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Sample records for subscales measuring linguistic

  1. Functional autonomy measurement system: development of a social subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsonnault, E; Desrosiers, J; Dubuc, N; Kalfat, H; Colvez, A; Delli-Colli, N

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subscale assessing social functioning for the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF). The development of this new dimension was based on consultations (focus groups and nominal groups) of experts from different health care disciplines in Quebec, Canada, and France. Two interrater reliability studies were carried out with older people presenting a loss of functional autonomy and living either in an institution or at home. With the focus groups, the experts clarified the definition of social functioning and identified the factors involved. The nominal groups were used to construct a subscale composed of six items. The results of the first interrater reliability study showed a mean agreement percentage of 60% for the subscale and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.70 (CI: 0.57-0.80). The results of the second interrater reliability study showed higher coefficients with an agreement percentage of 74% for the subscale and an ICC of 0.83 (CI: 0.61-0.93). These preliminary results demonstrate that the new social functioning subscale has good reliability, but more studies are needed to show its validity. The new SMAF, including the social functioning subscale, should help clinicians and researchers to obtain a comprehensive profile of functional autonomy. It could also contribute to the improvement of health care for older people.

  2. Measurement theory in linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidman Sassoon, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel semantic analysis of unit names (like pound and meter) and gradable adjectives (like tall, short and happy), inspired by measurement theory (Krantz et al. In Foundations of measurement: Additive and Polynomial Representations, 1971). Based on measurement theory’s four-way

  3. Exploring measurement invariance by gender in the profile of mood states depression subscale among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Smith, Tenbroeck

    2017-01-01

    The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) is a well-validated tool commonly used in medical/clinical research. Less attention has been paid to the measurement invariance of the POMS-the degree to which the structure and items behave similarly for different groups (e.g., women and men). This study investigated the measurement invariance of the POMS Depression subscale across gender groups in a sample of cancer survivors. The POMS Depression subscale has 8 items (Unhappy, Sad, Blue, Hopeless, Discouraged, Miserable, Helpless, and Worthless). Invariance was measured using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. This study used data from American Cancer Society Studies of Cancer Survivors-II, a population-based survey of adult cancer survivors (n = 9170). We found factor structures and factor loadings were invariant for gender groups, but moderate differential item functioning (DIF) in the question containing the word blue. With regard to cancer survivors' gender, we found the Depression subscale of the POMS-SF had configural invariance, and partial metric and scalar invariance. This suggests that results should be interpreted with caution, especially when gender is considered important. More broadly, our finding suggests that questions with the word blue may introduce DIF into other measures of depressive mood. More research is needed to replicate these findings in other samples and with other instruments.

  4. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  5. Measuring Neuroticism in Nepali: Reliability and Validity of the Neuroticism Subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Risal, A; Linde, M; Koju, R; Steiner, T J; Holen, A

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Short Form (12 items) (EPQRS-N) has proven to be a reliable and valid measure in multiple languages. To develop a single-factor Nepali-language version of the EPQRS-N for use in the adult population of Nepal. The original English version of EPQRS-N was translated into Nepali using a forward-backward translation protocol. The first set of translated items was modified after testing by factor analysis with principal component extraction in an outpatient sample. Items with low factor correlations or poor semantic consistencies were reworded to fit the gist of the original items in a Nepali cultural context; the revised version was then tested in a representative random sample from the general population. Again, the same statistical procedures were applied. The first trial gave three factors. Based on the factor distribution of the items or their semantic quality, five were reworded. In the second trial, a two-factor solution emerged; the second factor had only one item with high correlation, which also had modest correlation with the first factor. Accordingly, a forced one-factor solution was chosen. This gave an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.80, with item-to-factor correlations from 0.40 to 0.73, and item-to-sum correlations from 0.31 to 0.61. The final Nepali version of EPQRS-N achieved satisfactory internal consistency. The item distribution coincided with the original English version, providing acceptable construct validity. It is psychometrically adequate for use in capturing the personality trait of neuroticism, and has broad applicability to the adult population of Nepal because of the diversity of the participant samples in which it was developed.

  6. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  7. Measurement of aggressive behaviors in dementia: comparison of the physical aggression subscales of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the Ryden Aggression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whall, Ann L; Kim, Hyojeong; Colling, Kathleen Byrne; Hong, Gwi-Ryung; DeCicco, Barry; Antonakos, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    One of the central issues in the development of research-based interventions for aggressive behavior (AB) in late-stage dementia is the provision of precise measurement of the major dependent variable, in this case, AB levels. To advance the nursing goal of evidence-based practice, this article presents the characteristics of two research instruments: the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) aggressive behavior subscale (CMAI-ABS) and the Ryden Aggression Scale (RAS) physically aggressive behavior subscale (RAS-PABS). A total of 282 shower bath events (which are most associated with AB) were observed for 107 nursing home residents with dementia in nine randomly selected nursing homes. Then, we compared the psychometric properties of the CMAI-ABS and the RAS-PABS. Moderate to substantial agreements between the two instruments were identified using Cohen's Kappa. A similar percentage of AB was found on both subscales. Similar items on both subscales, such as hitting and pushing, were moderately correlated. Overall, the study results support that the CMAI-ABS and RAS-PABS measure a single but multifaceted construct-physically aggressive behavior in dementia. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Measuring emotional expression with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H; Tobin, Renée M; Massey, Audra E; Anderson, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis program often is used as a measure of emotion expression, yet the construct validity of its use for this purpose has not been examined. Three experimental studies assessed whether the LIWC counts of emotion processes words are sensitive to verbal expression of sadness and amusement. Experiment 1 determined that sad and amusing written autobiographical memories differed in LIWC emotion counts in expected ways. Experiment 2 revealed that reactions to emotionally provocative film clips designed to manipulate the momentary experience of sadness and amusement differed in LIWC counts. Experiment 3 replicated the findings of Experiment 2 and found generally weak relations between LIWC emotion counts and individual differences in emotional reactivity, dispositional expressivity, and personality. The LIWC therefore appears to be a valid method for measuring verbal expression of emotion.

  9. A New Measure to Assess Linguistic Self-Esteem in Adolescent Latino Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak

    2011-01-01

    Present conceptualizations and measures of self-esteem do not account for linguistic self-esteem, an aspect of the self specifically relevant for bilingual students. This study examines the utility of a newly developed measure of linguistic self-esteem. This novel measure is compared with a commonly used self-esteem measure, two standardized…

  10. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’) was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption. PMID:22935297

  11. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2012-08-30

    The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy-balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). A four-item automaticity subscale (the 'Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index'; 'SRBAI') was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  12. Improving the Validity of Quantitative Measures in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, James E.; Brown, James Dean; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and practical issues regarding the use of measurement…

  13. Improving the validity of quantitative measures in applied linguistics research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purpura, J.E.; Brown, J.D.; Schoonen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and

  14. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: ORAL TRADITION, TRANSLATION STUDIES AND CORPUS LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ZEMKE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the world’s verbal arts offers an opportunity to consider ways that computational analysis and modeling of narratives may lead to new understandings of how they are constructed, their dynamics and relationships. Similarly, as corpus linguistics operations must define metrics, it offers an occasion to review basic interpretive concepts such as “units of analysis, context, and genre." My essay begins with an admittedly cursory overview from a novice perspective of what capabilities corpus linguistics currently possesses for the analysis and modeling of narratives. Consideration is given to the epistemological issue in the social sciences with the positivistic prescription or empiricist description of units of analysis and the potential pitfalls or advantages corpus linguistics encounters in searching for adequate equivalent terms. This review leads naturally to reflection on the crucial determinative action of context on meaning and the extent to which current computational interfaces are able to account for and integrate into global analysis of linguistic and performance dimensions such as performer, intonation, gesture, diction, idioms and figurative language, setting, audience, time, and occasion. As a tentative conclusion from this review, it can be stated that artificial intelligence for modeling narratives or devising narrative algorithms must develop capacities to account for performance dimensions in order to fulfill their analytical potential.

  15. Fewer study participants needed to demonstrate superior antidepressant efficacy when using the Hamilton melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) as outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bech, Per; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica

    2016-01-01

    Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item melanc...... questions addressed in this study.  Conclusions Both for ethical and financial reasons it is of interest to minimize the number of participants in clinical trials. Therefore, we suggest employing the HAM-D6 as outcome measure in clinical trials of depression.......Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item...... melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) may be more informative than other scales, due to its superior psychometric properties. In the present study we investigated whether the HAM-D6 had higher informativeness than the HAM-D17 based on data from a randomized...

  16. Vector similarity measures of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongming; Hu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In decision making, similarity measure and distance between two objects are crucial to be able to determine the relationship between those objects. Many researchers have received much attention for their research on this subject. In this study, we propose two novel similarity measures between hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs). In addition, two extensions of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) are proposed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic environments. Furthermore, an example of an application concerning traditional Chinese medical diagnosis and an MCDM problem have been given to illustrate the applicability and validation of these similarity measures of HFLTSs. Furthermore, the results of examples demonstrate that the Dice and Jaccard similarity measures are more reasonable than the cosine similarity measure with respect to HFLTSs.

  17. Clarifying the linguistic signature: measuring personality from natural speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S; Minor, Kyle S; Baillie, Lauren E; Dahir, Amanda M

    2008-11-01

    In this study, we examined the viability of measuring personality using computerized lexical analysis of natural speech. Two well-validated models of personality were measured, one involving trait positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) dimensions and the other involving a separate behavioral inhibition motivational system (BIS) and a behavioral activation motivational system (BAS). Individuals with high levels of trait PA and sensitive BAS expressed high levels of positive emotion in their natural speech, whereas individuals with high levels of trait NA and sensitive BIS tended to express high levels of negative emotion. The personality variables accounted for almost a quarter of the variance in emotional expressivity.

  18. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  19. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

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    Vera Demberg

    Full Text Available While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA, relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German, three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments, and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.

  20. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) in Malay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers. PMID:20492717

  1. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS in Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafie Asrul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.

  2. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  3. Results of subscale MTF compression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen; Mossman, A.; Donaldson, M.; Fusion Team, General

    2016-10-01

    In magnetized target fusion (MTF) a magnetized plasma torus is compressed in a time shorter than its own energy confinement time, thereby heating to fusion conditions. Understanding plasma behavior and scaling laws is needed to advance toward a reactor-scale demonstration. General Fusion is conducting a sequence of subscale experiments of compact toroid (CT) plasmas being compressed by chemically driven implosion of an aluminum liner, providing data on several key questions. CT plasmas are formed by a coaxial Marshall gun, with magnetic fields supported by internal plasma currents and eddy currents in the wall. Configurations that have been compressed so far include decaying and sustained spheromaks and an ST that is formed into a pre-existing toroidal field. Diagnostics measure B, ne, visible and x-ray emission, Ti and Te. Before compression the CT has an energy of 10kJ magnetic, 1 kJ thermal, with Te of 100 - 200 eV, ne 5x1020 m-3. Plasma was stable during a compression factor R0/R >3 on best shots. A reactor scale demonstration would require 10x higher initial B and ne but similar Te. Liner improvements have minimized ripple, tearing and ejection of micro-debris. Plasma facing surfaces have included plasma-sprayed tungsten, bare Cu and Al, and gettering with Ti and Li.

  4. A medical risk attitude subscale for DOSPERT

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    Shoshana Butler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT is a widely used instrument that measures perceived risk and benefit and attitude toward risk for activities in several domains, but does not include medical risks. Objective: To develop a medical risk domain subscale for DOSPERT. Methods: Sixteen candidate risk items were developed through expert discussion. We conducted cognitive telephone interviews, an online survey, and a random-digit dialing (RDD telephone survey to reduce and refine the scale, explore its factor structure, and obtain estimates of reliability. Participants: Eight patients recruited from UIC medical center waiting rooms participated in 45-60 minute cognitive interviews. Thirty Amazon Mechanical Turk workers completed the online survey. One hundred Chicago-area residents completed the RDD telephone survey. Results: On the basis of cognitive interviews, we eliminated five items due to poor variance or participant misunderstanding. The online survey suggested that two additional items were negatively correlated with the scale, and we considered them candidates for removal. Factor analysis of the responses in the RDD telephone survey and non-statistical factors led us to recommend a final set of 6 items to represent the medical risk domain. The final set of items included blood donation, kidney donation, daily medication use for allergies, knee replacement surgery, general anesthesia in dentistry, and clinical trial participation. The interitem reliability (Cronbach's alpha of the final set of 6 items ranged from 0.57-0.59 depending on the response task. Older respondents gave lower overall ratings of expected benefit from the activities. Conclusion: We refined a set of items to measure risk and benefit perceptions for medical activities. Our next step will be to add these items to the complete DOSPERT scale, confirm the scale's psychometric properties, determine whether medical risks constitute a psychologically

  5. Oxidation subscale of gamma-titanium aluminide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, R.; Verwerft, Marc; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Gronsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The subscale formed during high temperature rapid oxidation of gamma-titanium aluminum is revealed by transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis to consist of two phases: one hexagonal with unit cell dimensions a = 0.58 nm, c = 0.47 nm (+/- 0.005 nm), and a composition close to Ti6Al3O4; the

  6. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  7. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012...... of linguistic coordination and their effects at a fine-degree....

  8. Wind Turbine Blade Design for Subscale Testing

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    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Kelley, Christopher L.; Maniaci, David C.

    2016-09-01

    Two different inverse design approaches are proposed for developing wind turbine blades for sub-scale wake testing. In the first approach, dimensionless circulation is matched for full scale and sub-scale wind turbine blades for equal shed vorticity in the wake. In the second approach, the normalized normal and tangential force distributions are matched for large scale and small scale wind turbine blades, as these forces determine the wake dynamics and stability. The two approaches are applied for the same target full scale turbine blade, and the shape of the blades are compared. The results show that the two approaches have been successfully implemented, and the designed blades are able to produce the target circulation and target normal and tangential force distributions.

  9. Subscale Acoustic Testing: Comparison of ALAT and ASMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Janice D.; Counter, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option. This paper compares the acoustic measurements of two different subscale tests: the 2% Ares Liftoff Acoustic Test conducted at Stennis Space Center and the 5% Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  11. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  12. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    Linguistic polyphony is an utterance theory (la linguistique de l'énonciation) and is a French speciality. It deals with the numenrous points of view that are likely to be communicated through an utterance. The book introduces utterance act theory and polyphony as such, but most especially focuses...... on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...... such as negation, mood, modality and connectors, and of textual phenomena such as represented discourse and irony. The book suggests how ScaPoLine could offer new insights within cross-linguistic and interdisciplinary studies....

  13. Linguistic Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Nigel

    1992-01-01

    Advocates the application of Popper's ideas (1963, 1972) about the nature of science and objectivist epistemology to generativist linguistics, discussing the subsequent effects on five key metatheoretical positions: fallibilism; realism; objectivism; autonomism; and interactionism. (12 references) (CB)

  14. The assessment of psychopathology among traumatized refugees: measurement invariance of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 across five linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Tim R; van der Aa, Niels; de la Rie, Simone; Knipscheer, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Questionnaires are widely used to assess the mental health status of refugees, whereas their construct validity largely remains unexplored. Objective: This study examined the construct validity of two widely-used instruments for the assessment of PTSD symptoms (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire [HTQ]; 16 items) and symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hopkins Symptom Check list-25 [HSCL-25]; 25 items) among Dutch and refugee patients with different linguistic backgrounds. Method: We applied exploratory factor analyses and measurement invariance analyses to test construct validity.Participants (n =1 256) were divided into five linguistic groups defined by language family, including four non-western linguistic groups (Indo-Iranian [n = 262], Niger-Congo [n = 134], Semitic [n = 288], and South Slavic languages [n = 199]) and one western linguistic group (Germanic languages; Dutch [n = 373]). Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 3-factor structure of the HTQ and a 2-factor structure of the HSCL-25. Measurement invariance 20 analyses on the HTQ showed strong measurement invariance across the groups of refugee patients. However, Dutch patients reported milder symptom severity on most items of the HTQ. Measurement invariance analyses on the HSCL-25 (not conducted in Dutch patients) indicated partial strong measurement invariance across refugee patients. Conclusion: We conclude that mental health constructs measured by the HTQ and the HSCL25 25 are to a large extent interpreted in a similar way by refugee patients. This indicates that these instruments can be applied in non-western refugee patient populations, and that local idioms of distress and inherent response patterns may not play a major role when applying the HTQ and the HSCL-25 in these populations. Yet, whereas meaningful comparisons of observed PTSD and depression scores between groups of refugee patients with different non30 western linguistic background are feasible, comparisons between

  15. Linguistic measures of the referential process in psychodynamic treatment: the English and Italian versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Rachele; Maskit, Bernard; Bucci, Wilma; De Coro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The referential process is defined in the context of Bucci's multiple code theory as the process by which nonverbal experience is connected to language. The English computerized measures of the referential process, which have been applied in psychotherapy research, include the Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD), and measures of Reflection, Affect and Disfluency. This paper presents the development of the Italian version of the IWRAD by modeling Italian texts scored by judges, and shows the application of the IWRAD and other Italian measures in three psychodynamic treatments evaluated for personality change using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200). Clinical predictions based on applications of the English measures were supported.

  16. Measuring University-Level L2 Learners' Implicit and Explicit Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runhan

    2015-01-01

    Although many theoretical issues revolving around implicit and explicit knowledge in second language (L2) acquisition hinge on the ability to measure these two types of knowledge, few empirical studies have attempted to do so. However, R. Ellis (2005) did develop a battery of tests intended to provide relatively separate measures. This study aims…

  17. "Moved by the spirit": does spirituality moderate the interrelationships between subjective well-being subscales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans-Stekhoven, James

    2010-07-01

    Despite the recent escalation of research into the spirituality and well-being link, past efforts have been plagued by methodological problems. However, the potential for measurement error within psychometric instruments remains largely unexplored. After reviewing theory and evidence suggesting spirituality might represent an affective misattribution, moderation modeling-with each subjective well-being (SWB) subscale as a dependent variable as predicted by the remaining SWB subscales-is utilized to test the assumption of scale invariance. These interrelationships were shown to vary in conjunction with spirituality; that is the analysis revealed significant spirituality x subscale interactions. Importantly, in all models the spirituality main effect was either nonsignificant or accounted for by other predictors. In combination, the findings suggest the interrelationship between the subscales rather than the level of SWB varies systematically with spirituality and casts considerable doubt on the previously reported "belief-as-benefit" effect.

  18. Challenges of General Outcomes Measurement in the RTI Progress Monitoring of Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Manuel; Liu, Kristin Kline

    2010-01-01

    The assessment for accurate identification and appropriate instruction of English language learners (ELLs) with learning-related disabilities has remained a chronic source of concern. One source of concern that has gone relatively unchallenged is the use of general outcomes measurement (GOMs). The authors examine the problems and challenges of…

  19. The Subjective Index for Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO in Stroke: investigation of its subscale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steve

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and valid measures of the impact of a stroke on integration are required in health and social settings. The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO is one such measure. However, there are questions whether scores can be summed into a total score or whether subscale scores should be calculated. This paper aims to provide clarity on the internal construct validity of the subscales and the total scale. Methods SIPSO data were collected as part of two parallel surveys of the met and unmet needs of 445 younger people (aged 18-65 with non-recent stroke (at least one year and living at home. Factor, Mokken and Rasch analysis were used. Results Factor analysis supported a two factor structure (explaining 68% of the variance as did the Mokken analysis (overall Loevinger coefficient 0.77 for the Physical Integration subscale; 0.51 for the Social Integration subscale. Both subscales fitted the Rasch model (P > 0.01 after adjusting for some observed differential item functioning. The 10-items together did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions The SIPSO subscales are valid for use with stroke patients of working age but the total SIPSO is not. The conversion table can be used by clinicians and researchers to convert ordinal data to interval level prior to mathematical operations and other parametric procedures. Further work is required to explore the occurrence of bias by gender for some of the items.

  20. A novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on statistical linguistic analysis and weighted similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshan; Dou, Chunhong

    2017-03-01

    Defective rotating machinery generally produces complex fluctuations due to non-stationary and nonlinear properties of dynamical systems. Consequently, dynamical structures of vibration data from rotating machinery are hard to disclose. As a result, condition monitoring of rotating machinery is fairly challenging. In this paper, statistical linguistic analysis (SLA), a novel tool for time series analysis, was introduced to analyze dynamical mechanisms hidden in vibration data of rotating machinery. SLA maps original vibration data from rotating machinery to a binary symbolic sequence by exploiting potential of increase and decreases of time intervals. Next, by sliding a window and identifying the elements in each window as a ;word;, a group of words is created. Then, by counting the occurrence of each word type, the binary symbolic sequence can be converted into a word frequency sequence. Next, a weighted similarity measure (WSM) defined in this paper serves to detect a change of running conditions of rotating machinery. As a result, this paper proposed a novel method for condition monitoring of rotating machinery based on SLA and WSM. Afterwards, the performance of the proposed method was validated using vibration data from both gearboxes and rolling bearings. Also, the proposed method was compared with conventional temporal statistical parameters, Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy. The results indicate that the proposed method performs better than the other methods in condition monitoring of rotating machinery. Also, compared with either of Correlation Coefficients and Standardized Euclidean Distances, the WSM gives a somewhat better performance in reflecting a change of dynamical structures.

