determined through discrepancy and agreement scores, between parent-proxy and children's (i.e., survivors and siblings) self-reports of total HRQL, and physical, emotional, social, and school functioning subscales. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant group differences for total HRQL (F = 6.79, P ≤ 0.01). Repeated-measure ANOVAs of subscale discrepancy scores revealed significant group differences for physical functioning scores (F = 6.39, P cancer on siblings should be further investigated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Walsh, Zach; Edelen, Maria O.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markowitz, John C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Morey, Leslie C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.
Objective We examined the predictive power of the self-harm subscale of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) to identify suicide attempters in the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (CLPS). Method The SNAP, a self-report personality inventory, was administered to 733 CLPS participants at baseline, of whom 701 (96%) had at least 6 months of follow-up data. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to examine the SNAP–self-harm subscale (SNAP-SH) in predicting the 129 suicide attempters over 8 years of follow-up. Possible moderators of prediction were examined, including borderline personality disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance use disorder. We also compared baseline administration of the SNAP-SH to subsequent administrations more proximal to the suicide attempt, and to a higher-order SNAP-negative temperament (SNAP-NT) subscale. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted using suicide attempts (n = 58) over the first year of follow-up to provide reference points for sensitivity and specificity. Results The SNAP-SH demonstrated good predictive power for suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 1.28, P < .001) and appeared relatively consistent across borderline personality disorder, MDD, and substance use disorder diagnoses. Using more proximal scores did not increase predictive power. The SNAP-SH compared favorably to the predictive power of the higher-order SNAP-NT. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicate several cutoff scores on the SNAP-SH that yield moderate to high sensitivity and specificity for predicting suicide attempts over the first year of follow-up. Conclusions The SNAP-SH may be a useful screening instrument for risk of suicide attempts in nonpsychotic psychiatric patients. PMID:21294991
Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard
Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification. PMID:26543567
Lisa M Lix
Full Text Available Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF, which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF and mental health (MH sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample.Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos, which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects.The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size.SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.
Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Kelley, Christopher L.; Maniaci, David C.
Two different inverse design approaches are proposed for developing wind turbine blades for sub-scale wake testing. In the first approach, dimensionless circulation is matched for full scale and sub-scale wind turbine blades for equal shed vorticity in the wake. In the second approach, the normalized normal and tangential force distributions are matched for large scale and small scale wind turbine blades, as these forces determine the wake dynamics and stability. The two approaches are applied for the same target full scale turbine blade, and the shape of the blades are compared. The results show that the two approaches have been successfully implemented, and the designed blades are able to produce the target circulation and target normal and tangential force distributions.
Hamilton, Elena; Carr, Alan
A systematic review of self-report family assessment measures was conducted with reference to their psychometric properties, clinical utility and theoretical underpinnings. Eight instruments were reviewed: The McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD); Circumplex Model Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES); Beavers Systems Model Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI); Family Assessment Measure III (FAM III); Family Environment Scale (FES); Family Relations Scale (FRS); and Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC); and the Systemic Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation (SCORE). Results indicated that five family assessment measures are suitable for clinical use (FAD, FACES-IV, SFI, FAM III, SCORE), two are not (FES, FRS), and one is a new system currently under-going validation (STIC). © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and valid measures of the impact of a stroke on integration are required in health and social settings. The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO is one such measure. However, there are questions whether scores can be summed into a total score or whether subscale scores should be calculated. This paper aims to provide clarity on the internal construct validity of the subscales and the total scale. Methods SIPSO data were collected as part of two parallel surveys of the met and unmet needs of 445 younger people (aged 18-65 with non-recent stroke (at least one year and living at home. Factor, Mokken and Rasch analysis were used. Results Factor analysis supported a two factor structure (explaining 68% of the variance as did the Mokken analysis (overall Loevinger coefficient 0.77 for the Physical Integration subscale; 0.51 for the Social Integration subscale. Both subscales fitted the Rasch model (P > 0.01 after adjusting for some observed differential item functioning. The 10-items together did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions The SIPSO subscales are valid for use with stroke patients of working age but the total SIPSO is not. The conversion table can be used by clinicians and researchers to convert ordinal data to interval level prior to mathematical operations and other parametric procedures. Further work is required to explore the occurrence of bias by gender for some of the items.
Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio
Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661
McCrae, R R; Bartone, P T; Costa, P T
A sample of 472 normal males ranging in age from twenty-five to eighty-two was divided into anxious and adjusted groups on the basis of a cluster analysis of the Cattell 16PF test, and compared for scores on a self-report measure of health. While the anxious men reported more symptoms than the adjusted in the young and middle age groups, there was no difference in the old group. Although anxiety was found to be unrelated to health as evaluated by physicians' examinations, the anxious men indeed reported more health problems in eight major areas of health concern than was warranted by their actual physical health status. This relation also did not hold in the old group. Anxious men seemed to be more vagilant about their health in young and middle age groups, but not in the old group. This was interpreted as a defensive denial of symptoms in the old anxious group; for a person with trait anxiety, anxiety about approaching death and increasing health problems is just too much to bear, and he resorts to denying symptoms in an effort to diminish his anxiety.
Batsis, John A; Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Scherer, Emily A; Bartels, Stephen J
To ascertain whether rural status impacts self-reported health and whether the effect of rural status on self-reported health differs by obesity status. We identified 22,307 subjects aged ≥60 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2013. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Physical and mental component scores of the Short Form-12 assessed self-reported health status. Rural/urban status was defined using metropolitan statistical area. Weighted regression models ascertained the relative contribution of predictors (including rural and BMI) on each subscale. Mean age was 70.7 years. Rural settings had higher proportions classified as obese (30.7 vs 27.6%; P rural residents had lower physical health status (41.7 ± 0.3) than urban (43.4 ± 0.1; P health status (39.5 ± 0.20 and 37.0 ± 0.82, respectively) than normal (44.7 ± 0.18) or overweight (44.6 ± 0.16) persons (P health between rural/urban by BMI. Individuals classified as underweight or obese had lower physical health compared to normal, while the differences were less pronounced for mental health. No differences in mental health existed between rural/urban status. A BMI * rural interaction was significant for physical but not mental health. Rural residents report lower self-reported physical health status compared to urban residents, particularly older adults who are obese or underweight. No interaction was observed between BMI and rural status. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Fischer, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Nicholls, Robert A; Lau, Stephanie; Poettgen, Jana; Patas, Kostas; Heesen, Christoph; Gold, Stefan M
Multiple sclerosis and major depressive disorder frequently co-occur but depression often remains undiagnosed in this population. Self-rated depression questionnaires are a good option where clinician-based standardized diagnostics are not feasible. However, there is a paucity of data on diagnostic accuracy of self-report measures for depression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Moreover, head-to-head comparisons of common questionnaires are largely lacking. This could be particularly relevant for high-risk patients with depressive symptoms. Here, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and 30-item version of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Rated (IDS-SR30) for major depressive disorder (MSS) against diagnosis by a structured clinical interview. Patients reporting depressive symptoms completed the BDI, the IDS-SR30 and underwent diagnostic assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, M.I.N.I.). Receiver-Operating Characteristic analyses were performed, providing error estimates and false-positive/negative rates of suggested thresholds. Data from n = 31 MS patients were available. BDI and IDS-SR30 total score were significantly correlated (r = 0.82). The IDS-SR30total score, cognitive subscore, and BDI showed excellent to good accuracy (area under the curve (AUC) 0.86, 0.91, and 0.85, respectively). Both the IDS-SR30 and the BDI are useful to quantify depressive symptoms showing good sensitivity and specificity. The IDS-SR30 cognitive subscale may be useful as a screening tool and to quantify affective/cognitive depressive symptomatology.
The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...
Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark D; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul; Choi, Sam-Wook
The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed significantly higher scores than healthy controls in all nine psychiatric symptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments.
Full Text Available Aki Tsuchiyagaito,1–3 Satoshi Horiuchi,4 Toko Igarashi,5 Yoshiya Kawanori,4 Yoshiyuki Hirano,1,3 Hirooki Yabe,2 Akiko Nakagawa1,3 1Research Center for Child Mental Development, Chiba University, Chiba, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 3United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, Osaka, 4Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 5Graduate School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan Background: The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J. Methods: Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. Results: The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test–retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the
Mueller, Martin; Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alshebber, Kefah; Strobl, Ralf; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-momani, Murad O; Furman, Joseph M; Grill, Eva
The objective of this study was to assess the objectivity, cross-cultural validity, and convergent validity of the Vestibular Activities and Participation (VAP) questionnaire among four countries, Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in four specialized outpatient dizziness clinics in Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. A total of 453 participants were included in the study. The Rasch analysis revealed two separate subscales. Subscale 1 items included focusing attention, lying down, standing, bending, lifting and carrying objects, and sports. Subscale 2 items included walking long distances, climbing, running, moving around within buildings other than home, using transportation, and driving. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the summary score of the VAP subscale 1 was 0.66 and was 0.64 for subscale 2. Owing to its shortness and intercultural adaptability, the new two-scale version of the VAP questionnaire lends itself to clinical practice and research across countries to estimate the effect of vertigo and dizziness on activity limitation and participation restrictions. Psychometrically sound summary scores can be calculated. More extended versions of the VAP can be used for comprehensive clinical assessment where summary scores are not needed or a more detailed documentation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Lester, Suzanne
An anxiety disorder affects 13 out of every 100 children. The purpose of this paper is to determine if there are differences in self-reported anxiety between male and female rural adolescents. In total, 193 students aged 14-17 years in three western Pennsylvania rural high schools, USA, were surveyed. The majority of participants were Caucasian (86.5%, n = 167), female (53.4%, n = 103), and aged 15.57 years (SD = 0.93). The females' mean self-reported anxiety score was higher than the males' score (P or =25 may indicate the need for further evaluation for the presence of a potential anxiety disorder), while the males' mean score was 16.88 (SD = 10.81). Of interest, all the five factor (specific types of anxiety) scores were significantly different between males and females at P mental health nurse's practice will be discussed. Anxiety screening is promoted to identify adolescents who may need mental health treatment and referrals, especially rural female adolescents.
Full Text Available Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ. 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median (range: 0–1.75; Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5; Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65 (Group III versus II P 0. The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.
Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A
The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.
Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A
The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.
Crossley, Kay M; Macri, Erin M; Cowan, Sallie M
for patellofemoral pain have methodological limitations. This study aimed to develop a new subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis (KOOS-PF), and evaluate its measurement properties. METHODS: Items were generated using input from 50 patients...... and interpretability of the final version of KOOS-PF and other KOOS subscales. RESULTS: From an initial 80 generated items, the final subscale included 11 items. KOOS-PF items loaded predominantly on one factor, pain during activities that load the patellofemoral joint. KOOS-PF had good internal consistency (Cronbach......'s α 0.86) and adequate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). Hypothesis testing supported convergent, divergent and known-groups validity. Responsiveness was confirmed, with KOOS-PF demonstrating a moderate correlation with Global Rating of Change scores (r 0.52) and large...
Culig, Josip; Leppée, Marcel
There are a number of approaches to studying medication-taking behavior. Self-report measures have the benefits of being cheap, easy to administer, non-intrusive, and able to provide information on attitudes and beliefs about medication. Potential limitations to self-report are that the ability to understand the items, and willingness to disclose information, can affect response accuracy and, thus, questionnaire validity. A computerized systematic search of the PubMed databases identified articles on scales for medication adherence measuring using the MeSH terms medication adherence, compliance, and persistence combined with the terms questionnaire self-report. Adherence scales have identified mostly in the last few years (2005-2012). One of the main sources has been article (Lavsa et. al) which evaluated literature describing medication adherence surveys/scales to gauge patient behaviors at the point of care. Articles were included if they evaluated or reviewed self-reported adherence medication scale applicable to chronic diseases and with a good coefficient of internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha (alpha)). Articles that contained data about self-report medication adherence scales use were included. A total of about one hundred articles were identified. Of those articles, 20% (20 of 100) were included in the review because of their relevance to the article topic. This article describes various self-report scales by which to monitor medication adherence, their advantages and disadvantages, and discusses the effectiveness of their application at different chronic diseases. There are many self-report scales for measuring medication adherence and their derivatives (or subscales). Due to the different nature of the diseases, there is no gold-standard scale for measuring medication adherence. It can be nevertheless concluded that the nearest to gold-standard is the Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ) scale by Morisky et.al. but we found better
Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton
There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available In this paper a self-report questionnaire on reading-writing difficulties for adults in Spanish (ATLAS is presented. Studies that use self-report questionnaires as a tool for screening of reading-writing difficulties in adults were reviewed. Two studies were carried out to determine the validity and reliability of ATLAS. The first study was aimed to select the critical items and to assess their reliability and their ability to discriminate. In the second study the assessment reported through the answers to the questionnaire was contrasted with the results of psychometric tests. Results showed that (a items were suitable descriptors for adult difficulties, (b there were significant correlations between self-report scores and reading measures, and (c the items discriminate between good and poor readers. The results of this study demonstrated that ATLAS is a sensitive tool to screen adults with reading difficulties. As a further advantage, ATLAS is an easy-to-use and time-saving instrument.
Seijas, Roberto; Sallent, Andrea; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel Angel; Ares, Oscar; Marín-Peña, Oliver; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Muriel, Alfonso
The Hip Outcome Score (HOS) is a self-reported questionnaire evaluating the outcomes of treatment interventions for hip pathologies, divided in 19 items of activities of daily life (ADL) and 9 sports' items. The aim of the present study is to translate and validate HOS into Spanish. A prospective and multicenter study with 100 patients undergoing hip arthroscopy was performed between June 2012 and January 2013. Crosscultural adaptation was used to translate HOS into Spanish. Patients completed the questionnaire before and after surgery. Feasibility, reliability, internal consistency, construct validity (correlation with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), ceiling and floor effects and sensitivity to change were assessed for the present study. Mean age was 45.05 years old. 36 women and 64 men were included. Feasibility: 13% had at least one missing item within the ADL subscale and 17% within the sport subscale. Reliability: the translated version of HOS was highly reproducible with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 for ADL and 0.94 for the sports subscale. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha >0.90 in both subscales. Construct validity showed statistically significant correlation with WOMAC. Ceiling effect was observed in 6% and 12% for ADL and sports subscale, respectively. Floor effect was found in 3% and 37% ADL and sports subscale, respectively. Large sensitivity to change was shown in both subscales. The translated version of HOS into Spanish has shown to be feasible, reliable and sensible to changes for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. This validated translation of HOS allows for comparisons between studies involving either Spanish- or English-speaking patients. Prognostic study, Level I.
Howard, Stephen; Mossman, A.; Donaldson, M.; Fusion Team, General
In magnetized target fusion (MTF) a magnetized plasma torus is compressed in a time shorter than its own energy confinement time, thereby heating to fusion conditions. Understanding plasma behavior and scaling laws is needed to advance toward a reactor-scale demonstration. General Fusion is conducting a sequence of subscale experiments of compact toroid (CT) plasmas being compressed by chemically driven implosion of an aluminum liner, providing data on several key questions. CT plasmas are formed by a coaxial Marshall gun, with magnetic fields supported by internal plasma currents and eddy currents in the wall. Configurations that have been compressed so far include decaying and sustained spheromaks and an ST that is formed into a pre-existing toroidal field. Diagnostics measure B, ne, visible and x-ray emission, Ti and Te. Before compression the CT has an energy of 10kJ magnetic, 1 kJ thermal, with Te of 100 - 200 eV, ne 5x1020 m-3. Plasma was stable during a compression factor R0/R >3 on best shots. A reactor scale demonstration would require 10x higher initial B and ne but similar Te. Liner improvements have minimized ripple, tearing and ejection of micro-debris. Plasma facing surfaces have included plasma-sprayed tungsten, bare Cu and Al, and gettering with Ti and Li.
Recent behavioral research has suggested that delayed incentives are discounted in a highly concave curve, which should produce temporary preference for the poorer of two alternatives when that alternative is available earlier than the better one. Unlike the psychoanalytic model of impulsiveness, the temporary preference model implies a rational need for people to forestall impulses by committing their choices in advance. A questionnaire elicited college students' and prisoners' self-reports of approval of four basic kinds of precommitting tactics as applied to 14 commonplace temptations. Endorsement of private rules as a precommitting device was correlated with self-reported compulsive personality traits and negatively correlated with endorsement of extra-psychic (social or physical) devices; the latter endorsement was correlated with self-reported oral/paranoid traits. Female subjects endorsed attention control as a precommitting device more than males, and male subjects endorsed extrapsychic devices more than females. The ego psychology of conflict may be practical at the conscious level.
Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina
Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...
Trombini-Souza, Francis; Matias, Alessandra B; Yokota, Mariane; Butugan, Marco K; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia; Fuller, Ricardo; Sacco, Isabel C N
Efforts have been made to retard the progressive debilitating pain and joint dysfunction in patients with knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a low-cost minimalist footwear on pain, function, clinical and gait-biomechanical aspects of elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Throughout a randomized, parallel and controlled clinical trial, fifty-six patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to an intervention (n=28) or control group (n=28), and assessed at baseline and after three and six months. The intervention involved wearing Moleca(®) footwear for at least 6h/day, 7 days/week, over 6 months. The pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were the other subscales, Lequesne score, distance walked in 6 min, knee oedema and effusion, knee adduction moment and paracetamol intake. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using two-way casewise ANOVA (knee adduction moment impulse (p=.017) during gait wearing Moleca(®). The analgesic intake was lower in the intervention group. The long-term use of Moleca(®) footwear relieves pain, improves self-reported function, reduces the knee loading while wearing Moleca(®), refrains the increase of analgesic intake in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered as a conservative mechanical treatment option. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01342458). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D; Pontes, Halley M; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18-29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage.
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J.; Romo, Lucia; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Graziani, Pierluigi; Rousseau, Amélie; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriänen, Maria; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pontes, Halley M.; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Zullino, Daniele; Rochat, Lucien; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël
Background and aims Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence. Methods A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18–29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, & Rochat, 2008). Results The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities. Discussion and conclusions Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage. PMID:28425777
Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Russell, Gregory B; Unruh, Mark; Rocco, Michael V
To explore the relationship between sleep quality and common measures of nutritional status in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study cohort. To investigate sleep quality scores based on longitudinal changes in measures of nutritional status, adjusting for case mix, lifestyle, and comorbidity factors. Secondary analysis of the HEMO Study data. A 7-year, prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Eighteen hundred forty-six patients aged between 18 and 80 years were randomized; 1,803 (97.7%) completed the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Long Form (KDQOL-LF) at baseline. Mean age was 58 years, 44% were male, 64% were Black, 37% had diabetes, and 32% had hypertension; mean duration of dialysis was 3.8 years. The univariate and multivariate relationships of measures of nutritional status (i.e., serum albumin, serum creatinine, postdialysis weight, body mass index, dietary protein and energy intake, and assessment of appetite) and sleep quality assessed using the sleep subscale from the KDQOL-LF. In univariate analysis, sleep quality score decreased significantly in a linear fashion as appetite rating decreased from very good to very poor on both dialysis days (63.6 ± 21.8 to 43.6 ± 22.9, P < .0001) and nondialysis days (63.2 ± 21.6 to 40.7 ± 25.7, P < .0001), with higher scores reflecting better sleep quality. In multivariable analysis, serum creatinine was the only laboratory variable that was significantly associated with sleep quality score (β = 0.49, P = .0004). Poorer appetite on both dialysis days (β = -1.5, P < .0001) and nondialysis days (β = -1.7, P < .0001) was associated with poor sleep quality. Self-reported sleep quality was associated with appetite and serum creatinine. A simple questionnaire to assess sleep disorders in dialysis patients should be administered routinely to detect those patients at risk of sleep complaints. However, further studies are needed to determine whether improving sleep quality, directly
Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT is a widely used instrument that measures perceived risk and benefit and attitude toward risk for activities in several domains, but does not include medical risks. Objective: To develop a medical risk domain subscale for DOSPERT. Methods: Sixteen candidate risk items were developed through expert discussion. We conducted cognitive telephone interviews, an online survey, and a random-digit dialing (RDD telephone survey to reduce and refine the scale, explore its factor structure, and obtain estimates of reliability. Participants: Eight patients recruited from UIC medical center waiting rooms participated in 45-60 minute cognitive interviews. Thirty Amazon Mechanical Turk workers completed the online survey. One hundred Chicago-area residents completed the RDD telephone survey. Results: On the basis of cognitive interviews, we eliminated five items due to poor variance or participant misunderstanding. The online survey suggested that two additional items were negatively correlated with the scale, and we considered them candidates for removal. Factor analysis of the responses in the RDD telephone survey and non-statistical factors led us to recommend a final set of 6 items to represent the medical risk domain. The final set of items included blood donation, kidney donation, daily medication use for allergies, knee replacement surgery, general anesthesia in dentistry, and clinical trial participation. The interitem reliability (Cronbach's alpha of the final set of 6 items ranged from 0.57-0.59 depending on the response task. Older respondents gave lower overall ratings of expected benefit from the activities. Conclusion: We refined a set of items to measure risk and benefit perceptions for medical activities. Our next step will be to add these items to the complete DOSPERT scale, confirm the scale's psychometric properties, determine whether medical risks constitute a psychologically
Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H
Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie
The aim of this study was to examine how similar pregnant women with self-reported lifetime eating disorder (ED) were to pregnant women with a hospital diagnosis of ED. A total of 83 731 pregnant women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort reported on ED, and by linkage to the Danish health...
Bell, Morris; Fiszdon, Joanna; Richardson, Randall; Lysaker, Paul; Bryson, Gary
This investigation aimed to determine whether impaired insight influences the validity of self-report test scores in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. 274 outpatients enrolled in work rehabilitation completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Self-report scores were compared to clinician's ratings on comparable personality and symptom dimensions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Work Behavior Inventory (WBI), and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). The influence of insight was determined using the Scale for Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). In the first analysis, clinician SUMD ratings of patient insight were associated with self-report accuracy. In a second analysis, patients were categorized into good and poor insight groups based on SUMD ratings and compared on self-report and clinician report variables. Results suggest that poor insight patients accurately report less Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and more Psychoticism than good insight patients, but individuals with poor insight wish to present themselves as more extraverted than they actually are, and they are likely to be more certain of their perceptions than they should be. It appears that self-report measures may be valid for most personality and symptom domains.
Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, So Yoon; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among -self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students. The subjects were 239 college students (142 male and 97 female) residing in the Incheon, Korea. Self-reported fatigue score was determined using a questionnaire of "Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test." The average physical fatigue score (p ;students were significantly higher compared to male students. Average dietary taurine intake in male and female was 102.5 mg/day and 98.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-reported fatigue score and dietary taurine intake. However, there was significantly negative correlation between self-reported fatigue scores and dietary habits such as "eating meals at regular times" (p ;eating foods such as meat, fish, eggs, and beans more than two times a day" (p ;eating greenish yellow vegetable every meal" (p ;eating sweet foods everyday" (p ;habit in Korean college students, and a further large-scale study is needed about relationship of self-reported fatigue and dietary taurine intake.
Matthey, Stephen; Valenti, Barbara; Souter, Kay; Ross-Hamid, Clodagh
Increasingly researchers and clinicians have called for perinatal mental health depression screening to be broadened to also screen for significant levels of anxiety. This study therefore aimed to compare the screening performance during pregnancy of four self-report anxiety measures, as well as a generic mood question. The measures tested were two measures of general anxiety (the anxiety subscales of the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and two measures of pregnancy specific anxiety by Huizink and colleagues, and Rini and colleagues (both originally called the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire). A generic mood question (Matthey Generic Mood Question) asking about stress, anxiety, unhappiness or difficulty coping was also tested. Between 132 and 389 women completed these measures at their first antenatal clinic appointment and up to 249 women completed a diagnostic interview and various measures two weeks later. The generic mood question performed best, detecting between 58% and 87% of high scorers on the other measures, including 80% of the women with an anxiety disorder. The next best measure was the EDS anxiety subscale, detecting between 26% and 73% of high scorers on the other measures, though this only detected 54% of the women with an anxiety disorder. Findings are only applicable to English-speaking women. In addition whether the findings can be applied to women later in their pregnancy, or postpartum, is not known. Services wishing to screen for not only possible depression but also possible anxiety should use the generic mood question. For those services which currently use the EDS we recommend they also score the three-item anxiety subscale. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goldenberg, Irina; Matheson, Kimberly; Mantler, Janet
We assessed the patterns of convergent validity for the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002), a performance-based measure of emotional intelligence (EI) that entails presenting problems thought to have correct responses, and a self-report measure of EI (Schutte et al., 1998). The relations between EI and demographic characteristics of a diverse community sample (N = 223) concurred with previous research. However, the performance-based and self-report scales were not related to one another. Only self-reported EI scores showed a consistent pattern of relations with self-reported coping styles and depressive affect, whereas the performance-based measure demonstrated stronger relations with age, education, and receiving psychotherapy. We discuss implications for the validity of these measures and their utility.
Full Text Available Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK has been proposed as a conceptual framework to describe the knowledge base teachers need for effective technology integration. The present study aimed to determine EFL pre-service teachers’ TPACK trough self-report, lesson plans and actual practice. This study used a wide range of approaches (self-report, lesson plan assessment and classroom observations to measure TPACK of EFL pre-service teachers in order to examine EFL pre-service teachers’ ability to apply and foster the interplay between content, pedagogy and technology in their classrooms. The results of self-reported data (as measured by TPACK survey, lesson plan assessment and classroom observations showed high scores for all domains. The EFL pre-service teachers’ actual practice aligned with their self-reported and their lesson plans.
Sachs, J; Gao, L
The learning process questionnaire (LPQ) has been the source of intensive cross-cultural study. However, an item-level factor analysis of all the LPQ items simultaneously has never been reported. Rather, items within each subscale have been factor analysed to establish subscale unidimensionality and justify the use of composite subscale scores. It was of major interest to see if the six logically constructed items groups of the LPQ would be supported by empirical evidence. Additionally, it was of interest to compare the consistency of the reliability and correlational structure of the LPQ subscales in our study with those of previous cross-cultural studies. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the six-factor item level model and to fit five representative subscale level factor models. A total of 1070 students between the ages of 15 to 18 years was drawn from a representative selection of 29 classes from within 15 secondary schools in Guangzhou, China. Males and females were almost equally represented. The six-factor item level model of the LPQ seemed to fit reasonably well, thus supporting the six dimensional structure of the LPQ and justifying the use of composite subscale scores for each LPQ dimension. However, the reliability of many of these subscales was low. Furthermore, only two subscale-level factor models showed marginally acceptable fit. Substantive considerations supported an oblique three-factor model. Because the LPQ subscales often show low internal consistency reliability, experimental and correlational studies that have used these subscales as dependent measures have been disappointing. It is suggested that some LPQ items should be revised and other items added to improve the inventory's overall psychometric properties.
Full Text Available Thanita Hiranyatheb,1 Ratana Saipanish,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Rungthip Prasertchai,1 Wanwisa Ketkaew,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Umaporn Udomsubpayakul,2 Pichaya Kusalaruk1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Section for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: The self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS has been developed to overcome the limitations of the clinician-administered version, which needs to be executed by trained personnel and is time consuming. The second edition of the Y-BOCS (Y-BOCS-II was developed to address some limitations of the original version. However, there is no self-report version of the Y-BOCS-II at the moment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the developed Thai self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-SR-T. Patients and methods: Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was developed from the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-T. The Y-BOCS-II-SR-T, the Y-BOCS-II-T, the Thai version of the Florida Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (FOCI-T, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL instrument were administered to 52 obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD patients. Internal consistency for the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α, and the factor analyses were completed. Pearson’s correlation was used in determining convergent and divergent validity among the other measures. Results: The mean score of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total score was 20.71±11.16. The internal consistencies of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total scores, the obsession subscale, and the compulsion subscale scores were excellent (α=0
de Vroege, Lars; Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Hoedeman, Rob; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M
Somatoform disorders (physical symptoms without medical explanation that cause dysfunction) are prevalent in the occupational health (OH) care setting and are associated with functional impairment and absenteeism. Availability of psychometric instruments aimed at assessing somatoform disorders is limited. In the OH setting, so far only the Patient-Health-Questionnaire 15 has been validated as screener for somatoform disorder, and has been shown to have moderate validity. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is frequently used in the OH setting but the Somatization subscale is not validated yet. The aim of this study is to validate the 4DSQ Somatization subscale as screener for DSM-IV somatoform disorder in the OH setting by using the MINI interview as gold standard. Employees absent from work due to physical symptoms, for a period longer than 6 weeks and shorter than 2 years, were asked to participate in this study. They filled out the 4DSQ and underwent a MINI interview by telephone for DSM-IV classification. Specificity and sensitivity scores were calculated for all possible cut-off scores and a receiver operator curve was computed for the Somatization subscale. 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for sensitivity and specificity. The Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ has an optimal cut point of 9, with specificity and sensitivity equal to 64.3 % [95 % CI (53.6; 73.7 %)] and 60.9 % [95 % CI (40.8; 77.8 %)], respectively. Receiver operator curves showed an area under the curve equal to 0.61 [SE = 0.07; 95 % CI (0.48; 0.75)] for the Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ. The 4DSQ Somatization subscale is a questionnaire of moderate sensitivity and specificity.
Ge, Yunshen; Chen, Shiyi; Chen, Jiwu; Hua, Yinghui; Li, Yunxia
Existing patient self-reported shoulder scoring systems fail to express physicians' points of view, and understanding the wording can sometimes lead to confusion in Easterners. We sought to develop a valid, reliable, and responsive shoulder scoring system that combines the points of view of physicians and patients and is easily understood for worldwide applicability. Six steps were followed to develop the scale: (1) investigation, identification of a specific population, and patient and physician interviews; (2) item generation, according to existing shoulder scales, a literature review, and patient and physician interviews; (3) item reduction, by combining and adjusting items; (4) formatting of the questionnaire, designed using both subjective and objective scales, with a 100-point score range; (5) pretesting, to eliminate confusion and misunderstanding of items, and (6) preliminary evaluation. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess validity (compared with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Constant-Murley, and University of California, Los Angeles scores), intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess reliability (with a 2-week test-retest interval), and the standardized response mean was calculated to assess responsiveness (comparing preoperative and postoperative scores in patients). The final scoring system was designed to have a 100-point score range, with higher scores indicating better function. It consisted of self-report assessment by patients (61 points in total) and objective assessment by physicians (39 points in total). Updated scales, including a night pain subscale, patient-physician satisfaction, and 2-dimensional visual analog scale tool, were incorporated in our system. Compared with the other 3 scoring systems (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Constant-Murley, and University of California, Los Angeles scores), the new scoring system has shown favorable validity, with a Pearson correlation coefficient
Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan
Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…
Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David
The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.92). Test-retest reliability was also good (0.72-0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David
The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)–Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70–0.92). Test–retest reliability was also good (0.72–0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:25619758
Results: The methamphetamine-dependents group had a higher BAS-DR subscale score than the opioid dependent group (P0.05. The BAS-RR scores of the methamphetamine-dependents group were higher than the other two groups (P
Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M
) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football......The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women...... division) were independently associated with lower self-reported Tegner Activity Scale (P injury had significantly worse KOOS scores (P
Voth, Eva M; Claes, Laurence; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Selle, Janine; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid
To examine reactive and regulative temperament in patients with compulsive buying (CB) by means of self-report measures and performance-based tasks and to explore the relationship between both measurement approaches. The study included 31 treatment-seeking patients with CB (25 women, 6 men) and an age and gender matched non-clinical control group without CB (CG). All participants answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). Reactive temperament was assessed using the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Regulative temperament was measured using the Effortful Control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ-EC) and a computerized version of the Stroop Task. To control the results for depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression Scale (PHQ-9) was administered. Crude group comparisons revealed higher BIS and BAS scores, poorer IGT performance and lower ATQ-EC scores in the CB-group compared to the CG. The groups did not differ in their performance on the Stroop task. After controlling for depressive symptoms that were significantly higher in the CB-group, only the group differences in BAS reactivity remained significant. No significant associations were found between questionnaires and performance-based tasks. Overall, the findings indicate that CB in the present clinical sample of treatment-seeking patients was mainly associated with higher approach tendencies and more depressive symptoms. The lacking correlation between self-reports and performance-based tasks is in line with prior research and suggests that both methodologies tap into different aspects of temperament. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khader, Yousef; Alhabashneh, Rola; Alhersh, Fadi
The development of self-reported measures of periodontal disease would be of great benefit to facilitate epidemiological studies of periodontal disease on a larger scale, and to allow for surveillance of the periodontal condition of populations over time. To develop a culturally adapted self-reported measure of periodontal disease, test its predictive and discriminative validity and establish a cut-off value for this measure to diagnose periodontal disease. A total of 288 Jordanian adults completed the questionnaire assessing self-reported periodontal health (18 questions) and underwent periodontal examination. Of the 18 questions, six were significantly associated with at least one clinical definition of periodontitis and were used to constitute the self-reported periodontal disease measure. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity and specificity, and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease measure. ROC analysis showed that the self-reported periodontal disease measure had an excellent performance to discriminate between those with and without periodontal disease, regardless of the clinical definition used. A score of 2, on a scale of 0 to 6, had the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect periodontal disease when defined by all study criteria. Significant associations were observed between self-reported periodontal disease measures and all clinical definitions in the regression analysis (the odds ratio ranged from 8.31 to 18.96), according to the clinical definition to be predicted. Self-reported periodontal disease measures have excellent predictive and discriminative validity when tested against clinical definitions, and severity and extent of periodontal disease. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
Marie SI Burstedt
Full Text Available Marie SI Burstedt, Eva MönestamDepartment of Clinical Sciences/Ophthalmology, University of Umeå, SwedenPurpose: To assess vision-related quality-of-life subscales with objective measurements of visual function in patients affected with retinitis pigmentosa of Bothnia type (BD.Methods: Forty-nine patients answered the NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaire. High- and low-contrast distance acuity (VA, near VA, and visual fields (VF were measured. Weighted VA (WVA and low-contrast (10% VA (WLCVA, binocular VF areas, and central scotoma were calculated. Adjusted mean subscale scores were calculated and associations analyzed.Results: Subscale scores for general, far, and near vision, social functioning, and color vision were lowest while general health, ocular pain, and mental health were highest in the BD phenotype. The correlations were substantial and similar for WVA, WLCVA, and near vision. The degree of measured VF impairment had few associations with the different adjusted subscale scores.Conclusion: The NEI VFQ-25 subscales were well associated with clinical vision measures depending on VA. The progression of VF defects typical for the BD phenotype does not seem to affect the self-perceived quality of life, which might indicate adaptability to this type of progressive VF loss. The BD phenotype has a significant impact on multiple domains of daily life, but there are no signs of accelerating depression related to the increasing visual impairment.Keywords: visual function, low vision, maculopathy, RP, Bothnia dystrophy, visual cycle, RLBP1
Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity
Miller, Joshua D; Hyatt, Courtland S; Rausher, Steven; Maples, Jessica L; Zeichner, Amos
The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a relatively new self-report measure of the basic traits associated with psychopathy. Using community participants (N = 104) oversampled for the presence of psychopathic traits, we examined the convergent and criterion validity of the EPA total and factor scores (i.e., Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Disinhibition, and Narcissism) in relation to self- and informant reports of psychopathy and the general personality dimensions of the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience; Ashton & Lee, 2009), as well as self-reported scores on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and externalizing behaviors (EBs) such as antisocial behavior and aggression. The EPA total and factor scores manifested substantial positive correlations with self- and informant-reported psychopathy scores and dimensions from the HEXACO, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and EBs. The patterns of these relations became clearer and more differentiated when examined via regression analyses such that the EPA factors manifested differential relations with various aspects of psychopathy (e.g., EPA Antagonism was the only unique correlate of psychopathy traits related to callousness and manipulation). Overall, the EPA is a promising assessment tool given the breadth of its coverage, the flexibility with which it can be used (total score; 4-factor scores; 18 subscale scores), and its ties to a popular model of basic personality traits.