  1. The Correlation of SCL-90-R Anxiety, Depression, Somatization Subscale Scores with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilay, Utku; Guclu, Bulent; Goksel, Murat; Keskil, Semih

    2017-02-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores with chronic low back pain. In this study, 75 patients admitted with the complaint of chronic low back pain (patient group) and 75 healthy persons (control group) were evaluated. SCL-90-R anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons were measured. The mean values were paired and using two tailed t test they were statistically evaluated. The difference between SCL-90-R anxiety subscale subscores of patients having choronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05).The difference betweenSCL-90-R depression subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05). The difference between SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically significant (p 0.05). Our data show that SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores were higher in patients with low back pain. The treatment of low back pain can be more successful when combined with the treatment of somatization.

  2. Exploring the Measurement of Markedness and Its Relationship with Other Linguistic Variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Ingram

    Full Text Available Antonym pair members can be differentiated by each word's markedness-that distinction attributable to the presence or absence of features at morphological or semantic levels. Morphologically marked words incorporate their unmarked counterpart with additional morphs (e.g., "unlucky" vs. "lucky"; properties used to determine semantically marked words (e.g., "short" vs. "long" are less clearly defined. Despite extensive theoretical scrutiny, the lexical properties of markedness have received scant empirical study. The current paper employs an antonym sequencing approach to measure markedness: establishing markedness probabilities for individual words and evaluating their relationship with other lexical properties (e.g., length, frequency, valence. Regression analyses reveal that markedness probability is, as predicted, related to affixation and also strongly related to valence. Our results support the suggestion that antonym sequence is reflected in discourse, and further analysis demonstrates that markedness probabilities, derived from the antonym sequencing task, reflect the ordering of antonyms within natural language. In line with the Pollyanna Hypothesis, we argue that markedness is closely related to valence; language users demonstrate a tendency to present words evaluated positively ahead of those evaluated negatively if given the choice. Future research should consider the relationship of markedness and valence, and the influence of contextual information in determining which member of an antonym pair is marked or unmarked within discourse.

  3. Relating Unidimensional IRT Parameters to a Multidimensional Response Space: A Review of Two Alternative Projection IRT Models for Scoring Subscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Thompson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    A practical concern for many existing tests is that subscore test lengths are too short to provide reliable and meaningful measurement. A possible method of improving the subscale reliability and validity would be to make use of collateral information provided by items from other subscales of the same test. To this end, the purpose of this article…

  4. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. The Mechanical Performance of Subscale Candidate Elastomer Docking Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for future exploration missions. The mechanism is a new state-of-the-art device for in-space assembly of structures and rendezvous of vehicles. At the interface between two pressurized modules, each with a version of the LIDS attached, a composite elastomer-metal seal assembly prevents the breathable air from escaping into the vacuum of space. Attached to the active LIDS, this seal mates against the passive LIDS during docking operation. The main interface seal assembly must exhibit low leak and outgas values, must be able to withstand various harsh space environments, must remain operational over a range of temperatures from -50 C to 75 C, and perform after numerous docking cycles. This paper presents results from a comprehensive study of the mechanical performance of four candidate subscale seal assembly designs at -50, 23, 50, and 75 C test temperatures. In particular, the force required to fully compress the seal during docking, and that which is required for separation during the undocking operation were measured. The height of subscale main interface seal bulbs, as well as the test temperature, were shown to have a significant effect on the forces the main interface seal of the LIDS may experience during docking and undocking operations. The average force values required to fully compress each of the seal assemblies were shown to increase with test temperature by approximately 50% from -50 to 75 C. Also, the required compression forces were shown to increase as the height of the seal bulb was increased. The seal design with the tallest elastomer seal bulb, which was 31% taller than that with the shortest bulb, required force values approximately 45% higher than those for the shortest bulb, independent of the test temperature. The force required to separate the seal was shown to increase with decreasing temperature after 15 hours of simulated docking. No adhesion

  6. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...

  8. Cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System as a measure of psychotic characteristics and severity of mental disturbance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-So; Viglione, Donald J; Green, Elizabeth E; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Yi-Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the cultural and linguistic adaptability of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), a new Rorschach administration, scoring, and interpretation system that minimizes psychometric weaknesses of the Comprehensive System (CS). This investigation addressed the validity of R-PAS measures of psychotic characteristics and psychopathology severity in Taiwan, including the incremental validity of the R-PAS relative to the CS variables measuring the same constructs. Ninety Taiwanese individuals (75 psychiatric patients and 15 nonpatients) were tested with standard R-PAS administration and scoring. Two non-Rorschach severity of disturbance measures and 2 psychosis measures served as independent criterion measures. The R-PAS measures were found to be valid in Taiwan in assessing psychotic symptoms and psychopathology severity, thus demonstrating cultural and linguistic adaptability. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated incremental validity for the R-PAS variables over their CS counterparts, providing support that the R-PAS revisions enhance the test psychometrically. These research findings also demonstrate the viability of the R-PAS as a Rorschach system that can be effectively employed outside the U.S. in a different language and culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis subscale of the KOOS (KOOS-PF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crossley, Kay M; Macri, Erin M; Cowan, Sallie M

    2017-01-01

    for patellofemoral pain have methodological limitations. This study aimed to develop a new subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis (KOOS-PF), and evaluate its measurement properties. METHODS: Items were generated using input from 50 patients...... and interpretability of the final version of KOOS-PF and other KOOS subscales. RESULTS: From an initial 80 generated items, the final subscale included 11 items. KOOS-PF items loaded predominantly on one factor, pain during activities that load the patellofemoral joint. KOOS-PF had good internal consistency (Cronbach......'s α 0.86) and adequate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). Hypothesis testing supported convergent, divergent and known-groups validity. Responsiveness was confirmed, with KOOS-PF demonstrating a moderate correlation with Global Rating of Change scores (r 0.52) and large...

  10. Evaluation of the Construction of the Subscales for the Piers-Harris and Tennessee Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julia Anne

    A sample of 234 fifth- and 259 sixth-grade students scaled the items of the Piers-Harris, Tennessee, Coopersmith, and Lipsett self-concept measures. The scaling of the Piers-Harris and the Tennessee inventories was examined in reference to their subscales. The present technique placed items on a bivariate plane of two orthogonal dimensions…

  11. Item-level and subscale-level factoring of Biggs' Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) in a mainland Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, J; Gao, L

    2000-09-01

    The learning process questionnaire (LPQ) has been the source of intensive cross-cultural study. However, an item-level factor analysis of all the LPQ items simultaneously has never been reported. Rather, items within each subscale have been factor analysed to establish subscale unidimensionality and justify the use of composite subscale scores. It was of major interest to see if the six logically constructed items groups of the LPQ would be supported by empirical evidence. Additionally, it was of interest to compare the consistency of the reliability and correlational structure of the LPQ subscales in our study with those of previous cross-cultural studies. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the six-factor item level model and to fit five representative subscale level factor models. A total of 1070 students between the ages of 15 to 18 years was drawn from a representative selection of 29 classes from within 15 secondary schools in Guangzhou, China. Males and females were almost equally represented. The six-factor item level model of the LPQ seemed to fit reasonably well, thus supporting the six dimensional structure of the LPQ and justifying the use of composite subscale scores for each LPQ dimension. However, the reliability of many of these subscales was low. Furthermore, only two subscale-level factor models showed marginally acceptable fit. Substantive considerations supported an oblique three-factor model. Because the LPQ subscales often show low internal consistency reliability, experimental and correlational studies that have used these subscales as dependent measures have been disappointing. It is suggested that some LPQ items should be revised and other items added to improve the inventory's overall psychometric properties.

  12. Simulation of a GOX-kerosene subscale rocket combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglauer, Christoph; Kniesner, Björn; Knab, Oliver; Kirchberger, Christoph; Schlieben, Gregor; Kau, Hans-Peter

    2011-12-01

    In view of future film cooling tests at the Institute for Flight Propulsion (LFA) at Technische Universität München, the Astrium in-house spray combustion CFD tool Rocflam-II was validated against first test data gained from this rocket test bench without film cooling. The subscale rocket combustion chamber uses GOX and kerosene as propellants which are injected through a single double swirl element. Especially the modeling of the double swirl element and the measured wall roughness were adapted on the LFA hardware. Additionally, new liquid kerosene fluid properties were implemented and verified in Rocflam-II. Also the influences of soot deposition and hot gas radiation on the wall heat flux were analytically and numerically estimated. In context of reviewing the implemented evaporation model in Rocflam-II, the binary diffusion coefficient and its pressure dependency were analyzed. Finally simulations have been performed for different load points with Rocflam-II showing a good agreement compared to test data.

  13. Lady Liberty and Godfather Death as candidates for linguistic relativity? Scrutinizing the gender congruency effect on personified allegories with explicit and implicit measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Linguistic relativity--the idea that language affects thought by way of its grammatical categorizations--has been controversially debated for decades. One of the contested cases is the grammatical gender of nouns, which is claimed to affect how their referents are conceptualized (i.e., as rather female or male in congruence with the grammatical gender of the noun), especially when used allegorically. But is this association strong enough to be detected in implicit measures, and, if so, can we disentangle effects of grammatical gender and allegorical association? Three experiments with native speakers of German tackled these questions. They revealed a gender congruency effect on allegorically used nouns, but this effect was stronger with an explicit measure (assignment of biological sex) than with an implicit measure (Extrinsic Affective Simon Task) and disappeared in the implicit measure when grammatical gender and allegorical associations were set into contrast. Taken together, these findings indicate that the observed congruency effect was driven by the association of nouns with personifications rather than by their grammatical gender. In conclusion, we also discuss implications of these findings for linguistic relativity.

  14. SPE5 Sub-Scale Test Series Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, Kevin S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reeves, Robert V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeHaven, Martin R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strickland, Shawn L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    A series of 2 SPE5 sub-scale tests were performed to experimentally confirm that a booster system designed and evaluated in prior tests would properly initiate the PBXN-110 case charge fill. To conduct the experiments, a canister was designed to contain the nominally 50 mm diameter booster tube with an outer fill of approximately 150 mm diameter by 150 mm in length. The canisters were filled with PBXN-110 at NAWS-China Lake and shipped back to LLNL for testing in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Piezoelectric crystal pins were placed on the outside of the booster tube before filling, and a series of piezoelectric crystal pins along with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes were placed on the outer surface of the canister to measure the relative timing and magnitude of the detonation. The 2 piezoelectric crystal pins integral to the booster design were also utilized along with a series of either piezoelectric crystal pins or piezoelectric polymer pads on the top of the canister or outside case that utilized direct contact, gaps, or different thicknesses of RTV cushions to obtain time of arrival data to evaluate the response in preparation for the large-scale SPE5 test. To further quantify the margin of the booster operation, the 1st test (SPE5SS1) was functioned with both detonators and the 2nd test (SPE5SS2) was functioned with only 1 detonator. A full detonation of the material was observed in both experiments as observed by the pin timing and PDV signals. The piezoelectric pads were found to provide a greater measured signal magnitude during the testing with an RTV layer present, and the improved response is due to the larger measurement surface area of the pad. This report will detail the experiment design, canister assembly for filling, final assembly, experiment firing, presentation of the diagnostic results, and a discussion of the results.

  15. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  16. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-antiangiogenesis subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.92). Test-retest reliability was also good (0.72-0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy–antiangiogenesis subscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)–Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70–0.92). Test–retest reliability was also good (0.72–0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:25619758

  18. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  19. Subscale Test Program for the Orion Conical Ribbon Drogue Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Stuart, Phil; Machin, Ricardo; Bourland, Gary; Schwing, Allen; Longmire, Ellen; Henning, Elsa; Sinclair, Rob

    2011-01-01

    A subscale wind tunnel test program for Orion's conical ribbon drogue parachute is under development. The desired goals of the program are to quantify aerodynamic performance of the parachute in the wake of the entry vehicle, including understanding of the coupling of the parachute and command module dynamics, and an improved understanding of the load distribution within the textile elements of the parachute. The test program is ten percent of full scale conducted in a 3x2.1 m (10x7 ft) closed loop subsonic wind tunnel. The subscale test program is uniquely suited to probing the aerodynamic and structural environment in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Non-intrusive diagnostics, including Particle Image Velocimetry for wake velocity surveys, high speed pressure transducers for canopy pressure distribution, and a high speed photogrammetric reconstruction, will be used to quantify the parachute's performance.

  20. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  1. Approaches to Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmanova, Olga; And Others

    Linguistics as a science has been concerned with comparison ever since its inception, the number and variety of approaches increasing steadily in the course of its development. Interest in linguistic comparison extends into the field of foreign language teaching. Linguists have attempted to solve the problem of methodology in contrastive…

  2. Linguistic and Paralinguistic Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    Current linguistic theory rigidly compartmentalizes the "cognitive," linguistic aspects of human communication and the presumed "emotive," paralinguistic elements that occur in both human and nonhuman communication. The segmental phonetic units of human speech, according to this view, are supposed to convey linguistically relevant information,…

  3. Description and Operation of the A3 Subscale Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.; Varner, D. G.; Grover, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the general design and operation of the A3 Subscale test facility. The goal is to provide the reader with a general understanding of what the major facility systems are, where they are located, and how they are used to meet the objectives supporting the design of the A3 altitude rocket test facility. This paper also provides the reader with the background information prior to reading the subsequent papers detailing the design and test results of the various systems described herein.

  4. Development and validation of subscales to assess perceived support for self-management of mood or emotional problems: Results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Haggerty, Jeannie; De Raad, Manon; Belzile, Eric; Bouharaoui, Fatima; Beaulieu, Christine; Yaffe, Mark; Ciampi, Antonio

    2017-06-10

    To validate 2 new patient-reported measures of self-management support from health professionals for mood and emotional problems. The sample comprised primary care patients with chronic physical conditions and co-morbid depressive symptoms enrolled in a randomized trial of telephone coaching of a depression self-care intervention (n=120). At 6-month follow-up, patients completed 2 subscales with respect to support for self-management of their chronic physical condition(s): 1) Self-Management Information (SMInfo-Phys); and 2) Care Plan (CP-Phys) and equivalent subscales adapted to assess self-management support for mood and emotional problems: SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood. Subscale scoring was assessed with Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis. Convergent validity of the mood subscales was assessed. The sensitivity of the mood and physical condition subscales to mental health interventions was assessed with generalized estimating equations (GEE). The mood subscales were associated with relevant measures of perceived unmet mental health needs. Both SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood were sensitive to the coaching intervention; CP-Mood was also sensitive to receipt of depression treatment outside the trial. This study provides preliminary evidence for the validity of the 2 new subscales. The subscales may be used to assess perceived health professional support for self-management of mood and emotional problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood depression subscales using repeated sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale - revised (CDRS-R) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Ameena; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-08-01

    Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65-0.91). As a result, the clinicians' assessments of the various symptoms became

  6. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  7. Measuring English Linguistic Proficiency and Functional Health Literacy Levels in Two Languages: Implications for Reaching Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Britigan, Denise H.; Murnan, Judy; King, Keith; Vaughn, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine the health literacy levels of Latinos in the Greater Cincinnati Area in both English and Spanish by utilizing two standardized quantitative measures of health literacy, and to undertake an assessment of the relationship between language, health literacy and acculturation in this community. Given a rapid…

  8. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PKBS-2 Subscales for Assessing Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria; Benitez, Juan L.; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Fernando; Garcia, Trinidad; Garcia-Berben, Ana; Justicia, Ana; Alba, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Different research studies point out the importance of social competence as a protective factor against antisocial behavior. They likewise alert us of the importance of having valid, reliable instruments that measure these constructs in early childhood. Method: The objective of this research is to validate the subscales of the…

  10. Validity of the Sleep Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no available sleep disorder measures for individuals with severe and profound intellectual disability. We, therefore, attempted to establish the external validity of the "Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II" (DASH-II) sleep subscale by comparing daily observational sleep data with the responses of…

  11. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  12. What Are Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Several different conceptualizations of applied linguistics are evaluated, ranging from "applications of linguistic theory" to alternative models for studying language that extend and complement generative grammar as a theory of language. It is shown that they imply substantive differences in goals, methods, and priorities of language study. (30…

  13. Changes to the subscales of two vision-related quality of life questionnaires are proposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Michiel R; de Vet, Henrica C W; Terwee, Caroline B; Moll, Annette C; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J M; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2005-12-01

    Psychometrically sound questionnaires for the assessment of vision-related quality of life (QOL) are scarce. Therefore, the objective was to further validate two vision-related QOL questionnaires in a Dutch population of visually impaired elderly. A total of 329 visually impaired older persons referred to low vision services completed the low vision QOL (LVQOL) and Vision-Related Quality of Life Core Measure (VCM1) questionnaires at baseline, after 1-4 weeks (retest), and after 5 months. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed on baseline data. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was assessed, based on the standard error of measurement (SEM). Change scores between the baseline and 5 months follow-up data were related to a general transition question to assess the minimal important change (MIC). Furthermore, the MIC was related to the SDC, to examine whether the MICs were detectable beyond measurement error. The original factor structures could not be confirmed. After omitting items and remodeling, adequate fits were obtained. SDCs comprised at least one quarter of the scale for all scales and subscales on the individual level and exceeded the MICs on every occasion. We propose MICs of 5-10 points for the scales and subscales of the LVQOL and VCM1. The questionnaires are not useful in the follow-up of individual patients.

  14. The use of Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly - to develop a trait anxiety profile of subaquatic specialists; 2ndly - to investigate the predictive value of trait anxiety measures upon entering an occupational field; and 3rdly - to establish the reliability of these scores over time. Archival trait-anxiety data from 322 subjects were analyzed statistically. Analysis of the available scores revealed a highly homogenous as well as a very low trait anxiety profile for the investigated occupational group. Additionally, low trait anxiety was somewhat associated with success during specialist training: fewer candidates with high trait anxiety scores completed their qualification. Moreover, measurement of trait anxiety was stable over time, which suggests that when scores for this occupational group are screened, deviations from previous scores could signify a potential need for referral to an intervention from health professionals. Using the trait anxiety subscale as part of occupational health surveillance of subaquatic specialists could support prevention of accidents by identifying high-risk candidates during their annual health assessments, and referral for timeous intervention.

  15. Subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale differentially relate to the Big Five factors of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Wagner, Adina; Müller, Astrid; Eggert, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113). Selective positive correlations emerged between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion and between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism. This pattern of results was replicated in Study 2 (N = 132) using a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory. In Study 3, we analyzed BIS and NEO-FFI data obtained from a sample of patients with pathological buying (N = 68). In these patients, the relationship between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion was significantly weakened when compared to the non-clinical samples. At the same time, the relationship between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism was substantially stronger in the clinical sample. Our studies highlight the utility of the BIS subscales for clarifying the relationship between impulsiveness and the Big Five personality factors. We conclude that impulsiveness might occupy multiple places in multidimensional personality frameworks, which need to be specified to improve the interpretability of impulsiveness scales. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. LinguisticBelief: a java application for linguistic evaluation using belief, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    LinguisticBelief is a Java computer code that evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. The mathematics of fuzzy sets, approximate reasoning, and belief/ plausibility are complex. Without an automated tool, this complexity precludes their application to all but the simplest of problems. LinguisticBelief automates the use of these techniques, allowing complex problems to be evaluated easily. LinguisticBelief can be used free of charge on any Windows XP machine. This report documents the use and structure of the LinguisticBelief code, and the deployment package for installation client machines.

  17. The focuses of linguistic personality investigations in modern linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Єрьоменко, С. В.

    2015-01-01

    The given articles defines the notion ‘linguistic personality’, discusses the focuses of linguistic personality investigations in linguistics, differentiates the notions ‘discourse’ and ‘linguistic personality’. In the numerous interpretations of linguistic personality that emerged at the end of the previous century, we can clearly distinguish two directions they are linguo-didactic and linguo-cultural. In linguo-didactics a personality is understood as a set of speech abilities. Linguocultu...

  18. Linguistics and the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plockinger, Othmar

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistics during the Third Reich in Nazi Germany. Discusses Nazi linguistics or linguistics in Nazism, Yiddish studies and the horror of assimilation, and remarks on the relevance of historical approaches in linguistics in the field of academic education. (Author/VWL)

  19. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...... a computer is, can follow the text. I cannot, of course, cover all aspects of logic programming in this text, and so we give references to other sources with more details. Students of linguistics must have a very good motivation to spend time on programming, and I show here how logic programming can be used...... for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...