Houdijk Mieke C
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine physical and psychosocial well-being of adolescents with type 1 diabetes by self-report and parent report and to explore associations with glycemic control and other clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Demographic, medical and psychosocial data were gathered from 4 participating outpatient pediatric diabetes clinics in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients completed the Child Health Questionnaire-CF87 (CHQ-CF87, Centre for Epidemiological Studies scale for Depression (CES-D, and the DFCS (Diabetes-specific Family Conflict Scale. Parents completed the CHQ-PF50, CES-D and the DFCS. Results Mean age was 14.9 years (± 1.1, mean HbA1c 8.8% (± 1.7; 6.2–15.0%. Compared to healthy controls, patients scored lower on CHQ subscales role functioning-physical and general health. Parents reported less favorable scores on the behavior subscale than adolescents. Fewer diabetes-specific family conflicts were associated with better psychosocial well-being and less depressive symptoms. Living in a one-parent family, being member of an ethnic minority and reporting lower well-being were all associated with higher HbA1c values. Conclusion Overall, adolescents with type 1 diabetes report optimal well-being and parent report is in accordance with these findings. Poor glycemic control is common, with single-parent families and ethnic minorities particularly at risk. High HbA1c values are related to lower social and family functioning.
Logan, Deirdre E; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Scharff, Lisa
The objective of this study was to investigate associations between social desirability response bias and self-report of pain, disability, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) in a sample of children presenting to a multidisciplinary pediatric chronic pain clinic. A retrospective review was conducted on 414 consecutive clinic patients, ages 12-17 years, with chronic pain complaints of at least 3 months' duration. As part of a clinical battery, children completed self-report psychological questionnaires including the Children's Depression Inventory, Children's Somatization Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale including the Lie Scale, an indicator of social desirability influence. Children also provided self report of pain intensity, pain duration and functional disability. Clinician ratings of anxiety and depressive symptoms also were collected. Results show that children scoring high on the measure of social desirability reported fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety compared to children scoring low on the social desirability index. No differences arose between these groups on reports of somatic symptoms, pain duration, or pain-related disability. These findings suggest that social desirability response bias may have implications for the self-report of psychological distress among pediatric chronic pain patients. The limits of self-report of symptoms should be considered in the clinical and research contexts.
Lopez, Gabriel; Liu, Wenli; Milbury, Kathrin; Spelman, Amy; Wei, Qi; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo
Massage has shown benefit for symptomatic relief in cancer patients and their caregivers. We explored the effects of a single massage session on self-reported symptoms in an outpatient clinic at a comprehensive cancer center. Patients and caregivers receiving oncology massage treatments (30 or 60-min duration) at our Integrative Medicine Center outpatient clinic from September 2012 to January 2015 completed the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; 0-10 scale, 10 most severe) pre and post massage. ESAS individual items and subscales of physical distress (PHS), psychological distress (PSS), and global distress (GDS) were analyzed. We used paired t tests with a p value correction (i.e., p g., pain, sleep, spiritual pain). Massage therapy was associated with statistically (p < .0001) and clinically significant improvements in symptoms of pain, fatigue, anxiety, well-being, and sleep and ESAS subscales for both patients and caregivers. Greater massage duration (30 vs 60 min) did not lead to greater symptom reduction. Patients and caregivers reported a moderately high symptom burden. A single massage treatment resulted in acute relief of self-reported symptoms in both groups. Further study is warranted regarding optimal massage dose and frequency.
Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine
This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.
Gaševic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Pardo, Abelardo; Dawson, Shane
The use of analytic methods for extracting learning strategies from trace data has attracted considerable attention in the literature. However, there is a paucity of research examining any association between learning strategies extracted from trace data and responses to well-established self-report instruments and performance scores. This paper…
De Groot, Kristel; Van Strien, Jan W.
Although not used as a diagnostic criterion, impaired emotion regulation is frequently observed in autism. The present study examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies in individuals scoring low or high on autistic traits. In addition, the late positive potential, which is sensitive to emotional arousal, was used to examine the…
Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.
Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…
Cherry, Katie E; Allen, Priscilla D; Denver, Jenny Y; Holland, Kayla R
The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants' responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Carlucci, Samantha; Ivanova, Iryna; Bissada, Hany; Tasca, Giorgio A
Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) commonly experience comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The shared features of EDs and ADHD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, may exacerbate ED symptomatology and pose challenges to treatment. It is important to screen patients with EDs for symptoms of ADHD to optimize their treatment outcomes. However, the psychometrics of common measures of ADHD have not yet been examined within an ED population. An example of such a measure is the ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) symptom checklist, which identifies the presence of ADHD symptoms. This study reports a psychometric study of the ASRS-v1.1 in a clinical sample of 500 adults with an ED. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated the ASRS-v1.1 maintained its two-factor structure of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity. The item loadings demonstrated path invariance across ED diagnostic groups indicating construct validity. Further, the subscales exhibited good internal consistency and they were significantly correlated with other measures of impulsivity indicating convergent validity. The ED sample had significantly higher mean scores than published nonclinical norms indicating predictive validity, but the ASRS-v1.1 scores were not significantly different among ED diagnostic groups. Results suggest the ASRS-v1.1 is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying symptoms of ADHD among adults seeking treatment for ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...
Van Wijk, Charles H
Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly - to develop a trait anxiety profile of subaquatic specialists; 2ndly - to investigate the predictive value of trait anxiety measures upon entering an occupational field; and 3rdly - to establish the reliability of these scores over time. Archival trait-anxiety data from 322 subjects were analyzed statistically. Analysis of the available scores revealed a highly homogenous as well as a very low trait anxiety profile for the investigated occupational group. Additionally, low trait anxiety was somewhat associated with success during specialist training: fewer candidates with high trait anxiety scores completed their qualification. Moreover, measurement of trait anxiety was stable over time, which suggests that when scores for this occupational group are screened, deviations from previous scores could signify a potential need for referral to an intervention from health professionals. Using the trait anxiety subscale as part of occupational health surveillance of subaquatic specialists could support prevention of accidents by identifying high-risk candidates during their annual health assessments, and referral for timeous intervention.
Pinsonnault, E; Desrosiers, J; Dubuc, N; Kalfat, H; Colvez, A; Delli-Colli, N
The purpose of this study was to develop a subscale assessing social functioning for the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF). The development of this new dimension was based on consultations (focus groups and nominal groups) of experts from different health care disciplines in Quebec, Canada, and France. Two interrater reliability studies were carried out with older people presenting a loss of functional autonomy and living either in an institution or at home. With the focus groups, the experts clarified the definition of social functioning and identified the factors involved. The nominal groups were used to construct a subscale composed of six items. The results of the first interrater reliability study showed a mean agreement percentage of 60% for the subscale and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.70 (CI: 0.57-0.80). The results of the second interrater reliability study showed higher coefficients with an agreement percentage of 74% for the subscale and an ICC of 0.83 (CI: 0.61-0.93). These preliminary results demonstrate that the new social functioning subscale has good reliability, but more studies are needed to show its validity. The new SMAF, including the social functioning subscale, should help clinicians and researchers to obtain a comprehensive profile of functional autonomy. It could also contribute to the improvement of health care for older people.
Bousardt, Annelea M C; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Noorthoorn, Eric O; Hummelen, Jacobus W; Nijman, Henk L I
Empirical knowledge of 'predictors' of physical inpatient aggression may provide staff with tools to prevent aggression or minimise its consequences. To test the value of a self-reported measure of impulsivity for predicting inpatient aggression. Self-report measures of different domains of impulsivity were obtained using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation seeking, Positive urgency (UPPS-P) impulsive behaviour scale with all 74 forensic psychiatric inpatients in one low-security forensic hospital. Aggressive incidents were measured using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). The relationship between UPPS-P subscales and the number of weeks in which violent behaviour was observed was investigated by Poisson regression. The impulsivity domain labelled 'negative urgency' (NU), in combination with having a personality disorder, predicted the number of weeks in which physical aggression was observed by psychiatric nurses. NU also predicted physical aggression within the first 12 weeks of admission. The results indicate that NU, which represents a patient's inability to cope with rejection, disappointments or other undesired feelings, is associated with a higher likelihood of becoming violent while an inpatient. This specific coping deficit should perhaps be targeted more intensively in therapy. Self-reported NU may also serve as a useful adjunct to other risk assessment tools and as an indicator of change in violence risk. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Studies of emotional intelligence (EI initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI, and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.
Castro, Jennifer R.; Rice, Kenneth G.
Examines ethnic differences in perfectionism among Asian American, African American, and Caucasian American college students. Analyses revealed that Asian American students scored significantly higher than the other groups on perfectionism subscales. Perfectionism explained significant variations in depressive symptoms for Asian Americans and…
Ring, David; Kadzielski, John; Fabian, Lauren; Zurakowski, David; Malhotra, Leah R; Jupiter, Jesse B
The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is the most widely used upper extremity-specific health-status measure. The DASH score often demonstrates greater variability than would be expected on the basis of objective pathology. This variability may be related to psychosocial factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the DASH score and psychological factors for specific diagnoses with relatively limited variation in objective pathology. Two hundred and thirty-five patients with a single, common, discrete hand problem known to have limited variations in objective pathology completed the DASH questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) to assess neuroticism, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale to quantify depressive symptoms, and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). Forty-five patients had carpal tunnel syndrome, forty-four had de Quervain tenosynovitis, forty-eight had lateral elbow pain, and seventy-one had a single trigger finger. In addition, twenty-seven patients were evaluated six weeks after a nonoperatively treated fracture of the distal part of the radius. Relationships between psychosocial factors and the DASH score were determined. A significant positive correlation between the DASH score and depression was noted for all diagnoses (r = 0.38 to 0.52; p Quervain tendinitis, r = 0.46; lateral elbow pain, r = 0.42; and trigger finger, r = 0.24) (p < 0.05 for all). The DASH score was not correlated with neuroticism for any diagnosis. There was a highly significant effect of depression (as measured with the CES-D score) on the DASH score for all diagnoses. Both the CES-D score (F = 62.68, p < 0.0001) and gender (F = 11.36, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of the DASH score. Self-reported upper extremity-specific health status as measured with the DASH score correlates with depression and pain anxiety but not neuroticism. These data
Full Text Available The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ is one of the most widely utilised measures of behavioural and emotional difficulties among children and young people. Previous research has raised concerns about the psychometric properties of the measure, particularly the internal consistency of the CP and PP subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA has generally supported a five-factor solution that is consistent with Goodman’s (1997 original conceptualisation of the SDQ, but alternative factor structures have been validated including models with internalising and externalising factors, and a total difficulties factor. This was the first study to examine the dimensionality, construct validity and internal consistency of the Romanian self-report version of the SDQ. Based on data collected from 1,086 school children aged 9-17 years old, six alternative factor models were specified and tested using conventional CFA techniques and a confirmatory bifactor modelling approach. The five-factor model provided a better fit for the data than alternative factor structures, but was still unacceptable according to a range of overall model fit indices and individual item loadings. Model fit statistics for the five-factor solution were also notably poorer among boys than girls. Internal consistency was low for the CP, H and PP subscales among the total sample and girls only; and for the EP, CP, H and PP subscales among boys only. Results are discussed in terms of the appropriate interpretation of the Romanian SDQ.
Mbekou, Valentin; MacNeil, Sasha; Gignac, Martin; Renaud, Johanne
Objective: A multi-informant approach is often used in child psychiatry. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment uses this approach, gathering parent reports on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and youth reports on the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which contain scales assessing both the child’s problems and competencies. Agreement between parent and youth perceptions of their competencies on these forms has not been studied to date. Method: Our study examined the parent–youth agreement of competencies on the CBCL and YSR from a sample of 258 parent–youth dyads referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for depressive and suicidal disorders. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all competency scales (activity, social, and academic), with further examinations based on youth’s sex, age, and type of problem. Results: Weak-to-moderate parent–youth agreements were reported on the activities and social subscales. For the activities subscale, boys’ ratings had a strong correlation with parents’ ratings, while it was weak for girls. Also, agreement on activities and social subscales was stronger for dyads with the youth presenting externalizing instead of internalizing problems. Conclusion: Agreement on competencies between parents and adolescents varied based on competency and adolescent sex, age, and type of problem. PMID:25886673
Harlacher, Uwe; Persson, Ann L; Rivano-Fischer, Marcelo
The aim of this study was to examine whether Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) subscale score changes can be used for monitoring interdisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain rehabilitation programmes, using the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index as an independent variable...... of rehabilitation outcome. Data from 434 consecutively referred patients disabled by chronic pain were analysed. The intervention was a 4-week interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation group programme (5 h/day), based on biopsychosocial and cognitive behavioural principles. Mean PGWB total scores improved after...... rehabilitation (P...
Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Bech, Bianca; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark
We investigated the relationship between interview-based subjective ratings of physical activity (PA) engagement and accelerometer-assessed objective measured PA in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A total of 92 children and adolescents (40 males, 52 females) with BMI ≥ 90th...... in moderate to vigorous physical intensity were generated, applying cut-offs based on Vector Magnitude settings as defined by Romanzini et al. (2014), and a physical activity score (PAS) based on self-reported data was calculated. Overall, a higher self-reported PAS was correlated with higher accelerometer......-assessed daily total PA levels (r = 0.34, p physically active compared with children who reported a low PAS. There was a fair level of agreement between self-reported PAS and accelerometer-assessed PA (Kappa agreement = 0.23; 95% CI = [0.03, 0.43]; p = .01...
Brodey, Benjamin B; Rosen, Craig S; Brodey, Inger S; Sheetz, Breanne M; Steinfeld, Robert R; Gastfriend, David R
This study assesses the convergent validity of Internet (Net) and interactive voice response (IVR) automated telephone self-report versions of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) relative to the established, clinician-administered (CA) ASI. Eighty-eight subjects were recruited from an addiction treatment program to complete three ASI assessments. The mean correlation between composite scores obtained by Net and IVR and those obtained via clinician interview was.91 (range.81-.95). For History items, the mean correlation was.77 (range.14-1.00) and the mean kappa coefficient was.75 (range.46-1.00). The results demonstrated the validity of these self-report Net and IVR versions of the ASI. Self-report Net and IVR were rated as "very satisfactory" or "extremely satisfactory" by a majority of respondents for ease of use. Automation can reduce the labor costs associated with ASI administration and may facilitate longitudinal tracking of subjects from home.
Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health...... (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential......We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores...
Anne H Berman
Full Text Available The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL, with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured.A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200, were approached for response to self-reported and parent-rated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence- and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS; dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots.Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77, Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99, Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94 and School (55.8/50.01. Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings
Berman, Anne H.; Liu, Bojing; Ullman, Sara; Jadbäck, Isabel; Engström, Karin
Background The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL), with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11–16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured. Methods A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11–16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200), were approached for response to self-reported and parent-rated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence- and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS); dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU) but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77), Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99), Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94) and School (55.8/50.01). Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences
Berman, Anne H; Liu, Bojing; Ullman, Sara; Jadbäck, Isabel; Engström, Karin
The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL), with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured. A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200), were approached for response to self-reported and parent-rated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence- and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS); dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU) but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77), Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99), Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94) and School (55.8/50.01). Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings showed
van Baardewijk, Y.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Stegge, H.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.
The current study investigated the 18-month stability of self-reported psychopathic traits measured through the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory-Child Version (YPI-CV) and their concurrent and prospective associations with conduct problems and aggression in a sample of 9-12 year olds (n=159, 52% boys) from the community. Self-reported psychopathy scores were moderately to highly stable and traits were positively related to conduct problems both concurrently and at follow-up, the latter eve...
Smith, Webb A; Li, Zhenghong; Loftin, Mark; Carlyle, Brent E; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K
Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) experience late effects that interfere with physical function. Limitations in physical function can affect CCS abilities to actively participate in daily activities. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the concordance between self-reported physical performance and clinically evaluated physical performance among adult CCS. CCS 18 yr or older and 10 yr or older from diagnosis who are participants in the St. Jude Lifetime cohort study responded to the physical function section of the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36). Measured physical performance was evaluated using the Physical Performance Test and the 6-Minute Walk Test. Individuals (N = 1778, 50.8% female) with a median time since diagnosis of 24.9 yr (range = 10.9-48.2) and a median age of 32.4 yr (range = 19.1-48.2) completed testing. Limitations in physical performance were self-reported by 14.1% of participants. The accuracy of self-report physical performance was 0.87 when the SF-36 was compared with the 6-Minute Walk Test or the Physical Performance Test. Reporting inaccuracies most often involved reporting a physical performance limitation. Poor accuracy was associated with previous diagnosis of a bone or CNS tumor, lymphoma, older age, and large body size. These results suggest that self-report, using the physical performance subscale of the SF-36, correctly identifies CCS who do not have physical performance limitations. In contrast, this same measure is less able to identify individuals who have performance limitations.
Ottati, Alicia; Feuerstein, Michael
The purpose of this research was to develop a brief, reliable self-report measure of work-related cognitive limitations in occupationally active breast cancer survivors. A pooled dataset of working breast cancer survivors (n = 228) completed a self-report measure of work-related cognitive limitations, the Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work-59 (CSC-W59). A cross-validation technique was employed such that the pooled participants were randomized into two separate groups in order to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the CSC-W59 with one group (n = 114) and confirm the results with the second group (n = 114). EFA of the CSC-W59 identified 21 items with a consistent factor loading of .4 or higher on three separate subscales (Working Memory, Executive Function, and Task Completion). These findings resulted in a 21-item, self-report measure referred to as the Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work-21 (CSC-W21). The CSC-W21 demonstrated internal reliability (α = .88). Construct validity of the CSC-W21 is supported by significant positive correlations with cancer stage, job stress, and affective state. Brief, valid, internally reliable self-report measures such as the CSC-W21 may be used to quickly assess work-related cognitive problems for breast cancer survivors at work. A brief measure is available to help identify tasks that present problems for breast cancer survivors who are at work. This measure can be used to facilitate research to improve the understanding and mitigation of cognitive challenges in breast cancer survivors in the work setting.
Alidjanov, J F; Pilatz, A; Abdufattaev, U A; Wiltink, J; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F
The Uzbek version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed as a simple self-reporting questionnaire to improve diagnosis and therapy of women with acute cystitis (AC). The purpose of this work was to validate the ACSS in the German language. The ACSS consists of 18 questions in four subscales: (1) typical symptoms, (2) differential diagnosis, (3) quality of life, and (4) additional circumstances. Translation of the ACSS into German was performed according to international guidelines. For the validation process 36 German-speaking women (age: 18-90 years), with and without symptoms of AC, were included in the study. Classification of participants into two groups (patients or controls) was based on the presence or absence of typical symptoms and significant bacteriuria (≥ 10(3) CFU/ml). Statistical evaluations of reliability, validity, and predictive ability were performed. ROC curve analysis was performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of ACSS and its subscales. The Mann-Whitney's U test and t-test were used to compare the scores of the groups. Of the 36 German-speaking women (age: 40 ± 19 years), 19 were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while 17 women served as controls. Cronbach's α for the German ACSS total scale was 0.87. A threshold score of ≥ 6 points in category 1 (typical symptoms) significantly predicted AC (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 82.4%). There were no significant differences in ACSS scores in patients and controls compared to the original Uzbek version of the ACSS. The German version of the ACSS showed a high reliability and validity. Therefore, the German version of the ACSS can be reliably used in clinical practice and research for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients suffering from AC.
Rescorla, Leslie A; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M
methods to test cross-informant agreement for ratings obtained from 27,861 adolescents ages 11 to 18 and their parents. Youth Self-Report (YSR) mean scores were significantly higher than Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) mean scores for all problem scales in almost all societies, but the magnitude...
Abel, Willie M; Joyner, Jessica S; Cornelius, Judith B; Greer, Danice B
Black women in the USA have the highest prevalence rate of hypertension (HTN) contributing to a higher risk of organ damage and death. Research has focused primarily on poorly controlled HTN, negative belief systems, and nonadherence factors that hinder blood pressure control. No known research studies underscore predominantly Black women who report consistent adherence to their antihypertensive medication-taking. The purpose of this study was to describe self-care management strategies used by Black women who self-report consistent adherence to their antihypertensive medication and to determine the existence of further participation in lifestyle modifications, such as eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity. Using a qualitative descriptive design, four focus groups with a total of 20 Black women aged 25-71 years were audio-taped. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants were included in the study if they scored perfect adherence on the medication subscale of the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale. Medication adherence was predicated on three themes: HTN experience, involvement with treatment regimen, and a strong motivated mentality. Black women would benefit from treatment approaches that are sensitive to 1) diverse emotional responses, knowledge levels, and life experiences; 2) two-way communication and trusting, collaborative relationships with active involvement in the treatment regimen; 3) lifestyle modifications that focus on health benefits and individual preferences; and 4) spiritual/religious influences on adherence. The use of self-care management strategies to enhance antihypertensive medication adherence is key to adequate blood pressure control and the reduction of cardiovascular events. This study provides preliminary insight for future research to develop interventions to aid those Black women who struggle with medication adherence and are disproportionately impacted by HTN.
Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years). A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others), and a dental anxiety scale (DAS) divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety) (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07), alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66), gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55), age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02), female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98), poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98), general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90), and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70). Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It is also linked to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It
Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H
Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean ± SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 ± 13.1 and 66.3 ± 14.0 for men and 37.7 ± 12.8 and 40.2 ± 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 ± 11.4 and 68.1 ± 12.1 for men and 64.2 ± 13.6 and 66.5 ± 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 ± 1.8 and 14.9 ± 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 ± 2.9 and 17.4 ± 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 ± 3.4 and 26.3 ± 3.6 for men and 24.6 ± 2.8 and 24.2 ± 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population.
Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R
Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p'shunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott
Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.
Herbolsheimer, Florian; Riepe, Matthias W; Peter, Richard
Numerous studies have reported weak or moderate correlations between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity. One explanation is that self-reported physical activity might be biased by demographic, cognitive or other factors. Cognitive function is one factor that could be associated with either overreporting or underreporting of daily physical activity. Difficulties in remembering past physical activities might result in recall bias. Thus, the current study examines whether the cognitive function is associated with differences between self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity. Cross-sectional data from the population-based Activity and Function in the Elderly in Ulm study (ActiFE) were used. A total of 1172 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-90 years) wore a uniaxial accelerometer (activPAL unit) for a week. Additionally, self-reported physical activity was assessed using the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ). Cognitive function was measured with four items (immediate memory, delayed memory, recognition memory, and semantic fluency) from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Total Score (CERAD-TS). Mean differences of self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity (MPA) were associated with cognitive function in men (r s = -.12, p = .002) but not in women. Sex-stratified multiple linear regression analyses showed that MPA declined with high cognitive function in men (β = -.13; p = .015). Results suggest that self-reported physical activity should be interpreted with caution in older populations, as cognitive function was one factor that explained the differences between objective and subjective physical activity measurements.
Hernan, Andrea; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Dunbar, James A
Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004-05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%). Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC) in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%). These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = -0.226, p-value resulted in only 6% of individuals at high risk of diabetes being incorrectly categorised as moderate or low risk of diabetes. Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP. Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004–05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC and Body Mass Index (BMI from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Results Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%. Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%. These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = −0.226, p-value Conclusions Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.
Boter, Han; Mänty, Minna; Hansen, Åse Marie
population cohort (n = 4,964; age 49-63 years). Methods: Self-reported fatigue was measured using the MFI-20 comprising: general fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. Handgrip strength and chair rise tests were used as measures of physical function. Multiple...... ratio (OR) 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.86); p ≤ 0.001) and reduced motivation (adjusted OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.96); p ≤ 0.05), but not with the other subscales. After these adjustments, the chair rise test was associated with physical fatigue (adjusted OR 0.61 (0.53-0.69); p ≤ 0...
García-Hermoso, A; Aguilar, M M; Vergara, F A; Velásquez, E J A; Marina, R
The aims were to examine the association of sleep patterns with being overweight or obese and to analyze the association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with sleep patterns in children. The study involved 395 schoolchildren (12-13 years old). Sleep patterns were assessed with the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire, grouped into four subscales: sleep quality, sleep-related anxiety, bedtime refusal, and sleep routines. CRF was predicted by the 20-m shuttle-run test. Logistic regression models showed that sleep-related anxiety problems predicted being overweight or obese in both sexes, and sleep quality problems predicted being overweight or obese in girls. Also, girls who had better CRF levels were less susceptible to sleep-related anxiety problems. Studies are required to determine if increasing CRF could be a possible strategy for improving sleep quality.
Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie
We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...... was associated only with higher job demands, but the self-report scores showed a number of interactions between cortisol group and gender. Among women, those showing a low CDD, compared with those with a higher CDD, had more favourable scores on a number of job stress factors and symptom load. In contrast, among...
Klopp, Sheree A; Heiss, Cynthia J; Smith, Heather S
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes and behaviors of vegetarian and nonvegetarian college women. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and a questionnaire were used to gather information on eating attitudes and behaviors of 143 female college students. Thirty participants were self-reported vegetarians, and 113 participants were nonvegetarians. There was no significant difference between the vegetarians and nonvegetarians in height, weight, age, or body mass index. The median EAT score of the vegetarians (16.5) was significantly higher (Pvegetarians (37%) compared with nonvegetarians (8%) had EAT scores greater than 30 (indicating eating disorder risk). There was no difference in supplement use or meal skipping between the two groups. In conclusion, self-reported vegetarian college women may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians.
Full Text Available To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72 to 2.67 among ill group compared to controls (0.58 to 1.59. We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series.
Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…
Sobell, Linda C.; Sobell, Mark B.
Examined whether population type and question type differentially affected validity of alcoholics' self-reports. Alcoholics gave highly valid self-reports. Question type differentially affected the validity of subjects' interview answers, as fewer invalid answers were given to demographic questions. Population type did not significantly affect…
The purpose of this paper is to critically examine whether self-report questionnaires can be valid answering two questions. The first question, "Are Nigerians dishonest on self report questionnaires" was answered using empirical data that showed that most Nigerians are honest even on topics that are highly controversial.
Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.
Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on
There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p
Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Edris, Basel; Sawaf, Bisher; Zakaria, Mhd. Ismael; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek
Background: The National Medical Unified Examination (NMUE) is currently required for graduation, joining postgraduate medical training, and practicing medicine in Syria. Objective: To investigate self-reported study habits that correlate with high performance on the NMUE. Methods: First through 3rd year residents at the three main hospitals in Damascus, Syria, were asked to complete a retrospective cross-sectional survey investigating their study habits and previous scores. Results: Signific...
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters......A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...
Rasmussen, Mette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Melkevik, Ole
This study proposes a new approach for investigating bias in self-reported data on height and weight among adolescents by studying the relevance of participants' self-reported response capability. The objectives were 1) to estimate the prevalence of students with high and low self-reported response...... capability for weight and height in a self-administrated questionnaire survey among 11--15 year old Danish adolescents, 2) to estimate the proportion of missing values on self-reported height and weight in relation to capability for reporting height and weight, and 3) to investigate the extent to which...... adolescents' response capability is of importance for the accuracy and precision of self-reported height and weight. Also, the study investigated the impact of students' response capability on estimating prevalence rates of overweight....
Full Text Available Abel Gedefaw,1 Birkneh Tilahun,2 Anteneh Asefa3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, 3School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results: The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47 and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71 years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7% of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2% had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3% had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95
Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J
Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCusker, Jane; Haggerty, Jeannie; De Raad, Manon; Belzile, Eric; Bouharaoui, Fatima; Beaulieu, Christine; Yaffe, Mark; Ciampi, Antonio
To validate 2 new patient-reported measures of self-management support from health professionals for mood and emotional problems. The sample comprised primary care patients with chronic physical conditions and co-morbid depressive symptoms enrolled in a randomized trial of telephone coaching of a depression self-care intervention (n=120). At 6-month follow-up, patients completed 2 subscales with respect to support for self-management of their chronic physical condition(s): 1) Self-Management Information (SMInfo-Phys); and 2) Care Plan (CP-Phys) and equivalent subscales adapted to assess self-management support for mood and emotional problems: SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood. Subscale scoring was assessed with Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis. Convergent validity of the mood subscales was assessed. The sensitivity of the mood and physical condition subscales to mental health interventions was assessed with generalized estimating equations (GEE). The mood subscales were associated with relevant measures of perceived unmet mental health needs. Both SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood were sensitive to the coaching intervention; CP-Mood was also sensitive to receipt of depression treatment outside the trial. This study provides preliminary evidence for the validity of the 2 new subscales. The subscales may be used to assess perceived health professional support for self-management of mood and emotional problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kelley, Shannon E; Edens, John F; Morey, Leslie C
The present study is the first to investigate the Personality Assessment Screener, a brief self-report measure of risk for emotional and behavioral dysfunction, in relation to the informant report version of this instrument, the Personality Assessment Screener-Other. Among a sample of undergraduate roommate dyads ( N = 174), self-report and informant report total scores on the Personality Assessment Screener/Personality Assessment Screener-Other moderately converged ( r = 0.45), with generally greater agreement between perspectives observed for externalizing behaviors compared with internalizing distress. In addition, selves tended to report more psychological difficulties relative to informant ratings ( d = 0.45) with an average absolute discrepancy between sources of 6.31 ( SD = 4.96) out of a possible range of 66. Discrepancies between self-report and informant report were significantly associated with characteristics of the dyadic relationship (e.g., length of acquaintanceship) as well as the severity of self-reported psychological difficulties and positive impression management.
Cheng, Shu Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chi, Mei Hung; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chen, Po See; Chang, Yin-Fan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching
This study was designed to explore physical, social/behavioral, and mental health factors among incoming university students with elevated self-reported ADHD symptoms. A total of 5,240 incoming university students were recruited. The test battery included the ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Measurement of Support Functions, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, Quality of Life assessment, the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale, and the 10-item Social Desirability Scale. ADHD symptoms were elevated in 8.6% of the sample. Only individuals with a lower social desirability score, however, were recruited for further analysis. Significant influential factors for higher self-reported levels for ADHD symptoms included greater suicidal ideation and emotional disturbance, as well as a higher Internet addiction tendency, lower levels of social support, and a greater amount of exercise. Given the elevated prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms among this sample of university students, screening for these kinds of problems to detect early challenges before students fail in college as well as identify youth with undiagnosed ADHD should be considered. © The Author(s) 2014.
The Work Personality Profile-Self Report (WPP-SR) is a self-report work behavior instrument for use in situational assessment in work centers, comprehensive facilities, and employment settings. The WPP-SR assesses work attitudes, values, habits, and behaviors that are essential to the achievement and maintenance of employment. It consists of 58…
Retz-Junginger, P; Giesen, L; Philipp-Wiegmann, F; Rösler, M; Retz, W
The Wender-Reimherr adult attention deficit disorder scale (WRAADDS) is an internationally accepted attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) interview with an authorized German translation. The WRAADS not only assesses the symptoms of ADHD but also the severity of the symptoms using the Utah criteria. With the aim of economizing the diagnostic process the original English version of the Wender-Reimherr self-report questionnaire was translated into German (WR-SB) in order to evaluate the test psychometric properties. To explore the psychometric properties of the WR-SB within a classical test theory framework. The psychometric properties of the WR-SB were determined in a population of 122 adult ADHD patients and 79 healthy controls. For the individual WR-SB subscales the results showed an adequate discriminatory power and a high internal consistency. The correlation between the WRAADS and the WR-SB was significant and the retest reliability was high. The WR-SB is a brief, self-report instrument and an economical alternative to assess adult ADHD symptomatology using the Utah criteria. The results of this evaluation study showed the WR-SB to be a valid and reliable measurement for both clinical and research purposes.
Sengupta, Anita; Stuart, Phil; Machin, Ricardo; Bourland, Gary; Schwing, Allen; Longmire, Ellen; Henning, Elsa; Sinclair, Rob
A subscale wind tunnel test program for Orion's conical ribbon drogue parachute is under development. The desired goals of the program are to quantify aerodynamic performance of the parachute in the wake of the entry vehicle, including understanding of the coupling of the parachute and command module dynamics, and an improved understanding of the load distribution within the textile elements of the parachute. The test program is ten percent of full scale conducted in a 3x2.1 m (10x7 ft) closed loop subsonic wind tunnel. The subscale test program is uniquely suited to probing the aerodynamic and structural environment in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Non-intrusive diagnostics, including Particle Image Velocimetry for wake velocity surveys, high speed pressure transducers for canopy pressure distribution, and a high speed photogrammetric reconstruction, will be used to quantify the parachute's performance.
Houston, Janice D.; Counter, Douglas
The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option. This paper compares the acoustic measurements of two different subscale tests: the 2% Ares Liftoff Acoustic Test conducted at Stennis Space Center and the 5% Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center.
Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola
Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.
Llerena, Katiah; Park, Stephanie G; McCarthy, Julie M; Couture, Shannon M; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J
The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) is an empirically developed interview measure of negative symptoms. Building on prior work, this study examined the reliability and validity of a self-report measure based on the CAINS-the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR)-that assesses the motivation and pleasure domain of negative symptoms. Thirty-seven participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed the 18-item MAP-SR, the CAINS, and other measures of functional outcome. Item analyses revealed three items that performed poorly. The revised 15-item MAP-SR demonstrated good internal consistency and convergent validity with the clinician-rated Motivation and Pleasure scale of the CAINS, as well as good discriminant validity, with little association with psychotic symptoms or depression/anxiety. MAP-SR scores were related to social anhedonia, social closeness, and clinician-rated social functioning. The MAP-SR is a promising self-report measure of severity of negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Almeida Montes, L G; Friederichsen Alonso, A; Olivia Hernández, A; Rodríguez Carranza, R; de la Peña, F; Cortés Sotres, J
Research about the reliability of retrospective self-report rating scales for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been limited. A self-report scale named "FASCT" was created with two versions: self-reported and observer. The self-reported version was applied to 393 subjects and the observer version to 377. An exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis was made in order to obtain the final adaptation of both versions. Finally they were applied to 205 subjects and 105 of their first degree relatives. Cronbach's alpha for the self-reported version was 0.84 and 0.87 for the observer version. The total score that had the best balance between sensitivity and 1-specificity was 23 points for each version of the "FASCT". Correlation between both versions was 0.88. The correlation coefficient between the Wender-UTAH scale and self-reported version was 0.71 and for the observer version was 0.66. Agreement degree between dichotomized total score and the diagnosis made by structured interview was 0.82, for the self-reported version and 0.88 for the observer version. Sensitivity and specificity for the self-reported version were 80.36 and 97.9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values for the observer version were 95.4 and 96.3 respectively. Both versions of the "FASCT" scale were shown to be valid and reliable for adult ADHD screening.
Yeh, Chin-Bin; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Kessler, Ronald C; Wu, Yu-Yu
Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood has become a topic of considerable interest to psychiatrists over the past decade, little is known about the prevalence or correlates of adult ADHD in the Chinese population. As a first step in addressing this problem, this study presents data on the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the World Health Organization's Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) in a sample of 1031 young males from an army base and 3298 young adults from two colleges. All participants completed the Chinese ASRS. Participants from an army base also completed a clinical assessment including the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for assessing childhood ADHD, the Impulsiveness Scale for measuring the severity of current impulsive behaviors, and information about substance use. Results showed good concordance (intraclass correlations = 0.80 approximately 0.85) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83 approximately 0.91) among the ASRS subscales and moderate to high correlations between these subscales and the WURS (Pearson's correlations = 0.37 approximately 0.66). The Chinese ASRS also demonstrated the ability to predict childhood disruptive problems and habitual use of substances. Our findings suggest that the Chinese ASRS is a reliable and valid instrument to assist in screening for adult ADHD. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James
Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.
Heyerdahl, Sonja; Kvernmo, Siv; Wichstrøm, Lars
Self-reported behavioural/emotional problems were studied in 2647 15-18-year-old high school students by Youth Self-Report (YSR), Symptom Checklist (SCL-12) and a Conduct Problem scale. The response rate was 85%. The respondents were from three ethnic groups in northern Norway: indigenous Sami, Kvens (descendants of Finnish-speaking immigrants from northern Finland and Sweden) and Norwegians. Females' mean scores were higher than males' scores for Total Problems [47.2 (SD 19.3) vs. 40.9 (SD 19.4)], Internalising Problems, the Internalising syndrome scales and the Attention Problems scale. Males' mean scores were higher than females' scores for Delinquent Behaviour. There were few differences between the ethnic groups, but Sami had higher scores than Norwegians for the Withdrawn and Social Problems syndromes. Parental status (whether parents were living together) was weakly associated with Total Problems, Internalising and Externalising Problems, while age, socioeconomic status and urban/rural location were not associated with the problem scales. Results for Anxiety-depression (SCL-12) and Conduct Problems were compared with a national representative adolescent sample (n = 4567), showing slight differences between the samples in Anxiety-depression (with north Norwegian adolescents having lower scores) and no significant differences in Conduct Problems.
Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A; Egan, Katie G; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD = 4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD = 5.1; p = 0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms.
Eadie, Tanya L; Otero, Devon Sawin; Bolt, Susan; Kapsner-Smith, Mara; Sullivan, Jessica R
The purpose of this study was to examine how sentence intelligibility relates to self-reported communication in tracheoesophageal speakers when speech intelligibility is measured in quiet and noise. Twenty-four tracheoesophageal speakers who were at least 1 year postlaryngectomy provided audio recordings of 5 sentences from the Sentence Intelligibility Test. Speakers also completed self-reported measures of communication-the Voice Handicap Index-10 and the Communicative Participation Item Bank short form. Speech recordings were presented to 2 groups of inexperienced listeners who heard sentences in quiet or noise. Listeners transcribed the sentences to yield speech intelligibility scores. Very weak relationships were found between intelligibility in quiet and measures of voice handicap and communicative participation. Slightly stronger, but still weak and nonsignificant, relationships were observed between measures of intelligibility in noise and both self-reported measures. However, 12 speakers who were more than 65% intelligible in noise showed strong and statistically significant relationships with both self-reported measures (R2 = .76-.79). Speech intelligibility in quiet is a weak predictor of self-reported communication measures in tracheoesophageal speakers. Speech intelligibility in noise may be a better metric of self-reported communicative function for speakers who demonstrate higher speech intelligibility in noise.
Krakauer, S Y; Archer, R P; Gordon, R A
This research involves the development, validation, and cross-validation of the Items-Easy (Ie) and Items-Difficult (Id) subscales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992). These subscales were designed to assess the degree to which reading comprehension deficits may be responsible for significant elevations of validity Scale F and the standard clinical scales on adolescents' MMPI-A profiles. A difference score, bared on the two 13-item subscales, was created in order to compare subjects' responses to subsets of the more comprehensible (Ie) and less comprehensible (Id) items within the test. Hit rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power were calculated on the basis of simple (Id - Ie) and weighted (3Id - 1Ie) difference scores for the validation (N = 495) and cross-validation (N = 264) samples, and for specific high-F profile subsamples. Although some of the indices reflected classification accuracy as high as 95%, none of the indices yielded consistently high results across the various samples and subsamples. It has been concluded that the Ie and Id subscales should be used only for research purposes at this time.
Theorell, Töres; De Manzano, Örjan; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ullén, Fredrik
To examine the contribution of genetic factors to self-reported psychological demands (PD), skill discretion (SD) and decision authority (DA) and the possible importance of such influence on the association between these work variables and depressive symptoms. 11,543 participants aged 27-54 in the Swedish Twin Registry participated in a web survey. First of all, in multiple regressions, phenotypic associations between each one of the three work environment variables and depressive symptoms were analysed. Secondly, by means of classical twin analysis, the genetic contribution to PD, SD and DA was assessed. After this, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were computed between PD, SD and DA, on the one hand, and depressive symptom score, on the other hand. The genetic contribution to self-reported PD, DS and DA ranged from 18% for decision authority to 30% for skill discretion. Cross-twin cross-trait correlations were very weak (r values architecture of the phenotypic associations using bivariate twin modelling. However, substantial genetic contribution to these associations seems unlikely. CONCLUSIONS GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SELF-REPORTED WORK ENVIRONMENT SCORES WERE 18-30%. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.
Johansen, Kirsten L; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Delgado, Cynthia; Kaysen, George A; Kornak, John; Grimes, Barbara; Chertow, Glenn M
A well-accepted definition of frailty includes measurements of physical performance, which may limit its clinical utility. In a cross-sectional study, we compared prevalence and patient characteristics based on a frailty definition that uses self-reported function to the classic performance-based definition and developed a modified self-report-based definition. Prevalent adult patients receiving hemodialysis in 14 centers around San Francisco and Atlanta in 2009-2011. Self-report-based frailty definition in which a score lower than 75 on the Physical Function scale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was substituted for gait speed and grip strength in the classic definition; modified self-report definition with optimized Physical Function score cutoff points derived in a development (one-half) cohort and validated in the other half. Performance-based frailty defined as 3 of the following: weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slow gait speed. 387 (53%) patients were frail based on self-reported function, of whom 209 (29% of the cohort) met the performance-based definition. Only 23 (3%) met the performance-based definition of frailty only. The self-report definition had 90% sensitivity, 64% specificity, 54% positive predictive value, 93% negative predictive value, and 72.5% overall accuracy. Intracellular water per kilogram of body weight and serum albumin, prealbumin, and creatinine levels were highest among nonfrail individuals, intermediate among those who were frail by self-report, and lowest among those who also were frail by performance. Age, percentage of body fat, and C-reactive protein level followed an opposite pattern. The modified self-report definition had better accuracy (84%; 95% CI, 79%-89%) and superior specificity (88%) and positive predictive value (67%). Our study did not address prediction of outcomes. Patients who meet the self-report-based but not the performance-based definition of frailty may represent an
Smith, Joyce D; Shaffer, David R
.... Internal analyses revealed that Self-reported Altruism, a measure of one's altruistic inclinations, reliably predicted the helping behavior of subjects high in private self-consciousness, but did...
Éilish Duke; Christian Montag
.... The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity...
Ingersoll, Brooke; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wainer, Allison; Donnellan, M. Brent
Three self-report measures of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) were evaluated in terms of their internal consistency, distribution of scores, factor structure, and criterion-related validity in a non-clinical sample. All measures showed a continuous distribution. The SRS-A and BAPQ showed expected sex differences and were superior to the AQ in…
Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey
In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…
Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P
To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p academic study during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, p academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.
Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee...... confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time...... osteoarthritis (OA). Background Lack of knee confidence is a frequent symptom in patients with knee OA, but little is known of associations between knee confidence and other common correlates of knee OA. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA were applied in ordinal regression analyses, with knee...
Saunders, G. P.; Varner, D. G.; Grover, J. B.
The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the general design and operation of the A3 Subscale test facility. The goal is to provide the reader with a general understanding of what the major facility systems are, where they are located, and how they are used to meet the objectives supporting the design of the A3 altitude rocket test facility. This paper also provides the reader with the background information prior to reading the subsequent papers detailing the design and test results of the various systems described herein.
McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Leach, Candace
Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, McCrory P. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 (suppl 1):i3-i12. Which self-report symptom scales or checklists are psychometrically sound for clinical use to assess sport-related concussion? Articles available in full text, published from the establishment of each database through December 2008, were identified from PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and AMED. Search terms included brain concussion, signs or symptoms, and athletic injuries, in combination with the AND Boolean operator, and were limited to studies published in English. The authors also hand searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional searches of books, conference proceedings, theses, and Web sites of commercial scales were done to provide additional information about the psychometric properties and development for those scales when needed in articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Articles were included if they identified all the items on the scale and the article was either an original research report describing the use of scales in the evaluation of concussion symptoms or a review article that discussed the use or development of concussion symptom scales. Only articles published in English and available in full text were included. From each study, the following information was extracted by the primary author using a standardized protocol: study design, publication year, participant characteristics, reliability of the scale, and details of the scale or checklist, including name, number of items, time of measurement, format, mode of report, data analysis, scoring, and psychometric properties. A quality assessment of included studies was done using 16 items from the Downs and Black checklist1 and assessed reporting, internal validity, and external validity. The initial database search identified 421 articles. After 131 duplicate
Kazak Berument, Sibel; Güven, Ayşe Gül
A reliable, valid and original test to assess the receptive vocabulary skills of children in Turkey was not available. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop a receptive vocabulary test for Turkish children based on the Turkish language. For the Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale (TIFALDI-RT) 242 concrete and abstract words were chosen from word frequency lists and a comprehensive Turkish Dictionary. Pilot data were collected from 648 children aged 2 to 13 from Ankara, and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 3755 children. Item analysis (item difficulty, discrimination and distractor) was carried out on the pilot data and based on the results, the total item number was reduced to 157. Further, three parameter item analyses (IRT) were carried out on the norm data by using BILOG-MG (SSI, 2002), and the results indicated that the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale could be reduced to 104 items to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were calculated for the whole sample and age groups separately, and all the coefficients were high. For the validity, the relationship between the WISC-R and Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (AGTE) and Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale were investigated. Once again, the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale scores were found to be significantly related to WISC-R and AGTE scores. The TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale was developed on the basis of the Turkish Language and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample. The TIFALDI-RT also had a high reliability and validity. Thus, the TIFALDI-RT can be used to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary skills.
Van Wijk, Charles H
Objectives: Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly – to develop a trait...
Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.
Dumitrescu, A L; Dogaru, B C; Dogaru, C D; Manolescu, B
This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude, perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours. The study sample consisted of 198 first year medical students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioural variables, self-reported oral health status, proactive coping (proactive coping subscale of the Proactive Coping Inventory), procrastination (Procrastination Scale) and proactive attitude (Proactive Attitude Scale). Significant differences were found on self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude scales between participants who rated their gingival condition as very good/excellent and those who evaluated it as being poor, very poor or normal (p procrastination level among individuals who never visit their dentist and those who visit their dentist for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling (p = 0.001) or when treatment is needed or when in pain (p procrastination and proactive coping are important determinants of perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours.
Full Text Available Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child’s behavior and development effectively.
Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Edris, Basel; Sawaf, Bisher; Zakaria, Mhd Ismael; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek
The National Medical Unified Examination (NMUE) is currently required for graduation, joining postgraduate medical training, and practicing medicine in Syria. To investigate self-reported study habits that correlate with high performance on the NMUE. First through 3(rd) year residents at the three main hospitals in Damascus, Syria, were asked to complete a retrospective cross-sectional survey investigating their study habits and previous scores. Significantly higher score was associated with >15 study h/day and allocating 1-40% of study time for practicing questions. Mean NMUE score was not significantly different in relation to preparation months for examination or for those who reported spending all their time studying alone compared with spending any amount of time in a group setting. Scores of 231-240 on the Syrian scientific high school exam correlated with significantly higher NMUE performance compared with fewer scores, except scores of 221-230. For every 10 point increase in medical school cumulative grades, the NMUE score increased 3.6 (95% confidence interval 2.5-4.8). The NMUE score was significantly affected by hours spent studying per day, number of practice questions completed, percentage of study time allocated for doing questions, Syrian scientific high school exam scores, and the cumulative medical school class grades. It was not significantly affected by preparation months or studying in a group setting. More studies are needed to further describe and investigate the factors that might affect performance in the NMUE.
Idris, Amr; Al Saadi, Tareq; Edris, Basel; Sawaf, Bisher; Zakaria, Mhd. Ismael; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek
Background: The National Medical Unified Examination (NMUE) is currently required for graduation, joining postgraduate medical training, and practicing medicine in Syria. Objective: To investigate self-reported study habits that correlate with high performance on the NMUE. Methods: First through 3rd year residents at the three main hospitals in Damascus, Syria, were asked to complete a retrospective cross-sectional survey investigating their study habits and previous scores. Results: Significantly higher score was associated with >15 study h/day and allocating 1–40% of study time for practicing questions. Mean NMUE score was not significantly different in relation to preparation months for examination or for those who reported spending all their time studying alone compared with spending any amount of time in a group setting. Scores of 231–240 on the Syrian scientific high school exam correlated with significantly higher NMUE performance compared with fewer scores, except scores of 221–230. For every 10 point increase in medical school cumulative grades, the NMUE score increased 3.6 (95% confidence interval 2.5–4.8). Conclusion: The NMUE score was significantly affected by hours spent studying per day, number of practice questions completed, percentage of study time allocated for doing questions, Syrian scientific high school exam scores, and the cumulative medical school class grades. It was not significantly affected by preparation months or studying in a group setting. More studies are needed to further describe and investigate the factors that might affect performance in the NMUE. PMID:27144140
de Boer, Michiel R; de Vet, Henrica C W; Terwee, Caroline B; Moll, Annette C; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J M; van Rens, Ger H M B
Psychometrically sound questionnaires for the assessment of vision-related quality of life (QOL) are scarce. Therefore, the objective was to further validate two vision-related QOL questionnaires in a Dutch population of visually impaired elderly. A total of 329 visually impaired older persons referred to low vision services completed the low vision QOL (LVQOL) and Vision-Related Quality of Life Core Measure (VCM1) questionnaires at baseline, after 1-4 weeks (retest), and after 5 months. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed on baseline data. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was assessed, based on the standard error of measurement (SEM). Change scores between the baseline and 5 months follow-up data were related to a general transition question to assess the minimal important change (MIC). Furthermore, the MIC was related to the SDC, to examine whether the MICs were detectable beyond measurement error. The original factor structures could not be confirmed. After omitting items and remodeling, adequate fits were obtained. SDCs comprised at least one quarter of the scale for all scales and subscales on the individual level and exceeded the MICs on every occasion. We propose MICs of 5-10 points for the scales and subscales of the LVQOL and VCM1. The questionnaires are not useful in the follow-up of individual patients.
Kiselica, Andrew M; Rojas, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina A; Dube, Chad
Distress tolerance (DT), or the ability to withstand psychological distress, is a popular construct in the psychological literature. However, research has not specified the nomological network of DT across self-report measures. The purpose of the current investigation was to understand what personality features, environmental stressors, current affective states, and behaviors contribute to DT in two different samples: college students and those in residential substance use treatment. Correlations revealed that self-reported DT was most strongly associated with trait negative emotionality, state negative affect, impulsivity, and perceived stress. In comparisons across samples, self-harm exhibited a stronger relationship with self-reported DT in the drug treatment than in the student sample, whereas perceived stress had a stronger association in the student sample. Correlations between self-report and behavioral measures of DT were nonsignificant. To understand this lack of associations, associations of outcomes with behavioral measures were assessed. In contrast to self-reported DT, behavioral DT was more closely related to achievement orientation, state negative affect, and state positive affect, but was not significantly related to psychopathology and maladaptive behaviors. It is necessary to continue investigating the construct validity of behavioral DT measures via the use of incremental utility analyses and experimental approaches. © The Author(s) 2014.
Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.
Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890
Stallman, H M; Kohler, M; Wilson, A; Biggs, S; Dollman, J; Martin, J; Kennedy, D; Lushington, K
Few studies have examined self-reported sleepwalking in older adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of sleepwalking in a one-month self-report period in Australian adolescents. Participants were 532 Australian adolescents in their final two years of secondary school. The prevalence of sleepwalking in the one-month self-report period was 2.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-4.33) in this sample-1% reported sleepwalking at least once a week in the previous month. A significant proportion (17.5%) of the participants was unsure if they had sleepwalked. The results provide data on the self-reported prevalence rate of sleepwalking in older adolescents. Compared with the population data, this rate falls within the confidence intervals of child and adult prevalence rates of sleepwalking and is consistent with a decline in sleepwalking from childhood and adulthood. Further research is needed to explore how adolescents know they sleepwalk to understand the reliability of self-report measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Draper, Nick; Dickson, Tabitha; Blackwell, Gavin; Fryer, Simon; Priestley, Sefton; Winter, David; Ellis, Greg
Level of ability within rock climbing is generally expressed in terms of a "best ascent", rated using various grading systems within the sport. The most common method of obtaining this information is via self-report. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of self-reported climbing grades. Twenty-nine competitive rock climbers (17 males, 12 females) were first asked to report their current (defined as within the last 12 months) best on-sight lead ascent grade (Aus/NZ). The participants then climbed a specifically designed indoor route, under on-sight conditions (one attempt, no route practice or preview), to obtain an assessed grade. The route increased in difficulty, and was such that the distance achieved by the climber corresponded to a particular grade. The mean (±standard deviation) self-reported and assessed grade was 22.6 ± 3.4 and 22.0 ± 3.0 (Aus/NZ) respectively. Despite slight over- and underestimations in males and females respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between self-reported and assessed on-sight climbing grades. The results of this study suggest that self-reported climbing grades provide a valid and accurate reflection of climbing ability.
Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank
To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.
Eberth, Jan M; Vernon, Sally W; White, Arica; Abotchie, Peter N; Coan, Sharon P
Assessment of accuracy of self-reported reason for colorectal cancer testing has been limited. We examined the accuracy and correlates of self-reported reason (screening or diagnosis) for having a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Patients who had received at least one sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within the past 5 years were recruited from a large multispecialty clinic in Houston, TX, between 2005 and 2007. We calculated concordance, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity between self-reported reason and the medical record (gold standard). Logistic regression was performed to identify correlates of accurate self-report. Self-reported reason for testing was more accurate when the sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy was done for screening, rather than diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis for sigmoidoscopy, age was positively associated with accurately reporting reason for testing, whereas having two or more colorectal cancer tests during the study period (compared with only one test) was negatively associated with accuracy. In the multivariable analysis, none of the correlates was statistically associated with colonoscopy although a similar pattern was observed for number of tests. Determining the best way to identify those who have been tested for diagnosis, rather than screening, is an important next step.
Full Text Available Karthik Ramakrishnan,1 T Christopher Bond,1 Ami Claxton,1 Vipan C Sood,2 Maria Kootsikas,2 Wendy Agnese,2 Scott Sibbel11DaVita Clinical Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Jersey City, NJ, USAAbstract: One of the most common conditions affecting end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD is pruritus. Studies report that itchy and dry skin, symptoms of pruritus, affect 40%–90% of ESRD patients. Yet, in clinical practice the condition is often underdiagnosed resulting in inadequate management and an underappreciated impact on patient outcomes. Two retrospective analyses were conducted: a preliminary analysis of ESRD patients with pruritus symptoms (n=73,124 undergoing HD or peritoneal dialysis at a large dialysis provider and a subsequent detailed analysis of a homogenous subset of patients undergoing in-center HD (n=38,315. The goal was to better understand the clinical burden of pruritus as it relates to patient characteristics, quality of life, medication use, and HD compliance. This population is commonly burdened by multiple comorbidities and related polypharmaceutical management; identifying the relationship of pruritus to these ailments can help guide future research and resource allocation. The detailed analysis confirmed trends observed in the preliminary analysis: 30% reported being "moderately" to "extremely bothered" by itchiness. The HD patient population with the highest severity of self-reported pruritus also had a consistent trend in overall increased resource utilization – higher monthly doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (53,397.1 to 63,405.4 units and intravenous (IV iron (237.2 to 247.6 units and higher use of IV antibiotics (14.1% to 20.7%, as well as poorer quality-of-life measures (25-point reductions in Burden of Disease Score and Effects on Daily Life subscales of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 survey. These results highlight the need to better
Full Text Available Willie M Abel,1 Jessica S Joyner,2 Judith B Cornelius,1 Danice B Greer3 1School of Nursing, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA; 2Internal Medicine, Novant Health First Charlotte Physicians, Matthews, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX, USA Background: Black women in the USA have the highest prevalence rate of hypertension (HTN contributing to a higher risk of organ damage and death. Research has focused primarily on poorly controlled HTN, negative belief systems, and nonadherence factors that hinder blood pressure control. No known research studies underscore predominantly Black women who report consistent adherence to their antihypertensive medication-taking. The purpose of this study was to describe self-care management strategies used by Black women who self-report consistent adherence to their antihypertensive medication and to determine the existence of further participation in lifestyle modifications, such as eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity.Methods: Using a qualitative descriptive design, four focus groups with a total of 20 Black women aged 25–71 years were audio-taped. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants were included in the study if they scored perfect adherence on the medication subscale of the Hill–Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale.Results: Medication adherence was predicated on three themes: HTN experience, involvement with treatment regimen, and a strong motivated mentality. Black women would benefit from treatment approaches that are sensitive to 1 diverse emotional responses, knowledge levels, and life experiences; 2 two-way communication and trusting, collaborative relationships with active involvement in the treatment regimen; 3 lifestyle modifications that focus on health benefits and individual preferences; and 4 spiritual/religious influences on adherence.Conclusion: The use
Culpepper, T; Christman, M C; Nieves, C; Specht, G J; Rowe, C C; Spaiser, S J; Ford, A L; Dahl, W J; Girard, S A; Langkamp-Henken, B
Psychological stress is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress. This secondary analysis from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether three different probiotics could normalise self-reported stress-associated GI discomfort and reduce overall self-reported stress. Undergraduate students (n=581) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, or placebo. Participants self-reported 2 outcomes for a 6-week period, which included final academic exams: daily level of stress (0=no stress to 10=extremely stressed) and weekly three diarrhoea-related symptoms (DS, 1=no discomfort to 7=severe discomfort) using the GI Symptom Rating Scale. Self-reported stress was positively related to DS (P=0.0068). Mean DS scores were lower with B. bifidum versus placebo at week 2 at the average level of stress and the average body mass index (BMI). DS scores were lower with B. bifidum at week 5 versus week 0 and 1 and with B. infantis R0033 at week 6 versus week 0. DS scores were higher when antibiotics were used in the prior week with placebo (P=0.0092). DS were not different with or without antibiotic use with the probiotics. Only B. bifidum had an effect on self-reported stress scores (P=0.0086). The self-reported stress score was also dependent on hours of sleep per day where it decreased by 0.13 for each additional hour of sleep. During a stressful period, B. bifidum R0071 decreases DS and self-reported stress scores. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01709825.
Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Sugie, Takuya; Miura, Akehiko; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi
Impaired social functioning is a characteristic of schizophrenia that affects patients' quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a cognitive task and establish its influence on psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, global functioning, and self-reported social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. We measured hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical surface areas with 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during a verbal fluency task (VFT). Self-reported social functioning was assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). Regional hemodynamic responses were significantly smaller in the prefrontal and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia than in the controls, and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during the VFT showed a strong correlation with SFS total scores. These results suggest an association between self-reported social functioning and prefrontal activation in subjects with schizophrenia. The present study provides evidence that NIRS imaging could be helpful in understanding the neural basis of social functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conrad, Bryan P; Shokat, Maximilian S; Abbasi, Abdullah Z; Vincent, Heather K; Seay, Amanda; Kennedy, David J
Spinal stenosis is defined as neurogenic claudication due to narrowing of the spinal canal lumen diameter. As the disease progresses, ambulation and gait may be impaired. Self-report measures are routinely used in the clinical setting to capture data related to lumbar pain symptoms, function and perceived disability. The associations between self-report measures and objective measures of physical function in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis are not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between self-reported assessments of function with objective biomechanical measures of function. 25 subjects were enrolled in this study. Subjects completed self-report questionnaires and biomechanical assessments of gait analysis, lumbar 3D ROM and lumbar proprioception. Correlations were determined between self-report measures and biomechanical data. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was strongly correlated with stride length and gait velocity and weakly correlated with base of support. ODI was also weakly correlated with left lateral bending proprioception but not right lateral bending. The SF12 was not significantly correlated with any of the biomechanical measurements. Pain scores were weakly correlated with velocity, and base of support, and had no correlation any of the other biomechanical measures. There is a strong correlation between gait parameters and functional disability as measured with the ODI. Quantified gait analysis can be a useful tool to evaluate patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and to assess the outcomes of treatments on this group of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Uemura, Kazuki; Ando, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao
[Purpose] Older adults experience exhaustion-induced health problems, such as poor physical function and low physical activity levels. The associations between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity are not clear in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. [Subjects] A total of 356 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (mean age = 71.6 ± 0.3 years, 50.8% women) were included in this study. [Methods] Self-reported exhaustion was identified by one item from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Gait speed, gait endurance, and life space were also assessed. [Results] Sixty-two participants reported having exhaustion, giving a 17.4% prevalence of self-reported exhaustion among these individuals. Logistic regression analysis showed that the Life-Space Assessment score was the only parameter significantly independently associated with exhaustion status (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95-0.99). [Conclusion] These results suggest that self-reported exhaustion is associated with life space. Future research is needed to identify ways for older people with MCI to improve their exhaustion status.
Liptak, Cori; Manley, Peter; Recklitis, Christopher J
Psychosocial screening is increasingly applied to childhood cancer survivors generally, but less so with pediatric brain tumor survivors despite their psychosocial risks. This study examined the utility and acceptability of psychological screening in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Eighty-four adolescents (age 12-18) completed the Beck Youth Inventory-II and 79 young adults (age 19-30) completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Their scores were compared to clinician ratings on the global assessment of functioning following clinical interviews. Eighty-four percent of participants completed measures in young adults (27 %) were identified as clinical cases by self-report. Agreement with clinician report was generally low (kappa = .19, p = .077, adolescents; kappa = .34, p = .003, young adults), with clinicians tending to rate a higher proportion of both groups as having significant distress (24 % in adolescents; 32 % in young adults). Low self-concept scores in adolescents and deficits in social and vocational functioning in young adults contributed significantly to the discrepancies between self-report and clinician ratings. Pediatric brain tumor survivors are capable of completing self-report psychological measures without distress or burden. Self-report can be a valuable tool in the assessment of pediatric brain tumor survivors, particularly in adolescents, who may provide information not revealed in a clinical interview. However, self-report, should not be used as a "stand-alone" assessment because important areas of functioning may be minimized in survivors' reports. Utilizing self-report for psychosocial screening of adolescent and young adult brain tumor survivors may enhance clinical care and allow for better identification of survivors in need of psychological services.
Krause, Kenneth J
Any approach that adds speed and efficiency to the underwriting process provides a competitive edge in today's fast changing financial services industry. The acquisition of data for medical underwriting has always been a challenge; with the traditional attending physician statement process adding time, real costs, and opportunity costs to manufacturing life products. Is there any potential for the use of self-reported medical and health history data in medical underwriting assessment? This article reviews published research on the uses and the validity of self-reported health data as it has been applied in current medical and public health practices. Whether self-reported medical history is valid data that can be applied in the underwriting context remains an open question.
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study.
Reddy, L Swetha; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, M Padma; Satyanarayana, D; Baldava, Pavan
Good oral health is important for an individual as well as social well-being. Occupational stress and work exhaustion in Information Technology (IT) professionals may influence the oral health and oral health related quality of life. To assess and compare self-reported obstacles for regular dental care and dental visits among IT professionals based on age, gender, dental insurance and working days per week. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,017 IT professionals to assess the self-reported obstacles to regular oral health care in Hyderabad city, Telangana, India. The Dental Rejection of Innovation Scale (DRI-S) was employed in this study. Comparison between means of DRI-S based on variables was done using t-test and ANOVA. The association between variables and DRI-S was determined using Chi-square test. A total of 1017 participants comprising of 574 (56%) males and 443 (44%) females participated in the study. As age increased, a significant increase in mean DRI-S scores was seen for total and individual domains except for the "Situational" domain wherein higher mean score (9.42±2.5; p=0.0006) was observed among 30-39 years age group. Even though females reported higher mean scores for total and individual domains when compared to males, nevertheless significant difference was seen only for total (p=0.03) and "Lack of Knowledge" (p=0.001) domain. Self-reported obstacles to regular dental care was more with increasing age, increased number of working days per week, irregular dental visits and absence of dental insurance facility.