  20. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  1. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  2. The genetic and environmental structure of the character sub-scales of the temperament and character inventory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Nigel; Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Cloninger, C Robert; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The character higher order scales (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) in the temperament and character inventory are important general measures of health and well-being [Mens Sana Monograph 11:16-24 (2013)]. Recent research has found suggestive evidence of common environmental influence on the development of these character traits during adolescence. The present article expands earlier research by focusing on the internal consistency and the etiology of traits measured by the lower order sub-scales of the character traits in adolescence. The twin modeling analysis of 423 monozygotic pairs and 408 same sex dizygotic pairs estimated additive genetics (A), common environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) influences on twin resemblance. All twins were part of the on-going longitudinal Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). The twin modeling analysis suggested a common environmental contribution for two out of five self-directedness sub-scales (0.14 and 0.23), for three out of five cooperativeness sub-scales (0.07-0.17), and for all three self-transcendence sub-scales (0.10-0.12). The genetic structure at the level of the character lower order sub-scales in adolescents shows that the proportion of the shared environmental component varies in the trait of self-directedness and in the trait of cooperativeness, while it is relatively stable across the components of self-transcendence. The presence of this unique shared environmental effect in adolescence has implications for understanding the relative importance of interventions and treatment strategies aimed at promoting overall maturation of character, mental health, and well-being during this period of the life span.

  3. Translation and linguistic validation of the Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures into simplified Chinese using cognitive interviewing methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Hinds, Pamela S; Wang, Jichuan; Correia, Helena; Du, Shizheng; Ding, Jian; Gao, Wen Jun; Yuan, Changrong

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures were developed using modern measurement theory and tested in a variety of settings to assess the quality of life, function, and symptoms of children and adolescents experiencing a chronic illness and its treatment. Developed in English, this set of measures had not been translated into Chinese. The objective of this study was to develop the Chinese version of the Pediatric PROMIS measures (C-Ped-PROMIS), specifically 8 short forms, and to pretest the translated measures in children and adolescents through cognitive interviewing methodology. The C-Ped-PROMIS was developed following the standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Translation Methodology. Bilingual teams from the United States and China reviewed the translation to develop a provisional version, which was then pretested with cognitive interview by probing 10 native Chinese-speaking children aged 8 to 17 years in China. The translation was finalized by the bilingual teams. Most items, response options, and instructions were well understood by the children, and some revisions were made to address patient's comments during the cognitive interview. The results indicated that the C-Ped-PROMIS items were semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original. Children aged 8 to 17 years in China were able to comprehend these measures and express their experience and feelings about illness or their life. The C-Ped-PROMIS is available for psychometric validation. Future work will be directed at translating the rest of the item banks, calibrating them and creating a Chinese final version of the short forms.

  4. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  5. Applying posttraumatic stress disorder MMPI subscale to World War II POW veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Query, W T; Megran, J; McDonald, G

    1986-03-01

    In order to determine whether the MMPI-PTSD subscale has application for assessing DSM-III diagnosed PTSD among populations other than Vietnam veterans, a group of WWII POWs (N = 69) were given the subscale. Results indicated that the use of the PTSD subscale can be generalized to older veterans; in a small sample of Pacific POWs, PTSD is more common among those from the Pacific theater than those from Europe. However, the subscale fails to distinguish between Pacific and European POW veterans. Difficulties in sampling and confounding stressors are discussed, as well as implications for treatment of WWII veterans.

  6. Integrational Linguistics and the Structuralist Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines attempts to extend Ferdinand de Saussure's structuralist linguistic theory, particularly those by integrational linguists. Discusses the place of integrational linguistics with regard to Saussurean work. (MSE)

  7. Le paradoxe du linguiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le linguiste, dans sa volonté explicite de s'imposer comme sujet scientifique et de décrire objectivement la langue comme un objet qui lui est extérieur, est paradoxal, parce que, du fait même qu'il est habité de sa langue, il se trouve nécessairement dans l'impossibilité de remplir la tâche qu'il se propose. Le paradoxe du linguiste consiste donc en cela que, si on se permet de paraphraser l'observation de Labov, « les faits de la langue s'étudient selon la vision de tel ou tel linguiste individuel, alors que le linguiste n'existe que par son expérience personnelle des faits linguistiques ». Cela signifie très simplement que le linguiste, en tant que descripteur d'une langue, n'est opératif qu'à l'intérieur de son objet d'analyse. La crédibilité de l'analyste dépend entièrement de la position éthique qu'il prendra vis-à-vis de sa recherche.

  8. The use of Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wijk, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly – to develop a trait...

  9. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3) subscales predict unique variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has been implicated in the development and maintenance of a range of mental health problems. The development of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index - 3, a psychometrically sound index of AS, has provided the opportunity to better understand how the lower-order factors of AS - physical, psychological, and social concerns - are associated with unique forms of psychopathology. The present study investigated these associations among 85 treatment-seeking adults with high AS. Participants completed measures of AS, anxiety, and depression. Multiple regression analyses controlling for other emotional disorder symptoms revealed unique associations between AS subscales and certain types of psychopathology. Only physical concerns predicted unique variance in panic, only cognitive concerns predicted unique variance in depressive symptoms, and social anxiety was predicted by only social concerns. Findings emphasize the importance of considering the multidimensional nature of AS in understanding its role in anxiety and depression and their treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrastive Linguistics at the Center for Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemser, William

    1970-01-01

    Describes the activities of the Center for Applied Linguistics in the field of contrastive linguistics since its founding in 1959. The author is Director of the Foreign Language Program at the Center. (FB)

  11. The role of reduced humanity in producing linguistic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Rubini, Monica

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses the role of perceived (reduced) humanity and group membership of others in producing linguistic discrimination. Study 1 assessed the effects of these factors on a subtle measure of linguistic discrimination, namely, linguistic abstraction. Study 2 considered the explicit level of verbal abuse. Results highlighted that target's reduced humanity led to enhanced linguistic discrimination toward the target, while group membership moderated this effect in specific conditions. Overall, the evidence of this set of studies sheds light on the role of humanity and its interplay with social categorization on discrimination outcomes. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. A Cross-Linguistic Perspective on Syntactic Complexity in L2 Development: Syntactic Elaboration and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bastien; Housen, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Syntactic and linguistic complexity have been studied extensively in applied linguistics as indicators of linguistic performance, development, and proficiency. Recent publications have equally highlighted the reductionist approach taken to syntactic complexity measurement, which often focuses on one or two measures representing complexity at the…

  13. Increasing the Precision of Subscale Scores by Using Out-of-Scale Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Kamata, Akihito

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the precision of subscale score estimates was evaluated when out-of-scale information was incorporated. Procedures that incorporated out-of-scale information and only information within a subscale were compared through a series of simulations. It was revealed that more information (i.e., more precision) was always provided for…

  14. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC PRAGMATICS: MAPPING OUT SOME UNRECOGNIZED INTERDISCIPLINARY. COMMON GROUND. 1. Introduction. Melinda Sinclair. Department of General Linguistics. University of SteUenbosch. 83. On the whole, research into the various aspects of natural ...

  15. Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charpentier, Jean-Michel; François, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    ... François, the Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia pays tribute to the rich linguistic landscape of the country by documenting thoroughly twenty different communalects, in the form of 2250 maps...

  16. The technology - activities of daily living questionnaire: a version with a technology-related subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L; Riveros, Rodrigo; Núñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled the Technology version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30 years). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = -0.70; FAB: r = -0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = -0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p questions to the ADLQ, our experience suggested that this has to be done cautiously, since the sensitivity of these additional items could vary in different populations. The T-ADLQ needs to be validated in a different population of dementia subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  18. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  20. Noah Webster's Linguistic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines ways in which Noah Webster's linguistic theories and work on dictionaries influenced North American English lexicography, arguing that his impact on American education was great because his spellers and dictionaries monopolized a rapidly growing market, and influence on lexicography was substantial because he insisted on the validity of…

  1. ARMAH'S LINGUISTIC MYTHOPOEISIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    thing white and accepting everything black but in carefully selecting what is good in both cul- tures. Keywords: Linguistic mythopoeisis, black, white, road, way. ..... walker…' (p.186). The most recurrent of the pejorative associa- tions of whiteness in Two Thousand Seasons is death. Armah links death and whiteness be-.

  2. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  3. A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    communication with other people in the environment which they find themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the. English primary auxiliary ...

  4. Papers in Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Gerhard, Ed.

    The contrastive linguistics papers contained in this collection concern a wide variety of issues within the field -- ranging from phonology and syntax to interference and error analysis in foreign language instruction. The papers, while discussing specific topics, for example, "Equivalence, Congruence, and Deep Structure" or "Comparative Analysis…

  5. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  6. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  7. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed often systematic. This article looks at four specific types of lexical creativity in English: figurative meaning, ... in art and literature can also be found in the communication practices of every-.

  8. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  9. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  10. Applied Linguistics: What's That?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markee, Numa

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of strong and weak definitions of applied linguistics is traced. It is argued that weak definitions do not limit themselves to resolution of second-language teaching problems, potentially address all practical language-related problems, and provide the necessary flexibility for realistic theory and practice of applied…

  11. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  12. Four Conceptions of Linguistic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers need a conception of linguistic disadvantage to supply guidance about the relative priority of inequalities with a linguistic dimension and to inform decisions about whether such inequalities require correction or compensation. A satisfactory conception of linguistic disadvantage will make it possible to compare the situations of…

  13. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  14. In Few Words: Linguistic Gap but Adequate Narrative Structure in Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Barbieri, Margherita; Tomassini, Marta; Roch, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare linguistic and narrative skills of monolingual and bilingual preschoolers and to estimate linguistic predictors of the macro-structural level of narratives. A battery of linguistic measures in Italian was administered to sixty-four Monolinguals and sixty-four Early Bilinguals; it included Vocabulary,…

  15. Longitudinal measurement equivalence of subjective language brokering experiences scale in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang; Shen, Yishan; Zhang, Minyu

    2017-04-01

    Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families and can have significant implications for the well-being of family members involved. The present study aimed to develop and validate a measure that can be used to assess multiple dimensions of subjective language brokering experiences among Mexican American adolescents. Participants were 557 adolescent language brokers (54.2% female, Mage.wave1 = 12.96, SD = .94) in Mexican American families. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we were able to identify 7 reliable subscales of language brokering: linguistic benefits, socioemotional benefits, efficacy, positive parent-child relationships, parental dependence, negative feelings , and centrality . Tests of factorial invariance show that these subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial strict invariance across time and across experiences of translating for mothers and fathers, and in most cases, also across adolescent gender, nativity, and translation frequency. Thus, in general, the means of the subscales and the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different occasions and groups. Tests of criterion-related validity demonstrated that these subscales correlated, concurrently and longitudinally, with parental warmth and hostility, parent-child alienation, adolescent family obligation, depressive symptoms, resilience, and life meaning. This reliable and valid subjective language brokering experiences scale will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of adolescents' language brokering experiences with their mothers and fathers, and how such experiences may influence their development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M; Wu, Xiuyun; Hopman, Wilma; Mayo, Nancy; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Liu, Juxin; Prior, Jerilynn C; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Josse, Robert G; Towheed, Tanveer E; Davison, K Shawn; Sawatzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF), which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent) level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF) and mental health (MH) sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample. Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health) produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects. The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size. SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  17. Across language families: Genome diversity mirrors linguistic variation within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Tassi, Francesca; Benazzo, Andrea; Ceolin, Andrea; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-08-01

    The notion that patterns of linguistic and biological variation may cast light on each other and on population histories dates back to Darwin's times; yet, turning this intuition into a proper research program has met with serious methodological difficulties, especially affecting language comparisons. This article takes advantage of two new tools of comparative linguistics: a refined list of Indo-European cognate words, and a novel method of language comparison estimating linguistic diversity from a universal inventory of grammatical polymorphisms, and hence enabling comparison even across different families. We corroborated the method and used it to compare patterns of linguistic and genomic variation in Europe. Two sets of linguistic distances, lexical and syntactic, were inferred from these data and compared with measures of geographic and genomic distance through a series of matrix correlation tests. Linguistic and genomic trees were also estimated and compared. A method (Treemix) was used to infer migration episodes after the main population splits. We observed significant correlations between genomic and linguistic diversity, the latter inferred from data on both Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages. Contrary to previous observations, on the European scale, language proved a better predictor of genomic differences than geography. Inferred episodes of genetic admixture following the main population splits found convincing correlates also in the linguistic realm. These results pave the ground for previously unfeasible cross-disciplinary analyses at the worldwide scale, encompassing populations of distant language families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  19. Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners’ Oppositional Subscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Beijsterveldt, Van; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) which may differentially predict outcome, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of mother’s report on the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S). METHOD Data were obtained from mother’s report for Dutch twins (7 year-old [n = 7,597], 10 year-old [n = 6,548], and 12 year-old [n = 5,717]) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Samples partially overlapped at ages 7 and 10 (19% overlapping) and at ages 10 and 12 (30% overlapping), but not at ages 7 and 12. Oppositional defiant behavior was measured using the 6-item Oppositional subscale of the CPRS-R:S. Multilevel LCA with robust standard error estimates was performed using Latent Gold to control for twin-twin dependence in the data. Class assignment across ages was determined and an estimate of heritability for each class was calculated. Comparisons to maternal report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores were examined using linear mixed models at each age, corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The LCA identified an optimal solution of 4-classes across age groups: Class 1 was associated with no or low symptom endorsement (69–75% of the children), class 2 was characterized by defiance (11–12%), class 3 was characterized by irritability (9–11%), and class 4 was associated with elevated scores on all symptoms (5–8%). Odds ratios for twins being in the same class at each successive age point were higher within classes across ages than between classes. Heritability within the two “intermediate” classes was nearly as high as for the class with all symptoms, except for boys at age 12. Children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have mood symptoms

  1. Classification of quality of life subscales within the ICF framework in burn research: identifying overlaps and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirte, J; van Loey, N E E; Maertens, K; Moortgat, P; Hubens, G; Van Daele, U

    2014-11-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is one of the leading outcomes in burn care research. This study classifies subscales of common QOL measures within the International Classification of Functioning disability and health (ICF) framework to determine to which extent the measures are complementary or overlapping and to investigate whether the instruments are able to describe the full spectrum of patients' functioning. A literature search was performed to determine the most frequently used questionnaires in burn research. The subscales of the three mostly used questionnaires were classified within the ICF framework. Two generic measures, the Short Form-36 items (SF-36) and the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and a disease specific measure, the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B), were analyzed. The BSHS-B covered most domains and was the only scale that included personal factors. The SF-36 included only one domain in the activity limitations and similar to the EQ-5D no contextual factors were included. Environmental factors were not addressed in the questionnaires, even though these may have an impact on the quality of life in patients with burns. To capture the full spectrum of dysfunctioning a combination of the BSHS-B with a generic questionnaire seems obligatory. However still some domains of functioning remain uncovered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Bowers

    Full Text Available Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.

  3. Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.

  4. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  5. Linguistic Turn and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lorente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to show how postmodernity comes from doctrines originating in the «linguistic revolution». The thinkers of the 19th century German tradition —who are included in the socalled «Triple-H theory»— wanted to shift the line of argument from reason to language. The presupposition of the primacy of language will be presumed by the prophet of postmodernism, Nietzsche, thus making possible the dawning of postmodernity. Postmodernity will accept unquestionably the shift from the universal and absolute to the particular and relative.

  6. Subscales of the vestibular activities and participation questionnaire could be applied across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alshebber, Kefah; Strobl, Ralf; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-momani, Murad O; Furman, Joseph M; Grill, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the objectivity, cross-cultural validity, and convergent validity of the Vestibular Activities and Participation (VAP) questionnaire among four countries, Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in four specialized outpatient dizziness clinics in Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. A total of 453 participants were included in the study. The Rasch analysis revealed two separate subscales. Subscale 1 items included focusing attention, lying down, standing, bending, lifting and carrying objects, and sports. Subscale 2 items included walking long distances, climbing, running, moving around within buildings other than home, using transportation, and driving. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the summary score of the VAP subscale 1 was 0.66 and was 0.64 for subscale 2. Owing to its shortness and intercultural adaptability, the new two-scale version of the VAP questionnaire lends itself to clinical practice and research across countries to estimate the effect of vertigo and dizziness on activity limitation and participation restrictions. Psychometrically sound summary scores can be calculated. More extended versions of the VAP can be used for comprehensive clinical assessment where summary scores are not needed or a more detailed documentation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  8. Theoretical Linguistics And Multilingualism Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    and Garfunkel who released the legendary song with the singular bridge over forty years ago):. • It tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and ...... Four types of morpheme: Evidence from aphasia, code switching, and second-language acquisition. Linguistics 38: 1053-1100. Newmeyer, F.J. ...

  9. A Survey of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepschy, Giulio C.

    This book, a revised and expanded English version of the author's Italian work "La Linguistica strutturale" (1961), is a survey of the main trends in structural linguistics intended not only for the linguist but for specialists in other fields and the general reader as well. The initial chapter, "Introductory Notions," discusses general linguistic…

  10. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  11. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  12. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  13. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  14. Linguistic Profiling of Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Prathibha

    2010-01-01

    The history of the evolution of language assessments for children and adults with language disorders is described briefly. This is followed by a discussion on language assessment of the clinical population with an emphasis on linguistic profiling, illustrated through the Linguistic Profile Test. Discourse analysis, in particular, is highlighted…

  15. Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeng, Paul A.

    This article reviews the historical development of applied linguistics in foreign language instruction. Five major principles influencing early applied linguistic theory are summarized, emphasizing the oral nature of language. Central to the article are discussions of: (1) prescriptive or normative grammar, (2) transformational grammar, (3)…

  16. Contrastive Linguistics and Social Lectology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    In the past, social lectologists have not considered their work as contrastive linguistics. One reason is that sociolects of a language differ quantitatively; differences lie in the frequency patterns with which certain forms occur in each lect. Contrastive linguistics deals with standard or idealized languages, while sociolects are often…

  17. Linguistic Human Rights and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…

  18. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  19. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia.

  20. Validation of the 4DSQ somatization subscale in the occupational health care setting as a screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vroege, Lars; Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Hoedeman, Rob; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2015-03-01

    Somatoform disorders (physical symptoms without medical explanation that cause dysfunction) are prevalent in the occupational health (OH) care setting and are associated with functional impairment and absenteeism. Availability of psychometric instruments aimed at assessing somatoform disorders is limited. In the OH setting, so far only the Patient-Health-Questionnaire 15 has been validated as screener for somatoform disorder, and has been shown to have moderate validity. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is frequently used in the OH setting but the Somatization subscale is not validated yet. The aim of this study is to validate the 4DSQ Somatization subscale as screener for DSM-IV somatoform disorder in the OH setting by using the MINI interview as gold standard. Employees absent from work due to physical symptoms, for a period longer than 6 weeks and shorter than 2 years, were asked to participate in this study. They filled out the 4DSQ and underwent a MINI interview by telephone for DSM-IV classification. Specificity and sensitivity scores were calculated for all possible cut-off scores and a receiver operator curve was computed for the Somatization subscale. 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for sensitivity and specificity. The Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ has an optimal cut point of 9, with specificity and sensitivity equal to 64.3 % [95 % CI (53.6; 73.7 %)] and 60.9 % [95 % CI (40.8; 77.8 %)], respectively. Receiver operator curves showed an area under the curve equal to 0.61 [SE = 0.07; 95 % CI (0.48; 0.75)] for the Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ. The 4DSQ Somatization subscale is a questionnaire of moderate sensitivity and specificity.

  1. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  2. The interplay between musical and linguistic aptitudes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riia eMilovanov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available According to prevailing views, the brain organization is modulated by practice, e.g., during musical or linguistic training. Most recent results, using both neuropsychological tests and brain measures, revealed an intriguing relationship between musical aptitude and linguistic abilities, especially in terms of second language pronunciation learning skills. These findings, together with their implications, will be introduced and elaborated in our review.

  3. Multidimensional Analysis of Linguistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Banisch, Sven

    Network-based approaches play an increasingly important role in the analysis of data even in systems in which a network representation is not immediately apparent. This is particularly true for linguistic networks, which use to be induced from a linguistic data set for which a network perspective is only one out of several options for representation. Here we introduce a multidimensional framework for network construction and analysis with special focus on linguistic networks. Such a framework is used to show that the higher is the abstraction level of network induction, the harder is the interpretation of the topological indicators used in network analysis. Several examples are provided allowing for the comparison of different linguistic networks as well as to networks in other fields of application of network theory. The computation and the intelligibility of some statistical indicators frequently used in linguistic networks are discussed. It suggests that the field of linguistic networks, by applying statistical tools inspired by network studies in other domains, may, in its current state, have only a limited contribution to the development of linguistic theory.

  4. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  5. Analysis of the Subscales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Murray I.; Hoffman, Roy A.

    1984-01-01

    Factor analyzed the item responses comprising each of the five external dimensions and the three internal dimensions of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The results indicated that seven of the eight subscales are essentially single-factor scales. Implications for counseling are discussed. (Author)

  6. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational) corpus linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an ove...

  7. Musical expertise and statistical learning of musical and linguistic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFrancois

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adults and infants can use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to extract words from continuous speech. Here we present a review of a series of electrophysiological studies investigating 1 Speech segmentation resulting from exposure to spoken and sung sequences 2 The extraction of linguistic versus musical information from a sung sequence3 Differences between musicians and nonmusicians in both linguistic and musical dimensions. The results show that segmentation is better after exposure to sung compared to spoken material and moreover, that linguistic structure is better learned than the musical structure when using sung material. In addition, musical expertise facilitates the learning of both linguistic and musical structures. Finally, an electrophysiological approach, which directly measures brain activity, appears to be more sensitive than a behavioral one.