Ringoot, Ank P; Jansen, Pauline W; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Measelle, Jeffrey R; van der Ende, Jan; Raat, Hein; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Adult observers are typically the only informants on emotional and behavioral problems in young children. Although additional information can be provided by child self-report, few validated, structured instruments are available to obtain self-report from young children. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) has been developed to obtain structured self-reports on multiple domains of mental health and social well-being. This study was the 1st to evaluate the psychometric properties of the BPI in a large sample. We studied 8 a priori scales of the interview in a Dutch community sample of 6,375 children ages 5-7 years. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we demonstrated adequate fit (Tucker-Lewis index = .90; comparative fit index = .90; root-mean-square error of approximation = .03) of a multidimensional model with 50 items loading on 8 latent factors (Depression, Separation Anxiety, Overanxious, Oppositional Defiant, Overt Hostility, Conduct Problems, Bullied by Peers, and Peer Acceptance/Rejection). This model was invariant across gender. Children reported anxiety-related problems more frequently than depressive problems, behavioral problems, or difficulties in peer relations. Reliability analyses showed that 3 broadband scales designated as Internalizing, Externalizing, and Peer Relations were homogeneous constructs (αs = .68-.79). Higher scores on most BPI scales were associated with lower maternal education, lower family income, and non-Western ethnicity. Boys reported more behavioral and peer relation problems, whereas girls reported more emotional problems. The findings indicate that young children from socioeconomically and demographically diverse backgrounds are capable of providing valid, multidimensional information on their emotional, behavioral, and peer relation problems using the BPI. Young children's self-report is a promising addition to existing assessment tools. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M
To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.
Kim, Sunghye; Marsh, Anthony P; Rustowicz, Lauren; Roach, Catherine; Leng, Xiaoyan I; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Rejeski, W Jack; Groban, Leanne
Specific geriatric assessment tools may complement traditional perioperative risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether self-reported mobility is predictive of postoperative outcomes in older patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Patients aged 69 yr or older (n = 197) underwent (1) traditional risk assessments (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification and Revised Cardiac Risk Index), (2) five-point frailty evaluation, (3) self-reported mobility assessment using the Mobility Assessment Tool-short form (range, 30.21 [poor] to 69.76 [excellent]), and (4) measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Outcomes were postoperative complications, time to discharge, and nursing home placement (NHP). In the sample of this study (mean age, 75 ± 5 yr; 51% women), 72% had intermediate- or high-risk surgery. Median time to discharge was 3 days (interquartile range, 1 to 4 days). Thirty patients (15%) developed postoperative complications, and 27 (13%) required NHP. After controlling for age, sex, body mass index, pain score, Revised Cardiac Risk Index, American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status, surgical risk, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, worse self-reported mobility (per 10-point decrease in Mobility Assessment Tool, which is equivalent to 1 SD) was associated with more postoperative complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.73), later time to discharge (hazards ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.96), and increased NHP (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.56). By using the same model, intermediate frailty or frailty increased NHP (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.02 to 9.54) but was not related to either postoperative complications or time to discharge. Preoperative self-reported mobility using a novel and brief assessment may help identify elderly patients at risk for adverse postoperative events.
Jamieson Lisa M
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.
Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy
The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Two independent samples were utilized to develop and evaluate the P-CAAM: an undergraduate sample to initially pilot the task and a separate sample of normative parents for additional assessment of validity. Scores from the P-CAAM were compared to related measures, including measures of self-reported disciplinary attitudes, child abuse potential, harsh parenting style, and use and escalation of physical discipline practices on another analog parenting task. Across the studies, the P-CAAM demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and construct validity, evidencing mild to moderate associations with both self-report and analog measures. Participants demonstrating increased acceptance of physical discipline and physical abuse on the P-CAAM analog task also reported greater approval of physical discipline, greater use of and escalation of physical discipline, harsher parenting styles, and higher child abuse potential on two separate measures. The P-CAAM analog appears to offer a promising alternative and/or supplement to conventional self-report measures, assessing attitudes regarding the acceptability of parent-child aggression in a way that is less likely to be influenced by social desirability. Suggestions for future evaluations with alternative samples, as well as possible implications of the data for disciplinary reactions are discussed. The development of alternatives to self-report measurement may lead to clarification of theoretical models of abuse in ways that lead to improvements in intervention programming; analogs may also provide a useful means to assess intervention programming outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richter, J; Eisemann, M
With regard to information about parental rearing, retrospective data are exclusively available among adults. These data are vulnerable due to various biases. This study was performed in order to replicate the findings of overall stability of three perceived parental rearing factors of the EMBU (Swedish acronym for 'own memories of childhood upbringing') based on 14 rather detailed subscales. A consecutive sample of 220 depressive inpatients were investigated on admission and at discharge by means of the EMBU, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Perceived parental rearing scores showed high stability despite clinically significant changes in the severity of depression, except for 'tolerance', 'guilt engendering', 'performance orientation' and 'shaming' parenting with probable gender-specific effects which were found to covary with dysfunctional attitudes. Recall of parenting should be taken as a subjective truth when it is assessed by standardised behaviour-oriented questionnaires like the EMBU. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Full Text Available Objectives. The Roma people have been known in Europe for a 1000 years, during which they have usually been the subject of discrimination and oppression leading to isolation, powerlessness and poor health. The objective of this study is to investigate the sense of coherence (SOC in relation to self-reported health among a group of Roma people in southwest Sweden. Study design. A cross-sectional, quantitative pilot study. Methods. A questionnaire was constructed based on the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 and Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13 and was distributed among Roma people in southwest Sweden (n = 102. Self-reported health was summarised in a physical score (PCS and a mental score (MCS. Comparisons were made with a general Swedish majority population and a Sami population. Results. The health scores were significantly lower among the Roma people compared to Swedes – PCS: Roma 46.0 (Swedes 52.0 and MCS: Roma 47.5 (Swedes 52.6. The SOC score for the Roma people (54.4 was significantly lower than that of the Swedes (65.2 and Sami (65.0. Conclusions. The low SOC with the Swedish majority society is a strong indication of the marginalisation and exclusion of the Roma people from mainstream society. Low scores in self-reported health among the Roma people also establishes the serious health risks the Roma people are experiencing through their present life situation.
Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena
The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (ptechnology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.
The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.
Smith, Brent I; Docherty, Carrie L; Curtis, Denice
Deficits in ankle and hip strength and lower extremity postural control are associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Following strength training, muscle groups demonstrate increased strength. This change is partially credited to improved neuromuscular control and many studies have investigated ankle protocols for subjects with CAI. The effects of isolating hip musculature in strength training protocols in this population is not well understood. Examine the effects of hip strengthening on clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with CAI. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Athletic Training facility. Twenty-six participants with CAI (12 males and 14 females, 20.9±1.5 years, 170.0±12.7 cm, 77.5±17.5 kg) were randomly assigned to training or control groups. The participants completed either four weeks of supervised hip strengthening (resistance bands 3x/week) or no intervention. Participants were assessed on four clinical measures (Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions, Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), hip external rotation strength, hip abduction strength) and a patient reported measure (the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) activities of daily living and sports subscales) before and after the four-week training period. The training group displayed significantly improved post-test measures compared with the control group for: hip abduction strength (training 446.3±77.4 N, control 314.7±49.6 N, p control 169.4±34.6 N, p control 90.2±7.9%, p control 88.0±8.8 %, p control 86.6±9.6%, p control 21.2±6.3 errors, p control 84.8±10.9, p <.01). Improved clinical and patient-reported outcomes in the training group suggest hip strengthening is beneficial in the management and prevention of recurrent symptoms associated with CAI.
Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Kotzin, Megan D; Waugaman, Debby L; Killgore, William D S
It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. The BDI-II assessed self-reported depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous work, GRAT scores were positively associated with higher daytime energy and greater number of hours of sleep per night. Importantly, however, we further observed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationships between gratitude scores and sleep metrics. Depressive mood state appears to mediate the association between gratitude and self-reported sleep quality metrics. We suggest, as one plausible model of these phenomena, that highly grateful individuals have lower symptoms of depression, which in turn leads to fewer presleep worries, resulting in better perceived sleep quality. Future work should aim to disentangle the causal nature of these relationships in order to better understand how these important variables interact.
Borrell, Luisa N; Kiefe, Catarina I; Williams, David R; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
This study investigates the association between self-reported physical and mental health and both perceived racial discrimination and skin color in African American men and women. We used data from the longitudinal coronary artery risk development in young adults study (CARDIA) in African American men and women (n=1722) in the USA. We assessed self-reported mental and physical health status and depressive symptoms at the Year 15 (2000-2001) follow-up examination using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-12) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Skin color was measured at the Year 7 examination (1992-1993). To assess racial discrimination, we used a summary score (range 0-21) for 7 questions on experiencing racial discrimination: at school, getting a job, getting housing, at work, at home, getting medical care, on the street or in a public setting. Self-reported racial discrimination was more common in men than in women (78.1% versus 73.0%, pcolor. For example, mental health (0-100 scale) decreased an average of 0.29 units per unit increase in racial discrimination score in men; this became 0.32 units after adjustment. There was no association between self-reported physical and mental health and skin color. Further studies of the health consequences of discrimination will require investigation of both the upstream determinants of discrimination and the downstream mechanisms by which perceived discrimination affects health outcomes.
Byrne, Enda M; Gehrman, Philip R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Tiemeier, Henning; Pack, Allan I
We sought to examine how much of the heritability of self-report sleep duration is tagged by common genetic variation in populations of European ancestry and to test if the common variants contributing to sleep duration are also associated with other diseases and traits. We utilized linkage disequilibrium (LD)-score regression to estimate the heritability tagged by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHARGE consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) of self-report sleep duration. We also used bivariate LD-score regression to investigate the genetic correlation of sleep duration with other publicly available GWAS datasets. We show that 6% (SE = 1%) of the variance in self-report sleep duration in the CHARGE study is tagged by common SNPs in European populations. Furthermore, we find evidence of a positive genetic correlation (rG) between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes (rG = 0.26, P = 0.02), and between sleep duration and schizophrenia (rG = 0.19, P = 0.01). Our results show that increased sample sizes will identify more common variants for self-report sleep duration; however, the heritability tagged is small when compared to other traits and diseases. These results also suggest that those who carry variants that increase risk to type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia are more likely to report longer sleep duration.
Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for future exploration missions. The mechanism is a new state-of-the-art device for in-space assembly of structures and rendezvous of vehicles. At the interface between two pressurized modules, each with a version of the LIDS attached, a composite elastomer-metal seal assembly prevents the breathable air from escaping into the vacuum of space. Attached to the active LIDS, this seal mates against the passive LIDS during docking operation. The main interface seal assembly must exhibit low leak and outgas values, must be able to withstand various harsh space environments, must remain operational over a range of temperatures from -50 C to 75 C, and perform after numerous docking cycles. This paper presents results from a comprehensive study of the mechanical performance of four candidate subscale seal assembly designs at -50, 23, 50, and 75 C test temperatures. In particular, the force required to fully compress the seal during docking, and that which is required for separation during the undocking operation were measured. The height of subscale main interface seal bulbs, as well as the test temperature, were shown to have a significant effect on the forces the main interface seal of the LIDS may experience during docking and undocking operations. The average force values required to fully compress each of the seal assemblies were shown to increase with test temperature by approximately 50% from -50 to 75 C. Also, the required compression forces were shown to increase as the height of the seal bulb was increased. The seal design with the tallest elastomer seal bulb, which was 31% taller than that with the shortest bulb, required force values approximately 45% higher than those for the shortest bulb, independent of the test temperature. The force required to separate the seal was shown to increase with decreasing temperature after 15 hours of simulated docking. No adhesion
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria
BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...
Eating disturbances are common amongst female athletes, especially those participating in dance. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of eating disorder risk symptoms amongst female student dancers. Fifty-eight female university dancers completed a self-report measure of eating disorders and eating disorder ...
Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;
Smith, Joyce D.; Shaffer, David R.
Female subjects high in private self-consciousness provided more assistance to a person in need than did subjects low on this attribute. "High-private" subjects were less helpful if they were also high in public self-consciousness. Self-reported altruism, reliably predicted the helping behavior of subjects high as opposed to low in…
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all medical students who gave consent to participate in the study. Undertaken at Moi University's School of Medicine in ...
complete an eleven~item questionnaire in order to measure their self-reported physi- cal and mental health ... An 11-item questionnaire adapted from the. Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. (MOS-SF 36) - a .... zation may have obviously improved their health-related QoL. The sense of optimism shown by the par-.
Croon Marcel A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.
Encounter with depressive symptoms is one of the reasons why university students visit university counselling centres. This study sought to examine the present prevalence of depression among university students as well as gender dissimilarity in self-reported depression. 550 (male-46; female-306) randomly selected ...
Context: Medical emergencies have been known to occur in dental offices and can lead to loss of life if not well managed. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-reported preparedness by practicing dentists for management of medical emergencies in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A self-administered ...
Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into
Cremers, R.G.; Aben, K.K.; Verrneulen, S.H.; den Heijer, M.; van Oort, I.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.; Schalken, JA; Kiemeney, L.A.
Objective: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into
Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus
This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…
Objective: This study aimed to assess the reliability of a number of self report questionnaires for epidemiological investigations of adolescents' mental health in Cape Town, South Africa. The scales used were: the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-esteem ...
Roudijk, B.; Donders, R.; Stalmeier, P.F.
PURPOSE: Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural
Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.
The aim of the present study is to get an insight into the pain report of children over two sequential dental visits. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, previous dental experience, level of dental anxiety and injection site were of influence on the self-reported pain of children during the
Academic dishonesty is a global phenomenon that exists almost in every country. Its effect has been long-lasting and catastrophic in many instances and its impediment for growth is largely looming. This study attempted to investigate students' self reported academic dishonesty in Ethiopian University settings. The findings ...
Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)
Patel, Sanjay R; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L
Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P long sleepers spend more time in bed and more time asleep than normal duration sleepers. This is not explained by differences in comorbidity or sleep disorders.
Self-reported symptoms of uninvestigated dypepsia among University staff in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... The questionnaire obtained information about subject's experiences of dyspeptic symptoms and presence of associated factors such as family history, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), tobacco and alcohol use, and ...
This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...
Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…
'outgrow' the diagnostic criteria, and not the disorder itself.2,5. ADHD is reported even in institutions of higher learning. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. L Atwoli, P Owiti, G Manguro, D Ndambuki. Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya. Abstract.
Emodi Perlman, A.; Lobbezoo, F.; Zar, A.; Friedman Rubin, P.; van Selms, M.K.A.; Winocur, E.
Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical,
Coyle, Caitlin E; Steinman, Bernard A; Chen, Jie
This study examined the associations of two measures of vision impairment (i.e., a clinical measure of visual acuity and self-reported vision status) and social isolation in a nationally representative sample of Americans aged 60 and older. Five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV; 1999-2008) were used to estimate successive logistic regression models, holding constant demographic characteristics, chronic illness, functional limitations, and disability. Effects of both measures of vision impairment in predicting social isolation were substantially reduced or eliminated in adjusted models. Where significant effects of vision impairment on social isolation remained, a strong effect was found for self-reported poor vision (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = [1.08, 2.16]). As one of the better vision-related predictors of social isolation, self-reported vision is among the easiest and inexpensive to assess. The use of self-reported vision as a screening criterion for social isolation is discussed.
Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several
Fifteen subjects (6%) used desensitising toothpaste (Sensodyne) during periods of discomfort. Of those who sought periodontal treatment (33.8%, n=126), only 23 (6.7%) reported discomfort after treatment. Conclusion: Self reporting of DH was similar to previous studies. However, a thorough clinical examination could ...
Self-reported, subjectively-determined breath malodor, associated factors, treatment seeking behavior and oral hygiene practices among adults in Kinondoni, ... was a common problem, associated with not-cleaning the tongue, mobile teeth; tobacco smoking, ginger-spiced tea, and general medical problems whereby the ...
Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.
Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…
Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV
... factors associated with self-reported hypertension and DM. Results: Significant alcohol consumption was present in 77 (8.7%) while 26 (2.5%) were current cigarette smokers. Two hundred and seventy nine (31.5%) engaged in moderate intensity exercises like brisk walking and cycling for 10 minutes on a regular basis.
Matlak, Richard E.; Kerber, Kenneth W.
To determine whether self-report psychological inventories could be used to better understand characters in literature, a psychology instructor and an English instructor arranged their courses so that they both focused on interpersonal relationships. The psychology course emphasized research on attraction, romantic love, and interpersonal…
Höglauer, Christoph; Kniesner, Björn; Knab, Oliver; Kirchberger, Christoph; Schlieben, Gregor; Kau, Hans-Peter
In view of future film cooling tests at the Institute for Flight Propulsion (LFA) at Technische Universität München, the Astrium in-house spray combustion CFD tool Rocflam-II was validated against first test data gained from this rocket test bench without film cooling. The subscale rocket combustion chamber uses GOX and kerosene as propellants which are injected through a single double swirl element. Especially the modeling of the double swirl element and the measured wall roughness were adapted on the LFA hardware. Additionally, new liquid kerosene fluid properties were implemented and verified in Rocflam-II. Also the influences of soot deposition and hot gas radiation on the wall heat flux were analytically and numerically estimated. In context of reviewing the implemented evaporation model in Rocflam-II, the binary diffusion coefficient and its pressure dependency were analyzed. Finally simulations have been performed for different load points with Rocflam-II showing a good agreement compared to test data.
Hall, Nathaniel J.; Liu, Jingwen; Kertes, Darlene A.; Wynne, Clive D.L.
Despite the prevalence of dogs as family pets and increased scientific interest in canine behavior, few studies have investigated characteristics of the child or dog that influence the child-dog relationship. In the present study, we explored how behavioral and self-report measures influence a child’s reported feelings of attachment to their dog, as assessed by the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS). We tested specifically whether children (N= 99; Age: M= 10.25 years, SD= 1.31 years) reported stronger attachment to dogs that were perceived as being more supportive (measured by a modified version of the Network of Relationships Inventory), to dogs that are more successful in following the child’s pointing gesture in a standard two-object choice test, or to dogs that solicited more petting in a sociability assessment. In addition, we assessed whether children’s attachment security to their parent, and whether being responsible for the care of their dog, influenced reported feelings of attachment to the dog. Overall, perceived support provided by the dog was highly predictive of all subscales of the LAPS. The dog’s success in following the child’s pointing gesture and lower rates of petting during the sociability assessment were associated with higher ratings on the general attachment subscale of the LAPS, but not of other subscales of the LAPS. Caring for the dog did not predict the child’s reported attachment to dog, but did predict the dog’s behavior on the point following task and petting during the sociability task. If the child cared for the dog, the dog was more likely to be successful on the pointing task and more likely to be petted. These results indicate a dyadic relationship in which the child’s care for the dog is associated with the dog’s behavior on the behavioral tasks, which in turn is related to the child’s reported feelings of attachment. The direction of influence and nature of this dyad will be a fruitful area for future
Milanesi, Fernanda Carpes; Kauer, Bruno; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Haas, Alex Nogueira
Halitosis is still poorly studied in young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of self-reported halitosis and associate it with demographic and behavioral factors in young adult dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed as a census of students enrolled in three initial and three final semesters of a dental course in a Brazilian public university. Of 284 eligible students, 257 (90.5%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported halitosis was the primary study outcome, and was assessed with the question "do you feel you have bad breath?". Data on age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning, tongue cleaning, mouth rinse use and dry mouth were collected using the questionnaire, and were considered independent variables. Of the students surveyed, 26.5% reported as never, 51.7% as rarely, 21.4% as sometimes, and 0.4% as always feeling they had halitosis. Morning halitosis was reported by 90.6% of those who reported halitosis. In the final multiple model, last semester students had a 55% lower chance of reporting halitosis, compared with students from the first semesters [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95%CI 0.24-0.89]. Women had a 2.57fold higher chance of reporting halitosis (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.12-5.93). Dry mouth increased the chance of self-reported halitosis 3.95-fold, compared with absence of dry mouth (OR = 3.95; 95%CI 2.03-7.68). It can be concluded that self-reports of halitosis were low among dental students, but may represent an important complaint. Gender, dry mouth and level of college education of the dentist were factors significantly associated with self-reported halitosis.
Killgore, William D S
Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. N/A. Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength.
Tong, Eryn; Deckert, Amy; Gani, Nina; Nissim, Rinat; Rydall, Anne; Hales, Sarah; Rodin, Gary; Lo, Chris
Death anxiety is important but understudied in palliative care. New self-report measurements have been developed, but their interpretation and clinical utility may not be evident. To inform our understanding of death anxiety in patients with advanced cancer by exploring the relationship between this self-reported symptom and its clinical presentation. Participants were part of a psychotherapy trial in advanced cancer. First therapy session transcripts were analyzed using interpretive description in patients reporting low, moderate, and high death anxiety on the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS). A total of 16 participants (10 women and 6 men) with advanced or metastatic cancer were sampled from the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada. Six participants reported low death anxiety scores (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 0-19), five moderate (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 20-50), and five high (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 51-75). The low death anxiety group exhibited psychological readiness for death, or contrastingly, non-reflectiveness about death. The moderate group recognized the imminence of mortality, which impacted treatment decisions and future plans. Prior experience with death was discussed as raising the salience of mortality. The high group felt dominated by powerful emotions and could not make sense of their situation. Their distress was exacerbated by substantial relational concerns. Self-reported death anxiety is affected by the awareness and ability to reflect on mortality. Death and Dying Distress Scale scores may facilitate exploration of this symptom as part of a clinical assessment and may serve to guide treatment approaches. Greater attention to death anxiety is consistent with and recommended by contemporary approaches to palliative care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Walid El Ansari
Full Text Available We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189. For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables, a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI. Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms. Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.
Haker, Helene; Schimansky, Jenny; Jann, Sibylle; Rössler, Wulf
To study the effect of illness course on the subjective experience of empathy, we investigated the Interpersonal Reactivity Index in schizophrenia and controls over 3 years. We found stable IRI data in both groups and a stable positive correlation of the subscale 'Personal distress' with the PANSS negative scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nagendran, Myura; Carlin, Arthur M; Bacal, Daniel; Genaw, Jeffrey A; Hawasli, Abdelkader A; Birkmeyer, Nancy J; Finks, Jonathan F
Evidence on remission of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after bariatric surgery and its relation to weight loss is conflicting. We sought to identify factors associated with successful self-reported OSA remission in a large cohort of bariatric surgery patients. We analyzed data from the statewide, prospective clinical registry of the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative and identified 3,550 patients with OSA who underwent a primary bariatric procedure between June 2006 and October 2011 and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify preoperative factors associated with successful self-reported OSA remission, defined as discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure or bilevel positive airway pressure at 1 year. Our regression model also included procedure type and weight loss at 1 year, divided into equal quintiles, as covariates. The overall 1-year self-reported OSA remission rate was 60%. Significant predictors of remission included age category (per 10 yr) (OR .73, CI .69-.78), body mass index category (per 10 units) (OR .57, CI .54-.62), male gender (OR .58, CI .52-.69), hypertension (OR .83, CI .74-.99), depression (OR .78, CI .69-.88), pulmonary disease (OR .88, CI .78-.98), and baseline Health and Activities Limitations Index score (OR 1.70, CI 1.32-2.23). Relative to gastric banding, the adjusted odds of OSA remission were greater with gastric bypass (OR 2.38, CI 1.89-3.08), sleeve gastrectomy (OR 2.01, CI 1.44-2.55), and duodenal switch (OR 2.57, CI 1.02-7.26). The odds ratio of OSA remission increased stepwise through quintiles of 1-year weight loss. Relative to the lowest quintile, the odds ratios of remission in the 2(nd) through 5(th) quintiles were 1.44 (CI 1.11-1.84), 2.03 (CI 1.48-2.57), 2.47 (1.85-3.40), and 3.53 (CI 2.56-4.85). Weight loss is an important predictor of self-reported OSA remission after bariatric surgery. However, independent of weight loss, there remain significant
Orgilés, M; Owens, J; Espada, J P; Piqueras, J A; Carballo, J L
The Sleep Self-Report (SSR) is a questionnaire initially created for use with a sample from the USA to assess sleep patterns and problems in school-aged children. The objective of this study was to validate the SSR among a Spanish sample. Participants were 1228 Spanish children from 8 to 12 years of age who completed the questionnaires at school anonymously. Internal consistency was good (ω = 0.85). Convergent validity with anxiety (r = 0.54) and perceived welfare (r = -0.53) measures, and divergent validity with a measure of academic performance and positive influence of peers (r = -0.22) were acceptable. Exploratory analysis suggested a factorial structure composed by four subscales: sleep quality, sleep anxiety, bedtime refusal and sleep routines. Confirmatory analysis indicated a good fit for the model (RMSEA = 0.04; GFI = 0.95; AGFI = 0.93; χ(2)/gl = 2.48). The SSR has demonstrated to have good psychometric properties in the Spanish-speaking sample of children. The factorial structure supported by exploratory and confirmatory analysis examines the most relevant areas of sleep in children. The satisfactory psychometric properties support the use of the Spanish version of the SSR by researchers and clinicians. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lee, Ban Hyung; Kang, Seung Gul; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Yu Jin
Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents.
Vandersall, Kevin S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reeves, Robert V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeHaven, Martin R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strickland, Shawn L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
A series of 2 SPE5 sub-scale tests were performed to experimentally confirm that a booster system designed and evaluated in prior tests would properly initiate the PBXN-110 case charge fill. To conduct the experiments, a canister was designed to contain the nominally 50 mm diameter booster tube with an outer fill of approximately 150 mm diameter by 150 mm in length. The canisters were filled with PBXN-110 at NAWS-China Lake and shipped back to LLNL for testing in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Piezoelectric crystal pins were placed on the outside of the booster tube before filling, and a series of piezoelectric crystal pins along with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes were placed on the outer surface of the canister to measure the relative timing and magnitude of the detonation. The 2 piezoelectric crystal pins integral to the booster design were also utilized along with a series of either piezoelectric crystal pins or piezoelectric polymer pads on the top of the canister or outside case that utilized direct contact, gaps, or different thicknesses of RTV cushions to obtain time of arrival data to evaluate the response in preparation for the large-scale SPE5 test. To further quantify the margin of the booster operation, the 1st test (SPE5SS1) was functioned with both detonators and the 2nd test (SPE5SS2) was functioned with only 1 detonator. A full detonation of the material was observed in both experiments as observed by the pin timing and PDV signals. The piezoelectric pads were found to provide a greater measured signal magnitude during the testing with an RTV layer present, and the improved response is due to the larger measurement surface area of the pad. This report will detail the experiment design, canister assembly for filling, final assembly, experiment firing, presentation of the diagnostic results, and a discussion of the results.
Blood, Gordon W; Blood, Ingrid M
This study examined the relationship of self-reported anxiety and vulnerability to bullying for 18 children who stuttered and 18 children who did not stutter. More children who stuttered were at significantly higher risk of experiencing bullying behavior (61%) than children who did not stutter (22%); 39% of children who stuttered scored at least one standard deviation above the mean on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, suggestive of higher anxiety. In contrast, only 6% of children who did not stutter scored at least one standard deviation above the mean. The correlation was .82 for children who stuttered between greater vulnerability to bullying and self-reported anxiety. A bidirectional relationship is hypothesized between high anxiety and bullying of children who stutter.
Engel-Yeger, Batya; Nagauker-Yanuv, Limor; Rosenblum, Sara
This study examined the relationships between children's self-reports on their handwriting performance, their actual handwriting process and product, and wider motor-perceived self-efficacy. Twenty-one children with dysgraphia and 21 typically developing children copied a paragraph on an electronic tablet as part of a Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool. Handwriting product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation. Participants completed the Children's Questionnaire for Handwriting Proficiency (CHaP) and the Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS). The study group's CHaP scores significantly correlated with handwriting process, product measures (rs = .46 - .59, ps = .034 - .005), and PEGS scores, all of which were significantly poorer compared with those of the control participants. Children are aware of their handwriting deficits and are able to report them. Children's reports may contribute to the identification of dysgraphia and facilitate their participation in occupational therapy intervention and in class.
Andy, Uduak U; Arya, Lily A; Smith, Ariana L; Propert, Kathleen J; Bogner, Hillary R; Colavita, Kristen; Harvie, Heidi S
To determine the association between self-reported adherence to anticholinergic medication and clinical outcomes in women with overactive bladder (OAB). A prospective study of women with OAB treated with fesoterodine for 8 weeks. Adherence to medication was measured using the Medication Adherence Self-report Inventory (MASRI). A self reported adherence rate of ≥80% was considered adherent. The association between self-reported adherence and clinical outcomes (Global Index of Improvement, Global impression of Severity, urinary symptom and quality of life scores) was examined. We hypothesized that adherent women would have greater improvement in urinary symptoms and quality of life than non-adherent women. Based on the MASRI, 115 (62.5%) women were adherent and 69 (37.5%) were non-adherent to anticholinergic medication at 8weeks. Adherent women were more likely to report overall improvement in their symptoms compared to non-adherent women (84% vs. 24%, P adherent women described their bladder symptoms as "moderate" or "severe" at 8 weeks compared to adherent women (74% vs. 44%, P = 0.03). At 8 weeks, adherent women reported significantly greater improvement (change) in urinary symptoms from baseline to 8 weeks than non-adherent women (-13.3 ± 25.8 vs. 2.5 ± 14.4, P = 0.04). Similarly, adherent women reported greater improvement in quality of life scores than non-adherent women (- 7.9 ± 24.0 vs. -1.8 ± 11.9, P = 0.003). Self-reported non-adherence, as measured by the MASRI, is associated with clinically meaningful outcomes in women with OAB. This further validates the MASRI as a clinically useful tool for measuring adherence to anticholinergic medications in women with OAB. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:738-742, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Beijsterveldt, Van; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.
OBJECTIVE Although Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) which may differentially predict outcome, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of mother’s report on the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S). METHOD Data were obtained from mother’s report for Dutch twins (7 year-old [n = 7,597], 10 year-old [n = 6,548], and 12 year-old [n = 5,717]) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Samples partially overlapped at ages 7 and 10 (19% overlapping) and at ages 10 and 12 (30% overlapping), but not at ages 7 and 12. Oppositional defiant behavior was measured using the 6-item Oppositional subscale of the CPRS-R:S. Multilevel LCA with robust standard error estimates was performed using Latent Gold to control for twin-twin dependence in the data. Class assignment across ages was determined and an estimate of heritability for each class was calculated. Comparisons to maternal report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores were examined using linear mixed models at each age, corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The LCA identified an optimal solution of 4-classes across age groups: Class 1 was associated with no or low symptom endorsement (69–75% of the children), class 2 was characterized by defiance (11–12%), class 3 was characterized by irritability (9–11%), and class 4 was associated with elevated scores on all symptoms (5–8%). Odds ratios for twins being in the same class at each successive age point were higher within classes across ages than between classes. Heritability within the two “intermediate” classes was nearly as high as for the class with all symptoms, except for boys at age 12. Children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have mood symptoms
Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Egan, Katie G.; Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom d...
Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C
Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self
Bridget V Dever
Full Text Available Introduction: A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report on child mental health prevention and treatment concluded that screening for mental health risk is an essential component of service delivery. To date, however, there are few practical assessments available or practices in place that measure individual child risk, or risk aggregated at the school or community level. This study examined the utility of a 30-item paper and pencil student self-report screener of behavioral and emotional risk (BER for surveying community risk among 7 schools. Methods: In 2010, 2,222 students in 3 middle and 4 high schools in a medium-sized school district in Georgia were administered the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Self-Report Child/Adolescent form (BESS Student. The BESS is designed to measure 4 sub-syndromal BER factors for developing mental health disorders: inattention/hyperactivity, internalizing, school problems, and personal adjustment. Analysis of Variance and Chi Square analyses were used to assess the association between adolescent self-reported BER as an indicator of school BER, grade level, child ethnic identification and gender, socioeconomic status, and special education placement status.Results: BESS scores differentiated well between schools for overall BER and special education status, as well as between grade levels, ethnicity, and gender groups. One high school, known by the school administration to have numerous incidents of student behavior problems, had the most deviant 4 BER domain scores of all 7 schools. Girls rated themselves as having a higher prevalence of BER (14% than boys (12%; middle school students reported fewer difficulties than high school students.Conclusion: Middle and high school students were capable of identifying significant differences in their own BER across schools, suggesting that universal mental health risk screening viastudent self-report is potentially useful for identifying aggregated community
Kirby, Kris N; Finch, Julia C
The hierarchical structure of 95 self-reported impulsivity items, along with delay-discount rates for money, was examined. A large sample of college students participated in the study (N = 407). Items represented every previously proposed dimension of self-reported impulsivity. Exploratory PCA yielded at least 7 interpretable components: Prepared/Careful, Impetuous, Divertible, Thrill and Risk Seeking, Happy-Go-Lucky, Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and Reserved. Discount rates loaded on Impatiently Pleasure Seeking, and correlated with the impulsiveness and venturesomeness scales from the I(7) (Eysenck, Pearson, Easting, & Allsopp, 1985). The hierarchical emergence of the components was explored, and we show how this hierarchical structure may help organize conflicting dimensions found in previous analyses. Finally, we argue that the discounting model (Ainslie, 1975) provides a qualitative framework for understanding the dimensions of impulsivity.