  8. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  9. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: "I do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  11. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  12. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  14. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  15. Heritage language and linguistic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  16. Heritage Language and Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eScontras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language to their dominant language (the language of their speech community. To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  17. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  18. Neuro Linguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Padežanin

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is in fact an introduction to the field known as neuro-linguistic programming or NLP. It describes the origins of thi s method and funda­ mental assumptions about NLP -current perception of reality, establishment of rapport, and  development of our unique potential in order to understand the world. The paper furthermore provides insight into how we use our inner senses for reflection , how language and thought interact, and how we can determine the way other people think. The NLP method simultaneousl y takes into consideration all of the personality signals - bod y a nd speech signals, and visua l pattems. NLP assumes tha t the usual framework of interpretation and criticism needs to be transcended in order for us to be able to see matters ina different light, and thus develop better al ternatives for achieving our original goals. The paper emphasizes the inner processing of information, which is captured by certain NLP diagnostic models, thus providing the starting point for change.

  19. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  20. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  1. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  2. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Lix

    Full Text Available Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF, which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF and mental health (MH sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample.Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos, which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects.The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size.SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  3. The relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive control skills in bilingual children from low socio-economic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana eBuac

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined whether linguistic cognitive control skills were related to non-linguistic cognitive control skills in monolingual children (Study 1 and in bilingual children from low socio-economic status (SES backgrounds (Study 2. Linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a grammaticality judgment (GJ task in which children judged the grammaticality of sentences while ignoring their meaning. Non-linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a flanker task. Study 1, in which we tested monolingual English-speaking children, revealed that better inhibitory control skills, as indexed by the performance on the flanker task, were associated with improved performance on the GJ task. Study 2, in which we tested bilingual English-Spanish speaking children from low SES backgrounds, revealed that better non-linguistic inhibitory control skills did not yield better performance on the GJ task. Together, these findings point to a role of domain-general attention mechanisms in language performance in typically developing monolingual children, but not in bilingual children from low SES. Present results suggest that the relationship between linguistic and domain-general cognitive-control abilities is instantiated differently in bilingual vs. monolingual children, and that language-EF interactions are sensitive to language status and SES.

  4. The Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol: a valid linguistic approach to awake brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, E; Satoer, D; Robert, E; Colle, H; Verheyen, S; Visch-Brink, E; Mariën, P

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in eloquent areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, information about the neurolinguistic methods applied in awake surgery is scarce. We developed for the first time a standardised Dutch linguistic test battery (measuring phonology, semantics, syntax) to reliably identify the critical language zones in detail. A normative study was carried out in a control group of 250 native Dutch-speaking healthy adults. In addition, the clinical application of the Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol (DuLIP) was demonstrated by means of anatomo-functional models and five case studies. A set of DuLIP tests was selected for each patient depending on the tumour location and degree of linguistic impairment. DuLIP is a valid test battery for pre-, intraoperative and postoperative language testing and facilitates intraoperative mapping of eloquent language regions that are variably located. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linguistic threat activates the human amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, N.; Silbersweig, D.; Engelien, A.; Emmerich, S.; Malavade, K.; Beattie, B.; Leon, A. C.; Stern, E.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in animals demonstrate a crucial role for the amygdala in emotional and social behavior, especially as related to fear and aggression. Whereas lesion and functional-imaging studies in humans indicate the amygdala’s participation in assessing the significance of nonverbal as well as paralinguistic cues, direct evidence for its role in the emotional processing of linguistic cues is lacking. In this study, we use a modified Stroop task along with a high-sensitivity neuroimaging technique to target the neural substrate engaged specifically when processing linguistic threat. Healthy volunteer subjects were instructed to name the color of words of either threat or neutral valence, presented in different color fonts, while neural activity was measured by using H215O positron-emission tomography. Bilateral amygdalar activation was significantly greater during color naming of threat words than during color naming of neutral words. Associated activations were also noted in sensory-evaluative and motor-planning areas of the brain. Thus, our results demonstrate the amygdala’s role in the processing of danger elicited by language. In addition, the results reinforce the amygdala’s role in the modulation of the perception of, and response to, emotionally salient stimuli. The current study further suggests conservation of phylogenetically older mechanisms of emotional evaluation in the context of more recently evolved linguistic function. PMID:10468630

  6. Linguistic and Psycho-Physiological Fundamentals of Linguistic Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Juškienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses one of the most important aspects of linguistic activity, i.e. psycho-physiological fundamentals. The topic is of a great importance as there is no uniform theoretical concept of this issue, although there is a range of articles that analyze some of the aspects of the problem. The author has described physiological components of linguistic activity. From the psychological point of view, the author has accentuated two types of linguistic activity – the perceptive and the expressive – that are substantially analyzed in the present article. The author assumes that the implementation of linguistic activity as well as of any activity is possible by virtue of certain competences and skills. Linguistic competences and skills are thoroughly scrutinized and their distinctive features are pointed out in the current study. The paper also presents and analyzes the key stages of the nurturing of skills. The article could be useful both for theorists of linguodidactics and for language teaching specialists.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling of space-based orbit transfer vehicle cryogenic propellant resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defelice, David M.; Aydelott, John C.

    1987-01-01

    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for spacebased orbit transfer vehicles. As part of the NASA Lewis ongoing efforts in microgravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques were developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. Analytical results have shown that subscale experimental modeling of liquid resupply can be used to validate analytical models when the appropriate target temperature is selected to relate the model to its prototype system. Further analyses were used to develop a thermodynamic model of the tank chilldown process which is required prior to the no-vent fill operation. These efforts were incorporated into two FORTRAN programs which were used to present preliminary analyticl results.

  8. The Open Linguistics Working Group: Developing the Linguistic Linked Open Data Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    McCrae, John Philip; Chiarcos, Christian; Bond, Francis; Cimiano, Philipp; Declerck, Thierry; de Melo, Gerard; Gracia, Jorge; Hellmann, Sebastian; Klimek, Bettina; Moran, Steven; Osenova, Petya; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Pool, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Open Linguistics Working Group (OWLG) brings together researchers from various fields of linguistics, natural language processing, and information technology to present and discuss principles, case studies, and best practices for representing, publishing and linking linguistic data collections. A major outcome of our work is the Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) cloud, an LOD (sub-)cloud of linguistic resources, which covers various linguistic databases, lexicons, corpora, terminologies,...

  9. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  10. Linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurovskaya Yulia G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis, thus establishing a new branch of pedagogy called pedagogical semiology that is concerned with students’ acquisition of culture encoded in symbols and the way students’ sign consciousness formed in the context of learning affects their world cognition and interpersonal communication. The article introduces a set of tools that would enable the teacher to organize the educational process in compliance with the rules of language as a sign system applied to the context of pedagogy and with the formation of younger generation’s language picture of the world.

  11. Enhancing the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process: linguistic and psychometric testing of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of a self-report measure for dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Felipe; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Epstein, Jonathan; Novaes, Priscila

    2015-04-01

    To provide a reliable, validated, and culturally adapted instrument that may be used in monitoring dry eye in Brazilian patients and to discuss the strategies for the enhancement of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of a self-report measure for dry eye. The cross-cultural adaptation process (CCAP) of the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) into Brazilian-Portuguese was conducted using a 9-step guideline. The synthesis of translations was tested twice, for face and content validity, by different subjects (focus groups and cognitive interviews). The expert committee contributed on several steps, and back translations were based on the final rather than the prefinal version. For validation, the adapted version was applied in a prospective longitudinal study to 101 patients from the Dry Eye Clinic at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Simultaneously to the OSDI, patients answered the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) and the 25-item visual function questionnaire (VFQ-25) and underwent clinical evaluation. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measure validity were assessed. Cronbach's alpha value of the cross-culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI was 0.905, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.801. There was a statistically significant difference between OSDI scores in patients with dry eye (41.15 ± 27.40) and without dry eye (17.88 ± 17.09). There was a negative association between OSDI and VFQ-25 total score (P adaptation process requires skill, knowledge, experience, and a considerable investment of time to maximize the attainment of semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the source and target questionnaires. A well-established guideline resulted in a culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI, tested and validated on a sample of Brazilian population, and proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing

  12. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  13. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  14. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  15. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  16. Linguistic skills and speaking fluency in a second language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.; Steinel, M.P.; Florijn, A.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language (N = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures

  17. Linguistic Justice and Endangered Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salverda Reinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution will engage with Van Parijs’s approach to linguistic justice and his working principles for the reduction of unfairness in the language domain (in particular, the need for intervention and his territorial principle, reflecting on a range of cases of multilingual practice and linguistic coexistence – respectively, in the multilingual capital of the world which is London today; in Fryslân, the minority language area in northern Netherlands; and in Europe, through its European Charter of Regional Minority Languages.

  18. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  19. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  20. Describing linguistic information in a behavioural framework: Possible or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cooman, G. [Universiteit Gent, Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses important aspects of the representation of linguistic information, using imprecise probabilities with a behavioural interpretation. We define linguistic information as the information conveyed by statements in natural language, but restrict ourselves to simple affirmative statements of the type {open_quote}subject-is-predicate{close_quote}. Taking the behavioural stance, as it is described in detail, we investigate whether it is possible to give a mathematical model for this kind of information. In particular, we evaluate Zadeli`s suggestion that we should use possibility measures to this end. We come to tile conclusion that, generally speaking, possibility measures are possibility models for linguistic information, but that more work should be done in order to evaluate the suggestion that they may be the only ones.

  1. Linguistic and metalinguistic outcomes of intense immersion education: How bilingual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanto, Nicola; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Anglophone children in Grades 2 and 5 who attended an intensive French immersion program were examined for linguistic and metalinguistic ability in English and French. Measures of linguistic proficiency (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) were consistently higher in English and remained so even after five years of immersion education in French. Measures of metalinguistic ability (letter fluency and ignoring semantic anomalies in sentence judgments) in French improved significantly over the two grades studied and closed the gap (letter fluency) or caught up with (sentence judgments) similar performance in English. This dissociation between developmental trajectories for linguistic and metalinguistic development is exactly the pattern expected for fully bilingual children, endorsing immersion education as a route to bilingualism.

  2. Comparative Responsiveness of the PROMIS Pain Interference Short Forms, Brief Pain Inventory, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain Subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Jacob; Monahan, Patrick O; Kroenke, Kurt; Wu, Jingwei; Yu, Zhangsheng; Stump, Tim E; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity to change and the responsiveness to intervention of the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), 3-item PEG scale, and SF-36 Bodily Pain subscale in a sample of patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain of moderate severity. Standardized response means, standardized effect sizes, and receiver operating curve analyses were used to assess change between baseline and 3-month assessments in 250 participants who participated in a randomized clinical effectiveness trial of collaborative telecare management for moderate to severe and persistent musculoskeletal pain. The BPI, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain measures were more sensitive to patient-reported global change than the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, especially for the clinically improved group, for which the change detected by the PROMIS short forms was not statistically significant. The BPI was more responsive to the clinical intervention than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures. Post hoc analyses exploring these findings did not suggest that differences in content or rating scale structure (number of response options or anchoring language) adequately explained the observed differences in the detection of change. In this clinical trial, the BPI and PEG measures were better able to detect change than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures.

  3. Referential Metonymy across Languages: What Can Cognitive Linguistics and "Contrastive Linguistics" Learn from Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabó, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how contrastive linguistics may receive a fresh breath of life from approaching certain problems from the cognitive linguistic point of view. Cognitive linguistics is not only capable of providing contrastive linguistics with a comprehensive but coherent theoretical backbone the latter has always badly needed for its…

  4. Using data from Multidimensional Pain Inventory subscales to assess functioning in pain rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlacher, Uwe; Persson, Ann L; Rivano-Fischer, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) subscale score changes can be used for monitoring interdisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain rehabilitation programmes, using the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index as an independent variable...... of rehabilitation outcome. Data from 434 consecutively referred patients disabled by chronic pain were analysed. The intervention was a 4-week interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation group programme (5 h/day), based on biopsychosocial and cognitive behavioural principles. Mean PGWB total scores improved after...... rehabilitation (P...

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  6. Linguistic analysis of discourse in aphasia: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lucy; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth

    This review examined previous research applications of linguistic discourse analysis to assess the language of adults with aphasia. A comprehensive literature search of seven databases identified 165 studies that applied linguistic measures to samples of discourse collected from people with aphasia. Analysis of methodological applications revealed an increase in published research using linguistic discourse analysis over the past 40 years, particularly to measure the generalisation of therapy outcomes to language in use. Narrative language samples were most frequently subject to analysis though all language genres were observed across included studies. A total of 536 different linguistic measures were applied to examine language behaviours. Growth in the research use of linguistic discourse analysis and suggestions that this growth may be reflected in clinical practice requires further investigation. Future research directions are discussed to investigate clinical use of discourse analysis and examine the differences that exist between research and clinical practice.

  7. Archives: Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The papers of this issue are a testament to the wide variety of theoretical approaches and diverse research areas pertaining to linguistics found in Africa. In this vein, GJL continues to serve as a hub of scholarship, providing an avenue for the publication of double-blind peer-reviewed studies on language, ...

  8. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  9. STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS AND BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONE, KEMP

    A STRUCTURAL, LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DESCRIBED. DETAILED DISCUSSIONS WERE INCLUDED FOR USES OF MORPHEMES, MORPHEMIC SEQUENCES, PHONEMES, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS, AND ALLOPHONES. THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF 13 PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER 11-12, 1960. (GC)

  10. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa. ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted ...

  11. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  12. Understanding software through linguistic abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Preprint submitted to "Science of Computer Programming", Elsevier, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scico.2013.12.001 In this essay, I argue that linguistic abstraction should be used systematically as a tool to capture our emerging understanding of domains of computation. Moreover, to enable that

  13. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  14. Text linguistics: memory and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Lopes Fávero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Text Linguistics originates in Brazil in the 80s of the twentieth century. The first work that we know of is from 1981, authored by Prof. Ignacio Antonio Neiss, entitled Por uma gramática textua, which was followed by two other in 1983: Linguística textual: o que é e como se faz, by Prof. Luiz Antônio Marcuschi and Linguística textual: introdução by Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore Villaça Koch. Professor Neiss shows how initial attempts to textual linguistics, were generally related to structural and generative grammars. The work of Prof. Marcuschi focuses on the analysis of some text definitions and on the study of theoretical aspects in relation to their applicability. Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore V. Koch aim to provide the Brazilian reader with an overview of text linguistics in Europe, a recent branch of language science then. This work is part of the History of Linguistic Ideas, part of the Cultural History, which seeks to identify how at different times , a social reality is constructed, designed, and enlightened (Chartier, 1990.

  15. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can be recovered solely on the basis of linguistic knowledge - or to put it differently, how ... The answer which Gricean pragmatic theories provide to this question goes ..... written language have important implications for conceptions of literacy - see e.g. (Olson, ..... Are academic texts really decontextualized and fully explicit?

  16. a systemic functional linguistic approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysing social identity in casual Zambian/English conversation: a systemic functional linguistic approach. ... Through an analysis of sentence-level grammatical patterns, and of speakers' mood choices in particular, the study shows how interactants construct identities ('self' and 'other') and social roles, as well as role ...

  17. A Bibliography of Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, John H.; Rice, Frank A.

    This 484-item bibliography is a revised and expanded version of William W. Gage's "Contrastive Studies in Linguistics: A Bibliographical Checklist" (CAL, 1961). Following a general section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by foreign language. The language headings are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bantu, Batak, Bengali,…

  18. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  19. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  20. Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.

    1993-01-01

    A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.

  1. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  2. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  3. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies publishes articles on a wide range of linguistic topics and acts as a forum for research into ALL the languages of southern Africa, including English and Afrikaans. Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of Linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. ...

  4. Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

  5. A Brief Reappraisal of Contrastive Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinker, Larry

    1972-01-01

    Two questions, what is a contrastive grammar, and what is comparable across linguistic systems, are touched on. The problem of the exact relationship of contrastive linguistics to linguistic theory is addressed. Two perhaps mutually exclusive views are discussed. See FL 508 197 for availability. (Author/RM)

  6. 1. Introduction Is theoretical linguistics, and specifically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY discussion of the question of the empirical status of trans- formation8i generative grammar will focus on general-linguistic hypo- theses. That is. the thesis (1) will be argued with reference to linguistic hypotheses which postulate linguistic universals. A conventional sort of approach to the ~eneral question of the empirical.

  7. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  8. Applied Linguistics and Measurement: A Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The paper by Wilson and Moore (this volume), based on the Messick Lecture delivered in 2006 at the annual Language Testing Research Colloquium in Melbourne, may present a familiar challenge to some language testers: of reading outside one's comfort zone. The distinctive character of language testing lies in its combination of two primary fields of…

  9. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/ Fluid Sciences & Engineering Dept.; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.; Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  10. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  11. Topographic effect of Sub-scale Mountains around the main Tibetan Plateau on Asian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yingying; Shi, Zhengguo

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most important tectonic events in Cenozoic, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is considered to have profound influences on the evolution of Asian climate.However, the potential influence from the sub-scale mountains around the main TP is largely neglected. In actual, these sub-scale mountains may affect some climate systems, which facilitates from their sensitive locations. Taking the Mongolian Plateau (MP) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP, SW China) as examples, they are located at the core paths of mid-latitude winter westerly and Indian summer southwesterly monsoon, respectively, and seem to significantly block the eastward propagation of these systems from modern climatological data. In this study, general circulation model experiments with and without mountains are employed to evaluate the topographic effect of MP and YGP on the Asian climate. The results show that, the MP, despite its smaller size, exerts a great influence on the strengthened winter climate over East Asia, including the East Asian trough, the subtropical westerly jet and the winter monsoon. The YGP, however, plays an opposite role in the Indian monsoon change, compared to the main TP. It weakens the Indian summer monsoon circulation and associated precipitation. Thus, the response of Asian climate to the mountain uplift depends closely on the actual distributions of topography rather than a simplified bulk of main TP.

  12. A linguistic signature of psychological distancing in emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Schleider, Jessica L; Somerville, Leah H

    2017-03-01

    Effective emotion regulation is critical for mental health and well-being, rendering insight into underlying mechanisms that facilitate this crucial skill invaluable. We combined principles of cognitive linguistics and basic affective science to test whether shifting components of one's language might foster effective emotion regulation. In particular, we explored bidirectional relations between emotion regulation and linguistic signatures of psychological distancing. In Study 1, we assessed whether people spontaneously distance their language (i.e., shift their word use to be less socially and temporally proximate) when regulating emotions. Participants transcribed their thoughts while either passively viewing or actively regulating their emotional responses to negative images. Regulation increased linguistic markers of social and temporal distance, and participants who showed greater linguistic distancing were more successful regulators. Study 2 reversed this relation and investigated whether distancing one's language spontaneously regulated one's emotions. Participants wrote about negative images either using psychologically "close" or "distant" language in physical, social, and temporal domains. All 3 domains of linguistic distancing spontaneously reduced negative affect. Distancing language also "bled" across domains (e.g., temporal distancing spontaneously produced social distancing). This suggests that distancing one's language in 1 domain (e.g., reducing use of present-tense verbs) produces shifts in deep representations of psychological distance that are measurable across domains (e.g., reduced use of the word "I"). Results extend understanding of language-emotion interactions and reveal novel strategies for reducing negative affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The role of programming in linguistic education of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Dobnik

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of didactics and programming, not enough attention is paid to linguistic education of adults. Abilities for learning foreign languages do not decrease with age neither can they be measured with the same mechanisms as the knowledge of children. The author emphasises that topics are of the utmost importance; more and more adults need individually structured programs. Therefore, topics can only be chosen according to an agreement between or a mutual plan of the educator and the student. The very phase of programming is the disadvantage of numerous linguistic courses for adults; therefore, linguistic education of adults is still quite closely linked with the ideas valid for educating children and youths.

  14. Coach talk: linguistic demands inherent in youth sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Julie J; Davies, Lisa K; Masterson, Gerald L

    2006-01-01

    This investigation expands the notion of academic language to extracurricular activities and provides preliminary data regarding linguistic expectations that are place on students who are participating in youth sports. Five coaches of young girls' basketball teams (2 competitive; 3 recreational) were observed during practice sessions divided into individual versus group and stationary versus active contexts. Communication was characterized with various measures of content, form, and use. Coaches rarely used pauses or communicative repetitions. Recreational coaches' utterances contained more mazes than competitive coaches' utterances. Utterances used during stationary activities tended to be longer and contain more than one verb compared to utterances used during active activities; sentence fragments were more frequent during active contexts. All coaches used jargon quite frequently. The system reported here can be used to document linguistic demands in other extracurricular activities, such as music programs and scouting. Speech-language pathologists might include clinical activities to help students deal successfully with the linguistic requirements that are inherent in sporting activities.

  15. Associations among linguistic levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, M.R.; Heeringa, Wilbert; Nerbonne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we measure the degrees of association among aggregate pronunciational, lexical and syntactic differences in 70 Dutch dialect varieties. First, we show that pronunciation is marginally more strongly associated with syntax than it is with lexis and that syntax and lexis are only weakly

  16. Associations among Linguistic Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, M.R.; Heeringa, W.J.; Nerbonne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we measure the degrees of association among aggregate pronunciational, lexical and syntactic differences in 70 Dutch dialect varieties. First, we show that pronunciation is marginally more strongly associated with syntax than it is with lexis and that syntax and lexis are only weakly

  17. Analysis of collaborative communication for linguistic cues of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, M Asif; Chen, Fang; Marcus, Nadine

    2012-08-01

    Analyses of novel linguistic and grammatical features, extracted from transcribed speech of people working in a collaborative environment, were performed for cognitive load measurement Prior studies have attempted to assess users' cognitive load with several measures, but most of them are intrusive and disrupt normal task flow. An effective measurement of people's cognitive load can help improve their performance by deploying appropriate output and support strategies accordingly. The authors studied 33 members of bushfire management teams working collaboratively in computerized incident control rooms and involved in complex bushfire management tasks. The participants' communication was analyzed for some novel linguistic features as potential indices of cognitive load, which included sentence length, use of agreement and disagreement phrases, and use of personal pronouns, including both singular and plural pronoun types. Results showed users' different linguistic and grammatical patterns with various cognitive load levels. Specifically, with high load, people spoke more and used longer sentences, used more words that indicated disagreement with other team members, and exhibited increased use of plural personal pronouns and decreased use of singular pronouns. The article provides encouraging evidence for the use of linguistic and grammatical analysis for measuring users' cognitive load and proposes some novel features as cognitive load indices. The proposed approach may be applied to many data-intense and safety-critical task scenarios, such as emergency management departments, for example, bushfire or traffic incident management centers; air traffic control rooms; and call centers, where speech is used as part of everyday tasks.

  18. The Production of Linguistic Prosody in Subjects with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judy P.; Joseph, Lydia; Goodman, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the production of linguistic prosody in subjects with left hemisphere damage (LHD). Three experiments involving the production of lexical stress in nouns vs verbs, compound nouns vs tag constructions, and echo questions vs statements were conducted. Acoustic measurements (fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]), duration and…

  19. Identifying Creativity during Problem Solving Using Linguistic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.; Muldner, Kasia

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is commonly assessed using divergent thinking tasks, which measure the fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of participant output on a variety of different tasks. This study assesses the degree to which creativity can be identified based on linguistic features of participants' language while completing collaborative…

  20. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Bilinguals' Fundamental Frequency Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail; Mennen, Ineke

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated cross-linguistic differences in fundamental frequency range (FFR) in Welsh-English bilingual speech. This is the first study that reports gender-specific behavior in switching FFRs across languages in bilingual speech. Method: FFR was conceptualized as a behavioral pattern using measures of span (range of fundamental…

  1. Psychometric properties of the existence subscale of the purpose in life questionnaire for Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M F

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to test the psychometric properties of the Existence Subscale of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire (EPIL) for early adolescence. The Purpose in Life Questionnaire (PIL), originally created by Craumbaugh and Maholick, is a 20-item scale measuring different dimensions of life purposes. The current study selected seven items representative of the existence dimension to form another scale, the EPIL. The analysis was based on 2842 early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 14 years old. Principal axis factoring found one factor, with 60% variance being explained. Cronbach's alpha for the EPIL was 0.89, which was high. The factor structure was stable across genders. Criterion-related validity was determined when the scale was used to differentiate volunteers and nonvolunteers. Construct validity was found when the scale was associated with life satisfaction. The results give support to the fact that the EPIL could be used alone to measure the psychological well-being of early adolescents and the appropriateness of the EPIL in adolescent research.

  2. Analysis of the laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlhüter, Michael; Zhukov, Victor P.; Sender, Joachim; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    The laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The ignition test case used in the present paper was generated during the In-Space Propulsion project (ISP-1), a project focused on the operation of propulsion systems in space, the handling of long idle periods between operations, and multiple reignitions under space conditions. Regarding the definition of the numerical simulation and the suitable domain for the current model, 2D and 3D simulations have been performed. Analysis shows that the usage of a 2D geometry is not suitable for this type of simulation, as the reduction of the geometry to a 2D domain significantly changes the conditions at the time of ignition and subsequently the flame development. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results shows a strong discrepancy in the pressure evolution and the combustion chamber pressure peak following the laser spark. The detailed analysis of the optical Schlieren and OH data leads to the conclusion that the pressure measurement system was not able to capture the strong pressure increase and the peak value in the combustion chamber during ignition. Although the timing in flame development following the laser spark is not captured appropriately, the 3D simulations reproduce the general ignition phenomena observed in the optical measurement systems, such as pressure evolution and injector flow characteristics.

  3. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  4. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. LANGUAGE ECOLOGY AS LINGUISTIC THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Garner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available language ecology was proposed by Einar Haugen in 1972 as the study of the interaction of any given language and its environment. Despite some use of the term in the literature, sociolinguistics have failed to develop the potenstial that Haugen saw in an ecological approach. Recent developments in ecological thought, however; when applied to language, raise questions about many basic assumptions of conventional linguistics. For example, from an ecological perspective, language is not a rule-governed system, but a form of patterned behaviour arising from the needs of human socialtity: communication, culture, and community. As Haugen foresaw, language ecology offers an exciting alternative approach to linguistic theory. Key words: language ecology, patterned behaviour, holistic, dynamic, and interactive

  6. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...... with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...

  7. Linguistic identity matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbach, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Regulation, risk awareness and technological advances are increasingly drawing identity search functionality into business, security and data management processes, as well as fraud investigations and counter-terrorist measures.Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed for searching identity data, traditionally focusing on logical algorithms. These techniques often failed to take into account the complexities of language and culture that provide the rich variations  seen in names used around the world. A new paradigm has now emerged for understanding the way that identity data

  8. Mixed-effects regression models in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    When data consist of grouped observations or clusters, and there is a risk that measurements within the same group are not independent, group-specific random effects can be added to a regression model in order to account for such within-group associations. Regression models that contain such group-specific random effects are called mixed-effects regression models, or simply mixed models. Mixed models are a versatile tool that can handle both balanced and unbalanced datasets and that can also be applied when several layers of grouping are present in the data; these layers can either be nested or crossed.  In linguistics, as in many other fields, the use of mixed models has gained ground rapidly over the last decade. This methodological evolution enables us to build more sophisticated and arguably more realistic models, but, due to its technical complexity, also introduces new challenges. This volume brings together a number of promising new evolutions in the use of mixed models in linguistics, but also addres...

  9. Statistical and linguistic features of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  10. Stability of memories of parental rearing among psychiatric inpatients: a replication based on EMBU subscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Eisemann, M

    2001-01-01

    With regard to information about parental rearing, retrospective data are exclusively available among adults. These data are vulnerable due to various biases. This study was performed in order to replicate the findings of overall stability of three perceived parental rearing factors of the EMBU (Swedish acronym for 'own memories of childhood upbringing') based on 14 rather detailed subscales. A consecutive sample of 220 depressive inpatients were investigated on admission and at discharge by means of the EMBU, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Perceived parental rearing scores showed high stability despite clinically significant changes in the severity of depression, except for 'tolerance', 'guilt engendering', 'performance orientation' and 'shaming' parenting with probable gender-specific effects which were found to covary with dysfunctional attitudes. Recall of parenting should be taken as a subjective truth when it is assessed by standardised behaviour-oriented questionnaires like the EMBU. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  12. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  13. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  14. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John

  15. Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Function in Phenylketonuria: Psychometric Properties of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Inattention Subscale in Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash

    2015-06-01

    Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales

  16. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Modeling the Visual and Linguistic Importance of Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Ignazio Coco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work measuring the visual importance of objects has shown that only spatial information, such as object position and size, is predictive of importance, whilst low-level visual information, such as saliency, is not (Spain and Perona 2010, IJCV 91, 59–76. Objects are not important solely on the basis of their appearance. Rather, they are important because of their contextual information (eg, a pen in an office versus in a bathroom, which is needed in tasks requiring cognitive control (eg, visual search; Henderson 2007, PsySci 16 219–222. Given that most visual objects have a linguistic counterpart, their importance depends also on linguistic information, especially in tasks where language is actively involved—eg, naming. In an eye-tracking naming study, where participants are asked to name 5 objects in a scene, we investigated how visual saliency, contextual features, and linguistic information of the mentioned objects predicted their importance. We measured object importance based on the urn model of Spain and Perona (2010 and estimated the predictive role of visual and linguistic features using different regression frameworks: LARS (Efron et al 2004, Annals of Statistics 32 407–499 and LME (Baayen et al 2008, JML 59, 390–412. Our results confirmed the role of spatial information in predicting object importance, and in addition, we found effects of saliency. Crucially to our hypothesis, we demonstrated that the lexical frequency of objects and their contextual fit in the scene significantly contributed to object importance.

  18. Adverse learning strategy: the Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory and its subscale replicability in a medical student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G; Pearce, K; Lewis, M; Mellsop, G

    1990-03-01

    The Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory (ADLIMS) is a measure of learning styles and learning pathologies that was designed to investigate the impact of traditional approaches to learning versus problem-based learning and to identify students whose approach to learning tasks predicted poor academic performance. In this study, some important psychometric properties of the ADLIMS were examined, including its factor structure. In this study, factor replicability across samples was argued to provide a more robust and psychologically meaningful factor solution than that which can be obtained using traditional mathematical criteria. The results of the factor analysis did not confirm the presence of the four factor solution earlier reported for the ADLIMS, but did identify three clear factors that had very high replicability. An inspection of the items comprising these three factors showed that factor 1 tapped subjective distress related to poor study habits, lack of motivation to study, and distraction from social activities. Factor 2 tapped distress arising from high achievement expectations that were hampered by superficial or disorganized study habits that did not enable the student to grasp the relationships between concepts and ideas. Factor 3 tapped positive feelings and a sense of satisfaction associated with a problem-based approach to the learning of new study material. Although the internal reliability of the ADLIMS subscales met the requirements of a measure to be used in general research such as in the investigation of correlates among groups of medical students, they did not meet the higher requirements of a measure to be used to identify or predict individuals with pathological learning styles.

  19. Linguistic documents synchronizing sound and text

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Michel; Michailovsky, Boyd; Lowe, John

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the LACITO linguistic archive project is to conserve and to make available for research recorded and transcribed oral traditions and other linguistic materials in (mainly) unwritten languages, giving simultaneous access to sound recordings and text annotation. The project uses simple, TEI-inspired XML markup for the kinds of annotation traditionally used in field linguistics. Transcriptions are segmented at the levels of, roughly, the sentence and the word, and annotation associat...

  20. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  1. Methodological Thoughts from the Linguistic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Davies

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are the heart and soul of any linguistic research. Regardless of how incisive an analysis might be, or how clever, it can never be any better than the data it is based upon. For the field linguist gathering data, important considerations include the selection of informants, the number of informants selection, and data collection techniques. Different research objectives, be they descriptive, prescriptive or theory-driven, require techniques appropriate to those particular goals and should be evaluated within the context of inquiry. What follows is a consideration of the techniques generally used by field linguists with a general descriptive goal within the framework of generative linguistics.

  2. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  3. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  4. Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, In-Kyung

    Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical

  5. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Ivan Gonzalez; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernandez-Fernandez, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to six different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the ana...

  6. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Iván González; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code.

  7. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  8. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  9. The Concept of Linguistic Difficulty. Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Theodore

    Experimental work on the concept of linguistic difficulty is summarized. Inherent linguistic difficulty is distinguished from contrastive linguistic difficulty. Studies of phonological acquisition are cited which tend to support the notion of an ordered acquisition of language features, and it is recommended that we look to cross-linguistic…

  10. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  11. A scaling method for combustion stability rating of coaxial gas liquid injectors in a subscale chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon; Kim, Young Jun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mog [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pikalov, Valery P. [Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    A scaling method to examine combustion stability characteristics of a coaxial injector is devised based on the acoustics and combustion dynamics in a chamber. The method is required for a subscale test of stability rating with a model chamber, which is cost effective compared with an actual full scale test. First, scaling and similarity rules are considered for stability rating and thereby, three conditions of acoustic, hydrodynamic, and flame condition similarities are proposed. That is, for acoustic similarity, the natural or resonant frequencies in the actual chamber should be maintained in the model chamber. And, two parameters of density ratio and velocity ratio are derived for the requirement of hydrodynamic and flame condition similarities between the actual and the model conditions. Next, one example of an actual combustion chamber with high performance is selected and the proposed scaling method is applied to the chamber for understanding of the method. The design operating condition for a model test is presented by mass flow rates of propellants. Stability boundaries can be identified on the coordinate plane of chamber pressure and mixture ratio of fuel and oxidizer by applying the scaling method.

  12. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  13. Linguistic Features Identify Alzheimer's Disease in Narrative Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kathleen C; Meltzer, Jed A; Rudzicz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although memory impairment is the main symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD), language impairment can be an important marker. Relatively few studies of language in AD quantify the impairments in connected speech using computational techniques. We aim to demonstrate state-of-the-art accuracy in automatically identifying Alzheimer's disease from short narrative samples elicited with a picture description task, and to uncover the salient linguistic factors with a statistical factor analysis. Data are derived from the DementiaBank corpus, from which 167 patients diagnosed with "possible" or "probable" AD provide 240 narrative samples, and 97 controls provide an additional 233. We compute a number of linguistic variables from the transcripts, and acoustic variables from the associated audio files, and use these variables to train a machine learning classifier to distinguish between participants with AD and healthy controls. To examine the degree of heterogeneity of linguistic impairments in AD, we follow an exploratory factor analysis on these measures of speech and language with an oblique promax rotation, and provide interpretation for the resulting factors. We obtain state-of-the-art classification accuracies of over 81% in distinguishing individuals with AD from those without based on short samples of their language on a picture description task. Four clear factors emerge: semantic impairment, acoustic abnormality, syntactic impairment, and information impairment. Modern machine learning and linguistic analysis will be increasingly useful in assessment and clustering of suspected AD.

  14. Transparency and accountability in applied linguistics | Weideman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The designed solutions to language problems that are the stock-in-trade of applied linguistics affect the lives of growing numbers of people. By calling for these designs to be accountable, applied linguistics has, in its most recent, postmodern form, added an ethical dimension that is lacking in earlier work. Postmodern ...

  15. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  16. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  17. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  18. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  19. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  20. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  1. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  2. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  3. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  4. The Role of Linguistics in Italian Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the presence and significance of linguistics in Italian departments at universities in Australia and worldwide against the background of multiculturalism, the politicization of the Italian population in Australia, and the emergence of Italy as a major economic and political power. Argues that the boundary lines between linguistics and…

  5. Developing Linguistic Flexibility across the School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Dafna; Berman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The study examined linguistic flexibility of Hebrew-speaking students from middle childhood to adolescence compared with adults on tasks requiring them to alternate between different versions of varied linguistic stimuli. Lexical flexibility was tested by constructing different words with a shared root and a shared prosodic template;…

  6. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  7. An Ever Closer Union . . . of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozeiu, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis carried out between October 2014 and February 2015 by a team of researchers from the University of Westminster with support from colleagues from across the EU identified the linguistic communities across the 28 EU member states as recognized (or not) by the country's legislation and the linguistic rights of these communities in…

  8. Research Priority of Clinical Linguistics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Study in clinical linguistics can reflect and requirements of this area, and can contribute to effective and useful changes in this area. Objectives Since there have been a few studies in the field of clinical linguistics in Iran, this research can pave the way to find research priorities of clinical linguistics in our country. Materials and Methods Studies related to linguistics and speech therapy were collected and studied since their appearance in the literature up to 2012 to determine the number of studies performed on clinical linguistics and its evolutionary trend. Results The most and least numbers of studies conducted by speech therapists on linguistics are related to phonetics/phonology (37% and pragmatics (14%, respectively. In linguistics, there are a few studies on disorders (0.02%, which are mostly in the domain of aphasia (40%; therefore, other disorders should be investigated too. Conclusions The number of linguistic studies on language and speech therapy is more than that of the studies in which clinical data are used to study the theories and hypotheses. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this area seriously and guide the studies toward the theories proposed in the related disorders. Thus, attention must be paid to pragmatic and semantic domains of the disorder which are considered less.

  9. Circumfixes as emergent linguistic structures | Hendrikse | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the manifestations of linguistic complexity is what Dahl (2004:2) describes as 'grammaticalconstructions whose expression is longer than apparently necessary from a cross-linguistic perspective'.In the morphological system of Nguni languages there is a range of co-occurring affixes in both the nominaland the verbal ...

  10. Developing linguistic literacy: a comprehensive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2002-05-01

    This is a position paper modelling the domain of linguistic literacy and its development through the life span. It aims to provide a framework for the analysis of language development in the school years, integrating sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic notions of variation, language awareness, and literacy in a comprehensive model. The paper focuses on those aspects of literacy competence that are expressed in language as well as aspects of linguistic knowledge that are affected by literacy competence, tracing the route that children take in appropriating linguistic literacy as part of their cognitive abilities and examining the effect of literacy on language across development. Our view of linguistic literacy consists of one defining feature: control over linguistic variation from both a user-dependent ('lectal') and a context-dependent (modality, genre, and register) perspective; of one concomitant process: metalanguage and its role in language development; and of one condition: familiarity with writing and written language from two aspects: written language as discourse style--the recognition that the kind of language used for writing is essentially different from the one used for speech; and written language as a notational system--the perception and growing command of the representational system that is used in the written modality. Linguistic literacy is viewed as a constituent of language knowledge characterized by the availability of multiple linguistic resources and by the ability to consciously access one's own linguistic knowledge and to view language from various perspectives.

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SPiL Plus is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL Plus are primarily intended for scholars with an interest in linguistics and related disciplines in Southern Africa. SPiL Plus provides a ...

  12. Current Approaches to Punctuation in Computational Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Say, Bilge; Akman, Varol

    1997-01-01

    Some recent studies in computational linguistics have aimed to take advantage of various cues presented by punctuation marks. This short survey is intended to summarise these research efforts and additionally, to outline a current perspective for the usage and functions of punctuation marks. We conclude by presenting an information-based framework for punctuation, influenced by treatments of several related phenomena in computational linguistics.

  13. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  14. Linguistic Opportunism and English in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the role of English in Moldova. Building on Phillipson's concept of linguistic imperialism and Kachru's three concentric circles of world Englishes, proposes a weak form of linguistic dominance based on the notion of opportunism. The model is supported by data from a recent study of language attitudes and language use in Moldova. Data…

  15. Popular Derivation and Linguistic Inquiry: Les Javanais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Barbara E.

    1996-01-01

    "Javanais" refers to a French linguistic variation, often viewed as slang, in which a word's original form is masked through affixation or displacement of sounds and syllables. Its history and linguistic theory are reviewed. Three types of javanais (verlan, infixing javanais, largonji des louchebems) are compared, and implications for…

  16. The Linguistic Spaces within the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    Based on translation theory, this paper shows how the linguistic spaces in an organization are created and which results it can have, when a big part of the organization doesn’t fit into the space that the strategy creates. The notion of linguistic spaces is established when an organization...

  17. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  18. Evidence That the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) Subscales Should Not Be Scored: Bifactor Modelling, Reliability, and Validity in Clinical and Community Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykos, Bronwyn; Erceg-Hurn, David; McEvoy, Peter; Byrne, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    The Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA 3.0) is the most widely used instrument assessing psychosocial impairment secondary to eating disorder symptoms. However, there is conflicting advice regarding the dimensionality and optimal method of scoring the CIA. We sought to resolve this confusion by conducting a comprehensive factor analytic study of the CIA in a community sample ( N = 301) and clinical sample comprising patients with a diagnosed eating disorder ( N = 209). Convergent and discriminant validity were also assessed. The CIA and measures of eating disorder symptoms were administered to both samples. Factor analyses indicated there is a general impairment factor underlying all items on the CIA that is reliably measured by the CIA Global score. CIA Global demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. CIA Global is a reliable and valid measure of psychosocial impairment secondary to eating disorder symptoms; however, subscale scores should not be computed.

  19. Forests: the cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Burenhult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Do all humans perceive, think, and talk about tree cover (forests in more or less the same way? International forestry programs frequently seem to operate on the assumption that they do. However, recent advances in the language sciences show that languages vary greatly as to how the landscape domain is lexicalized and grammaticalized. Different languages segment and label the large-scale environment and its features according to astonishingly different semantic principles, often in tandem with highly culture-specific practices and ideologies. Presumed basic concepts like mountain, valley, and river cannot in fact be straightforwardly translated across languages. In this paper we describe, compare, and evaluate some of the semantic diversity observed in relation to forests. We do so on the basis of first-hand linguistic field data from a global sample of indigenous categorization systems as they are manifested in the following languages: Avatime (Ghana, Duna (Papua New Guinea, Jahai (Malay Peninsula, Lokono (the Guianas, Makalero (East Timor, and Umpila/Kuuku Ya'u (Cape York Peninsula. We show that basic linguistic categories relating to tree cover vary considerably in their principles of semantic encoding across languages, and that forest is a challenging category from the point of view of intercultural translatability. This has consequences for current global policies and programs aimed at standardizing forest definitions and measurements. It calls for greater attention to categorial diversity in designing and implementing such agendas, and for receptiveness to and understanding of local indigenous classification systems in communicating those agendas on the ground.