Beals, Michaela E; Carr, Dawn C; Mottola, Gary R; Deevy, Martha J; Carstensen, Laura L
This study examines the effect of survey context on self-reported rates of personal fraud victimization, and explores if the effect is influenced by age and gender. Participants (3,000U.S. adults) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 versions of a fraud victimization questionnaire: questions about fraud were identical across conditions, however, the context varies. One questionnaire asked about crime, one about consumer buying experiences, and a third focused only on fraud. Participants who were asked about fraud victimization in the context of crime reported significantly less victimization (p reports from those asked within the context of a consumer survey did not differ from the fraud-alone condition. The effect of the crime context interacted with age (p crime context on self-reported fraud victimization. These findings inform the production of new surveys and guide the development of effective social and health policies.
Lylla Cysne Frota D'Abreu
Full Text Available International research shows that self-reported delinquency is a successful strategy to improve data collection on the identification of the so-called "dark figure", ie, offenses that are not reported to the justice system. This technique, however, is still little used in Brazil. Through documentary research from data archive, this study described the socio-demographic variables and the severity of unofficial delinquency of a sample of 211 adolescents who attended a probation service in Brazil. The results showed that adolescents in conflict with the law have delinquent engagement with higher polymorphism and intensity than the official data are able to identify. Self-reported delinquency can improve data collection, provide more reliable rates and guide more assertive intervention actions in these services.
Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak
The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.
Hays, R D; Bell, R M; Damush, T; Hill, L; DiMatteo, M R; Marshall, G N
The influence of response options on self-reported frequency of alcohol use was evaluated in an experimental study of 350 students at a west coast university. Respondents were asked about their frequency of alcohol use in the last 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days with three methodological factors randomized: 1) how quantitative the response options were; 2) order of presentation of close-ended response options; and 3) relative placement of alcohol use items in the questionnaire. Results indicate that the quantitativeness of response options and the location of items within the questionnaire have minimal effects on the average frequency of alcohol use and number of inconsistent responses over a wide range of time frames. However, presenting higher frequency response options prior to lower frequency response options increased self-reported frequency of having consumed 2 or more drinks in the last 30 days and frequency of alcohol use over the last 180 days.
Östenson, C G; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P; Lahtela, J
AIMS: Hypoglycaemia presents a barrier to optimum diabetes management but data are limited on the frequency of hypoglycaemia incidents outside of clinical trials. The present study investigated the rates of self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events, hypoglycaemia awareness and physician......, nurses, telephone recruitment and family referrals. Respondents completed four online questionnaires. The first questionnaire collected background information on demographics and hypoglycaemia-related behaviour, whilst all four questionnaires collected data on non-severe hypoglycaemic events...
Éilish Duke; Christian Montag
The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data...
Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E
Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Engdahl, Bo
This study examined the association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap in adults. This is a population-based cohort study of 2,024 adults (mean = 48 years) with hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5-4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL) who completed a hearing handicap questionnaire. In childhood, the same persons (N = 2,024) underwent audiometry in a school investigation (at ages 7, 10, and 13 years), in which 129 were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5-4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL), whereas 1,895 had normal hearing thresholds. Hearing handicap was measured in adulthood as the sum-score of various speech perception and social impairment items (15 items). The sum-score increased with adult hearing threshold level (p handicap sum-score between the group with childhood-onset hearing loss (n = 129) and the group with adult-onset hearing loss (n = 1,895; p = .882). Self-reported hearing handicap in adults increased with hearing threshold level. After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, this cohort study revealed no significant association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap.
Tambs, Kristian; Engdahl, Bo
Purpose This study examined the association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap in adults. Methods This is a population-based cohort study of 2,024 adults (mean = 48 years) with hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL) who completed a hearing handicap questionnaire. In childhood, the same persons (N = 2,024) underwent audiometry in a school investigation (at ages 7, 10, and 13 years), in which 129 were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (binaural pure-tone average 0.5–4 kHz ≥ 20 dB HL), whereas 1,895 had normal hearing thresholds. Results Hearing handicap was measured in adulthood as the sum-score of various speech perception and social impairment items (15 items). The sum-score increased with adult hearing threshold level (p handicap sum-score between the group with childhood-onset hearing loss (n = 129) and the group with adult-onset hearing loss (n = 1,895; p = .882). Conclusion Self-reported hearing handicap in adults increased with hearing threshold level. After adjustment for adult hearing threshold level, this cohort study revealed no significant association between time of onset of hearing loss (childhood vs. adulthood) and self-reported hearing handicap. PMID:26649831
Erwin, Andrea M; Bashore, Lisa
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sleep quality not simply sleep duration. The purpose of this article is to provide a mini-review of the self-report sleep measures used in children. The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article via an independent review followed by collaborative discussion. The subjective measures included in this mini-review have been used in children, but not all measures have reported psychometrics. Several tools included in this mini-review measure subjective sleep in children but with limited reliabilities or only preliminary psychometrics. Accurate measurement of self-reported sleep in children is critical to identify sleep problems in this population and further detect associated health problems. Ongoing studies are warranted to establish reliable and valid measures of self-reported sleep in children to accurately detect health problems associated with poor sleep quality. This mini-review of the literature is an important first step to identify the most reliable subjective sleep measures in children.
Mardaga, S; Iakimova, G
Neurocognition may constitute one of the numerous factors that mediate the reciprocal influences between personality and depression. The present study explored the influence of personality and anxiety traits on the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces and specifically focused on personal characteristics related to negative (harm avoidance - HA) and positive affectivity (self-directedness - SD) and to anxiety. Twenty participants with self-reported depressive symptoms and 18 control participants were selected based on their BDI-II scores. Personality (TCI-R), anxiety and attention were measured and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an implicit emotional face perception task (fear, sadness, happiness, neutrality). The participants who self-reported depressive symptoms had higher HA, lower SD and higher anxiety compared to controls. Controls showed enhanced P300 and LPP amplitudes for fear. Individuals with self-reported depression showed reduced ERPs amplitudes for happiness. HA did not account for the difference between the groups but high HA and high anxiety were positively correlated with enhanced P300 amplitude for fear in participants with depressive symptoms. In contrast, SD accounted for the difference between the groups but was not correlated to the ERP components' amplitudes recorded for facial expressions. Other personality dimensions (reward dependence, cooperativeness) influenced the ERPs recorded for facial emotions. Personality dimensions influence the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms, which may constitute a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Catrysse, Leen; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Lesterhuis, Marije; Van den Bossche, Piet
Up until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures. This study aimed at extending current research on students' learning strategies by combining general and task-specific measurements of students' learning strategies using both offline and online measures. We want to clarify how students process learning contents and to what extent this is related to their self-report of learning strategies. Twenty students with different generic learning profiles (according to self-report questionnaires) read an expository text, while their eye movements were registered to answer questions on the content afterwards. Eye-tracking data were analysed with generalized linear mixed-effects models. The results indicate that students with an all-high profile, combining both deep and surface learning strategies, spend more time on rereading the text than students with an all-low profile, scoring low on both learning strategies. This study showed that we can use eye-tracking to distinguish very strategic students, characterized using cognitive processing and regulation strategies, from low strategic students, characterized by a lack of cognitive and regulation strategies. These students processed the expository text according to how they self-reported. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Gerdes, Zachary T; Levant, Ronald F
The Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI) is a widely used multidimensional scale. Studies using the CMNI most often report only total scale scores, which are predominantly associated with negative outcomes. Various studies since the CMNI's inception in 2003 using subscales have reported both positive and negative outcomes. The current content analysis examined studies ( N = 17) correlating the 11 subscales with 63 criterion variables across 7 categories. Most findings were consistent with past research using total scale scores that reported negative outcomes. For example, conformity to masculine norms has been inversely related to help-seeking and positively correlated with concerning health variables, such as substance use. Nonetheless, past reliance on total scores has obscured the complexity of associations with the CMNI in that 30% of the findings in the present study reflected positive outcomes, particularly for health promotion. Subscales differed in their relationships with various outcomes: for one subscale they were predominantly positive, but six others were mostly negative. The situational and contextual implications of conformity to masculine norms and their relationships to positive and negative outcomes are discussed.
Reeves, Gloria M; Nijjar, Gagan Virk; Langenberg, Patricia; Johnson, Mary A; Khabazghazvini, Baharak; Sleemi, Aamar; Vaswani, Dipika; Lapidus, Manana; Manalai, Partam; Tariq, Muhammad; Acharya, Monika; Cabassa, Johanna; Snitker, Soren; Postolache, Teodor T
The purpose of this study was to investigate possible rapid effects of light therapy on depressed mood in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Participants received 1 hour of bright light therapy and 1 hour of placebo dim red light in a randomized order crossover design. Depressed mood was measured at baseline and after each hour of light treatment using two self-report depression scales (Profile of Mood States-Depression-Dejection [POMS-D] subscale and the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). When light effects were grouped for the two sessions, there was significantly greater reduction in self-report depression scores by -1.3 (p = 0.02) on the BDI-II and -1.2 (p = 0.02) on the POMS-D. A significant but modest improvement was detected after a single active light session. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to document an immediate improvement with light treatment using a placebo-controlled design with a clinical sample of depressed individuals.
Louis, Elan D; Collins, Kathleen; Rohl, Brittany; Morgan, Sarah; Robakis, Daphne; Huey, Edward D; Cosentino, Stephanie
Physical inactivity may be the result of medical comorbidities. Inactivity itself may also lead to important health consequences, especially in older patients. Essential tremor (ET) patients may have a variety of physical and cognitive problems that could detrimentally impact on level of physical activity. Yet, to our knowledge, there have been no studies of physical activity in these patients. Self-reported physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) in 100 ET cases (mean age 80.5years) enrolled in a clinical study. Additional clinical measures were the total tremor score, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) score and number of steps taken off of the straight line during tandem gait (a measure of balance). Lower PASE score was associated with older age, more tandem gait difficulty, higher total tremor score and lower MOCA score (all pphysical activity. Several of the motor features of ET (tremor and imbalance) are independently associated with reductions in level of physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne E; Yuan, Ya; Long, D Leann; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O
The standard for stroke risk stratification is the Framingham Stroke Risk Function (FSRF), an equation requiring an examination for blood pressure assessment, venipuncture for glucose assessment, and ECG to determine atrial fibrillation and heart disease. We assess a self-reported stroke risk function (SRSRF) to stratify stroke risk in comparison to the FSRF. Participants from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) were evaluated at baseline and followed for incident stroke. The FSRF was calculated using directly assessed stroke risk factors. The SRSRF was calculated from 13 self-reported questions to exclude those with prevalent stroke and assess stroke risk. Proportional hazards analysis was used to assess incident stroke risk using the FSRF and SRSRF. Over an average 8.2-year follow-up, 939 of 23 983 participants had a stroke. The FSRF and SRSRF produced highly correlated risk scores ( r Spearman =0.852; 95% confidence interval, 0.849-0.856); however, the SRSRF had higher discrimination of stroke risk than the FSRF (c SRSRF =0.7266; 95% confidence interval, 0.7076-0.7457; c FSRF =0.7075; 95% confidence interval, 0.6877-0.7273; P =0.0038). The 10-year stroke risk in the highest decile of predicted risk was 11.1% for the FSRF and 13.4% for the SRSRF. A simple self-reported questionnaire can be used to identify those at high risk for stroke better than the gold standard FSRF. This instrument can be used clinically to easily identify individuals at high risk for stroke and also scientifically to identify a subpopulation enriched for stroke risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Castellucci, Lana A; Shaw, Joseph; van der Salm, Katrien; Erkens, Petra; Le Gal, Gregoire; Petrcich, William; Carrier, Marc
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are used for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the shorter half-life and lack of laboratory monitoring compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs), adequate adherence to DOACs is important. Reported anticoagulation adherence is unclear in clinical practice. To assess self-reported anticoagulation adherence in a tertiary center anticoagulation clinic. Cross-sectional study of patients on oral anticoagulants (VKAs, rivaroxaban, dabigatran and apixaban). Anticoagulation adherence was assessed using the 4-item Morisky score. Baseline characteristics were evaluated for association with adherence. Five hundred patients completed the survey; 74% were on VKAs and 26% on DOACs: rivaroxaban 102 (79%); dabigatran 26 (19%); apixaban 2 (2%). Main indications for anticoagulation were VTE (72%) and AF (18%). Self-reported anticoagulation adherence using the 4-item Morisky scale was 56.2% for patients on VKAs and 57.1% for patients on DOACs. Predictors of anticoagulation adherence were age (OR=1.02; 95% CI:1.01-1.03), female gender (OR=1.58; 95% CI:1.10-2.27), use of additional oral medications (OR=2.78; 95% CI:1.67-4.63), and retired employment status (OR=2.31; 95% CI:1.51-3.55). In backward selection multivariate analyses age, female gender and use of other oral medications remained significantly associated with anticoagulation adherence. Self-reported anticoagulation adherence was similar between VKAs and DOACs. Until laboratory assays are universally available to evaluate DOAC adherence, physicians should emphasize the importance of anticoagulation adherence at each patient encounter. The Morisky scale provides simple assessment of anticoagulation adherence; however it has not yet been validation for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Little is known about the association between health and the quality of the residential environment. What is known is often based on subjective assessments of the environment rather than on measurements by independent observers. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the association between self-reported general health and an objectively assessed measure of the residential environment. We studied over 30,000 residents aged 18 or over living in 777 neighbourhoods in south Wales. Built environment quality was measured by independent observers using a validated tool, the Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT, at unit postcode level. UK Census data on each resident, which included responses to a question which assessed self-reported general health, was linked to the REAT score. The Census data also contained detailed information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of all respondents and was also linked to the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation. After adjusting for both the individual characteristics and area deprivation, respondents in the areas of poorest neighbourhood quality were more likely to report poor health compared to those living in areas of highest quality (OR 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.49. The particular neighbourhood characteristics associated with poor health were physical incivilities and measures of how well the residents maintained their properties. Measures of green space were not associated with self-reported health. This is the first full population study to examine such associations and the results demonstrate the importance for health of the quality of the neighbourhood area in which people live and particularly the way in which residents behave towards their own and their neighbours' property. A better understanding of causal pathways that allows the development of interventions to improve neighbourhood quality would offer significant potential health gains.
Leng, Yue; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Covinsky, Kenneth; Yaffe, Kristine
Despite the widespread belief that napping is common among older adults, little is known about the correlates of napping. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported and objectively measured napping among very old women. We studied 2,675 community-dwelling women (mean age 84.5 ± 3.7 years; range 79-96). Self-reported napping was defined as a report of regular napping for ≥1 hour per day. Individual objective naps were defined as ≥5 consecutive minutes of inactivity as measured by actigraphy and women were characterized as "objective nappers" if they had at least 60 minutes of naps per day. Seven percent of the women only had self-reported napping, 29% only had objective napping, and 14% met the criteria for both. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the independent correlates of "both subjective and objective napping" were age (per 5 year odds ratio [OR] = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.31-1.93), depressive symptoms (per SD of score, OR = 1.53; 1.32-1.77), obesity (OR =1.93; 1.42-2.61), current smoking (OR = 3.37; 1.56-7.30), heavier alcohol drinking (OR = 0.49; 0.34-0.71), history of stroke (OR = 1.56; 1.08-2.26), diabetes (OR = 2.40; 1.61-3.57), dementia (OR = 3.31; 1.27-8.62), and Parkinson's disease (OR = 7.43; 1.87-29.50). Besides, having objective napping alone was associated with age and diabetes, whereas subjective napping was associated with stroke and myocardial infarction. These associations were independent of nighttime sleep duration and fragmentation. Daytime napping is very common in women living in their ninth decade and both subjective and objective napping were significantly related to age and comorbidities. Future studies are needed to better understand napping and its health implications.
Full Text Available Jørgen Valeur1,2, Mette Helvik Morken1, Elisabeth Norin3, Tore Midtvedt3, Arnold Berstad1,21Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 3Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenPurpose: Enterometabolic disturbances may cause meal-related symptoms. We performed a functional evaluation of the intestinal microflora in patients with unexplained, self-reported food hypersensitivity by measuring fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs.Patients and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and 15 healthy volunteers of similar age, gender, and body mass index collected all feces for 72 hours. Fecal concentrations of acetic, propionic, n-butyric, i-butyric, n-valeric, i-valeric, n-caproic, and i-caproic acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Concentrations and excretions (output of SCFAs in patients and controls were compared and related to gastrointestinal symptoms.Results: Despite nonsignificant differences between patients and controls for both total and individual SCFA concentrations and excretions, n-butyric acid comprised a higher (P = 0.035 and acetic acid a lower (P = 0.012 proportion of total SCFA in patients compared to controls. There were no significant correlations between symptom scores and concentrations or excretions of individual or total SCFAs, but the proportion of n-butyric acid was significantly higher in patients with severe symptoms compared to patients with moderate symptoms (P = 0.016.Conclusion: The results indicate an enterometabolic disturbance in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity. Higher proportions of n-butyric acid may be related to abdominal symptom generation, but may also protect against organic bowel disease. Further studies are needed to clarify these aspects.Keywords: butyrate, dysbiosis, gut microbiota, irritable
Lu, Dave W; Dresden, Scott; McCloskey, Colin; Branzetti, Jeremy; Gisondi, Michael A
Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs) experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL) and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. We included 77 out of 155 (49.7%) responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012) and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036) than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744). Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011) and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02). EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary.
Dave W. Lu
Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. Methods: In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. Results: We included 77 out of 155 (49.7% responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012 and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036 than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744. Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011 and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02. EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. Conclusion: A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary.
Query, W T; Megran, J; McDonald, G
In order to determine whether the MMPI-PTSD subscale has application for assessing DSM-III diagnosed PTSD among populations other than Vietnam veterans, a group of WWII POWs (N = 69) were given the subscale. Results indicated that the use of the PTSD subscale can be generalized to older veterans; in a small sample of Pacific POWs, PTSD is more common among those from the Pacific theater than those from Europe. However, the subscale fails to distinguish between Pacific and European POW veterans. Difficulties in sampling and confounding stressors are discussed, as well as implications for treatment of WWII veterans.
Kumar, Andre D; Shah, Monisha K; Maley, Jason H; Evron, Joshua; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Miller, Chad
The USA Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 is a computerised multiple-choice examination that tests the basic biomedical sciences. It is administered after the second year in a traditional four-year MD programme. Most Step 1 scores fall between 140 and 260, with a mean (SD) of 227 (22). Step 1 scores are an important selection criterion for residency choice. Little is known about which study habits are associated with a higher score. To identify which self-reported study habits correlate with a higher Step 1 score. A survey regarding Step 1 study habits was sent to third year medical students at Tulane University School of Medicine every year between 2009 and 2011. The survey was sent approximately 3 months after the examination. 256 out of 475 students (54%) responded. The mean (SD) Step 1 score was 229.5 (22.1). Students who estimated studying more than 8-11 h per day had higher scores (p2000 practice questions also obtained higher scores (pStudents who reported studying in a group, spending the majority of study time on practice questions or taking >40 preparation days did not achieve higher scores. Certain self-reported study habits may correlate with a higher Step 1 score compared with others. Given the importance of achieving a high Step 1 score on residency choice, it is important to further identify which characteristics may lead to a higher score. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Su, Naichuan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Xianrui; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with malocclusion and self-reported bruxism and chewing-side preference (CSP) in patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). This study involved 511 patients diagnosed with TMJ-OA. Each participant completed the Chinese version of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-C14) questionnaire and received a clinical examination concerning malocclusion (posterior crossbite, overbite, overjet and anterior open bite). Also patients' self-reported awake bruxism (AB), sleep bruxism (SB) and CSP based on the Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC) were recorded. The associations of OHIP-C14 with malocclusion and self-reported bruxism and CSP were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Posterior crossbite, overbite, overjet and anterior open bite were not significantly associated with either the total OHIP-C14 score or the scores of each domain of OHIP-C14. AB was significantly associated with both the total OHIP-C14 score and the scores of each domain with the largest standardised coefficients. CSP was significantly associated with both the total OHIP-C14 score and the scores of the psychological and social domains. SB was significantly associated with the scores of both the function limitation and psychological disability domains. Malocclusion is not significantly associated with OHRQoL in patients with TMJ-OA. Self-reported AB is highly associated with OHRQoL in patients with TMJ-OA, while self-reported SB and CSP are both moderately associated with OHRQoL in patients with TMJ-OA. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.
Mei Bai, Ya; Li, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Mu-Hong; Kuang Yang, Yen
The self-reported graphic version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (SRG-PSP) is the first graphic, self-reported rating scale that assesses functioning, and its reliability and validity have been documented in patients with schizophrenia. This study investigated the validity of SRG-PSP in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics, and assessed with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)-Bipolar and CGI-Depression, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the Global assessment of function (GAF), and the PSP. All participants completed the self-rating questionnaires: the SRG-PSP, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Sheehan disability Scale (SDS). In total, 114 patients with BD were enrolled. The criterion-related validities between the SRG-PSP and the PSP were all significantly correlated with their counterparts. The global score of the SRG-PSP was significantly correlated with the scores of the YMRS, MADRS, PANSS, CGI-Depression, GAF, SF-36, and SDS. Three SRG-PSP domains (socially useful activities, personal and social relationships, and self-care) were negatively correlated with the scores of the MADRS, PANSS, CGI-depression, and SDS; and were positively correlated with the GAF, SF-36 scores. The disturbing and aggressive behavior domain was positively correlated with the scores of the YMRS, MADRS, PANSS, CGI-Bipolar, CGI-Depression, and SDS; and was negatively correlated with the GAF, SF-36 scores (all p<0.01). The SRG-PSP is a validated self-reported scale for assessing functionality in patients with BD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gardulf, Ann; Nilsson, Jan; Florin, Jan; Leksell, Janeth; Lepp, Margret; Lindholm, Christina; Nordström, Gun; Theander, Kersti; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Carlsson, Marianne; Johansson, Eva
International organisations, e.g. WHO, stress the importance of competent registered nurses (RN) for the safety and quality of healthcare systems. Low competence among RNs has been shown to increase the morbidity and mortality of inpatients. To investigate self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation (NSPGs), using the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale, and to relate the findings to background factors. The NPC Scale consists of 88 items within eight competence areas (CAs) and two overarching themes. Questions about socio-economic background and perceived overall quality of the degree programme were added. In total, 1086 NSPGs (mean age, 28.1 [20-56]years, 87.3% women) from 11 universities/university colleges participated. NSPGs reported significantly higher scores for Theme I "Patient-Related Nursing" than for Theme II "Organisation and Development of Nursing Care". Younger NSPGs (20-27years) reported significantly higher scores for the CAs "Medical and Technical Care" and "Documentation and Information Technology". Female NSPGs scored significantly higher for "Value-Based Nursing". Those who had taken the nursing care programme at upper secondary school before the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programme scored significantly higher on "Nursing Care", "Medical and Technical Care", "Teaching/Learning and Support", "Legislation in Nursing and Safety Planning" and on Theme I. Working extra paid hours in healthcare alongside the BSN programme contributed to significantly higher self-reported scores for four CAs and both themes. Clinical courses within the BSN programme contributed to perceived competence to a significantly higher degree than theoretical courses (93.2% vs 87.5% of NSPGs). Mean scores reported by NSPGs were highest for the four CAs connected with patient-related nursing and lowest for CAs relating to organisation and development of nursing care. We conclude that the NPC Scale can be used to identify and measure
Pisinger, Charlotte; Ladelund, Steen; Glümer, Charlotte
INTRODUCTION: Self-reported health has been shown to predict mortality. We lack knowledge on whether a lifestyle intervention can improve self-reported mental and physical health in a general population. METHODS: Inter99, Denmark (1999-2006) is a randomised population-based intervention study. We...... of the intervention on self-reported health over time. RESULTS: At baseline men had higher physical health-component scores (PCS) than women. Living with a partner, being employed, and being healthy was associated with high PCS. The mental health-component scores (MCS) showed the same socio-demographic differences......, except that MCS increased with age. Significantly fewer participants in the intervention groups had decreased their PCS and MCS compared with the control group. Adjusted multilevel analyses confirmed that the intervention significantly improved physical- (p=0.008) and mental health (p...
Croft, Arthur C; Milam, Bryce; Meylor, Jade; Manning, Richard
Because of previously published recommendations to modify the Neck Disability Index (NDI), we evaluated the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. Subjects who had sustained whiplash injuries of grade 2 or higher completed an NDI questionnaire. There were 123 subjects (55% female, of which 36% had recovered and 64% had chronic symptoms. NDI subscales were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, considering only the subscales and, secondly, using sex as an 11th variable. The subscales were also tested with multiple linear regression modeling using the total score as a target variable. When considering only the 10 NDI subscales, only a single factor emerged, with an eigenvalue of 5.4, explaining 53.7% of the total variance. Strong correlation (> .55) (P Multiple linear regression modeling revealed high internal consistency with all coefficients reaching significance (P < .0001). The 4 NDI subscales exerting the greatest effect were, in decreasing order, Sleeping, Lifting, Headaches, and Pain Intensity. A 2-factor model of the NDI is not justified based on our results, and in this population of whiplash subjects, the NDI was unidimensional, demonstrating high internal consistency and supporting the original validation study of Vernon and Mior.
Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; Villeneuve, Paul J; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; van den Berg, Frits
The current study was the first to assess stress reactions associated with wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure using self-reported and objective measures. Randomly selected participants, aged 18-79 yr (606 males; 632 females), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from wind turbines, were exposed to outdoor calculated WTN levels up to 46 dBA (response rate 78.9%). Multiple regression modeling left the great majority (77%-89%) of the variance in perceived stress scale (PSS) scores, hair cortisol concentrations, resting blood pressure, and heart rate unaccounted for, and WTN exposure had no apparent influence on any of these endpoints. PSS scores were positively, but weakly, related to cortisol concentrations and resting heart rate (Pearson r = 0.13 and r = 0.08, respectively). Across WTN categories, modeled mean PSS scores ranged from 13.15 to 13.84 (p = 0.8614). Modeled geometric means for hair cortisol concentrations, resting mean systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were 150.54-191.12 ng/g (p = 0.5416), 113.38-116.82 mmHg (p = 0.4990), 67.98-70.34 mmHg (p = 0.5006), and 68.24-70.71 bpm (p = 0.5223), respectively. Irrespective of WTN levels, diastolic blood pressure appeared to be slightly (2.90 mmHg 95% CI: 0.75,5.05) higher among participants highly annoyed by blinking lights on turbines (p = 0.0081). Collectively, the findings do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and elevated self-reported and objectively defined measures of stress.
Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F
The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vancampfort, Davy; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Kinyanda, Eugene; Probst, Michel
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with bipolar disorder is 35 to 40%. It is, however, not established yet whether MetS influences participation in physical activity, walking capacity and global functioning. Sixty-five patients (36 ♀) received a full-fasting laboratory screening, performed a walk test including self-report of pre- and post-test pain, and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (QIDS-SR16). Patients with (n=24) and without (n=41) MetS did not significantly differ in age, gender, psychotropic medication doses, physical activity, smoking behaviour and global functioning. In contrast, patients with MetS had a significantly (a) longer illness duration, (b) higher BMI, and (c) lower walking capacity. Moreover, patients with MetS scored significantly higher on the QIDS. Patients with MetS reported more pain before and after the walking test and more dyspnea following 6 minutes of walking, indicating the physical health challenges facing people with bipolar disorder and MetS seeking to engage in physical activity. The current data give further credence to the importance of interventions promoting the walking capacity in people with bipolar disorder, in particular in these patients at a high risk for cardiovascular diseases.
Husemoen, L L N; Ebstrup, J F; Mortensen, E L
was to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the self-reported symptoms and diagnosis of depression and anxiety in the adult general population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was measured in three Danish population-based studies, including 5308 adults aged 18-64 years. After 5...... years, 2004 participants were re-examined. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by the Symptom Check List (SCL)-90-R, and self-reported doctor-diagnosed depression and anxiety was recorded by using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with SCL average scores...... for depression and anxiety when analysed by quantile median regression adjusted for sex, age and other potential confounders. The β-coefficient and 95% confidence interval (CI) per 10 nmol/l serum 25(OH)D were 0.00 (-0.00 to 0.01) and P=0.23 for depression and -0.00 (-0.01 to 0.00) and P=0.19 for anxiety...
Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor
Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oda, Ryo; Dai, Megumi; Niwa, Yuki; Ihobe, Hiroshi; Kiyonari, Toko; Takeda, Mia; Kai, Hiraishi
This study describes the development and evaluation of the Self-Report Altruism Scale Distinguished by the Recipient (SRAS-DR). The relationship between an actor and a recipient is important for evolutionary studies of altruistic behavior. However, the existing scale for Japanese undergraduates does not distinguish recipients of altruistic behaviors. We developed a new self-report altruism scale based on an evolutionary viewpoint. In Study 1, undergraduate students described their altruistic behaviors in daily life, which we classified according to the recipients (family members, friends or acquaintances and strangers). Then we chose 21 items (7 items for each recipient class) to construct the SRAS-DR by using exploratory factor analyses. In Study 2, we investigated validity and reliability of the scale. The scores were significantly correlated with other relevant scales as well as with behavioral indicators. Test-retest reliability was high. These results indicate that the SRAS-DR has acceptable reliability and validity, and can be used in evolutionary studies of human altruism.
Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley
Objectives To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students’ work-life balance. Methods A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Results Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, pstudy during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, pstudy was associated with lower QoL (rho = -0.13, pStudy skills may be more important than duration spent studying, for academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study. PMID:26385285
Alicea, Carly C M; Doherty, Karen A
The purpose of this study was to compare the motivation to change in relation to hearing problems in adults with normal hearing thresholds but who report hearing problems and that of adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Factors related to their motivation were also assessed. The motivation to change in relation to self-reported hearing problems was measured using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer, 1983). The relationship between objective and subjective measures and an adult's motivation was examined. The level of hearing handicap did not differ significantly between adults with normal hearing who reported problems hearing in background noise and adults who had a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing handicap, personal distress, and minimization of hearing loss were factors significantly related to motivation. Age, degree of hearing loss, speech-in-noise scores, working memory, and extended high-frequency average thresholds were not significantly related to their motivation. Adults with normal hearing thresholds but self-reported hearing problems had the same level of hearing handicap and were equally motivated to take action for their hearing problems as age-matched adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing handicap, personal distress, and minimization of hearing loss were most strongly correlated with an individual's motivation to change.
Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor
Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027
Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Hui, Philip; Johnson, Joy L; Honer, William G
The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia has reliably been reported as being higher than for any other psychiatric disorder. While a number of theories have been proposed to account for such high rates of smoking, little is known about the subjective motivation for why schizophrenia patients smoke in comparison with those without the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare smoking motivation in control subjects and schizophrenia patients, and determine if factors such as type of medication or access to cigarettes could contribute to self-reported motivation for smoking. We assessed motivation to smoke in 61 schizophrenia inpatients and 33 non-psychiatric health worker controls at a tertiary care psychiatric facility in a cross-sectional study. Nicotine dependency and smoking behavior were evaluated using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and a validated questionnaire that assesses motivation for smoking along seven different dimensions. Schizophrenia patients reported a stronger motivation to smoke than controls for reasons related to pleasure from the act of smoking, as well as a need for psychomotor stimulation. Scores on both these factors were significantly associated with daily antipsychotic drug dose. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of smoking were related to anticholinergic load of psychiatric medications. The findings highlight important differences in self-reported motivation to smoke between schizophrenia patients and normals. Antipsychotic drugs may also influence aspects of motivation to smoke.
Analyze literature on self-report outcomes in two areas of audiological rehabilitation: 1) tinnitus and 2) cochlear implant hearing aids. 1) Tinnitus: survey of features in the development of self-report approaches and of formal scales used in assessment of tinnitus disability and handicaps. 2) Cochlear implants: summary of the literature using self-report approaches to cochlear implant experience that indicates points of theoretical significance. 1) Major features of tinnitus are: a) disabilities such as interference with and distortion of normal auditory perception; b) handicaps such as emotional distress, interference with sleep, and with personal and social life. Nonauditory factors-chronic depression, high self-focused attention-mediate the degree of experienced tinnitus handicap. 2) People with prelingual loss of hearing report that a cochlear implant primarily enables improved detection and discrimination of environmental sound; those with postlingual loss find that an implant in addition provides improved speech recognition. 1) Coping with tinnitus is influenced by the personal resources that can be brought to bear on the experience, highlighting a general point that any rehabilitation outcome is not only a matter of acoustical solutions. By the same token, tinnitus can be easier to cope with if its "psychoacoustic presence" can be diminished by some form of masking. 2) Cochlear implants fitted in childhood that do not provide meaningful input signals in real-world settings may be rejected in adolescence. 3) "Hearing," as a capacity, does not have a fixed worth. Different circumstances mean it will be taken as desirable or as delivering torment (extreme tinnitus, e.g.). Its value will also vary depending on the extent of a person's access to spoken language (aiding in very early childhood, e.g.).