  20. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  1. Psychometrics in Support of a Valid Assessment of Linguistic Minorities: Implications for the Test and Sampling Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, María Elena; von Davier, Alina A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose that the unique needs and characteristics of linguistic minorities should be considered throughout the test development process. Unlike most measurement invariance investigations in the assessment of linguistic minorities, which typically are conducted after test administration, we propose strategies that focus on the…

  2. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  3. Linguistic styles: language use as an individual difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennebaker, J W; King, L A

    1999-12-01

    Can language use reflect personality style? Studies examined the reliability, factor structure, and validity of written language using a word-based, computerized text analysis program. Daily diaries from 15 substance abuse inpatients, daily writing assignments from 35 students, and journal abstracts from 40 social psychologists demonstrated good internal consistency for over 36 language dimensions. Analyses of the best 15 language dimensions from essays by 838 students yielded 4 factors that replicated across written samples from another 381 students. Finally, linguistic profiles from writing samples were compared with Thematic Apperception Test coding, self-reports, and behavioral measures from 79 students and with self-reports of a 5-factor measure and health markers from more than 1,200 students. Despite modest effect sizes, the data suggest that linguistic style is an independent and meaningful way of exploring personality.

  4. The development of the items-easy (Ie) and items-difficult (Id) subscales for the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, S Y; Archer, R P; Gordon, R A

    1993-06-01

    This research involves the development, validation, and cross-validation of the Items-Easy (Ie) and Items-Difficult (Id) subscales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992). These subscales were designed to assess the degree to which reading comprehension deficits may be responsible for significant elevations of validity Scale F and the standard clinical scales on adolescents' MMPI-A profiles. A difference score, bared on the two 13-item subscales, was created in order to compare subjects' responses to subsets of the more comprehensible (Ie) and less comprehensible (Id) items within the test. Hit rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power were calculated on the basis of simple (Id - Ie) and weighted (3Id - 1Ie) difference scores for the validation (N = 495) and cross-validation (N = 264) samples, and for specific high-F profile subsamples. Although some of the indices reflected classification accuracy as high as 95%, none of the indices yielded consistently high results across the various samples and subsamples. It has been concluded that the Ie and Id subscales should be used only for research purposes at this time.

  5. Comparison of behavioral activation subscales of Gray’s original reinforcement sensitivity theory in opioid and methamphetamine dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghaderi

    2017-10-01

    Results: The methamphetamine-dependents group had a higher BAS-DR subscale score than the opioid dependent group (P0.05. The BAS-RR scores of the methamphetamine-dependents group were higher than the other two groups (P

  6. Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Wammes; Myra A. Fernandes; Janet H. Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of audi...

  7. [Turkish expressive and receptive language test: I. Standardization, reliability and validity study of the receptive vocabulary sub-scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak Berument, Sibel; Güven, Ayşe Gül

    2013-01-01

    A reliable, valid and original test to assess the receptive vocabulary skills of children in Turkey was not available. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop a receptive vocabulary test for Turkish children based on the Turkish language. For the Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale (TIFALDI-RT) 242 concrete and abstract words were chosen from word frequency lists and a comprehensive Turkish Dictionary. Pilot data were collected from 648 children aged 2 to 13 from Ankara, and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 3755 children. Item analysis (item difficulty, discrimination and distractor) was carried out on the pilot data and based on the results, the total item number was reduced to 157. Further, three parameter item analyses (IRT) were carried out on the norm data by using BILOG-MG (SSI, 2002), and the results indicated that the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale could be reduced to 104 items to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were calculated for the whole sample and age groups separately, and all the coefficients were high. For the validity, the relationship between the WISC-R and Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (AGTE) and Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale were investigated. Once again, the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale scores were found to be significantly related to WISC-R and AGTE scores. The TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale was developed on the basis of the Turkish Language and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample. The TIFALDI-RT also had a high reliability and validity. Thus, the TIFALDI-RT can be used to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary skills.

  8. Comparative, validity and responsiveness of the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS to the WOMAC physical function subscale in total joint replacement for osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the internal consistency of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (HOOS-PS) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (KOOS-PS) in total hip replacement (THR) and total knee (TKR) replacement....... Construct validity and responsiveness were compared to the Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Likert 3.0 physical function (PF) subscale and the PF excluding the items in the short measures (PF-exclusions). METHODS: Participants completed the full HOOS or KOOS, measures...... of fatigue, anxiety, depression and the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) pre-surgery and the HOOS or KOOS 6 months post-surgery. Internal consistency for the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. For construct validity, it was hypothesized that correlations between the HOOS-PS or KOOS-PS and PF...

  9. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  10. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  11. High Order Linguistic Features Such as Ambiguity Processing as Relevant Diagnostic Markers for Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ketteler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the deficits of schizophrenic patients regarding the understanding of vague meanings (D. Ketteler and S. Ketteler (2010 we develop a special test battery called HOLF (high order linguistic function test, which should be able to detect subtle linguistic performance deficits in schizophrenic patients. HOLF was presented to 40 schizophrenic patients and controls, focussing on linguistic features such as ambiguity, synonymy, hypero-/hyponymy, antinomy, and adages. Using the HOLF test battery we found that schizophrenic patients showed significant difficulties in discriminating ambiguities, hypero- and hyponymy, or synonymy compared to healthy controls. Antonyms and adages showed less significant results in comparing both groups. The more difficult a linguistic task was, the more confusion was measured in the schizophrenic group while healthy controls did not show significant problems in processing high order language tasks.

  12. The Problem of Translating English Linguistic Terminology into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2003-01-01

    Arabic Linguistics has been a full-fledged descriptive science for a long time. However modern Linguistics, as a distinct empirical science, entailed that Arab linguists review their methods of dealing with the linguistic phenomenon. One of the major challenges for this new approach was to create equivalent genuine Arabic terms in modern…

  13. Farabi's Logico-Linguistic Ideas in Comparison with Theories and Principles in Contemporary Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    MORADIAN, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This research is an attempt to make a comparison and contrast between Farabi's logico-linguistic ideas, as an Iranian scientist, philosopher, and logician, with the contemporary linguistic theories and principles. To make this comparison and contrast possible, we would review the most relevant and outstanding contemporary linguistic theories and then compare them with those of Farabi. To our astonishment, we made it clear that Farabi introduced the science of language to the learned...

  14. Knowledge Cycle among Theoretical Linguistics, Psycho-linguistics, and Foreign-language Learning: Its Theoretical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; ヤマダ, トシユキ

    2017-01-01

    In linguistic research, theoretical linguistics, psycho-linguistics, and foreign-language learning have beenstudied in their own ways. To establish their organic relationship, I will propose a model of knowledgecycle. A driving force for the cycle is sentences containing grammatical errors made by foreign-languagelearners (e.g., *John like apples). The ungrammaticalness of each sentence can be tested by psycho-linguisticexperiments such as acceptability judgments, reaction-time tasks. Atteste...

  15. Identifying Chinese Microblog Users With High Suicide Probability Using Internet-Based Profile and Linguistic Features: Classification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Hao, Bibo; Cheng, Qijin; Yip, Paul Sf; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Traditional offline assessment of suicide probability is time consuming and difficult in convincing at-risk individuals to participate. Identifying individuals with high suicide probability through online social media has an advantage in its efficiency and potential to reach out to hidden individuals, yet little research has been focused on this specific field. The objective of this study was to apply two classification models, Simple Logistic Regression (SLR) and Random Forest (RF), to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of identifying high suicide possibility microblog users in China through profile and linguistic features extracted from Internet-based data. There were nine hundred and nine Chinese microblog users that completed an Internet survey, and those scoring one SD above the mean of the total Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) score, as well as one SD above the mean in each of the four subscale scores in the participant sample were labeled as high-risk individuals, respectively. Profile and linguistic features were fed into two machine learning algorithms (SLR and RF) to train the model that aims to identify high-risk individuals in general suicide probability and in its four dimensions. Models were trained and then tested by 5-fold cross validation; in which both training set and test set were generated under the stratified random sampling rule from the whole sample. There were three classic performance metrics (Precision, Recall, F1 measure) and a specifically defined metric "Screening Efficiency" that were adopted to evaluate model effectiveness. Classification performance was generally matched between SLR and RF. Given the best performance of the classification models, we were able to retrieve over 70% of the labeled high-risk individuals in overall suicide probability as well as in the four dimensions. Screening Efficiency of most models varied from 1/4 to 1/2. Precision of the models was generally below 30%. Individuals in China with high suicide

  16. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    development of semantics is unravelled from the field theory of the early 20th ... Generally speaking, applied disciplines (for example in mathematics, the- .... small scale. .... guistic systematization but to improve their linguistic competence.

  17. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and Ideographic Dictionaries. 1999, 388pp. ISBN 83 87288 98 5. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej. Price: 16 PLN ...

  18. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  19. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-04-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when compared with hearing individuals. However, the majority of those studies were not performed in the linguistic modality considered the most adequate to their sensory capabilities (i.e., sign language). Therefore, this exploratory study was developed focusing on linguistic modality effects during semantic retrieval in deaf individuals in comparison with their hearing peers through a category fluency task. Results show a difference in performance between the two linguistic modalities by deaf individuals as well as in the type of linguistic clusters most chosen by participants, suggesting a complex clustering tendency by deaf individuals.

  20. Linguistic characteristics of SLI in Afrikaans | Southwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Linguistic Diversity in Blue‐Collar Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Kraft, Kamilla

    In this paper we examine the management of linguistic diversity in blue‐collar workplaces and its implications. The blue‐collar context is somewhat neglected in studies of globalisation and its consequences for the workplace. Hence, our focus here is on blue‐collar workplaces in the context...... for establishing stable linguistic practices.This study is based on data from two ethnographic studies of blue‐collar workplaces in Denmark and Norway, and it includes observational data, ethnographic interviews as well as interactional data. The latter has been analysed using conversation analysis.Our data...... these situations include drawing pictures, gesturing, referring to signs, and even speaking Danish/Norwegian regardless of the fact that interlocutors do not understand the language. Through the use of these linguistic and other semiotic resources, the barriers posed by linguistic diversity are usually overcome...

  2. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  3. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  4. Scientific literacy: A systemic functional linguistics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2005-03-01

    Scientific writing contains unique linguistic features that construe special realms of scientific knowledge, values, and beliefs. An understanding of the functionality of these features is critical to the development of literacy in science. This article describes some of the key linguistic features of scientific writing, discusses the challenges these features present to comprehension and composition of science texts in school, and argues for greater attention to the specialized language of science in teaching and learning.

  5. Linguistic geometry for technologies procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    In the modern world of rapidly rising prices of new military hardware, the importance of Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) is hard to overestimate. With SAB, DOD would be able to test, develop CONOPS for, debug, and evaluate new conceptual military equipment before actually building the expensive hardware. However, only recently powerful tools for real SBA have been developed. Linguistic Geometry (LG) permits full-scale modeling and evaluation of new military technologies, combinations of hardware systems and concepts of their application. Using LG tools, the analysts can create a gaming environment populated with the Blue forces armed with the new conceptual hardware as well as with appropriate existing weapons and equipment. This environment will also contain the intelligent enemy with appropriate weaponry and, if desired, with a conceptual counters to the new Blue weapons. Within such LG gaming environment, the analyst can run various what-ifs with the LG tools providing the simulated combatants with strategies and tactics solving their goals with minimal resources spent.

  6. Construct Validity and Reliability of the SARA Gait and Posture Sub-scale in Early Onset Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitske F. Lawerman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In children, gait and posture assessment provides a crucial marker for the early characterization, surveillance and treatment evaluation of early onset ataxia (EOA. For reliable data entry of studies targeting at gait and posture improvement, uniform quantitative biomarkers are necessary. Until now, the pediatric test construct of gait and posture scores of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia sub-scale (SARA is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to validate the construct validity and reliability of the pediatric (SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scale.Methods: We included 28 EOA patients [15.5 (6–34 years; median (range]. For inter-observer reliability, we determined the ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores by three independent pediatric neurologists. For convergent validity, we associated SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores with: (1 Ataxic gait Severity Measurement by Klockgether (ASMK; dynamic balance, (2 Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS; static balance, (3 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale -extended and revised version (GMFCS-E&R, (4 SARA-kinetic scores (SARAKINETIC; kinetic function of the upper and lower limbs, (5 Archimedes Spiral (AS; kinetic function of the upper limbs, and (6 total SARA scores (SARATOTAL; i.e., summed SARAGAIT/POSTURE, SARAKINETIC, and SARASPEECH sub-scores. For discriminant validity, we investigated whether EOA co-morbidity factors (myopathy and myoclonus could influence SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores.Results: The inter-observer agreement (ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores was high (0.97. SARAGAIT/POSTURE was strongly correlated with the other ataxia and functional scales [ASMK (rs = -0.819; p < 0.001; PBS (rs = -0.943; p < 0.001; GMFCS-E&R (rs = -0.862; p < 0.001; SARAKINETIC (rs = 0.726; p < 0.001; AS (rs = 0.609; p = 0.002; and SARATOTAL (rs = 0.935; p < 0.001]. Comorbid myopathy influenced SARAGAIT/POSTURE scores by concurrent muscle weakness, whereas comorbid myoclonus predominantly influenced

  7. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  8. Development of a Low-Cost, Subscale Test System to Evaluate Particle Impingement Erosion in Nozzle Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gordon, Gail H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview on the development of a low-cost, subscale test system to evaluate particle impingement erosion in nozzle ablative materials. Details are given on the need for a new test bed, solid fuel torch components, solid fuel torch test, additional uses for the solid fuel torch, the development of a supersonic blast tube (SSBT), and particle impingement material discrimination.

  9. The Child Behavior Checklist-Obsessive-Compulsive Subscale Detects Severe Psychopathology and Behavioral Problems Among School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Laura O; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Manfro, Gisele G; Shavitt, Roseli G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Alvarenga, Pedro G

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) dimensionally in a school-aged community sample and to correlate them with clinical and demographical variables; (2) to determine a subgroup with significant OCS ("at-risk for OCD") using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-OCS) and (3) to compare it with the rest of the sample; (4) To review the CBCL-OCS subscale properties as a screening tool for pediatric OCD. Data from the Brazilian High Risk Cohort were analyzed. The presence and severity of OCS were assessed through the CBCL-OCS subscale. DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were obtained by the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Youth Strengths Inventory, and the CBCL internalizing and externalizing behavior subscales. A total of 2512 (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) children were included. Moderate correlations were found between OCS severity and functional impairment (r = 0.36, p behavioral problems (p behavioral patterns and psychiatric comorbidities (e.g., tics [odds ratios, OR = 6.41, p approach suggests that the presence of OCS in children is associated with higher rates of comorbidity, behavioral problems, and impairment. The "at-risk for OCD" group defined by the CBCL revealed a group of patients phenotypically similar to full blown OCD.

  10. A psychometric evaluation of the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R cognitive distress, fatigue, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia subscales in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April N Naegeli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available April N Naegeli1, Timothy E Stump2, Risa P Hayes11Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Consultant, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To explore the use of Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R Cognitive Distress, Fatigue, Hyperglycemia, and Hypoglycemia subscales as measures of acute diabetesassociated symptoms in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes.Research design and methods: Our study was conducted in context of two international, multicenter, randomized clinical trials for inhaled insulin. Confirmatory factor analyses and assessments of reliability and construct validity were performed.Results: Study participants were 371 patients with type 2 (56% male; mean age, 57 years and 481 with type 1 diabetes (57% male, mean age, 40 years. In both populations a four-factor model was the best fit. Cronbach’s α ≥ 0.79 and intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.63; subscales correlated (P ≤ 0.05 with measures of well-being and satisfaction (0.12 ≤ r ≤ 0.71. In patients with type 1 diabetes, three subscales correlated (P < 0.05 with A1C.Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the DSC-R Cognitive Distress, Fatigue, Hyperglycemia, and Hypoglycemia suggest they may be utilized in clinical trials as reliable and valid measures of acute symptoms of diabetes.Keywords: Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised, DSC-R, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, psychometric validation

  11. Linguistically informed digital fingerprints for text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Özlem

    2006-02-01

    Digital fingerprinting, watermarking, and tracking technologies have gained importance in the recent years in response to growing problems such as digital copyright infringement. While fingerprints and watermarks can be generated in many different ways, use of natural language processing for these purposes has so far been limited. Measuring similarity of literary works for automatic copyright infringement detection requires identifying and comparing creative expression of content in documents. In this paper, we present a linguistic approach to automatically fingerprinting novels based on their expression of content. We use natural language processing techniques to generate "expression fingerprints". These fingerprints consist of both syntactic and semantic elements of language, i.e., syntactic and semantic elements of expression. Our experiments indicate that syntactic and semantic elements of expression enable accurate identification of novels and their paraphrases, providing a significant improvement over techniques used in text classification literature for automatic copy recognition. We show that these elements of expression can be used to fingerprint, label, or watermark works; they represent features that are essential to the character of works and that remain fairly consistent in the works even when works are paraphrased. These features can be directly extracted from the contents of the works on demand and can be used to recognize works that would not be correctly identified either in the absence of pre-existing labels or by verbatim-copy detectors.

  12. Age-related changes to the production of linguistic prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Daniel R.

    The production of speech prosody (the rhythm, pausing, and intonation associated with natural speech) is critical to effective communication. The current study investigated the impact of age-related changes to physiology and cognition in relation to the production of two types of linguistic prosody: lexical stress and the disambiguation of syntactically ambiguous utterances. Analyses of the acoustic correlates of stress: speech intensity (or sound-pressure level; SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), key word/phrase duration, and pause duration revealed that both young and older adults effectively use these acoustic features to signal linguistic prosody, although the relative weighting of cues differed by group. Differences in F0 were attributed to age-related physiological changes in the laryngeal subsystem, while group differences in duration measures were attributed to relative task complexity and the cognitive-linguistic load of these respective tasks. The current study provides normative acoustic data for older adults which informs interpretation of clinical findings as well as research pertaining to dysprosody as the result of disease processes.

  13. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  14. Papers in African Linguistics. Current Inquiry into Language and Linguistics I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chin-Wu, Ed.; Stahlke, Herbert, Ed.

    This volume, a collection of selected papers from the Conference on African Languages and Linguistics organized by the Department of Linguistics of the University of Illinois and held at Urbana-Champaign on April 24-25, 1970, contains: W. E. Welmers, "The Typology of the Proto-Niger-Kordofanian Noun Class System"; D. Dalby, "A…

  15. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  16. The Problem of Data in the Cognitive Linguistic Research on Metonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabo, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The general goal of the present paper is to demonstrate how cross-linguistic (contrastive) data can broaden the perspective in cognitive linguistic research on metonymy, which may raise a host of questions calling for a revision of some widely accepted views. A more specific, methodological goal is to show how the introspection-driven research and…

  17. The Judge as Linguist: Linguistic Principles as a Rule of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Lawrence

    The role of court judges as linguists is discussed. Linguistic issues arise in courts when lawyers attempt to convince a court that a statute, insurance policy, or contract should be interpreted as favoring their own client's interests, with respect to resolving a dispute that depends on the proper construal of a particular document. An…

  18. Dissociating Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Gesture Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence from American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language…

  19. Recent cannabis use among adolescent and young adult immigrants in the Netherlands - the roles of acculturation strategy and linguistic acculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delforterie, M.J.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the relation between two different acculturation measures (i.e., linguistic acculturation and the acculturation strategies integration, separation and marginalization) and past year cannabis use. Additionally, we studied the mediating role of affiliation with

  20. LINGUISTIC AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Alpatov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article analyses the book on political systems and processes in the East prepared by MGIMO-University authors and edited by Alexei D. Voskressenski in order to show the differences in approach and methods used in linguistics and political science. The author shows two significant differences in present-day stressing that linguistics of the XIX century was closer to the present-day political science? As he believes. The first difference includes monism of political science approach, since the book reveals monistic scale from totalitarianism to democracy, while linguistic has abandoned the monistic view on typology. The second difference is the value-addedness of the political science approach. The value-free norm in linguistics presupposes setting up of a single standard for all speakers in order to reach full mutual understanding. In political science subjective criteria are decisive for evaluation. The article gives examples from the book to prove that political science, compared to linguistics, is not aimed at overcoming contradictions, distinguishing between the terms, avoiding unproved statements and subjective evaluations.

  1. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  2. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  3. Aztec Studies I. Phonological and Grammatical Studies in Modern Nahuatl Dialects. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dow F., Ed.

    The articles presented in this study represent four of the seven Nahuatl dialects in which the Summer Institute of Linguistics workers are currently involved. Tentative conclusions from the dialect testing teams engaged in measuring degree of intelligibility between Nahuatl dialects suggest that almost a dozen mutually unintelligible Nahuatl areas…

  4. [An essay about science and linguistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, P

    2011-01-01

    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  5. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... to constructively define what it then means that a sentence is grammatical from a functional linguistics perspective have been limited. The notion of grammaticality that will be put forward here is based on Langacker’s (2000) dynamical usage-based model. Langacker’s model is extended to accommodate the general...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  6. Linguistically debatable or just plain wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plank, Barbara; Hovy, Dirk; Søgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In linguistic annotation projects, we typically develop annotation guidelines to maximize inter-annotator agreement and learnability. However, in this position paper we question whether we should actually limit the disagreements between annotators, rather than embrace them. We present an empirica...... to linguistically debatable cases, rather than to actual annotation errors. Specifically, we show that even in the absence of annotation guidelines, only 2% of annotator choices are linguistically unmotivated....... analysis of part-of-speech annotated data sets that suggests that certain disagreements are systematic across domains and languages. This points to an underlying ambiguity rather than random errors. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of disagreements reveals that the majority of them are due...

  7. Linguistic variation and change: Middle English infinitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Middle English the old inflected infinitive lost its supine function and gradually replaced the uninflected infinitive in all positions, except in the complementation of moal and a limited number of other verbs. According to most linguists, the choice between the to infinitive and the bare infinitive was either lexically or structurally conditioned. The theory of linguistic change as the assertion of weaker or stronger linguistic variants postulates the affinity of stronger variants for more complex, i. e. functionally marked grammaticall environment. The author tests the validity of the theory against the assertion of the English to infinitive at the expanse of the bare infinitive after the Norman Conquest. The results confirm the initial hypothesist that the degree of formal marked­ ness of the infinitive concurred with the degree of the functional markedness of grammatical pa­ rameters.

  8. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... trained in distributional analysis, he reifies ‘words’. Though rejecting inner languages and grammatical universals, he ascribes mental reality to a lexicon. Reliant as he is on transcriptions, he takes the cognitivist view that brains represent word-forms. By contrast, in radical embodied cognitive...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  9. The Relationship between Toponymy and Linguistics

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    Oana- Maria Poenaru (Girigan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through this article I tried to point out that the toponymy of a region can be differently studied, given the concerns of the one conducting the research, thus the concern for toponymy must preocupy the geographer and historian but olso the linguist which aims to discover the origin of some names on purely linguistic criteria (of phonetic, semantic, onomasiologic nature and so on. The linguistic material (exemplified toponyms obtained from field surveys (Upper Bistriţa basin and the study of specialised historical and geographical documents aims to capture relatively new concepts such as polarization and differentiation, presenting the meaning, etymology and changes occurring over time in the process of denomination of a reality. I also tried to capture the fact that common names and place names do not exclude each other, but are in a reciprocity relationship, despite some semantic, derivational and grammatical particularities.

  10. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  11. A modest proposal: Linguistics and literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Furlong

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linguistics should make significant contributions to literary and critical theory, but has failed to do so. This paper investigates the reasons for the failure and suggests an approach based in Relevance Theory for a working relationship between literary studies and pragmatics. Literary critics have misappropriated linguistic terminology and theories, because their model of language is outdated, and because they blur the distinction between scientific theories and interpretive frameworks—contexts in which assumptions are highly salient. Following an outline of Relevance Theory, an application of relevance stylistics demonstrates the distinctions between theories and interpretive frameworks, and how they can reinforce one another.

  12. Web Service Matchmaking Based on Linguistic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dexin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Degan

    Matchmaking is considered as one of the crucial factors to ensure pervasive discovery of web services. Current matchmaking methods are inadequate to semantic information with machine understandable, therefore intelligent service discovery can not be carried on. In this paper, we use fuzzy linguistic variables to represent the vague or imprecise data at abstract level. The match method performs two levels, first level is capability match by inputs and outputs interfaces based on description logic reasoning, and the second level is the fuzzy match with linguistic variables, thus the more reasonable results will be presented to the users for selection.

  13. Assessing linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version sexual health instruments among Chinese immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Han, Chong-Suk

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version instruments measuring sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among 10 bilingual and 2 monolingual Chinese immigrant youth aged 13-19 years. We used a rigorous design to translate, back-translate, and pilot test the instruments. Kappa coefficient, percentage agreement, and qualitative feedback from participants were used to examine reliability and validity of the instruments. Telephone interviews revealed that answer discrepancies in different language versions were due to external factors rather than lack of linguistic and cultural equivalency. This study offers preliminary evidence supporting the cultural and linguistic equivalence of two Chinese-version sexual scales.

  14. Children's Language and Experiences: Some Considerations for Linguists. Linguistic Communications: Working Papers of the Linguistic Society of Australia, No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Julia

    This paper examines a didactic model of teaching-learning which underlies the approach of many teachers and linguists, and proposes an organic interaction model, which recognizes children's individual needs and characteristics, instead. Problems in interpreting test results in areas of primary or oral language and in the secondary language skills…

  15. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus - Vol 29 (1996)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Putting some Linguistics into Applied Linguistics: a sociolinguistic study of left dislocation in South African Black EngUsh · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Mesthrie, 260-283 ...

  16. Backward Dependencies andin-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L-S

    2017-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  17. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2018-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  18. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Pablos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005 which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of

  19. Disadvantages of Linguistic Origin – Evidence from Immigrant Literacy Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Isphording, Ingo Eduard

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the disadvantage in the formation of literacy skills of immigrants that arises from the linguistic distance between mother tongue and host country language. Combining unique cross-country data on literacy scores with information on the linguistic distance between languages, gaps in literacy test scores are estimated. Linguistically distant immigrants face significant initial disadvantages of linguistic origin that exceed existing differentials across wage distributions a...

  20. Rhythmic variability between speakers: articulatory, prosodic, and linguistic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellwo, Volker; Leemann, Adrian; Kolly, Marie-José

    2015-03-01

    Between-speaker variability of acoustically measurable speech rhythm [%V, ΔV(ln), ΔC(ln), and Δpeak(ln)] was investigated when within-speaker variability of (a) articulation rate and (b) linguistic structural characteristics was introduced. To study (a), 12 speakers of Standard German read seven lexically identical sentences under five different intended tempo conditions (very slow, slow, normal, fast, very fast). To study (b), 16 speakers of Zurich Swiss German produced 16 spontaneous utterances each (256 in total) for which transcripts were made and then read by all speakers (4096 sentences; 16 speaker × 256 sentences). Between-speaker variability was tested using analysis of variance with repeated measures on within-speaker factors. Results revealed strong and consistent between-speaker variability while within-speaker variability as a function of articulation rate and linguistic characteristics was typically not significant. It was concluded that between-speaker variability of acoustically measurable speech rhythm is strong and robust against various sources of within-speaker variability. Idiosyncratic articulatory movements were found to be the most plausible factor explaining between-speaker differences.

  1. A Glossary of Grammar and Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Andrew

    A guide to linguistic analysis and to the three co-existing grammars--conventional, structural, and transformational--this glossary, which is directed to the beginning student, provides descriptions of terms and topics as they are used in their most frequent and familiar senses. Encyclopedic descriptions and information about the referent are…

  2. Some thoughts on economy within linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URIAGEREKA Juan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of Chomsky's Minimalist Program is the role played by economy. This paper discusses different ways in which Chomsky's notion of economy in linguistics can be understood, given current views on dynamic systems and, in particular, on evolution in biological systems.

  3. Preface | Bekker | Southern African Linguistics and Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  4. Editorial | Bekker | Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 52 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial. Ian Bekker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  5. Editorial | Bekker | Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 48 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial. Ian Bekker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  6. Cognitive Linguistics and the Second Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Randal

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Linguistics (CL) makes the functional assumption that form is motivated by meaning. CL also analyses form-meaning pairings as products of how cognition structures perception. CL thus helps teachers to fit language to the nature of the cognition that learns whilst devising modes of instruction that are better attuned to the nature of the…

  7. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity | Moon | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  8. Educational language planning and linguistic identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Peter

    1991-03-01

    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  9. Breaking Into and Out of Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuy, Roger W.

    As a result of its isolative pattern of development, linguistics is now beginning to suffer from not having a natural apprenticeship domain, making it difficult for new graduates to find work. The field has been lacking in entrepreneurial tendencies and unimaginative in developing either a potential clientele or a repertoire of uses. Linguistics…

  10. Ideology in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…

  11. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  12. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  13. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  14. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  15. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  16. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  17. Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Theoretical Linguistics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  18. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    In his book, Igor Burkhanov assumes that cognitive semantics, as developed mainly in the United States of America from about 1980, is a linguistic innova- tion which lends itself to a thorough renovation of pedagogical dictionaries. In order to show this convincingly, he discusses lexicography as an applied disci- pline of ...

  19. The Language Organ: Linguistics as Cognitive Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen R.; Lightfoot, David W.

    This book treats human language as the manifestation of a faculty of the mind, a mental organ whose nature is determined by human biology, suggesting that its functional properties should be explored just as physiology explores the functional properties of physical organs. The book asserts that linguistics investigates cognition, taking as its…

  20. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amitabh@1234

    language policies, and linguistic attitudes of the people from the elite backgrounds. The earliest missionaries-cum-educationalists, e.g. Rev. Krapf, Bishop Steere, and. Father Sacleux in United Missionary Conference in 1909 recommended biased bilingual education policies in the nation where English was adopted from.

  1. Multiple Uses of Applied Linguistics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ways that applied linguistics literature can be used in a multidisciplinary graduate-level English for academic purposes class. Focuses on three main uses: (1) providing students with information about issues in academic and professional writing; (2) helping them make comparisons of form and style with academic articles in their own…

  2. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  3. Linguistic Competence in English and Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Marisol

    2008-01-01

    This study examines Linguistic Competence in English Language (LCE) as a general indicator of Communicative Competence. A test and a questionnaire were administered to 1838 undergraduate freshmen from five major institutes of higher education in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The results of the test are analysed in their association with main features of…

  4. SOCIO CUM LINGUISTIC INTERPLAY IN LANGUAGE CHOICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir George

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... and of course his linguistic ability. Therefore, Winkler (2007:211) asserts: “Most of the world‟s people live in bi- and multilin- gual communities, a result of which is that many peo- ple have communicative competence in at least two languages. Sometimes in these communities, the two languages co-exist.

  5. Linguistic Resources and Strategies Used In Multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper gives a description of multilingual practices in two HIV-care centres in Lesotho on the basis of interviews with both health care providers and some patients who make use of the services of these centres. It considers the importance of effective linguistic communication in HIV-care and the hazards posed to such ...

  6. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  7. Linguistic Justice, van Parijs, and Esperanto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbo, F.

    2016-01-01

    In the European and world-wide scenario of linguistic justice offered by van Parijs (2011), it is argued that we need one lingua franca only and that the only suitable candidate is English. In order to sustain his argument, the author has to reject three known alternatives against the English-only

  8. The text as a linguistic object lesson

    OpenAIRE

    Zhazheva Saida; Zhazheva Dariet

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the question of the text as a linguistic object lesson. Given the ways of the organization of thetext, the main purpose of the text is reduced to the solution of the most various tasks, and to create a variety of meanings setup by the author of the text.

  9. Applied Linguists and Institutions of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Public opinion research is not an area that has received much attention from applied linguists. But language lies at the heart of the procedures used to define, elicit, and report opinions, whether through such methods as polling, interviews, and focus groups, or through the less obvious channels of vox pop interviews, letters to the editor, radio…

  10. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ASSESSMENT ... 32. The best example of a direct relationship is the application of Structuralism to language teaching. The Structuralist approach to language was coupled with ... should precede the provision of opportunities for practice in language teaching.

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics - Vol 47 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER frame in Swami Vivekananda's Complete Works: A corpus-driven study in light of conceptual metaphor theory · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Suren Naicker, 115-132 ...

  12. Conference Reports | Authors | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Conference Reports. Conference Authors. Abstract.

  13. Linguistic Policy in Post-revolutionary Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language on economic, social, and political change in postrevolutionary Cuba. One of Cuba's primary postrevolutionary objectives was the eradication of illiteracy. Linguistic policies with respect to both Spanish and foreign languages were seen as a means to build human value and to establish a strong base for future…

  14. A linguistic or a pedagogic intervention?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it was difficult to establish the real motivation prior to the language policy, this study indicates that both English mother-tongue and English additional language students use the dictionary in examinations for assistance that may be considered to be broadly pedagogic rather than purely linguistic. This then invites ...

  15. Teaching Linguistics and Lexicography with Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battenburg, John D.; Lant, Kathleen Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Describes the use of the California Central Coast Online Dictionary, a database-supported Web site, in teaching an introductory class on linguistics and lexicography. The project allowed consideration of several models for teaching in the information age: teaching as modeling, teaching as negotiation, and teaching as defamiliarization or…

  16. Blind Linguistic Steganalysis against Translation Based Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhili; Huang, Liusheng; Meng, Peng; Yang, Wei; Miao, Haibo

    Translation based steganography (TBS) is a kind of relatively new and secure linguistic steganography. It takes advantage of the "noise" created by automatic translation of natural language text to encode the secret information. Up to date, there is little research on the steganalysis against this kind of linguistic steganography. In this paper, a blind steganalytic method, which is named natural frequency zoned word distribution analysis (NFZ-WDA), is presented. This method has improved on a previously proposed linguistic steganalysis method based on word distribution which is targeted for the detection of linguistic steganography like nicetext and texto. The new method aims to detect the application of TBS and uses none of the related information about TBS, its only used resource is a word frequency dictionary obtained from a large corpus, or a so called natural frequency dictionary, so it is totally blind. To verify the effectiveness of NFZ-WDA, two experiments with two-class and multi-class SVM classifiers respectively are carried out. The experimental results show that the steganalytic method is pretty promising.

  17. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  18. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, Vol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Keywords: sex work, corpus linguistics, critical discourse analysis, South African media. 1. Introduction ... The Sowetan (TS) positions itself as “a fearless advocate of political truth and national development, but also ... the M&G Online more accessible to people outside the target market: 58% of online users accessed the site ...

  19. Conceptualising linguistic access to knowledge as interdisciplinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptualising linguistic access to knowledge as interdisciplinary collaboration. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... We draw on a number of case studies to show how reconceptualising the work of communication lecturers can enhance collaboration between communication and content lectures in science, engineering ...

  20. A Market Failure Approach to Linguistic Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper will consider language management from the perspective of efficiency, and will set the grounds for a new approach to linguistic justice: a market failure approach. The principle of efficiency emphasises the need to satisfy individuals' preferences in an optimal way. Applying this principle with regard to language would justify language…

  1. Linguistic Imitation in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Linguistic imitation by 48 children with Down's syndrome was compared to that of 57 children without mental retardation. The children with Down's syndrome imitated slightly less. This difference was related to language level and the source of the imitation, suggesting that children with Down's syndrome develop differently with respect to…

  2. The Temporal Dimension of Linguistic Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wing Yee

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores how predictions about upcoming language inputs are computed during real-time language comprehension. Previous research has demonstrated humans' ability to use rich contextual information to compute linguistic prediction during real-time language comprehension, and it has been widely assumed that contextual information can…

  3. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  4. On the Linguistic Covariants of Cultural Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'sou, Benjamin K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses diverse sociolinguistic concepts such as borrowing, code-switching, bilingualism, and interference, and proposes a hypothesis concerning the progression of these linguistic developments in a contact situation and concerning the correlation of these developments with distinct phases of cultural assimilation. (Author/CLK)

  5. The Influence of Bloomfield's Linguistics on Skinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.; Matos, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Bloomfield's "Linguistics as a Science" (1930/1970), "Language" (1933/1961), and "Language or Ideas?" (1936a/1970), and Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) and "Science and Human Behavior" (1953) were analyzed in regard to their respective perspectives on science and scientific method, the verbal episode, meaning, and subject matter. Similarities…

  6. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  7. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  8. The Linguistic Functions of Some Nonverbal Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the linguistic concerns of the rhetorical “polylogic” approach to the exploration of the stylistic aspects of language, which include paralinguistic communication devices, such as waving of hands, blinking of eyes, etc. These paralinguistic elements (proxemics for example) usually occur together with ...

  9. Linguistic Cultural Capital and Basic Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Uses student essays to illustrate the linguistic variations that many basic writing students bring to the academy and then offers some insights from second language acquisition and literacy studies that may help writing specialists enhance pedagogical practice to better serve these students. (SG)

  10. Public Sphere, Linguistic Sphericules and Discourse Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We intend to show that the discursive practices and, more generally, the complex dynamics that characterize public debate in this context are determined by sociolinguistic factors such as 'elite closure', linguistic repertoire, as well as by social exclusion (Scotton 1993). Elite closure, considered as social exclusion based on ...

  11. Linguistic Ability: Some Myths and Some Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail L.

    "Linguistic ability" is a widely misused term in foreign language literature. This confusion prompted an investigation into language aptitude testing, the specific goals of which included determining: the distribution of language aptitude across ability range; the validity of Pimsleur's suggestions of combined verbal and auditory scores;…

  12. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  13. Linguistic Research with PaQU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I illustrate the use of the PaQu (Parse and Query) application for carrying out linguistic research. The major findings of this paper are: (1) PaQu is very useful for aiding researchers in effcient manual verification of hypotheses; (2) PaQu can even be used for automatic verification

  14. Recent trends in Brazilian Historical Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Rosa Virgínia Mattos e

    1999-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the new directions taken by Historical Linguistics in Brazil, which gives special attention to Brazilian Portuguese, studying dialectal and sociolinguistic aspects. A special reference is made to projects that bring together researchers from several universities in the country.

  15. Linguistic Difference and Cultural Translatability: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Azade

    2002-01-01

    Suggests current scholarship has paid little attention to issues of linguistic differences and cultural translatability and points out the need for language departments offering courses in cultural, ethnic, and Diaspora studies to require proficiency in another language and to cultivate responsiveness to language politics at both the local and…

  16. One Label or Two? Linguistic Influences on the Similarity Judgment of Objects between English and Japanese Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Ishii, Keiko; Miwa, Koji; Rashid, Marghalara; Lee, Hajin; Mahdi, Rania

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings have re-examined the linguistic influence on cognition and perception, while identifying evidence that supports the Whorfian hypothesis. We examine how English and Japanese speakers perceive similarity of pairs of objects, by using two sets of stimuli: one in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in English, but only one linguistic category applies in Japanese; and another in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in Japanese, but only one applies in English. We conducted four studies and tested different groups of participants in each of them. In Study 1, we asked participants to name the two objects before engaging in the similarity judgment task. Here, we expected a strong linguistic effect. In Study 2, we asked participants to engage in the same task without naming, where we assumed that the condition is close enough to our daily visual information processing where language is not necessarily prompted. We further explored whether the language still influences the similarity perception by asking participants to engage in the same task basing on the visual similarity (Study 3) and the functional similarity (Study 4). The results overall indicated that English and Japanese speakers perceived the two objects to be more similar when they were in the same linguistic categories than when they were in different linguistic categories in their respective languages. Implications for research testing the Whorfian hypothesis and the requirement for methodological development beyond behavioral measures are discussed.

  17. Informal pragmatics and linguistic creativity | Collier | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examples of successful linguistic communication give rise to two important insights: (1) it should be understood most fundamentally in terms of the pragmatic success of each individual utterance, and (2) linguistic conventions need to be understood as on a par with the non-linguistic regularities that competent language ...

  18. Third-Wave Feminist Linguistics: A Discursive Approach to Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used the Discursive Approach to Language and Gender studies to examine all-female linguistic choices and how linguistic variation amongst female interlocutors is a representation of each female's individual and cultural identity and feminist ideology. The study revealed that linguistic variability abounds ...

  19. in the History of Linguistics in Nigeria Chinedu Uchechukwu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    paper uses some issues in the history of linguistics in Nigeria to argue that the term “democratic choice” has not really been realized in linguistic theory in the country. The conclusion is that different linguistic theories should be allowed to offer what they can to the development and uplift of Nigerian languages. Introduction.

  20. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  1. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimona, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  2. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  3. A phylogenetic and cognitive perspective on linguistic complexity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years a growing interest in the nature of linguistic complexity has emerged in linguistic circles. A striking feature of this interest is that linguistic complexity is taken to be a phenomenon in its own right. In fact, an extreme construal of the inherent complexity of language is represented in the notion of universal ...

  4. CHARTING THE ANATOMY PF LINGUISTIC REALITY R.P. Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHARTING. THE ANATOMY PF LINGUISTIC. REALITY. R.P. Botha. Department of Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Living dangerously. (Ql I represents the kind of question that should be addressed in the opening paper of a conference with the theme. 'Linguis- tics for the language professions'. (Ql I. Has linguistics.

  5. Forschungsregister I: Angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Directory of Research I: Applied Linguistics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebicke, Detlev, Ed.

    This document lists over 50 research projects on various topics related to linguistics and language. The topics covered are foreign- and native-language instruction, relevant bibliographies, research in contemporary language, communication, textbooks, lexicology, lexicography, linguistics, computational linguistics, machine analysis of language,…

  6. Forschungsregister II: Angewandte Sprachwissenschaft (Directory of Research II: Applied Linguistics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebicke, Detlev, Ed.

    This document lists over 100 research projects on various topics related to linguistics and language. The topics covered are foreign- and native-language instruction, relevant bibliographies, research in contemporary language, communication, textbooks, lexicology, lexicography, linguistics, computational linguistics, machine analysis of language,…

  7. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  8. Undergraduate Courses in Linguistics at Universities of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komochkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The concept of linguistics as a branch of science has been considered. Key abilities linguists possess have been defined. The need to apply to foreign experience, in particular, British one, has been justified. Relevant information sources, namely, Benchmark Statement for Linguistics (2007), data on Education UK, the official website for…

  9. Linguistic inequality in Cameroon: The case of advertising in Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the vast research conducted on linguistic hegemony, linguistic inequality, multilingualism and multiculturalism in Cameroon, very little has been done in advertising as it reflects language representation. Much of the research has focused on the linguistic hegemony and privileging of French and English in ...

  10. Concept Quebecois in the linguistic consciousness of Quebecers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Зульфия Ахатовна Усманова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic situation existing in Quebec (a Canadian province at present calls for the need to study the Quebecois linguistic personality. This article examines the concept Québécois in the linguistic consciousness of French-speaking Quebecers. The paper provides the results and conclusions of the conducted experiments and research.

  11. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Evers-Stephan, A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Thewissen, V.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home.

  12. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 2; Sub-Scale Air Flow Simulation of Port Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y. P.; Ramandran, N.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The injection-flow issuing from a porous medium in the cold-flow simulation of internal port flows in solid rocket motors is characterized by a spatial instability termed pseudoturbulence that produces a rather non-uniform (lumpy) injection-velocity profile. The objective of this study is to investigate the interaction between the injection- and the developing axial-flows. The findings show that this interaction generally weakens the lumpy injection profile and affects the subsequent development of the axial flow. The injection profile is found to depend on the material characteristics, and the ensuing pseudoturbulence is a function of the injection velocity, the axial position and the distance from the porous wall. The flow transition (from laminar to turbulent) of the axial-flow is accelerated in flows emerging from smaller pores primarily due to the higher pseudoturbulence produced by the smaller pores in comparison to that associated with larger pores. In flows with rather uniform injection-flow profiles (weak or no pseudoturbulence), the axial and transverse velocity components in the porous duct are found to satisfy the sine/cosine analytical solutions derived from inviscid assumptions. The transition results from the present study are compared with previous results from surveyed literature, and detailed flow development measurements are presented in terms of the blowing fraction, and characterizing Reynolds numbers.

  13. Analysis of Correlation between an Accelerometer-Based Algorithm for Detecting Parkinsonian Gait and UPDRS Subscales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOur group earlier developed a small monitoring device, which uses accelerometer measurements to accurately detect motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson’s (On and Off state based on an algorithm that characterizes gait through the frequency content of strides. To further validate the algorithm, we studied the correlation of its outputs with the motor section of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part-III (UPDRS-III.MethodSeventy-five patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease were asked to walk both in the Off and the On state while wearing the inertial sensor on the waist. Additionally, all patients were administered the motor section of the UPDRS in both motor phases. Tests were conducted at the patient’s home. Convergence between the algorithm and the scale was evaluated by using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient.ResultsCorrelation with the UPDRS-III was moderate (rho −0.56; p < 0.001. Correlation between the algorithm outputs and the gait item in the UPDRS-III was good (rho −0.73; p < 0.001. The factorial analysis of the UPDRS-III has repeatedly shown that several of its items can be clustered under the so-called Factor 1: “axial function, balance, and gait.” The correlation between the algorithm outputs and this factor of the UPDRS-III was −0.67 (p < 0.01.ConclusionThe correlation achieved by the algorithm with the UPDRS-III scale suggests that this algorithm might be a useful tool for monitoring patients with Parkinson’s disease and motor fluctuations.

  14. Is translation a linguistic or a cultural process? Is translation a linguistic or a cultural process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Vermeer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The English term "linguistic" has a general and a special meaning. In ordinary or standard language "Gemeinsprache" linguistic means "of language", "belonging to language" ("sprachlich", language taken in its everyday meaning, as in English language, German language etc. Thus, an expression like a linguistic sign may be paraphrased by a sign of language or, in more technical language, a verbal sign ("ein sprachliches Zeichen", something one says or writes. Language has another, broader, almost metaphorical meaning when one speaks, for instance, of the language of animals or the language of nature. Language in such cases means any system of signs. The English term "linguistic" has a general and a special meaning. In ordinary or standard language "Gemeinsprache" linguistic means "of language", "belonging to language" ("sprachlich", language taken in its everyday meaning, as in English language, German language etc. Thus, an expression like a linguistic sign may be paraphrased by a sign of language or, in more technical language, a verbal sign ("ein sprachliches Zeichen", something one says or writes. Language has another, broader, almost metaphorical meaning when one speaks, for instance, of the language of animals or the language of nature. Language in such cases means any system of signs.

  15. Biomarkers of "Linguistic Anxiety" in aphasia: a proof-of-concept case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Oveis, Abigail C; Sayers, Jesse T; Pineles, Suzanne L; Spiro, Avron; Albert, Martin L

    2015-05-01

    This is a proof-of-concept case study designed to evaluate the presence of "Linguistic Anxiety" in a person with mild aphasia. The participant (aged 68) was tested on linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive tasks administered under conditions that differed in levels of anxiety. A validated anxiety-induction technique rarely used in previous aphasia studies was employed: the participant was instructed to prepare for a public speaking presentation. Measures of linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive performance, and anxiety (self-report and psychophysiologic) were obtained. The participant exhibited increased psychophysiologic stress reactivity (heart rate, skin conductance and self-report ratings) in the high-anxiety condition. In the state of increased anxiety, performance on language tasks, in particular discourse production, declined relative to performance in low-anxiety settings. Even in mild aphasia, language-based anxiety can interfere with language performance. This finding provides a basis for carrying out a study with a larger sample that can open a new path to assessment and treatment of persons with aphasia.

  16. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  17. Design and Analysis of Subscale and Full-Scale Buckling-Critical Cylinders for Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Rankin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project has the goal of developing new analysis-based shell buckling design factors (knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale levels. This paper describes the design and analysis of three different orthogrid-stiffeNed metallic cylindrical-shell test articles. Two of the test articles are 8-ft-diameter, 6-ft-long test articles, and one test article is a 27.5-ft-diameter, 20-ft-long Space Shuttle External Tank-derived test article.

  18. Linguistic characteristics of individuals with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hye Kyeung

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the linguistic characteristics of high functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Each group consisted of 10 participants who were matched on sex, chronological age, and intelligence scores. Participants generated a narrative after watching a brief video segment of the Social Attribution Task video. Each participant was then asked 10 questions related to the stimulus video. The narrative samples and responses to the questions were analysed linguistically. Individuals with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome performed similarly on most measures of language function; however, results suggest there may be pragmatically-based differences between the groups in the use of verb tense markers.

  19. Diabetes fatalism and its emotional distress subscale are independent predictors of glycemic control among Lebanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Egede, Leonard E; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya

    2017-09-04

    Achieving and sustaining optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is difficult because of socio-cultural and psychosocial factors including diabetes fatalism. Diabetes fatalism is 'a complex psychological cycle characterized by perceptions of despair, hopelessness, and powerlessness'. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether diabetes fatalism and other psychosocial and socio-cultural variables are correlates of glycemic control in Lebanese population with T2DM. A convenience sample of 280 adult participants with T2DM were recruited from a major hospital in greater Beirut-Lebanon area and from the community. Diabetes fatalism was assessed using the Arabic version of 12-item Diabetes Fatalism Scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between HbA1c and psychosocial and socio-cultural characteristics including diabetes fatalism. Four models were run to examine the independent association between HbA1c and diabetes fatalism and to identify which of the 3 subscales (emotional distress, spiritual coping and perceived self-efficacy) were associated with HbA1c. The mean age of the participants was 58.24(SD = 13.48) and the majority were females (53.76%), while 32.73% of the sample had diabetes for more than 10 years. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that higher scores on diabetes fatalism and the emotional distress subscale (P = 0.018) were significantly associated with higher HbA1c values. In addition, having diabetes for more than 11 years (P = 0.05) and a higher number of diabetes complications (P fatalism as an independent predictor of glycemic control among Lebanese. Future studies should further investigate this construct to guide interventions that can address it for better diabetes outcomes.

  20. The Evaluation of Mineral Resources Development Efficiency Based on Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Approach and Modified TODIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of mineral resources development efficiency is a typical multicriteria decision-making issue. Meanwhile, due to the limited existing technology, there might be subjectivity, ambiguity, and inaccuracy of the measurement of the evaluation index of mineral resources development efficiency. In this paper, we, considering the incomplete information, use the hesitant fuzzy linguistic approach to describe the psychological hesitation and ambiguity of the decision-maker in the actual evaluation process and then construct the general model of the development efficiency evaluation of the mineral resources by using the hesitant fuzzy linguistic terms sets and modified TODIM. Finally, this paper takes the Panxi area as an example to study the development efficiency of vanadium-titanium magnetite. The results show that the hesitant fuzzy linguistic multicriteria decision-making (MCDM approach can be implemented to mineral resources evaluation and resources management.

  1. The concurrent validity of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale in adolescent patients in an urban federally qualified health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sharon M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; Schwartz, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses. Adolescents (N = 525; 93% African American, 55% female) 12-17 years of age awaiting primary care appointments at a Federally Qualified Health Center in Baltimore, Maryland completed the 17-item POSIT substance use/abuse subscale and items from a modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview corresponding to DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were examined with DSM-5 AUD, CUD, and a diagnosis of either or both disorders for the standard and revised subscales using risk cutoffs of either 1 or 2 POSIT "yes" responses. For the 17-item subscale, sensitivities were generally high using either cutoff (range: 0.79-1.00), although a cutoff of 1 was superior (sensitivities were 1.00 for AUD, CUD, and for either disorder). Specificities were also high using either cutoff (range: 0.81-0.95) but were higher using a cutoff of 2. For the 11-item subscale, a cutoff of 1 yielded higher sensitivities than a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.96-1.00 and 0.79-0.86, respectively). Specificities for this subscale were higher using a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.82-0.89 and 0.89-0.96, respectively). Findings suggest that the POSIT's substance use/abuse subscale is a potentially useful tool for screening adolescents in primary care for AUD or CUD using a cutoff of 1 or 2. The briefer, revised subscale may be preferable to the standard subscale in

  2. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  3. Culturally Inclusive Science Teaching (CIST) Model for Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jiyoon; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Martin, Leisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to design and measure the effects of the culturally inclusive science teaching (CIST) model on 30 teacher candidates to teach science to culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. Design/methodology/approach: The CIST model for culturally inclusive science lessons included six sessions: inquiring, questioning,…

  4. HIV/AIDS messaging in Germany and Nigeria: A corpus linguistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (e.g. public health, psychology, communication, education, sociology, linguistics) and what counts as fact or .... (www.indexmundi.com). The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates that ...... self-commending idea of including or reinforcing (e.g. repeating) certain message features requires measures that ...

  5. Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Tremblay, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the elicited imitation task (EIT) as a tool for measuring linguistic proficiency in a second/foreign (L2) language, focusing on French. Nonnative French speakers (n = 94) and native French speakers (n = 6) completed an EIT that included 50 sentences varying in length and complexity. Three raters evaluated productions on…

  6. Auditory Processing, Linguistic Prosody Awareness, and Word Reading in Mandarin-Speaking Children Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined language-specific links among auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and Mandarin (L1) and English (L2) word reading in 61 Mandarin-speaking, English-learning children. Three auditory discrimination abilities were measured: pitch contour, pitch interval, and rise time (rate of intensity change at tone onset).…

  7. Understanding the Growth of ESL Paragraph Writing Skills and Its Relationships with Linguistic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine the development of paragraph writing skills of 116 English as a second language university students over the course of 12 weeks and the relationship between the linguistic features of students' written texts as measured by Coh-Metrix--a computational system for estimating textual features such as cohesion and…

  8. Linguistic Diversity in a Deaf Prison Population: Implications for Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2004-01-01

    The entire deaf prison population in the state of Texas formed the basis for this research. The linguistic skills of prison inmates were assessed using the following measures: (1) Kannapell's categories of bilingualism, (2) adaptation of the diagnostic criteria for Primitive Personality Disorder, (3) reading scores on the Test of Adult Basic…

  9. Linguistic transfer in bilingual children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Balkom, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the issue of linguistic transfer. To examine the first and second language proficiency of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual children with SLI in the age range between 7 and 11 years living in the Netherlands. A multidimensional perspective on language proficiency was taken in order to assess children's Turkish and Dutch proficiency levels, whereas equivalent tests were used in order to determine language dominance. A second aim was to find out to what extent the children's proficiency in L2 can be predicted from their L1 proficiency, while taking into account their general cognitive abilities. The children's performance on a battery of equivalent language ability tests in Turkish and Dutch was compared at three age levels. By means of analyses of variance, it was explored to what extent the factors of language and grade level as well as their interactions were significant. Bivariate correlations and partial correlations with age level partialled out were computed to examine the relationships between L1 and L2 proficiency levels. Moreover, regression analysis was conducted to find out to what extent the variance in general L2 proficiency levels could be explained by children's L1 proficiency, short-term memory and non-verbal intelligence. Repeated measures analyses showed that the children had generally higher scores on L1 as compared with L2 and that with progression of age the children's scores in L1 and L2 improved. Medium to high correlations were found between phonological memory, phonological awareness, grammatical skills and story comprehension in the two languages. Regression analysis revealed that children's L2 proficiency levels could be explained by their proficiency levels in L1

  10. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve fuel efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.

  11. Sub-Scale Orion Parachute Test Results from the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- By 120-ft Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian P.; Greathouse, James S.; Powell, Jessica M.; Ross, James C.; Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura; Porter, Barry J.; Goulding, Patrick W., II; Zwicker, Matthew L.; Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    A two-week test campaign was conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80 x 120-ft Wind Tunnel in support of Orion parachute pendulum mitigation activities. The test gathered static aerodynamic data using an instrumented, 3-tether system attached to the parachute vent in combination with an instrumented parachute riser. Dynamic data was also gathered by releasing the tether system and measuring canopy performance using photogrammetry. Several canopy configurations were tested and compared against the current Orion parachute design to understand changes in drag performance and aerodynamic stability. These configurations included canopies with varying levels and locations of geometric porosity as well as sails with increased levels of fullness. In total, 37 runs were completed for a total of 392 data points. Immediately after the end of the testing campaign a down-select decision was made based on preliminary data to support follow-on sub-scale air drop testing. A summary of a more rigorous analysis of the test data is also presented.

  12. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A linguistic model of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, J

    1996-02-01

    The current disclosure model of informed consent ignores the linguistic complexity of any act of communication, and the increased risk of difficulties in the special circumstances of informed consent. This article explores, through linguistic analysis, the specificity of informed consent as a speech act, a communication act, and a form of dialogue, following on the theories of J.L. Austin, Roman Jakobson, and Mikhail Bakhtin, respectively. In the proposed model, informed consent is a performative speech act resulting from a series of communication acts which together constitute a dialogic, polyphonic, heteroglossial discourse. It is an act of speech that results in action being taken after a conversation has happened where distinct individuals, multiple voices, and multiple perspectives have been respected, and convention observed and recognized. It is more meaningful and more ethical for both patient and physician, in all their human facets including their interconnectedness.

  14. Constructing an XML database of linguistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Kroeze

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A language-oriented, multi-dimensional database of the linguistic characteristics of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament can enable researchers to do ad hoc queries. XML is a suitable technology to transform free text into a database. A clause’s word order can be kept intact while other features such as syntactic and semantic functions can be marked as elements or attributes. The elements or attributes from the XML “database” can be accessed and proces sed by a 4th generation programming language, such as Visual Basic. XML is explored as an option to build an exploitable database of linguistic data by representing inherently multi-dimensional data, including syntactic and semantic analyses of free text.

  15. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  16. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    and text in the literacy classroom. A linguistic ethnographic analysis strives to look closely and locally at language as social action, but at the same time place these observations within broader relations of power dynamics in and outside the literacy classroom. We approach data with the rigorous...... in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...... and are reflected in their oral and written text productions. The purpose of the case study is to develop insight in how the dialogue in literacy classrooms can scaffold pupils’ language and literacy learning and their understanding of text genres such as graphic novels and reader’s theater scripts. The data...

  17. TYPICAL LINGUISTIC AND EXTRALINGUISTIC EXERCISES OF GEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the present research was to analyze and exemplify some of the exercises in the Geography textbooks in use, both from a linguistic and geographical perspective. The specific objectives of the present research are the following: to analyze some types of exercises; to identify and analyze a sample exercise of each particular type submitted to theoretical analysis. In order to achieve these objectives, we studied several papers of textual linguistics, semiotics, using a corpus of study in various Geography textbooks in current use in Romanian schools, at the pre-university level of education. We analyzed and included in the present paper exercises of scientific geographical analysis, description exercises, exercises for arguing and giving reasons, exercises of providing explanations. These exercises are based on the theory of encyclopedic referencing, on specialised dictionaries of geographical terms, on contextual meaning effects, on schematization of the geographical reality

  18. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Harry

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice. It is argued that we can resolve this problem if we (1) note that language evolution is the outcome of an evolutionary transition, and (2) observe that the use of words evolves during ontogenesis out of babbling. It is discussed that language evolved as the result of an expansion of the vocalizing powers of our ancestors. This involved an increase in the volitional control of our speech apparatus (leading to the ability to produce new combinations of vowels and consonants), but also the evolution of socially guided learning. It resulted in unique human abilities, namely doing things with words and later reasoning and giving reasons.

  19. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...... of the article is Halliday & Hasan's concept of cohesion as presented in Cohesion in English (1976). While demonstrating the usefulness of Halliday & Hasan's approach in literary analysis by uncovering aspects of Joyce's extensive use of cohesion as a meaning-making resource, the application of their approach...... longer passages than those typically considered in analyses of cohesion. While arguing for certain extensions of Halliday & Hasan's cohesive categories, the article simultaneously acknowledges and discusses methodological problems involved in such extensions and furthermore considers the upper and lower...

  20. The brain dynamics of linguistic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organized neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty-labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer-alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human "cognome"-the set of computations performed by the nervous system-and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of the brain (the "dynome") operate and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localization of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical, and other approaches to computation.

  1. Gesture for Linguists: A Handy Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Abner, Natasha; Cooperrider, Kensy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Humans communicate using language, but they also communicate using gesture – spontaneous movements of the hands and body that universally accompany speech. Gestures can be distinguished from other movements, segmented, and assigned meaning based on their forms and functions. Moreover, gestures systematically integrate with language at all levels of linguistic structure, as evidenced in both production and perception. Viewed typologically, gesture is universal, but nevertheless exhibits constr...

  2. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  3. "Linguistic Geography of Breton and Sociocultural Motivations"

    OpenAIRE

    Costaouec, Denis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper I discuss various issues directly related to the study of Breton dialects, and to the practice of linguistic geography. Some of the questions that will be considered are: Where does the border pass between two contiguous dialectal areas? How can the geographical distribution of the varieties of a language be explained? What factors (social, economic, cultural, religious, political, etc) can be correlated with this geographic distribution?

  4. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spanish sign language interpreter for mexican linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Barragán, Francisco Javier; Pérez Grana, José Arturo; Cervantes, Francisco; Schwarzblat y Katz, Morris; Olide Márquez, María Guadalupe; Pérez Sánchez, Ana Paola

    2013-01-01

    We present here the first visual interface for a Mexican Spanish Sign Language translator on its first development stage: sign-writing recognition. The software was developed for the unique characteristics of Mexican linguistics and was designed in order to use sentences or a sequence of signs in sign-writing system which are decoded by the program and converted into a series of images with movement that correspond to the Mexican sign language system. Using a lexical, syntactic and semantic...

  6. The Brain Dynamics of Linguistic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot eMurphy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organised neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty – labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer – alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human ‘cognome’ – the set of computations performed by the nervous system – and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of brain (the ‘dynome’ operates and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localisation of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical and other approaches to computation.

  7. Automatically Modeling Linguistic Categories in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luise, M. D. López; Hisgen, D.; Soffer, M.

    This paper presents an approach to process Spanish linguistic categories automatically. The approach is based in a module of a prototype named WIH (Word Intelligent Handler), which is a project to develop a conversational bot. It basically learns category usage sequence in a sentence. It extracts a weighting metric to discriminate most common structures in real dialogs. Such a metric is important to define the preferred organization to be used by the robot to build an answer.

  8. Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.

  9. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-01-01

    The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  10. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  11. Representation of linguistic information determines its susceptibility to memory interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Myra A; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Hsiao, Janet H

    2013-08-08

    We