Lemmens, P H
A stubborn problem in alcohol epidemiology is that of standardization of unit of measurement. Consistent use of the 'standard drink' in research reports is hampered by difficulties in the assessment of the alcohol content of, particularly, self-reported drinks. Alcohol content of a drink depends on strength of the beverage and volume of the glass or container from which the beverage is taken. Both factors vary considerably between times, regions and individuals. Interview protocols and questionnaires rarely take into account the fact that people consume alcoholic beverages from a large variety of glasses and containers. In the present study the common presumption is tested of equality of alcohol content of standard and self-reported drinks. The test consisted of measuring the amount of wine, fortified wine and spirits people usually pour in the glass typical for the beverage type. The sample was drawn from the general Dutch population in 1985. The results show that on average self-reported drinks taken at home contained more than the presumed standard (10 g per drink). The deviation was highest for spirits (+26%), followed by fortified wines (+14%) and least for wine (+4%). There seemed to be a positive relationship between deviation from 'standard' and strength of the alcoholic beverage. This result is in line with data on the coverage of sales data: aggregate, survey-based spirits consumption shows the lowest coverage of sales. The effect of the difference between actual and presumed content of drinks on estimates of consumption is an overall increase of 7.5%, higher for women (+12%) than for men (+6%). Results are discussed with respect to the use of the concept of 'standard unit' in research protocols and health education campaigns.
Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L
Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Hogg-Kollars, Sabine; Mortimore, Denise; Snow, Sarah
In this retrospective survey women with and without self-reported postpartum depression (PPD) were compared in regards to consumption-frequency of foods and supplements rich in nutrients beneficial to nervous system (NS) health, in regards to consumption-frequency of compounds which may counteract the effect of the above and in regards to nutritional support provided to them during a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Postpartum depression (PPD) is defined as a major depressive episode that begins within 1 month of delivery and is experienced by roughly 13% of mothers. Four Hundred participants were recruited through the internet. Data gathered via multiple choice questionnaires was statistically analyzed using SPSS and Statistical software; statistical procedures included discriminant analysis, Pearson's product moment correlation, independent t-test and cross-tabulations. Out of 400 participants 83 (20.8%) were affected by self-reported depression after a pregnancy between 2003 and 2008. Depressed subjects consumed oily fish and offal significantly more often than non depressed subjects. Depression was more prevalent among women with vegetarian diets. No significant difference concerning food group intake or the ratios between foods rich in nutrients beneficial to NS health and foods rich in compounds antagonising their effect were found between depressed and non depressed subjects. Iron supplementation correlated positively with zinc supplementation in both groups. Roughly 70% of women reported to have received no information about n-3 fatty acid fish oils during pregnancy; informed subjects consumed fish oils more often. The majority of subjects with self-reported depression described nutritional support during pregnancy as inadequate. Within this Austrian sample, the prevalence rate of postpartum depression was high; while the consumption of oily fish and vegetarian diets negatively correlated with depression, Patient information positively correlated with the
Sølsnes, Anne Elisabeth; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Løhaugen, Gro C C
Executive functions are goal-directed control mechanisms that modulate the operation of other cognitive processes. Preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW: birth weightexecutive function than their term born peers. The objective of this study is to examine if VLBW young adults had more self-reported attention/ executive problems and lower neuropsychological test results than controls. Furthermore, to investigate the relationship between self-reported attention/executive problems, general cognitive ability (IQ) and test results. Forty-two VLBW [mean birth weight 1237 (219) grams, and gestational age 29.3 (2.4) weeks] and 63 term born controls at age 19 years completed The BRIEF-A self-report of attention/executive functions in everyday life. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III was used to obtain IQ scores; subtests from Delis-Kaplan were used to assess attention/executive function. There were no differences between the VLBW young adults and controls on any of the BRIEF-A measures, but the VLBW subjects had lower scores on 8 of the 18 neuropsychological subtests (pexecutive function in daily life than controls despite lower results on several neuropsychological tests.
Welling, Lisa L M; Singh, Kevin; Puts, David A; Jones, Benedict C; Burriss, Robert P
Recent studies investigating the relationship between self-reported sexual desire and attraction to same- and opposite-sex individuals have found that homosexual men's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to own-sex individuals only, while homosexual women's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to both men and women. These data have been interpreted as evidence that sexual desire strengthens men's pre-existing (i.e., dominant) sexual behaviors and strengthens women's sexual behaviors in general. Here we show that homosexual men's (n = 106) scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2) were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in own-sex, but not opposite-sex, faces. Contrary to the hypothesis that sexual desire strengthens women's preferences for sexual dimorphism generally, homosexual women's (n = 83) SDI-2 scores were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex faces only. Together with previous research in heterosexual subjects, our findings support the proposal that sexual desire increases the incidence of existing sexual behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual men, and increases the incidence of sexual responses more generally in heterosexual women, although not necessarily in homosexual women.
Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin
Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. Methods We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002–04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Results Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for “poor” or “very poor” self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for “severe” or “extreme” on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and
Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Verdes, Emese; Chatterji, Somnath
While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002-04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for "poor" or "very poor" self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for "severe" or "extreme" on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and gender characteristics of the society. Large female-male differences in self-reported
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals
Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary
Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of
Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD.Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS.Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores.Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current
Jackowski, Melissa B; Burroughs, Brandon Michael
To evaluate the self-reported leadership practices of radiology administrators and the demographic characteristics associated with those leadership practices. The effect of these demographic characteristics and leadership practices on job satisfaction also was studied. One-hundred forty-nine American Society of Radiologic Technologists members who indicated they have a position of administrator/manager, chief technologist, or supervisor completed a demographic survey and the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) self-survey tool. The LPI divides successful leadership into 5 practices: Challenge the Process, Inspire a Shared Vision, Enable Others to Act, Encourage the Heart, and Model the Way. The categories Challenge the Process and Inspire a Shared Vision had the lowest mean scores and the widest variation. Having had formal leadership training and being older were demographic characteristics associated with higher LPI scores. Having a higher LPI score and having had formal leadership training were associated with higher job satisfaction. Formal leadership training was the only statistically significant variable when using LPI score as the response variable. The results of this study show that radiology administrators would benefit from formal leadership training that focuses on challenging the process and inspiring a shared vision.
Pearl, Rebecca L; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M
This study aimed to examine the relationship between internalization of weight bias, which has been linked to specific negative mental health outcomes, and overall mental and physical health among overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED). The role of depressive symptoms as a potential mediator in this relationship was also tested. In a cross-sectional study, 255 individuals who were overweight and seeking treatment for BED completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between the WBIS and the SF-36, and bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to test whether BDI scores mediated this relationship. Higher weight bias internalization was associated with poorer self-reported health on all scales of the SF-36, and BDI scores mediated the relationship. Additional analyses revealed that WBIS scores also mediated the relationship between BDI scores and three SF-36 scales. Weight bias internalization is associated with poorer overall mental and physical health, and depressive symptoms may play a role in accounting for this relationship in treatment-seeking overweight patients with BED. © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Verret, Catherine; Trichereau, Julie; Rondier, Jean-Philippe; Viance, Patrice; Migliani, René
Objectives To investigate the associations between psychosocial risk factors and self-reported health, taking into account other occupational risk factors. Design Cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Setting The three military hospitals in Paris, France. Participants Surveys were distributed to 3173 employees (1807 military and 1336 civilian), a total of 1728 employees completed surveys. Missing data prohibited the use of 26 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors used Karasek's model in order to identify psychosocial factors (psychological demands, decisional latitude, social support) in the workplace. The health indicator studied was self-reported health. Adjustments were made for covariates: age, gender, civil or military status, work injury, ergonomic score, physical and chemical exposures, and occupational profile. Occupational profile was defined by professional category, department, work schedule, supervisor status and service-related length in the hospital. Results Job strain (defined as high psychological demands and low decisional latitude) (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.8, pergonomic score (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2, p<0.001) were also significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Conclusions The results support findings linking moderate or poor self-reported health to psychosocial risk factors. The results of this study suggest that workplace interventions that aim to reduce exposure to psychological demands as well as to increase decisional latitude and social support could help improve self-reported health. PMID:22855624
Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika
To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
The survey investigated the problems of social desirability (SD), non-response bias (NRB) and reliability in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Revised (MMPI-2) self-report inventory administered to Brunei student teachers. Bruneians scored higher on all the validity scales than the normative US sample, thereby threatening the…
Walvoort, S.J.W.; Heijden, P.T. van der; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.
Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) typically have difficulties in recognizing the impact of their alcohol-related cognitive deficits on daily-life functioning. In this study, mean scores on self-reported complaints (measured with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form;
Hoff, M.; Meyer, H. E.; Skurtveit, S.
Summary: Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) without bone mineral density (BMD) for hip fracture prediction was validated in a Norwegian population 50–90 years. Fracture risk increased with higher FRAX score, and the observed number of hip fractures agreed well with the predicted number, except...... for the youngest and oldest men. Self-reported fall was an independent risk factor for fracture in women. Introduction: The primary aim was to validate FRAX without BMD for hip fracture prediction in a Norwegian population of men and women 50–90 years. Secondary, to study whether information of falls could improve...... was calculated, and hip fractures were registered for a median follow-up of 5.2 years. The number of estimated and observed fractures was assessed, ROC curves with area under the curve (AUC), and Cox regression analyses. For the group aged 70–90 years, self-reported falls the last year before HUNT3 were included...
Pisinger, Charlotta Holm; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to describe the relationship between smoking status, dietary habits, physical activity and alcohol intake, and mental and physical self-reported health in a general population. MEASURES: A large population-based study Inter99, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1999......-2006. Self-reported health-related quality of life was measured by Short Form 12 (SF-12). Mental and physical health component scores were computed. RESULTS: At baseline, SF-12 was completed by 6305 (92.3%) participants in the intervention groups, and 3017 (72.4%) persons in the control group. In cross......-up and improvement in physical health ( odds ratio=2.30 (95% confidence interval=1.7-3.2)) in the high-intensity intervention group. Improvement in mental health was associated with a much healthier diet at 5-year follow-up than at baseline ( odds ratio=1.68 (95% confidence interval=1.1-2.5)). CONCLUSIONS...
Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes
Full Text Available The current study postulates that students' self-reported perceptions on their academic processes are a type of metacognition: academic metacognitive knowledge (AMcK. We investigated, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, three hypotheses: (a AMcK explains the variance of factor scores of students' learning approaches (SLA and academic motivation (AM; (b AMcK is distinct from working metacognition (WMC; and (c AMcK has incremental validity, beyond WMC, on the explanation of general academic achievement (GAA variance. Two tests (indicators of WMC and two scales (indicators of AMcK were administered to 684 ten-to-eighteen-year-old Brazilian children and adolescents. Annual grades in Math, Portuguese, Geography and History were used as indicators of GAA. The results show that none of the three hypotheses can be refuted.
Griffith, James W
Self-report assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is complicated by the many tools that are available. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) is widely used and highly recommended in review articles and practice guidelines. This review focuses on work completed since 2011 using the IPSS and other tools. The focus of the review is on the merits and weakness of existing tools, as well as a discussion of how to move the field forward, given that there is already a strong base of questionnaires. Some specific trends in health measurement include the use of item response theory and computer adaptive testing, but it is unclear to what extent they will be adopted within urology. Many current studies in urology are making use of single items to assess important symptoms of interest, such as nocturia and incontinence, so future work might seek to catalogue best-in-class, single-question items.
Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.
Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André
In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards......) and cardiorespiratory fitness (low, same and higher as peers) at baseline. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 257 and 852 individuals died from CVD and any cause, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, an increased risk for CVD mortality was found for those with low compared to high self......-reported cardiorespiratory fitness [hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-3.38), for those with high compared to low OPA (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05-2.00), and for those with high compared to low OPA within the strata of low self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.46). Moreover...
Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian
The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.
Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.
Grönroos, Eija; Perälä, Marja-Leena
This paper is a report of a study to investigate the self-reported competence of home nursing staff and whether this is associated with their education, job descriptions, access to help and support and with factors in their psychosocial work environment, such as opportunities for personal growth and development at work. Home nursing staff face increasing demands on their competence. Advances in information technology and working methods have increased the need for education. Thus, information on the factors associated with the competence of home nursing staff help us to support them in a way that improves the quality of care. The data were gathered via a questionnaire completed in 2003 by the home nursing staff of 24 municipalities in different regions of Finland. A total of 2366 home care staff (response rate 63%), of whom 790 were home nursing staff (response rate 65%), were sent questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used as main statistical methods. The best predictors for self-reported competence of home nursing staff were their reading scientific or professional journals, opportunities for skill development, decision-making latitude and work demands. Simple and practical ways for updating the competence of home nursing staff should be created. These staff are a very important source of information for home care clients. Supporting the knowledge of home nursing staff is also an efficient way of keeping clients and their informal caregivers informed about care guidelines, health and social services and social benefits.
Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anna E. Saw
Full Text Available Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30. Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion, and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement. Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed.
Masterson, Elizabeth A; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Christian, W J
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between self-perceived mental health status and mammography screening in Kentucky. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined survey data from the 2002 Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged > or =40. Mental health status was measured by the reported number of days that mental health was not good; the number of days feeling sad, blue, or depressed; and the number of days feeling worried, tense, or anxious. The outcome was mammography within the last 2 years. Three logistic regression analyses were performed, one with each of the mental health status questions as the predictor variable. Analyses controlled for age, race, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. The numbers of poor mental health days, depressed days, and anxious days were found to be significant or near-significant predictors of recent mammography. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing women reporting 30 poor mental health days, depressed days, or anxious days with similar women reporting zero days were estimated to be 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.63), 1.49 (0.93-2.40), and 1.46 (0.96-2.23), respectively. Self-reported poor mental health, depression, and anxiety may be associated with nonreceipt of regular mammography screening. How mental health symptoms and self-reported poor mental health status contribute to decreased mammography screening should be explored.
Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A
Replies to the comments made by Friedman (see record 2015-39598-012), Jeffery & Shackelford (see record 2015-39598-013), Brown & Wong (see record 2015-39598-014), Fowers & Lefevor (see record 2015-39598-015), Hill et al. (see record 2015-39598-016) on the current authors' original article, "Life is pretty meaningful," (see record 2014-03265-001). The current authors thank the comment authors for their efforts, and acknowledge their dedication to what is often a difficult and inscrutable construct, meaning in life. One lesson the current authors have learned from these reactions is that a review of self-report responses to items like "My life is purposeful and meaningful" cannot encompass the entirety of the meaning-in-life landscape. In this reply, the current authors reflect on aspects of the commentaries, highlighting what they can garner about meaning in life from the portion of it that is reflected in phenomenological experience and represented in self-reports: These are the data they have. The current authors first consider three methodological concerns that bear on whether these data are informative (at all) and then they consider more conceptual critiques. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Akarslan, Z Z; Yıldırım Biçer, A Z
To assess the influence of gag reflex severity, assessed according to the short form of the patient part of Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire (GPA-pa SF), on the dental attendance, dental anxiety, self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms and presence of prosthetic restorations among patients requiring prosthodontic treatment in Turkey. A total of 505 patients (305 women; mean age: 46·35 years, SD: 28·2 years) undergoing dental examination were administered a questionnaire containing questions regarding their age, gender, education level, dental attendance, TMD symptoms (limitation in jaw opening, muscle pain, pain/sounds in the temporomandibular jaw), the Turkish version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the GPA-pa SF. Subsequently, any prosthetic restoration was recorded by a dentist. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance (anova) and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Differences were found between GPA-pa SF scores 0, 1 and 2 for education level (P = 0·001), MDAS scores (P = 0·003), self-reported TMD (P = 0·000) and prosthesis wear (P = 0·000), but not for attendance patterns (P = 0·826). Patients with gag reflex had lower education levels, higher levels of dental anxiety, more self-reported TMD symptoms and fewer fixed or removable prosthetic restorations than patients without gag reflex. Gag reflex has impacts on dental anxiety, self-reported TMD and prosthetic restorations, but not on dental attendance patterns, according to the results of the GPA-pa SF. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Swinkels, Annette; Allain, Theresa J
This longitudinal, observational study explored the relationship between physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falling, before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty-seven patients were randomly selected from a larger study of falling before and after surgery conducted at a UK National Health Service Orthopaedic Unit. Physical performance tests were the Berg Balance Score (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Hand Grip Strength (HGS). Self-reported outcomes incorporated the Western Ontario and McMaster's Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Activities Balance Confidence Scale (ABC-UK), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and accidental falls. Paired pre- and postoperative data were available on 22 patients. A total of 22.7% patients fell before and after TKA. Postoperative improvement in BBS and TUG was found in 41% and 50% of patients, respectively, HGS did not change. BBS showed a consistent moderate-to-strong association with other physical tests both before and after surgery; TUG (rs -0.76; rs -0.90), maximal HGS (r 0.49; r 0.48), and self-report measures; ABC-UK (r 0.52; r 0.74), WOMAC stiffness (r -0.53; r -0.48), and WOMAC function (r -0.56; r -0.45). Although self-report questionnaires are an efficient, cost-effective approach to outcome assessment in TKA, there is a growing case for inclusion of physical performance tests. The Berg Balance Score may be a useful addition to outcome assessment in patients with TKA.
Bell, I.R.; Schwartz, G.E.; Peterson, J.M.; Amend, D. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (United States))
The present survey of young adult college students investigated the prevalence of self-reported illness from the smell of five common environmental chemicals (cacosmia): (1) pesticide, (2) automobile exhaust, (3) paint, (4) new carpet, and (5) perfume. Sixty-six percent of 643 students reported feeling ill from one or more of the five chemicals; 15% identified the smell of at least four chemicals as making them ill. Ratings of illness from pesticide correlated weakly but significantly with ratings for the largest number of individual symptoms (9 of 11); daytime tiredness and daytime grogginess both correlated at high levels of significance with illness ratings (on a 5-point scale) for four of the five chemicals. The most cacosmic group (CS) included significantly more women (79%) than the noncacosmic group (NS) (49%); women overall were more cacosmic than men (p < .001), even with the significant covariate of depression. Ratings of cacosmia correlated only weakly with scores for depression (r = 0.16), anxiety (r = 0.08), and trait shyness (r = 0.18) in the total sample. On stepwise multiple regression with cacosmia score as the dependent measure, shyness accounted for 5.8% of the variance, while depression, anxiety, sense of mastery, and repression did not enter the equation. Histories of physician-diagnosed hay fever, but not asthma, were more frequent in the CS (16%) than in the NS group (5%). Without the confounds of chronic illness or specific treatment programs, these data are similar to patterns described clinically for a subset of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), including previous data on increased nasal resistance in MCS. The findings also suggest a limited relationship between degree of self-reported cacosmia and trait shyness, possibly on the basis of limbic hyper-reactivity. Psychological variables did not otherwise account for any of the variance in self-rated illness from chemical odors in this sample. 56 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Background Although insomnia is common in patients with low back pain (LBP), it is unknown whether commonly used self-report sleep measures are sufficiently accurate to screen for insomnia in the LBP population. This study investigated the discriminatory properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Pittsburgh questionnaire), Insomnia Severity Index (Insomnia index), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Epworth scale) and the sleep item of the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (Roland item) to detect insomnia in patients with LBP by comparing their accuracy to detect insomnia to a sleep diary. The study also aimed to determine the clinical optimal cut-off scores of the questionnaires to detect insomnia in the LBP population. Methods Seventy nine patients with LBP completed the four self-reported questionnaires and a sleep diary for 7 consecutive nights. The accuracy of the questionnaires was evaluated using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves with the Area Under the Curve (AUC) used to examine each test’s accuracy to discriminate participants with insomnia from those without insomnia. Results The Pittsburgh questionnaire and Insomnia index had moderate accuracy to detect insomnia (AUC = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.87 and AUC = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.86 respectively), whereas the Epworth scale and the Roland item were not found to be accurate discriminators (AUC = 0.53, 95% CI = 0. 41 to 0.64 and AUC = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.75 respectively). The cut-off score of > 6 for the Pittsburgh questionnaire and the cut-off point of > 14 for the Insomnia index provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for the detection of insomnia. Conclusions The Pittsburgh questionnaire and Insomnia index had similar ability to screen for insomnia in patients with low back pain. PMID:23805978
Samuel, Douglas B.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Ansell, Emily B.; Morey, Leslie C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Markowitz, John C.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Findings from several large-scale, longitudinal studies over the last decade have challenged the long held assumption that personality disorders (PDs) are stable and enduring. However, the findings, including those from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000), rely primarily upon results from semistructured interviews. As a result, less is known about the stability of PD scores from self-report questionnaires, which differ from interviews in important ways (e.g., source of the ratings, item development, and instrument length) that might increase temporal stability. The current study directly compared the stability of the DSM-IV PD constructs assessed via the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP – 2; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press) with those from the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV; Zanarini, Frankenburg, Sickel & Yong, 1996) over two years in a sample of 529 CLPS participants. Specifically, we compared dimensional and categorical representations from both measures in terms of rank-order and mean-level stability. Results indicated that the dimensional scores from the self-report questionnaire had significantly greater rank order (mean r = .69 versus .59) and mean-level (mean d = .21 versus .30) stability. In contrast, categorical diagnoses from the two measures evinced comparable rank-order (mean kappa = .38 versus .37) and mean-level stability (median prevalence rate decrease of 3.5% versus 5.6%). These findings suggest the stability of PD constructs depends at least partially on the method of assessment and are discussed in the context of previous research and future conceptualizations of personality pathology. PMID:21443287
Johnson, Kimberly S; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Tulsky, James A
Previous research suggests that lack of knowledge of hospice is a barrier to the use of hospice care by African Americans. However, there is little data examining racial differences in exposure to hospice information. Examine racial differences in self-reported exposure to hospice information and determine how this exposure impacts beliefs about hospice care. We surveyed 200 community-dwelling older adults (65 or older). We used Spearman's correlations to examine the relationship between responses to individual items on the Hospice Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (HBAS) and self-reported exposure to hospice information (never heard of hospice, heard a little, or heard a lot). We used multivariate analyses to examine predictors of exposure to hospice information and beliefs about hospice care (total score on HBAS). Compared to whites (n = 95), African Americans (n = 105) reported significantly less exposure to hospice information (p = 0.0004). Nineteen percent of African Americans and 4% of whites had never heard of hospice; 47.6% of African Americans and 71.6% of whites had heard a lot about hospice. In multivariate analysis controlling for demographics and health status, African Americans had a two times higher odds of reporting that they had never heard of hospice or heard only a little about hospice versus heard a lot about hospice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.24 [1.17, 4.27]. Greater exposure to hospice information was associated with more favorable beliefs about hospice care (outcome: total score on HBAS; parameter estimate 1.34, standard error 0.44, p = 002). African Americans reported less exposure to information about hospice than whites. Greater exposure to hospice information was associated with more favorable beliefs about some aspects of hospice care. Because knowledge is power, educational programs targeting older African Americans are needed to dispel myths about hospice and to provide minorities with the tools to make informed choices about end-of-life care.
Schellart, Antonius J M; Steenbeek, Romy; Mulders, Henny P G; Anema, Johannes R; Kroneman, Herman; Besseling, Jan J M
Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy) to identify the determinants of the disability assessment behaviour among insurance physicians. The research question of this study is how Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy and Intention shape the behaviour that insurance physicians themselves report with regard to the process (Behaviour: process) and content of the assessment (Behaviour: assessment) while taking account of Knowledge and Barriers. This study was based on 231 questionnaires filled in by insurance physicians, resulting into 48 scales and dimension scores. The number of variables was reduced by a separate estimation of each of the theoretical ASE constructs as a latent variable in a measurement model. The saved factor scores of these latent variables were treated as observed variables when we estimated a path model with Lisrel to confirm the ASE model. We estimated latent ASE constructs for most of the assigned scales and dimensions. All could be described and interpreted. We used these constructs to build a path model that showed a good fit. Contrary to our initial expectations, we did not find direct effects for Attitude on Intention and for Intention on self reported assessment behaviour in the model. This may well have been due to the operationalization of the concept of 'Intention'. We did, however, find that Attitude had a positive direct effect on Behaviour: process and Behaviour: Assessment and that Intention had a negative direct effect on Behaviour: process. A path model pointed to the existence of relationships between Attitude on the one hand and self-reported behaviour by insurance physicians with regard to process and content of occupational disability assessments on the other hand. In addition, Intention was only
Ortigue, Stephanie; Grafton, Scott T; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco
Current multidimensional models of women's sexual function acknowledge the implicit impact of psychosocial factors on women's sexual function. Interaction between human sexual function and intensity of love has been also assumed, even if love is not an absolute condition. Yet, whereas great insights have been made in understanding the central mechanisms of the peripheral manifestations of women's sexual response, including orgasm, the cerebral correlates sustaining the interaction between women's sexual satisfaction and the unconscious role of the partner in this interpersonal experience remain unknown. Using functional imaging, we assessed brain activity elicited when 29 healthy female volunteers were unconsciously exposed to the subliminal presentation of their significant partner's name (a task known to elicit a partner-related neural network) and correlated it with individual scores obtained from different sexual dimensions: self-reported partnered orgasm quality (ease, satisfaction, frequency), love intensity and emotional closeness with that partner. Behavioral results identified a correlation between love and self-reported partnered orgasm quality. The more women were in love/emotionally close to their partner, the more they tended to report being satisfied with the quality of their partnered orgasm. However, no relationship was found between intensity of love and partnered orgasm frequency. Neuroimaging data expanded these behavioral results by demonstrating the involvement of a specific left-lateralized insula focus of neural activity correlating with orgasm scores, irrespective of dimension (frequency, ease, satisfaction). In contrast, intensity of being in love was correlated with a network involving the angular gyrus. These findings strongly suggest that intimate and sexual relationships are sustained by partly different mechanisms, even if they share some emotional-related mechanisms. The critical correlation between self-reports of orgasm quality and
Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Kora, Krishna; O'Connor, Kathy; Schofield, Sharon; Coon, David; Nieri, Walter
Previous studies investigating the relationship between sleep duration and cognitive function in older adults have suggested that longer sleep durations are associated with decreased cognitive performance. The intent of this study is to determine if performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) is associated with self-reported sleep duration in older adults. Data from 189 cognitively normal older adults aged 75 and older (mean age 89.29 ± 7.62) and free of severe depression were used for this analysis. Individuals were grouped based on their self-reported hours of sleep (short duration = 9, and long duration = ≥9). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to discern group differences on the MoCA scores, while multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between MoCA and MMSE scores and sleep group. The long duration group had significantly lower MoCA scores than the normal duration group (p = 0.02). The short duration group was not significantly different from the normal duration group (p = 0.33). Individuals in the short duration group were more likely to have higher MoCA scores than those in long duration group after adjusting for age, gender, and presence of depressive symptoms [OR 0.86, 95 % CI (0.76, 0.98), p = 0.02]. The results of this study suggest that in a group of non-demented, very old subjects, self-reported sleep duration of nine or more hours is associated with decreased cognitive performance on the MoCA in older adults, even after accounting for age, gender, and presence of depressive symptoms.
Brown, E Sherwood; Murray, Michelle; Carmody, Thomas J; Kennard, Beth D; Hughes, Carroll W; Khan, David A; Rush, A John
Despite the high co-occurrence between depression and asthma, few studies have addressed methods assessing the severity of depressive symptoms among patients with asthma. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report (QIDS-SR16), a 16-item measure of depressive symptom severity, in patients with asthma. The psychometric properties of the QIDS-SR16 were compared at treatment exit with those of the 30-item self-report Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR30) and the 17-item clinician-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) in 73 outpatients with asthma who were treated with citalopram or placebo for nonpsychotic major depressive disorder. Correlations between the depression rating scales and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire were calculated. Internal consistency at exit was strong for the QIDS-SR16 (Cronbach alpha values are .87 for the QIDS-SR16, .95 for the IDS-SR30, and .87 for the HRSD17). The QIDS-SR16 and HRSD17 total scores were highly correlated (r = 0.85), as were the QIDS-SR16 and IDS-SR30 total scores (r = 0.97). All QIDS-SR16 item total score correlations were significant (P SR30, and HRSD17 showed comparable sensitivity to symptom change, indicating high concurrent validity for all 3 scales. The total QIDS-SR16 baseline to exit change score demonstrated a significant negative correlation (r = -0.49, P < .001) with the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Thus, greater depressive symptom severity was associated with lower asthma-related quality of life. The QIDS-SR16 showed good reliability and impressive construct validity. Strong psychometric properties of this brief self-report format and its sensitivity to treatment change suggest that the QIDS-SR16 is a valuable clinical tool.
Brown, E. Sherwood; Murray, Michelle; Carmody, Thomas J.; Kennard, Beth D.; Hughes, Carroll W.; Khan, David A.; Rush, A. John
Background Despite the high co-occurrence between depression and asthma, few studies have addressed methods assessing the severity of depressive symptoms among patients with asthma. Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-report (QIDS-SR16), a 16-item measure of depressive symptom severity, in patients with asthma. Methods The psychometric properties of the QIDS-SR16 were compared at treatment exit with those of the 30-item self-report Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR30) and the 17-item clinician-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) in 73 outpatients with asthma who were treated with citalopram or placebo for nonpsychotic major depressive disorder. Correlations between the depression rating scales and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire were calculated. Results Internal consistency at exit was strong for the QIDS-SR16 (Cronbach α values are .87 for the QIDS-SR16, .95 for the IDS-SR30, and .87 for the HRSD17). The QIDS-SR16 and HRSD17 total scores were highly correlated (r = 0.85), as were the QIDS-SR16 and IDS-SR30 total scores (r = 0.97). All QIDS-SR16 item total score correlations were significant (P SR30, and HRSD17 showed comparable sensitivity to symptom change, indicating high concurrent validity for all 3 scales. The total QIDS-SR16 baseline to exit change score demonstrated a significant negative correlation (r = −0.49, P < .001) with the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Thus, greater depressive symptom severity was associated with lower asthma-related quality of life. Conclusions The QIDS-SR16 showed good reliability and impressive construct validity. Strong psychometric properties of this brief self-report format and its sensitivity to treatment change suggest that the QIDS-SR16 is a valuable clinical tool. PMID:18517074
Heine, M.; Akker, L.E. van den; Blikman, L.; Hoekstra, T.; Munster, E. van; Verschuren, O.; Visser-Meily, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Knoop, H.; Jong, B.A. de
OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess real-time patterns of fatigue; (2) to assess the association between a real-time fatigue score and 3 commonly used questionnaires (Checklist Individual Strength [CIS] fatigue subscale, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]); and (3) to
Heine, Martin; van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Blikman, Lyan; Hoekstra, T.; van Munster, Erik; Verschuren, Olaf; Visser-Meily, Anne; Kwakkel, Gert
OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess real-time patterns of fatigue; (2) to assess the association between a real-time fatigue score and 3 commonly used questionnaires (Checklist Individual Strength [CIS] fatigue subscale, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]); and (3) to
Lentz, Trevor A.; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Tillman, Susan M.; Indelicato, Peter A.; Moser, Michael W.; George, Steven Z.; Chmielewski, Terese L.
STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional cohort. OBJECTIVES (1) To examine differences in clinical variables (demographics, knee impairments, and self-report measures) between those who return to preinjury level of sports participation and those who do not at 1 year following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, (2) to determine the factors most strongly associated with return-to-sport status in a multivariate model, and (3) to explore the discriminatory value of clinical variables associated with return to sport at 1 year postsurgery. BACKGROUND Demographic, physical impairment, and psychosocial factors individually prohibit return to preinjury levels of sports participation. However, it is unknown which combination of factors contributes to sports participation status. METHODS Ninety-four patients (60 men; mean age, 22.4 years) 1 year post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included. Clinical variables were collected and included demographics, knee impairment measures, and self-report questionnaire responses. Patients were divided into “yes return to sports” or “no return to sports” groups based on their answer to the question, “Have you returned to the same level of sports as before your injury?” Group differences in demographics, knee impairments, and self-report questionnaire responses were analyzed. Discriminant function analysis determined the strongest predictors of group classification. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves determined the discriminatory accuracy of the identified clinical variables. RESULTS Fifty-two of 94 patients (55%) reported yes return to sports. Patients reporting return to preinjury levels of sports participation were more likely to have had less knee joint effusion, fewer episodes of knee instability, lower knee pain intensity, higher quadriceps peak torque-body weight ratio, higher score on the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and lower levels of kinesiophobia. Knee
Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Medeiros, Daniel de Sousa; Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Caldeira, Antônio Prates
To analyze the self-reported outcomes after hearing aid fitting among individuals in the northern region of Minas Gerais and associated factors. A cross-sectional and analytical study with a random sample of adults and elderly attending the public health care service was conducted in the northern region of Minas Gerais (86 municipalities), Brazil. Study's participants answered International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) questionnaires. Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically with Poisson regression analysis. We interviewed 272 adults and 112 individuals reported not using their hearing aids regularly. The mean of IOI-HA global score was lower than expected. The individual's relationship with their hearing aid (Factor 1) was worse than the individual's relationship with their environment (Factor 2). Lower global scores were statistically associated with no work. The observed scores for the study's population are lower than those recorded in other studies. The results suggest that there are limitations in the fitting and follow-up of individuals who received hearing aids.
Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.
Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and
Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.
De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C
Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.
Özener, Barış; Atamtürk, Derya; Duyar, İzzet
In recent years, several researchers have focused on the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and aggression. These studies reveal conflicting results. In this study, we examined the relationship between bodily symmetry and self-reported aggressive behavior in healthy young people living in Turkey. The sample comprised of 100 male and 102 female university students recruited from Cumhuriyet University, Sivas. The Buss and Perry aggressiveness questionnaire was used. Four bilateral traits were measured for fluctuating asymmetry analysis. For the subsequent statistical analyses, only the composite asymmetry index was used. There was no relationship between composite asymmetry and any component of aggressiveness for either sex. Our findings for people living in Turkey did not support the hypothesis that aggressiveness, as a signal of evolutionary fitness, is related to developmental instability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Orr, Robin Marc; Coyle, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Pope, Rodney
The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational load carriage constitutes a significant source of injury to military soldiers. An online survey was sent to soldiers serving in specific Australian Army Corps known to experience the greatest occupational exposure to load carriage. Of the 338 respondents, 34% sustained at least one load carriage injury. Fifty-two per cent of those injured during initial training reported sustaining an additional load carriage injury. The majority of injuries (61%) were to the lower limbs with bones and joints the most frequently injured body structures (39%). Endurance marching (continuous marching as part of a physical training session) was the activity accounting for most (38%) injuries. Occupational load carriage is associated with military soldier injuries and, once injured, soldiers are at a high risk of future load carriage injury. The bodily sites and nature of self-reported injuries in this study are akin to those of formally reported injuries and those of other militaries.
Østerås, N; Jordan, K P; Clausen, B
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare patient perceived quality of osteoarthritis (OA) management in primary healthcare in Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK. METHODS: Participants consulting with clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA were identified in 30 general practices and invited to complete...... a cross-sectional survey including quality indicators (QI) for OA care. A QI was considered as eligible if the participant had checked 'Yes' or 'No', and as achieved if the participant had checked 'Yes' to the indicator. The median percentage (with IQR and range) of eligible QIs achieved by country...... was determined and compared in negative binominal regression analysis. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. The median percentage of eligible QIs achieved (checked 'Yes') was 48...
Full Text Available Background: Indias older population is projected to increase up to 96 million by 2011 with older people accounting for 18% of its population by 2051. The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of older adults in developing countries. Objectives: To examine age and socio-economic changes on a range of key domains in self-reported health and well-being amongst older adults. Design: A cross-sectional survey of 5,430 adults aged 50 and over using a shortened version of the SAGE questionnaire to assess self-reported assessments (scales of 1–5 of performance, function, disability, quality of life and well-being. Self-reported responses were calibrated using anchoring vignettes in eight key domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, interpersonal relationships, sleep/energy, affect, and vision. WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index and WHO health scores were calculated to examine for associations with socio-demographic variables. Results: Disability in all domains increased with increasing age and decreasing levels of education. Females and the oldest old without a living spouse reported poorer health status and greater disability across all domains. Performance and functionality self-reports were similar across all SES quintiles. Self-reports on quality of life were not significantly influenced by socio-demographic variables. Discussion: The study provides standardised and comparable self-rated health data using anchoring vignettes in an older population. Though expectations of good health, function and performance decrease with age, self-reports of disability severity significantly increased with age, more so if female, if uneducated and living without a spouse. However, the presence or absence of spouse did not significantly alter quality of life self-reports, suggesting a possible protective effect provided by traditional joint family structures in India, where older
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.
Akano, Obinna F
There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.
Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Sun, Fangui; Cheng, J Jojo; Chow, Erika T; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Murabito, Joanne M
Amongst women with certain types of ovulatory disorder infertility, the studies are conflicting whether there is an increased risk of long-term cardiovascular disease risk. This paper evaluates the associations of several CVD risk factors among Framingham women with self-reported infertility. Women who completed the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation and Omni Cohort 2 Exam 2 (2008-2011), and reported on past history of infertility and current cardiovascular disease status were included in this cross-sectional study. Directly measured CVD risk factors were: resting blood pressure, fasting lipid levels, fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI). Multivariable models adjusted for age, smoking, physical activity, and cohort. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for family correlations. We performed sensitivity analyses to determine whether the association between infertility and CVD risk factors is modified by menopausal status and menstrual cycle length. Comparing women who self-reported infertility to those who did not, there was an average increase in BMI (β = 1.03 kg/m(2), 95% CI: 0.18, 1.89), waist circumference (β = 3.08 in., 95% CI: 1.06, 5.09), triglycerides (β = 4.47 mg/dl, 95% CI:-1.54, 10.49), and a decrease in HDL cholesterol (β = -1.60 mg/dl, 95% CI: -3.76, 0.56). We estimated that infertile premenopausal women have an increased odds of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11, 4.49) and diabetes (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 0.86, 4.49). BMI and waist circumference were the most strongly correlated CVD risk factors amongst women reporting a history of infertility.
Sharma, Leigh; Kohl, Krista; Morgan, Theresa A; Clark, Lee Anna
The trait of "impulsivity" is difficult to place within a personality framework due to the many potential pathways to impulsive behavior and the lack of consensus regarding the structure of the trait(s). This lack of consensus also hinders systematic investigation into relations between "impulsivity" and its behavioral manifestations. Undergraduates (Sample 1 N = 507) completed a battery of self-report measures, all purporting to assess trait "impulsivity"; a subset (n = 408) and Sample 2 (N = 388) also completed a retrospective questionnaire about specific behaviors they may have engaged in over the past year, and another subset of Sample 1 agreed to complete (n = 208) and actually completed (n = 152) a 2-week prospective measure of impulsive behaviors. Finally, a subset of Sample 1 (n = 321) and Sample 2 completed an omnibus self-report inventory in a follow-up study. Structural equation modeling confirmed a 3-factor structure of what we call impulsigenic traits-traits that are manifested in impulsive behavior. This finding is consistent with previous research and supports the growing consensus that "impulsivity" is a colloquial label attached to a group of distinct traits that have phenotypically similar behavioral manifestations. Each of these impulsigenic traits relates differentially to impulsive behavior and to broad temperamental dimensions. The results also show clear 2-factor structures of both daily and less frequent (yearly/semiyearly) impulsive behaviors. Finally, a unique method of data collection permitted an investigation of relations between the impulsigenic and other personality traits and observed behaviors, demonstrating the predictive utility of personality traits to discrete, in situ behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess psychometric properties of the CEAT-VIH (“Cuestionario para la Evaluación de la Adhesión al Tratamiento Antirretroviral en Personas con Infección por VIH y Sida” in the original questionnaire applied to 652 HIV+ adult Colombian population and identify perceived psychological barriers to self-reported adherence. Questionnaire items analysis showed that most items were expectedly skewed toward reporting adherence. Corrected homogeneity index for the 20 items varied between 0.08 and 0.70. However, none of the items would considerably improve the reliability if deleted. Total score on CEAT-VIH ranged from 42 to 89 (median 83, mean 80.5, SD 8.1. Mean adherence scores varied across cities. No floor (0% or ceiling (0.8% effects was observed for the CEAT-VIH adherence score, and 85% of respondents scored 87 or below (cutoff score ≥ 87 = strict adherence. The instrument showed good reliability (Cronbach’s α = .86 and evidences of criterion-related validity. Adherence behaviors seemed to be particularly at risk when the patients felt physically better or worse or emotionally distressed, if they perceived adherence as difficult and requiring time and effort, if they had less confidence in their ability to comply with medications, if they felt less satisfied with their treatment and consultant, if they had low information about the treatment and if they experienced burden side effects. The application of the CEAT-VIH to Colombian HIV+ adult population shows to be useful, reliable, and valid, and it allows recommending the instrument for research and clinical practice assessment in this population.
Jain, Rahul; Arora, Anshita; Anand, Rohit; Malhotra, Shahzadi; Mittal, Medha; Juneja, Monica
To design and validate Hindi-language parent self-report developmental screening questionnaires for 9-month and 18-month-old Indian children. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-care pediatric hospital from April 2014 to March 2016. In each age group (9-month and 18-month), 45 children were enrolled for designing of questionnaires (30 for obtaining parental observations of current development and 15 for pre-testing). For validation of tool, 100 children (60 low risk and 40 high risk) were enrolled in each age group. For designing, observations regarding current developmental milestones were obtained from parents and a list of all enumerated milestones was prepared. After detailed discussion by a team of developmental pediatricians, pediatric resident, clinical psychologist and language specialist, milestones were chosen for drafting of questionnaires. In each age group, drafts were pre-tested and required modifications were done. The final questionnaires contained 20 items each to be scored on a Likert scale (total score ranging from 20 to 60, a lower score indicating a higher risk of developmental delay). These questionnaires were validated against Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII), a gold standard instrument. On ROC analysis, the 9-month and 18-month screening tool had area under curve of 0.988 and 0.953, respectively, for detecting developmental delay. Score ≤50 on the 9-months questionnaire had sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.2%. Score ≤49 on the 18-months questionnaire had sensitivity of 91.4% and specificity of 88.7%. The new questionnaires have a promising role in developmental screening of children at the time of routine immunizations in our country.
Siddiqui, Zishan; Qayyum, Rehan; Bertram, Amanda; Durkin, Nowella; Kebede, Sosena; Ponor, Lucia; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Allen, Lisa; Brotman, Daniel J
There is a glaring lack of published evidence-based strategies to improve the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) patient experience scores on the physician domain. Strategies that have been used are resource intensive and difficult to sustain. We hypothesized that prompting providers to assess their own etiquette-based practices every 2 weeks over the course of 1 year would improve patient experience on the physician domain. Randomized controlled trial. 4 acute care hospitals. Hospitalists. Hospitalists were randomized to the study or the control arm. The study arm was prompted every 2 weeks for 12 months to report how frequently they engaged in 7 best-practice bedside etiquette behaviors. Control arm participants received similarly worded questions on quality improvement behaviors. Provider experience scores were calculated from the physician HCAHPS and Press Ganey survey provider items. Physicians reported high rates of etiquette-based behavior at baseline, and this changed modestly over the study period. Self-reported etiquette behaviors were not associated with experience scores. The difference in difference analysis of the baseline and postintervention physician experience scores between the intervention arm and the control arm was not statistically significant (P = 0.71). In this 12-month study, biweekly reflection and reporting of best-practice bedside etiquette behaviors did not result in significant improvement on physician domain experience scores. It is likely that hospitalists' self-assessment of their bedside etiquette may not reflect patient perception of these behaviors. Furthermore, hospitalists may be resistant to improvement in this area since they rate themselves highly at baseline. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:402-406.
No associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiographic features in knee osteoarthritis patients prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty: A cross-sectional analysis of the Longitudinal Leiden Orthopaedics Outcomes of Osteo-Arthritis study (LOAS) data.
Leichtenberg, Claudia S; Meesters, Jorit J L; Kroon, Herman M; Verdegaal, Suzan H M; Tilbury, Claire; Dekker, Joost; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van der Esch, Martin
To describe the prevalence of self-reported knee joint instability in patients with pre-surgery knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. A cross-sectional study including patients scheduled for primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). Self-reported knee instability was examined by questionnaire. Radiological features consisted of osteophyte formation and joint space narrowing (JSN), both scored on a 0 to three scale. Scores >1 are defined as substantial JSN or osteophyte formation. Regression analyses were provided to identify associations of radiological features with self-reported knee joint instability. Two hundred and sixty-five patients (mean age 69years and 170 females) were included. Knee instability was reported by 192 patients (72%). Substantial osteophyte formation was present in 78 patients (41%) reporting and 33 patients (46%) not reporting knee joint instability. Substantial JSN was present in 137 (71%) and 53 patients (73%), respectively. Self-reported knee instability was not associated with JSN (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.87 (0.30-2.54), 0.98 (0.38-2.52), 0.68 (0.25-1.86), respectively) or osteophyte formation (relative to score 0, odds ratios (95% CI) of score 1, 2 and 3 were 0.77 (0.36-1.64), 0.69 (0.23-1.45), 0.89 (0.16-4.93), respectively). Stratified analysis for pain, age and BMI showed no associations between self-reported knee joint instability and radiological features. Self-reported knee joint instability is not associated with JSN or osteophyte formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rachele, Jerome N; Cuddihy, Thomas F; Washington, Tracy L; McPhail, Steven M
Potential positive associations between youth physical activity and wellness scores could emphasize the value of youth physical activity engagement and promotion interventions, beyond the many established physiological and psychological benefits of increased physical activity. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between adolescents' self-reported physical activity and wellness. This investigation included 493 adolescents (165 males and 328 females) aged between 12 and 15 years. The participants were recruited from six secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status within a metropolitan area. Students were administered the Five-Factor Wellness Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents to assess both wellness and physical activity, respectively. Data indicated that significant associations between physical activity and wellness existed. Self-reported physical activity was shown to be positively associated with four dimensions including friendship, gender identity, spirituality, and exercise-the higher order factor physical self and total wellness, and negatively associated with self-care, self-worth, love, and cultural identity. This study suggests that relationships exist between self-reported physical activity and various elements of wellness. Future research should use controlled trials of physical activity and wellness to establish causal links among youth populations. Understanding the nature of these relationships, including causality, has implications for the justification of youth physical activity promotion interventions and the development of youth physical activity engagement programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McIntyre, Lynn; Wu, Xiuyun; Kwok, Cynthia; Patten, Scott B
We used longitudinal data to clarify the association between self-report of hunger and subsequent depression risk among youth and young adults, accounting for other risk factors. Youth self-report of ever experiencing hunger data were collected from cycles 4-6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth cohort of Canadian youth 16 years and older (n = 4139). Data on depressive symptoms (CES-D 12) were collected over three cycles (2004-2009, cycles 6-8). We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship. The prevalence of youth hunger experience and depression risk reached 5.9 and 15.0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of depression for participants reporting hunger was 2.31 (95% CI 1.54, 3.46) and changed little [2.17 (95% CI 1.29, 3.67)] after accounting for previous CES-D 12 scores, suggesting a temporal relationship in which hunger contributes to depression risk. Unlike never-hungry youth, depression in ever-hungry youth remained comparatively elevated over time. Our models support an independent and temporal relationship between youth self-report of hunger and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.
Paterson, Charlotte; Britten, Nicky
Accurate individualized data on drug consumption is required for a number of purposes. While electronic medication event monitoring is the best objective measure available, self-report tools would be a useful alternative in certain situations. We searched for validated self-completion questionnaires suitable for measuring change in medication. A systematic search of the English language literature since 1980, and a narrative literature review. Few articles described the development or use of self-report methods to measure change in medication over time. We found no questionnaire that was commonly used for this purpose, nor one that had been evaluated and published. Considerable work has been undertaken to develop questionnaires or diaries for individual projects, but because these tools and their validation are rarely published, they are not available for other researchers to use, and comparison across studies is difficult. Some work has been done developing diary formats and the Medication Quantification Scale converts complex medication change data to a single numerical score. Medication change is rarely considered as an outcome, and when it is measured, nonstandardized methods are used. More attention needs to be given to developing self-report tools and validating them across a range of criteria.
Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.
Martin, Jennifer L; Fiorentino, Lavinia; Jouldjian, Stella; Mitchell, Michael; Josephson, Karen R; Alessi, Cathy A
To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep quality among older adults during inpatient post-acute rehabilitation and one-year survival. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two inpatient post-acute rehabilitation sites (one community and one Veterans Administration). Older patients (aged ≥ 65 years, n = 245) admitted for inpatient post-acute rehabilitation. None. Within one year of post-acute rehabilitation, 57 participants (23%) were deceased. Cox proportional hazards models showed that worse Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) total scores during the post-acute care stay were associated with increased mortality risk when controlling for amount of rehabilitation therapy received, comorbidities, and cognitive functioning (Hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.11 [1.02-1.20]). Actigraphically estimated sleep was unrelated to mortality risk. Poorer self-reported sleep quality, but not objectively estimated sleep parameters, during post-acute rehabilitation was associated with shorter survival among older adults. This suggests self-reported poor sleep may be an important and potentially modifiable risk factor for negative outcomes in these vulnerable older adults. Studies of interventions to improve sleep quality during inpatient rehabilitation should therefore be undertaken, and the long-term health benefits of improved sleep should be explored.
Visted, Endre; Sørensen, Lin; Osnes, Berge; Svendsen, Julie L; Binder, Per-Einar; Schanche, Elisabeth
Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with development and maintenance of psychopathology. Typically, features of emotion regulation are assessed with self-report questionnaires. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective measure proposed as an index of emotional regulation capacity. A limited number of studies have shown that self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with HRV. However, results from prior studies are inconclusive, and an ecological validation of the association has not yet been tested. Therefore, further exploration of the relation between self-report questionnaires and psychophysiological measures of emotional regulation is needed. The present study investigated the contribution of self-reported emotion regulation difficulties on HRV in a student sample. We expected higher scores on emotion regulation difficulties to be associated with lower vagus-mediated HRV (vmHRV). Sixty-three participants filled out the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and their resting HRV was assessed. In addition, a subsample of participants provided ambulatory 24-h HRV data, in order to ecologically validate the resting data. Correlation analyses indicated that self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation was negatively associated with vmHRV in both resting HRV and 24-h HRV. Specifically, when exploring the contribution of the different facets of emotion dysregulation, the inability to accept negative emotions showed the strongest association with HRV. The results are discussed and need for future research is described.
Despite the recent escalation of research into the spirituality and well-being link, past efforts have been plagued by methodological problems. However, the potential for measurement error within psychometric instruments remains largely unexplored. After reviewing theory and evidence suggesting spirituality might represent an affective misattribution, moderation modeling-with each subjective well-being (SWB) subscale as a dependent variable as predicted by the remaining SWB subscales-is utilized to test the assumption of scale invariance. These interrelationships were shown to vary in conjunction with spirituality; that is the analysis revealed significant spirituality x subscale interactions. Importantly, in all models the spirituality main effect was either nonsignificant or accounted for by other predictors. In combination, the findings suggest the interrelationship between the subscales rather than the level of SWB varies systematically with spirituality and casts considerable doubt on the previously reported "belief-as-benefit" effect.
Villeneuve, Paul J; Ali, Amira; Challacombe, Laurel; Hebert, Sophie
In 2004, hog farming operations were introduced in the village of Sarsfield in the eastern part of Ottawa, Canada. This study evaluates the health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the prevalence of respiratory conditions among adults and children who lived in proximity to this farm. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a random sample of residents from seven rural communities in the eastern part of Ottawa, Canada. We analyzed self-reported questionnaire data obtained from 723 adults and 285 children/adolescents. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 survey instrument, while data were also collected for sociodemographic characteristics, the prevalence of selected health conditions, and lifestyle related behaviours (e.g., smoking) of participants. Variations in self-reported health according to the residential distance to the hog farm were evaluated using logistic regression and analysis of variance methods. For the most part, the prevalence of selected health conditions among adults and children was not associated with how far they lived from the farm. No associations were observed with migraines, respiratory conditions (asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, and chronic bronchitis), and allergies. However, a higher prevalence of depression was noted among those who lived within 3 km of the farm relative to those who lived more than 9 km away (odds ratio = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.65). Furthermore, individuals who lived closer to the IHF were more likely to worry about environmental issues such as water quality, outdoor and indoor smells, and air pollution. This level of worry also contributed to lower HRQOL scores for individuals who lived closer to the farm. It was also observed that the prevalence of depression was much higher among those who indicated a concern about environmental issues (18.2%) when compared to those who did not (8.0%). While our findings suggest that living in close proximity to an IHF may adversely affect HRQOL these should be interpreted
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Salmanian, Maryam; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh Gharibeh, Heydar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Motavallian, Ali
The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran. In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors. Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%), and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%). Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05). Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4), hyperactivity problems (21.5%) and overall criterion problems (17.3%); Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1%) and problems with peers (8.1%); and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%). In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12 to 14
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12
Iwaya, Tsutomu; Doi, Tokuhide; Seichi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Ogata, Toru; Akai, Masami
Locomotive disorders due to musculoskeletal involvement are one of the main causes requiring long-term care services in aging Japan. "Locomotive syndrome (LoS)" is a concept referring to the condition under which people require assistance from others or at risk in future. The object of this study is to examine the relationship between self-reported measure and physician-judged degrees on ADL disability in elder people with locomotive disorders. In a cross-sectional study, 711 patients who were aged 65 years old or more were recruited from 49 outpatient clinics and hospitals. We investigated ADL disabilities by self-reported questionnaire (Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale-25: GLFS-25) and physician-judged grading (Locomotive Dysfunction Grade: LDG) and examined the relationship between these two. We classified the severity of locomotive disability by clinical phenotype into six grades: LDG Grade 1 (N = 77), Grade 2 (213), Grade 3 (139), Grade 4 (162), Grade 5 (78), and Grade 6 (42). The mean of GLFS-25 was 25.9. The mean of GLFS-25 was 5.68 for Grade 1, 14.33 for Grade 2, 22.34 for Grade 3, 35.40 for Grade 4, 43.25 for Grade 5, and 60.24 for Grade 6. Significant differences of GLFS-25 scores were found between adjacent LDGs. Physician-judged grade of locomotive dysfunction was significantly related to self-reported assessment scale on ADL disability. Physician-judged dysfunction grade is readily administered scale and useful to assess the severity of locomotive dysfunction. Self-reported scale provides precise information on ADL disabilities due to locomotive organ dysfunction and is useful to develop intervention programs.
St Clair, Michelle C; Neufeld, Sharon; Jones, Peter B; Fonagy, Peter; Bullmore, Edward T; Dolan, Raymond J; Moutoussis, Michael; Toseeb, Umar; Goodyer, Ian M
Little is known about the underlying relationships between self-reported mental health items measuring both positive and negative emotional and behavioural symptoms at the population level in young people. Improved measurement of the full range of mental well-being and mental illness may aid in understanding the aetiological substrates underlying the development of both mental wellness as well as specific psychiatric diagnoses. A general population sample aged 14 to 24 years completed self-report questionnaires on anxiety, depression, psychotic-like symptoms, obsessionality and well-being. Exploratory and confirmatory factor models for categorical data and latent profile analyses were used to evaluate the structure of both mental wellness and illness items. First order, second order and bifactor structures were evaluated on 118 self-reported items obtained from 2228 participants. A bifactor solution was the best fitting latent variable model with one general latent factor termed 'distress' and five 'distress independent' specific factors defined as self-confidence, antisocial behaviour, worry, aberrant thinking, and mood. Next, six distinct subgroups were derived from a person-centred latent profile analysis of the factor scores. Finally, concurrent validity was assessed using information on hazardous behaviours (alcohol use, substance misuse, self-harm) and treatment for mental ill health: both discriminated between the latent traits and latent profile subgroups. The findings suggest a complex, multidimensional mental health structure in the youth population rather than the previously assumed first or second order factor structure. Additionally, the analysis revealed a low hazardous behaviour/low mental illness risk subgroup not previously described. Population sub-groups show greater validity over single variable factors in revealing mental illness risks. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the structure of self reported mental health is multidimensional in
Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A
There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I
Background Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. Methods We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November–December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. Results 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusion Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. PMID:28607098
Cho, Hyunsan; Luseno, Winnie; Halpern, Carolyn; Zhang, Lei; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Hallfors, Denise Dion
This paper examines the discordance between biological data of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections and self-reported questionnaire responses among orphan adolescents in Western Kenya. In 2011, 837 orphan adolescents from 26 primary schools were enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. At baseline, blood samples were drawn for HIV and HSV-2 infection biomarker testing, and participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey. Comparing biological data with self-reported responses indicated that 70% of HIV-positive (7 out of 10) and 64% of HSV-2-positive (18 out of 28 positive) participants reported never having had sex. Among ever-married adolescents, 65% (57 out of 88) reported never having had sex. Overall, 10% of study participants appeared to have inconsistently reported their sexual behaviour. Logistic regression analyses indicated that lower educational level and exam scores were significant predictors of inconsistent reporting. Our study demonstrates the discordance between infections measured by biomarkers and self-reports of having had sex among orphan adolescents in Kenya. In order to detect programme effects accurately in prevention research, it is necessary to collect both baseline and endline biological data. Furthermore, it is recommended to triangulate multiple data sources about adolescent participants' self-reported information about marriage and pregnancies from school records and parent/guardians to verify the information. Researchers should recognise potential threats to validity in data and design surveys to consider cognitive factors and/or cultural context to obtain more accurate and reliable information from adolescents regarding HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviours. NCT01501864. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Strasser, Elisa Sophie; Haffner, Paula; Fiebig, Jana; Quinlivan, Esther; Adli, Mazda; Stamm, Thomas Josef
Impulsivity as a tendency to act quickly without considering future consequences has been proposed as a dimensional factor in bipolar disorder. It can be measured using behavioral tasks and self-report questionnaires. Previous findings revealed patients to show worse performance on at least one behavioral measure of impulsivity. Additionally, self-reported impulsivity seems to be higher among bipolar patients, both parameters being possibly associated with a more severe course of illness. In this study, our primary aim was to investigate the relationship between these two constructs of impulsivity among bipolar patients. A total of 40 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (21 female, 22 Bipolar I) and 30 healthy controls were recruited for comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. To assess inhibition control as a behavioral measure of impulsivity, the Stroop Color and Word Test (Stroop) was used. Additionally, both groups completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) as a self-report of impulsivity. To compare the groups' performance on the Stroop and ratings on the BIS, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. Within the bipolar group, we additionally examined the possibility of an association between Stroop performance and BIS total scores using Pearson's Correlation r. Patients and controls differed significantly on the Stroop and BIS, with patients performing worse on the Stroop and scoring higher on the BIS. However, there was no association between the Stroop and BIS within the bipolar group. As an exploratory analysis, a positive correlation between Stroop performance and number of episodes was found. Further, we detected a statistical trend in the direction of poorer Stroop performance among patients treated with polypharmacy. Both difficulties with behavioral inhibition and self-reported impulsivity were observed to be higher in bipolar patients than controls in the current study. However, within the patient group we did not observe an
Crespin, Daniel J; Abraham, Jean M; Rothman, Alexander J
Employers are increasingly trying to promote healthy behaviors, including regular exercise, through wellness programs that offer financial incentives. However, there is limited evidence that these types of programs affect exercise habits within employee populations. In this study, we estimate the effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise. Since 2008, the University of Minnesota's Fitness Rewards Program has offered a $20 monthly incentive to encourage fitness center utilization among its employees. Using 2006 to 2010 health risk assessments and university administrative files for 2972 employees, we conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing propensity score methods to estimate the effect of participation in the Fitness Rewards Program on self-reported exercise days per week from 2008 to 2010. On average, participation in the program led to an increase of 0.59 vigorous exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.42, 0.78) and 0.43 strength-building exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.31, 0.58) in 2008 for participants relative to non-participants. Increases in exercise persisted through 2010. Employees reporting less frequent exercise prior to the program were least likely to participate in the program, but when they participated they had the largest increases in exercise compared to non-participants. Offering an incentive for fitness center utilization encourages higher levels of exercise. Future policies may want to concentrate on how to motivate participation among individuals who are less frequently physically active. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liaw, Sok Ying; Scherpbier, Albert; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee
With extensive use of simulation in nursing education, researchers around the world are evaluating learning outcomes from simulation. Numerous studies reported the use of knowledge tests and self-reported measures to evaluate simulation outcomes. To determine whether self-reported confidence and knowledge measures are indicators of clinical performance observed in a simulation-based assessment. Thirty-one third year nursing students were randomized into intervention and control group. The intervention group received a six hour simulation-based programme in care of a patient with physiological deterioration. Pre and post-tests using knowledge test, confidence scale and simulation-based assessment were conducted immediately before and after the simulation program. The intervention group had a significantly higher post-test mean score than the control group for knowledge and clinical performances. Both groups demonstrated a significant improvement on post-test scores from pre-test scores for self-confidence with no significant differences detected among the two groups. Correlation tests indicated no significant correlation between self-confidence and clinical performance, and between knowledge and clinical performance. The study did not provide evidence to support the validity of the knowledge test and self-confidence measures for predicting clinical performance. Most importantly, it revealed potential danger of a simulation-based assessment that could lead toward overestimation of self-confidence. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Atilola, Olayinka; Singh Balhara, Yatan Pal; Stevanovic, Dejan; Avicenna, Mohamad; Kandemir, Hasan
To evaluate the prevalence, pattern, and sociodemographic correlates of self-reported mental health problems among a pilot sample of adolescents from 5 developing countries and to speculate the methodology and design of a larger scale study. The sociodemographic questionnaire was developed based on extant literature on the sociodemographic correlates of mental health problems among adolescents. Additional information about the socioeconomic status of parents/caregivers of the participants was obtained using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Mental health problems were evaluated using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). Logistic regression analysis was done to determine independent sociodemographic correlates of mental health problems. A total of 1894 adolescents sampled from 5 countries completed the study. The prevalence of self-reported mental health problems was 10.5% (range, 5.8-15) with conduct and emotional problems being the most prevalent. When the raw total-SDQ scores were adjusted for age, gender, and FAS scores, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean scores among the adolescents from different countries (F = 17.23, p mental health problems. Study has added to the currently limited data on prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in developing countries. It further established that socioeconomic and family factors still play a major role in the mental health of children irrespective of region of the world. Significant but surmountable methodological issues for a larger scale study were raised.
Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with
The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.
Rousselot-Pailley, B; Fortin, C; Golse, B; Falissard, B; Robel, L
We have previously developed the FAQ self-report, an adaptation of the Baron-Cohen's Autism Quotient self-report, in order to detect traits of the autistic spectrum in the parents and siblings of children with autism. We have previously shown that parents of children with autism show significant differences in their global scores and in their social functioning scores according to their answers to the FAQ self-report. Our aim was to validate the FAQ self-report in a population of control parents, and to confirm our previous results concerning parents of children with autism. Hundred and twenty-seven adults (67 female, 60 male), parents of children with normal development were recruited in the general population. They were asked to fulfill the 40 questions of the FAQ self-report at two different times. Sixty-six parents of children with autism were asked to fulfill the FAQ self-report, for group comparisons. Statistical factor analysis and test-retest reliability analysis was performed with the Matlab toolbox(©) software. Statistical factor analysis and test-retest reliability show that the FAQ is structured in two main factors, socialization and communication on one hand, rigidity and imagination on the other, with good test-retest reliability. Further comparison between parents of children with autism and control parents shows a significant difference between the two groups for the socialization and communication domain, and for the global score. We show for the first time that scores of the parents of children with autism remain unchanged from infancy to adulthood. The FAQ is the first French validated self-report focused on the detection of traits of the autistic spectrum in parents and siblings of children with autism. It is structured in two main factors, corresponding to imagination/rigidity, which are negatively correlated, and communication and socialization, which are positively correlated. The FAQ is therefore a reliable instrument to measure
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual counselling, pharmacotherapy, and group therapy are evidence-based interventions that help patients stop smoking. Acupuncture, hypnosis, and relaxation have no demonstrated efficacy on smoking cessation, whereas self-help material may only have a small benefit. The purpose of this study is to assess physicians' current clinical practice regarding smokers motivated to stop smoking. Methods The survey included 3385 Swiss primary care physicians. Self-reported use of nine smoking cessation interventions was scored. One point was given for each positive answer about practicing interventions with demonstrated efficacy, i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, counselling, group therapy, and smoking cessation specialist. No points were given for the recommendation of acupuncture, hypnosis, relaxation, and self-help material. Multivariable logistic analysis was performed to identify factors associated with a good practice score, defined as ≥ 2. Results The response rate was 55%. Respondents were predominately over the age of 40 years (88%, male (79%, and resided in urban areas (74%. Seventeen percent reported being smokers. Most of the physicians prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (84%, bupropion (65%, or provided counselling (70%. A minority of physicians recommended acupuncture (26%, hypnosis (8%, relaxation (7%, or self-help material (24%. A good practice score was obtained by 85% of respondents. Having attended a smoking cessation-training program was the only significant predictor of a good practice score (odds ratio: 6.24, 95% CI 1.95–20.04. Conclusion The majority of respondents practice recommended smoking cessation interventions. However, there is room for improvement and implementing an evidence-based smoking cessation-training program could provide additional benefit.
Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grotle, Margreth
The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to 6 = extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica. PMID:19488793
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Cousins, Ann; Freizinger, Melissa; Duffy, Mary E; Gregas, Matthew; Wolfe, Barbara E
To compare eating disorder (ED) symptoms in women seeking treatment for infertility to women receiving routine primary care. A cross-sectional comparative design. Women were recruited from two infertility centers and a general hospital primary care setting. Participants included 51 women seeking treatment for ovulatory and unexplained infertility and 34 women attending routine primary care. Participants completed a battery of standardized rating scales measuring self-reported ED symptoms, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, body dissatisfaction, and related clinical characteristics. Multivariate analysis of covariance confirmed that women seeking treatment for infertility had significantly greater scores on measures of drive for thinness (p = .001) and bulimic symptoms (p = .002) than those receiving routine primary care. However, the comparison group had significantly greater scores on measures of body dissatisfaction (p infertility group. Both groups had elevated rates of lifetime ED diagnoses compared to national prevalence rates. Results demonstrated that women seeking treatment for ovulatory and unexplained infertility have greater drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms but not body dissatisfaction or dietary restraint compared to women seeking primary care. The results suggest that infertility and routine health care visits may provide opportunities for early identification and treatment of women with ED symptomatology. Future studies may benefit from further elucidation of the potential role of ED symptoms in the etiology and maintenance of infertility in, particularly, normal-weight women. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.
Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B
The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering
Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze
Depersonalization (DEP) and derealization (DER) were examined among college students with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs) by self-report and clinician assessment. The Steinberg Depersonalization Questionnaire (SDEPQ), the Steinberg Derealization Questionnaire (SDERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 students. Those with BPD (n = 80) according to the SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders by a psychiatrist blind to the diagnosis. Of the participants, 19.7% reported SDEPQ (17.8%) and/or SDERQ (11.0%) scores above cutoff levels and impairment from these experiences. Principal component analysis of 26 items of both scales yielded 4 factors: cognitive-emotional self-detachment, perceptual detachment, bodily self-detachment, and detachment from reality. Participants with concurrent DD and BPD had the highest scores for DEP and DER in the clinical interview and self-report. The total number of BPD criteria was associated with the severity of childhood trauma and dissociation. Both BPD and DD were associated with clinician-assessed and self-reported DER, self-reported DEP, and the cognitive-emotional self-detachment factor. Unlike BPD, DD was associated with clinician-assessed DEP, and BPD was related to the self-reported detachment from reality factor. Although the latter was correlated with the total childhood trauma score, possibly because of dissociative amnesia, clinician-assessed DER was not. Being the closest factor to BPD, the factor of detachment from reality warrants further study.
Tjitske F. Lawerman
Full Text Available Aim: In children, gait and posture assessment provides a crucial marker for the early characterization, surveillance and treatment evaluation of early onset ataxia (EOA. For reliable data entry of studies targeting at gait and posture improvement, uniform quantitative biomarkers are necessary. Until now, the pediatric test construct of gait and posture scores of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia sub-scale (SARA is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to validate the construct validity and reliability of the pediatric (SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scale.Methods: We included 28 EOA patients [15.5 (6–34 years; median (range]. For inter-observer reliability, we determined the ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores by three independent pediatric neurologists. For convergent validity, we associated SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores with: (1 Ataxic gait Severity Measurement by Klockgether (ASMK; dynamic balance, (2 Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS; static balance, (3 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale -extended and revised version (GMFCS-E&R, (4 SARA-kinetic scores (SARAKINETIC; kinetic function of the upper and lower limbs, (5 Archimedes Spiral (AS; kinetic function of the upper limbs, and (6 total SARA scores (SARATOTAL; i.e., summed SARAGAIT/POSTURE, SARAKINETIC, and SARASPEECH sub-scores. For discriminant validity, we investigated whether EOA co-morbidity factors (myopathy and myoclonus could influence SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores.Results: The inter-observer agreement (ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores was high (0.97. SARAGAIT/POSTURE was strongly correlated with the other ataxia and functional scales [ASMK (rs = -0.819; p < 0.001; PBS (rs = -0.943; p < 0.001; GMFCS-E&R (rs = -0.862; p < 0.001; SARAKINETIC (rs = 0.726; p < 0.001; AS (rs = 0.609; p = 0.002; and SARATOTAL (rs = 0.935; p < 0.001]. Comorbid myopathy influenced SARAGAIT/POSTURE scores by concurrent muscle weakness, whereas comorbid myoclonus predominantly influenced
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the sources of knee pain in osteoarthritis (OA is believed to be related to local chronic inflammation of the knee joints, which involves the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, interleukin (IL-6, and nerve growth factor (NGF in the synovial membrane, and these cytokines are believed to promote pathological OA. In the present study, correlations between proinflammatory cytokines in knee synovial fluid and radiographic changes and functional scores and pain scores among OA patients were examined. Methods Synovial fluid was harvested from the knees of 47 consecutive OA patients, and the levels of TNFα, IL-6, and NGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoarthritic knees were classified using Kellgren-Lawrence (KL grading (1-4. The Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC was used to assess self-reported physical function, pain, and stiffness. Results TNFα and IL-6 were detectable in knee synovial, whereas NGF was not. TNFα was not correlated with the KL grade, whereas IL-6 had a significantly negative correlation. We observed differences in the correlations between TNFα and IL-6 with WOMAC scores and their subscales (pain, stiffness, and physical function. TNFα exhibited a significant correlation with the total score and its 3 subscales, whereas IL-6 exhibited a moderately significant negative correlation only with the subscale of stiffness. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines are correlated with KL grades and WOMAC scores in patients with knee OA. Although TNFα did not have a significant correlation with the radiographic grading, it was significantly associated with the WOMAC score. IL-6 had a significant negative correlation with the KL grading, whereas it had only a weakly significant correlation with the subscore of stiffness. The results suggest that these
Yuen, Hon K; Wang, Ed; Holthaus, Katy; Vogtle, Laura K; Sword, David; Breland, Hazel L; Kamen, Diane L
OBJECTIVE. We examined agreement of data between self-reported and objectively assessed exercise adherence among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHOD. Eleven participants completed weekly exercise logs on date and duration of exercise during a 10-wk Wii Fit™ home-based program. Afterward, exercise data from the log were compared with those recorded in the Wii console. RESULTS. Of the paired data, the mean duration of exercise recorded in the Wii was 29.5 min and that recorded in the log was 33.3 min. The composite intraclass correlation for exercise duration between exercise log and the Wii Fit was 0.4. The 95% limits of agreement indicated large between-subjects variability. CONCLUSION. Exercise logs exhibit a marginally acceptable agreement with Wii estimation of exercise duration at a group level. However, caution should be applied when using the exercise log as a measure of a person's exercise behavior because of the tendency to overreport. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Fan, Amy Z; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Klein, Ronald; Mokdad, Ali H; Saaddine, Jinan B; Balluz, Lina
To examine whether alcohol drinking status and drinking pattern are associated with self-reported visual impairment. We used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone health survey conducted by random-digit dialing among non-institutionalized US adults. The Visual Impairment and Access to Eye Care module was implemented among 42, 713 adults aged 50 years and older in 2005 and 2006. Visual impairment was defined as any degree of difficulty experienced in recognizing a friend across the street or reading print in newspaper, magazine, recipe, menu, or numbers on the telephone with usual correction. Drinking patterns included drinking quantity (drinks per drinking day), frequency (drinking days in the past month), and binge drinking. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, smoking status, Body Mass Index, history of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and eye diseases, current drinking status was not associated with distance and/or near vision impairment. However, drinking more than 1 drink per drinking day (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.09-1.35) and binge drinking (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.53) were associated with visual impairment among current drinkers. Among current drinkers, drinking patterns were significantly associated with near and distance vision impairment. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether drinkers who drink beyond drinking guidelines, especially binge drinkers, are at higher risk of visual impairment than those who drink at lower levels.
Brisman, J; Meding, B; Järvholm, B
To estimate the risk of bakers developing hand eczema. The importance of atopy was studied as well as change of job due to hand eczema. A retrospective cohort study was performed among bakers trained in Swedish trade schools in 1961-89 (n = 2923). School referents followed other programmes (n = 1258); population controls were randomly selected from the general population (n = 1258). A questionnaire on self reported hand eczema, year of onset of hand eczema, change of work due to hand eczema, childhood eczema, family atopy, and work history was posted to all participants. The incidence of hand eczema among male controls was 4.4-5.4 cases/1,000 person-years compared with 16.7 for bakery work. The corresponding figures for women were 11.3-14.1 compared with 34.4. The relative risk for male bakers was 3.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.8 to 4.5) and for female bakers 2.8 (2.2 to 3.6). Skin atopy increased the incidence about threefold and a synergistic effect of atopy and exposure was indicated. Also, bakers had changed job significantly more often than controls. Swedish bakers, mainly working during the 1970s and 1980s, have about a threefold increased risk of hand eczema. There seems to be a synergistic effect of atopy and occupational exposure.
Fotiadou, Maria; Livaditis, Miltos; Manou, Ioanna; Kaniotou, Eleni; Samakouri, Maria; Tzavaras, Nicolaos; Xenitidis, Kiriakos
The aim of this survey was to determine levels and severity of self-reported alcohol and drug misuse and associated physical and mental health problems in Greek male prisoners. The sample consisted of 80 randomly selected convicted and remanded male prisoners in a prison in northern Greece. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess psychiatric disorders including substance abuse and dependence. All prisoners who participated completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Those who reported daily use of opiates and stimulants completed the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Information was obtained from medical notes about the prisoners' hepatitis B and HIV status. The MINI identified 27.5% of the prisoners as dependent on opiates, 26.3% on alcohol and 73.8% as cannabis users, while 13.8% were misusing both alcohol and illicit drugs. Severity of dependence was rated, using SDS, as serious for all opiate and stimulant users. In terms of physical health examination of medical records indicated that no prisoner was HIV-positive but 26.5% were hepatitis-B-positive. Of those who had a previous history of substance misuse, 31.2% fulfilled the criteria for depression and 37.5% for antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, 15% of those misusing substances had a previous history of deliberate self-harm and 16% were assessed to have moderate to high suicide risk. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Roudijk, Bram; Donders, Rogier; Stalmeier, Peep
Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural dimensions using the World Values Survey (WVS), namely the traditional/rational-secular and the survival/self-expression dimension. We investigate whether there is an association between the WVS cultural dimensions and SRH, both within and between countries. Data from 51 countries in the WVS is used and combined with macroeconomic data from the Worldbank database. The association between SRH and the WVS cultural dimensions is tested within each of the 51 countries and multilevel mixed models are used to test differences between these countries. Socio-demographic and macroeconomic variables are used to correct for non-cultural variables related to SRH. Within countries, the survival/self-expression dimension was positively associated with SRH, while in most countries there was a negative association for the traditional/rational-secular dimension. Values range between 4 and 17% within countries. Further analyses show that the associations within countries and between countries are similar. Controlling for macroeconomic and socio-demographic factors did not change our results. The WVS cultural dimensions predict SRH within and between countries. Contrary to our expectations, traditional/rational-secular values were negatively associated with SRH. As SRH is associated with cultural values between countries, cultural values could be considered when interpreting SRH between countries.
Prins, J T; van der Heijden, F M M A; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M; Bakker, A B; van de Wiel, H B M; Jacobs, B; Gazendam-Donofrio, S M
Burnout is a work-related syndrome that may negatively affect more than just the resident physician. On the other hand, engagement has been shown to protect employees; it may also positively affect the patient care that the residents provide. Little is known about the relationship between residents' self-reported errors and burnout and engagement. In our national study that included all residents and physicians in The Netherlands, 2115 questionnaires were returned (response rate 41.1%). The residents reported on burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health and Social Services), engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale) and self-assessed patient care practices (six items, two factors: errors in action/judgment, errors due to lack of time). Ninety-four percent of the residents reported making one or more mistake without negative consequences for the patient during their training. Seventy-one percent reported performing procedures for which they did not feel properly trained. More than half (56%) of the residents stated they had made a mistake with a negative consequence. Seventy-six percent felt they had fallen short in the quality of care they provided on at least one occasion. Men reported more errors in action/judgment than women. Significant effects of specialty and clinical setting were found on both types of errors. Residents with burnout reported significantly more errors (p engaged residents reported fewer errors (p engaged in their work.
BACKGROUND: Advocates for environmental justice, local, state, and national public health officials, exposure scientists, need broad-based heath indices to identify vulnerable communities. Longitudinal studies show that perception of current health status predicts subsequent mortality, suggesting that self-reported health (SRH) may be useful in screening-level community assessments. This paper evaluates whether SRH is an appropriate surrogate indicator of health status by evaluating relationships between SRH and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health care factors as well as serological indicators of nutrition, health risk, and environmental exposures.METHODS: Data were combined from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 1372 nonsmoking 20-50 year olds. Ordinal and binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of reporting poorer health based on measures of nutrition, health condition, environmental contaminants, and sociodemographic, health care, and lifestyle factors.RESULTS: Poorer SRH was associated with several serological measures of nutrition, health condition, and biomarkers of toluene, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure. Race/ethnicity, income, education, access to health care, food security, exercise, poor mental and physical health, prescription drug use, and multiple health outcome measures (e.g., diabetes, thyroid problems, asthma) were also associated with poorer SRH.CONCLUS
Tirella, Annalisa; La Marca, Margherita; Brace, Leigh-Anne; Mattei, Giorgio; Aylott, Jonathan W; Ahluwalia, Arti
Highly reproducible Nano-in-Micro constructs are fabricated to provide a well-defined and self-reporting biomimetic environment for hepatocytes. Based on a protein/hydrogel formulation with controlled shape, size and composition, the constructs enable efficient nutrient exchange and provide an adhesive 3D framework to cells. Co-encapsulation of hepatocytes and ratiometric optical nanosensors with pH sensitivity in the physiological range allows continuous monitoring of the microenvironment. The lobule-sized microbeads are fabricated using an automated droplet generator, Sphyga (Spherical Hydrogel Generator) combining alginate, collagen, decellularized hepatic tissue, pH-nanosensors and hepatocytes. The pH inside the Nano-in-Micro constructs is monitored during culture, while assaying media for hepatic function and vitality markers. Although the local pH changes by several units during bead fabrication, when encapsulated cells are most likely to undergo stress, it is stable and buffered by cell culture media thereafter. Albumin secretion and urea production are significantly higher in the microbeads compared with controls, indicating that the encapsulated Nano-in-Micro environment is conducive to enhanced hepatic function.
Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude
The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.
Wallace Jean E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to physician wellness within a large health region in Western Canada. This paper focuses on the coping strategies that physicians use in response to work-related stress. The qualitative component explores physicians' self reported coping strategies through open ended interviews of 42 physicians representing diverse medical specialties and settings (91% response rate. The major themes extracted from the qualitative interviews were used to construct 12 survey items that were included in the comprehensive quantitative questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent to all eligible physicians in the health region with 1178 completed surveys (40% response rate. Questionnaire items were used to measure how often physicians draw on the various coping strategies. Feelings of burnout were also measured in the survey by 5 items from the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the revised Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Major themes identified from the interviews include coping strategies used at work (e.g., working through stress, talking with co-workers, taking a time out, using humor and after work (e.g., exercise, quiet time, spending time with family. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed three often used workplace coping strategies were positively correlated with feeling emotionally exhausted (i.e., keeping stress to oneself (r = .23, concentrating on what to do next (r = .16, and going on as if nothing happened (r = .07. Some less often used workplace coping strategies (e.g., taking a time out and all
Goldman, Noreen; Glei, Dana A; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Weinstein, Maxine
Although previous studies have indicated that performance assessments strongly predict future survival, few have evaluated the incremental value in the presence of controls for self-reported activity...
Brown, Jeanette S.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Schembri, Michael; Ragins, Arona; Thom, David H.
Introduction and hypothesis This study aims to measure self-report urinary incontinence questions' reproducibility and agreement with bladder diary. Methods Data were analyzed from the Reproductive Risk of Incontinence Study at Kaiser. Participating women reporting at least weekly incontinence completed self-report incontinence questions and a 7-day bladder diary. Self-report question reproducibility was assessed and agreement between self-reported and diary-recorded voiding and incontinence frequency was measured. Test characteristics and area under the curve were calculated for self-reported incontinence types using diary as the gold standard. Results Five hundred ninety-one women were included and 425 completed a diary. The self-report questions had moderate reproducibility and self-reported and diary-recorded incontinence and voiding frequencies had moderate to good agreement. Self-reported incontinence types identified stress and urgency incontinence more accurately than mixed incontinence. Conclusions Self-report incontinence questions have moderate reproducibility and agreement with diary, and considering their minimal burden, are acceptable research tools in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21796472
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as ... baby's general condition at birth. What Does the Apgar Test Measure? The test measures your baby's: Heart ...
Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.
Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269
Feinberg, Mark E.; Brown, Louis D.; Kan, Marni L.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study reports the psychometric properties of a multi-domain measure of the coparenting relationship in dual-parent families. Method 152 couples participating in a transition to parenthood study completed the Coparenting Relationship Scale and additional measures during home visits at child age 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years. Results Psychometric and construct validity assessments indicated the measure performed satisfactorily. The 35-item measure demonstrated good reliability and strong stability. Subscales measuring theoretically and empirically important aspects of coparenting (coparenting agreement, coparenting closeness, exposure of child to conflict, coparenting support, coparenting undermining, endorsement of partner’s parenting, and division of labor) demonstrated good reliability as well. A 14-item brief overall measure showed very strong associations with the overall measure. Relations of the full scale with a measure of social desirability were weak, and the full scale was positively associated with positive dimensions of the dyadic couple relationship (love, sex/romance, couple efficacy) and inversely associated with negative dimensions (conflict, ineffective arguing)—as expected. Conclusions This initial examination of the Coparenting Relationship Scale suggests that it possesses good psychometric properties (reliability, stability, construct validity, and inter-rater agreement), can be flexibly administered in short and long forms, and is positioned to promote further conceptual and methodological progress in the study of coparenting. PMID:23166477
Sophie C E van Blijswijk
Full Text Available Proactive care for community-dwelling older persons targeting self-reported hindering health complaints might prevent a decline in function. We investigated the spectrum of self-reported hindering complaints of community-dwelling older persons, the association with functional outcomes, and help-seeking behavior for these complaints.Within the ISCOPE trial, participants (aged ≥75 years received the ISCOPE screening questionnaire, including the open-ended question "At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?". After coding the answers with the ICPC-1-NL, we examined the prevalence and the association between the number and type of complaints and functional outcomes (Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, quality of life measured on Cantril's Ladder, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Electronic patient registers were searched for the most reported complaints.7285 participants (median age: 81.0 years [IQR 77.8-85.3], 38.6% males reported 13,524 hindering complaints (median 1, range 0-18; 32.7% reported no complaints. Participants mostly reported problems with walking/standing (22.1%, pain (20.8% or weakness/tiredness (8.5%. These complaints were mentioned in the electronic patient registers in 28.3%, 91.3% and 55.5%, respectively. Higher numbers of hindering complaints were related to poorer scores on the number of domains with problems, Cantril's Ladder for quality of life, Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Self-reported weakness, problems with walking/standing, visual limitations, cognitive problems, dyspnea and back complaints were associated with poorer scores on the number of domains with problems, Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, MMSE or Geriatric Depression Scale.One third of the participants reported no hindering complaints. Problems with walking
Morshed, A B; Ballew, P; Elliott, M B; Haire-Joshu, D; Kreuter, M W; Brownson, R C
The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the effect of the online evidence-based cancer control (EBCC) training on improving the self-reported evidence-based decision-making (EBDM) skills in cancer control among Nebraska public health professionals. Cross-sectional group comparison. Previously developed EBDM measures were administered via online surveys to 201 public health professionals at baseline (comparison group) and 123 professionals who took part in the training. Respondents rated the importance of and their skill level in 18 EBCC skills. Differences were examined using analysis of variance models adjusted for gender, age, years at agency, and years in position, and stratified by respondent educational attainment. Among professionals without an advanced degree, training participants reported higher overall skill scores (P = .016) than the baseline non-participant group, primarily driven by differences in the partnerships and collaboration and evaluation domains. No differences in importance ratings were observed. Among professionals with advanced degrees, there were no differences in skill scores and small differences in importance scores in the expected direction (P self-reported EBDM skills among public health professionals without an advanced degree, though a gap remained between the self-reported skills and the perceived importance of the skills. Further research on training content and modalities for professionals with higher educational attainment and baseline skill scores is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer S; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Dias, Carlos Matias; Tuovinen, Tarja; Göβwald, Antje; Kuulasmaa, Kari
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause 63% of deaths worldwide. The leading NCD risk factor is raised blood pressure, contributing to 13% of deaths. A large proportion of NCDs are preventable by modifying risk factor levels. Effective prevention programmes and health policy decisions need to be evidence based. Currently, self-reported information in general populations or data from patients receiving healthcare provides the best available information on the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, etc. in most countries. In the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot survey among the working-age population. Information was collected using standardized questionnaires, physical measurement and blood sampling protocols. This allowed comparison of self-reported and measured data on prevalence of overweight, obesity, hypertension, high blood cholesterol and diabetes. Self-reported data under-estimated population means and prevalence for health indicators assessed. The self-reported data provided prevalence of obesity four percentage points lower for both men and women. For hypertension, the self-reported prevalence was 10 percentage points lower, only in men. For elevated total cholesterol, the difference was 50 percentage point among men and 44 percentage points among women. For diabetes, again only in men, the self-reported prevalence was 1 percentage point lower than measured. With self-reported data only, almost 70% of population at risk of elevated total cholesterol is missed compared with data from objective measurements. Health indicators based on measurements in the general population include undiagnosed cases, therefore providing more accurate surveillance data than reliance on self-reported or healthcare-based information only. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity
Letvak, Susan A; Ruhm, Christopher J; Gupta, Sat N
Although research has been conducted on how nurse staffing levels affect outcomes, there has been little investigation into how the health-related productivity of nurses is related to quality of care. Two major causes of worker presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity as a result of health problems) are musculoskeletal pain and mental health issues, particularly depression. This study sought to investigate the extent to which musculoskeletal pain or depression (or both) in RNs affects their work productivity and self-reported quality of care and considered the associated costs. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a random sample of 2,500 hospital-employed RNs licensed in North Carolina were surveyed using a survey instrument sent by postal mail. Specific measures included questions on individual and workplace characteristics, self-reported quality of care, and patient safety; a numeric pain rating scale, a depression tool (the Patient Health Questionnaire), and a presenteeism tool (the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health) were also incorporated. A total of 1,171 completed surveys were returned and used for analysis. Among respondents, the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 71%; that of depression was 18%. The majority of respondents (62%) reported a presenteeism score of at least 1 on a 0-to-10 scale, indicating that health problems had affected work productivity at least "a little." Pain and depression were significantly associated with presenteeism. Presenteeism was significantly associated with a higher number of patient falls, a higher number of medication errors, and lower quality-of-care scores. Baseline cost estimates indicate that the increased falls and medication errors caused by presenteeism are expected to cost $1,346 per North Carolina RN and just under $2 billion for the United States annually. Upper-boundary estimates exceed $9,000 per North Carolina RN and $13 billion for the nation annually. More
Navrady, L B; Adams, M J; Chan, S W Y; Ritchie, S J; McIntosh, A M
Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown. Moderating and mediating relationships between depression PRS, neuroticism, resilience and both clinical and self-reported depression were examined in a large, population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 4166), using linear regression and structural equation modelling. Neuroticism and resilience were measured by the Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form Revised and the Brief Resilience Scale, respectively. PRS for depression was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression. No interaction was found between PRS and neuroticism, or between PRS and resilience. Neuroticism was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression, whereas resilience was associated with reduced risk. Structural equation modelling suggested the association between PRS and self-reported and clinical depression was mediated by neuroticism (43-57%), while resilience mediated the association in the opposite direction (37-40%). For both self-reported and clinical diagnoses, the genetic risk for depression was independently mediated by neuroticism and resilience. Findings suggest polygenic risk for depression increases vulnerability for self-reported and clinical depression through independent effects on increased neuroticism and reduced psychological resilience. In addition, two partially independent mechanisms - neuroticism and resilience - may form part of the pathway of vulnerability to depression.
Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.
Bensley, Lillian; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Ossiander, Eric M
Increasing evidence supports associations between periodontal disease and various chronic conditions. Possible explanations include chronic inflammatory processes, shared pathogens, and shared risk factors, such as smoking and psychosocial stress. The objective of this study was to assess associations of periodontal disease with metabolic syndrome and number of chronic diseases. As part of the Washington Adult Health Survey, a household-based cross-sectional study conducted during 2006-2007 among adults aged 25 years or older in Washington State, we collected questionnaire data, blood samples, and anthropometric measures. We used these data to assess associations of periodontal disease with metabolic syndrome and the number of self-reported chronic diseases, controlling for age, sex, annual household income, smoking, and psychosocial stress. We used both complete case and multiple imputation Poisson regression analyses. In the adjusted complete case analysis, 1.4 times as many chronic conditions were found among people with severe compared with no periodontal disease, and people with severe periodontal disease were 1.5 times more likely to have metabolic syndrome than people with no periodontal disease. Arthritis and liver disease were individually associated with severe periodontal disease. Results of the multiple imputation analyses were similar. These results suggest that people with severe periodontal disease are likely to have more chronic diseases and are more likely to have metabolic syndrome compared with people without periodontal disease. Research about the effectiveness of periodontal treatment to help prevent or control chronic diseases is needed.
-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-report questionnaires of experiential states each time after playing the game 'Batman: Arkham City' in one of three randomized conditions accounting for  dynamic music,  non-dynamic music/low arousal potential and  non-dynamic music/high arousal potential, aiming to manipulate emotional arousal and structural...
Jha, Manish Kumar; Minhajuddin, Abu; Thase, Michael E; Jarrett, Robin B
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common, often recurrent and/or chronic. Theoretically, assessing quality of life (QoL) in addition to the current practice of assessing depressive symptoms has the potential to offer a more comprehensive evaluation of the effects of treatment interventions and course of illness. Before and after acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), 492 patients from Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy Relapse Prevention trial (Jarrett et al., 2013; Jarrett and Thase, 2010) completed the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-report (IDS-SR) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); clinicians completed Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17-items. Repeated measures analysis of variance evaluated the improvement in QoL before/after CT and measured the effect sizes. Change analyses to assess clinical significance (Hageman and Arrindell, 1999) were conducted. At the end of acute-phase CT, a repeated measure analysis of variance produced a statistically significant increase in Q-LES-Q scores with effect sizes of 0.48-1.3%; 76.9-91.4% patients reported clinically significant improvement. Yet, only 11-38.2% QoL scores normalized. An analysis of covariance showed that change in depression severity (covariates=IDS-SR, BDI) completely accounted for the improvement in Q-LES-Q scores. There were only two time points of observation; clinically significant change analyses lacked matched normal controls; and generalizability is constrained by sampling characteristics. Quality of life improves significantly in patients with recurrent MDD after CT; however, this improvement is completely accounted for by change in depression severity. Normalization of QoL in all patients may require targeted, additional, and/or longer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro
Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.
Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro
Self reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor-health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual’s assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor-health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population based sample from the 1998–99 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995–96 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted. PMID:19019521
Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline
Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.
Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain
Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Barber, Sarah J.; Lee, Soohyoung Rain
Background Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in non-cognitive domains. Objective Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adult's subjective hearing abilities. Methods To test this, 115 adults (M age = 50.02, range = 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. Results The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40's and early 50's were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50's and 60's rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. Conclusion The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype-threat free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. PMID:26461273
Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Pizarro, Esteban; Luengo, Daniela; Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo
The objective is to examine the association between binge drinking and frequency of alcohol consumption during the last month with self-reported episodes of violence committed by people under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the National Survey on Drug Use on the General Population of Chile of 2010. A sample of 16,000 subjects, from 12 to 64 years of age (mean 35.8 years), representing a population of 9,536,602 individuals (49.5% men and 50.5% women) was used. The dependent variables were: being a victim of assault, aggression or sexual violence. The independent variables were: binge drinking (six or more drinks on one occasion at least once in the month) and the monthly frequency of alcohol consumption. The adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for men reporting binge drinking (vs. negative reporting) was of 1.85 (95% CI: 1.28 to 2.66) for assault, 2.0 for aggression (1.40 to 2.66), and 1.35 for sexual violence (0.43 to 4.23). Among women, the PR was 2.08 (0.97 to 4.50), 1.61 (0.78 to 3.35) and 1.37 times (0.48 to 3.91), respectively. Regarding the frequency of alcohol use, for each day a month of alcohol consumption the PR increases significantly for aggression among men and for the three victimization variables among women. Men and women who reported frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking had significantly a higher prevalence of episodes of aggression, assault or sexual violence; compared to those who did not report these consumption patterns.
Stelmakh, V; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A
Women can experience symptoms of gingival inflammation during pregnancy. However, whether clinical signs of gingival inflammation were present already before pregnancy and whether women perceive an alteration in their periodontal health status during pregnancy compared to their periodontal health status before pregnancy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported periodontal conditions in pregnant Dutch women as perceived before and during pregnancy. This cross-sectional survey was performed by asking women visiting two midwifery practices to complete a structured questionnaire. The data, which considered the women's oral hygiene habits, perceived periodontal health status before and during pregnancy and dental visits, were gathered and analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used when appropriate. Most of the respondents (mean age: 29.6 years) brushed their teeth twice a day (72.2%), and 62.0% used interdental cleaning devices. Significant differences in periodontal health before and during pregnancy were perceived. No differences with respect to periodontal disease symptoms between the three trimesters during pregnancy were found. The symptom with the greatest increase was bleeding gums. This was followed by symptoms of painful and swollen gums. Of the 61.5% women who disclosed their plans to become pregnant to their dental care practitioner, 53.9% received information regarding the possibility of alterations in oral health status during pregnancy. Because of the perceived alterations in oral health status during pregnancy, approximately 11% of the women scheduled an additional appointment with their dental care professional for advice. During the pregnancy period, perceived alterations in periodontal health status were reported as compared to the oral health situation before pregnancy. Furthermore, approximately 50% of the women who visited a dental professional and disclosed their (plans) of pregnancy did not receive
Dubrovsky, B; Janal, M N; Lavigne, G J; Sirois, D A; Wigren, P E; Nemelivsky, L; Krieger, A C; Raphael, K G
Patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) report poor sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). However, polysomnographic (PSG) studies show meagre evidence of sleep disturbance on standard physiological measures. The present aim was to analyse self-reported sleep quality in TMD as a function of myofascial pain, PSG parameters and depressive symptomatology. PSQI scores from 124 women with myofascial TMD and 46 matched controls were hierarchically regressed onto TMD presence, ratings of pain intensity and pain-related disability, in-laboratory PSG variables and depressive symptoms (Symptoms Checklist-90). Relative to controls, TMD cases had higher PSQI scores, representing poorer subjective sleep and more depressive symptoms (both P myofascial pain. As TMD cases lacked typical PSG features of clinical depression, the results suggest a negative cognitive bias in TMD and caution against interpreting self-report sleep measures as accurate indicators of PSG sleep disturbance. Future investigations should take account of depressive symptomatology when interpreting reports of poor sleep. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sømhovd, M J; Esbjørn, B H; Hansen, B M
-born participants reported higher social anxiety symptoms than did mothers of controls (51.7 versus 46.8, p = 0.001). The relative risk for being above a threshold indicating distressing anxiety was small from self-reports (1.39; p = 0.60). From mother-reports, the relative risk was noticeable but not significant...... (4.58; p = 0.14). Cross-informant scores correlated significant for total anxiety and social anxiety for the preterm-born (rτ = 0.2, p = 0.001; rτ = 0.3, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reports did not clearly indicate more anxiety in the preterm group, although confidence intervals supported......AIM: To compare anxiety symptoms in adolescents born extremely prematurely to term-born controls. METHODS: We had 96 preterm-born adolescents and 40 term-born controls from Denmark, and their mothers score the adolescents on the Revised Children Anxiety and Depression scale. We analysed group...
van Langenberg, D R; Della Gatta, P; Warmington, S A; Kidgell, D J; Gibson, P R; Russell, A P
The association of fatigue with decreased physical performance and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to measure and compare self-reported fatigue with skeletal muscle fatigue in CD subjects and healthy controls, and to identify associated factors that may be amenable to change. Demographic and clinical data were collected and fatigue assessed using the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) in 27 consecutive CD patients and 22 matched healthy controls. Circulating cytokines and growth factors were measured. The rate of quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer as the decrement of force with 30 contractions performed over a 5-minute period. Compared with healthy controls, CD patients reported greater levels of fatigue (mean global FIS score 45.3 vs 10.5, physical dimension score 12.3 vs 2.7 respectively; each pmuscle fatigue (-5.2 vs -1.3 Nm min(-1); pmuscle fatigue (all p ≤ 0.05). Subjects with CD had more muscle fatigue than matched healthy controls and this correlated well with self-reported fatigue. Of circulating factors that were independently associated with increased muscle fatigue, vitamin D, magnesium and IGF-1 could be targeted in future studies to reduce fatigue and improve physical performance. © 2013.
Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya
This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ),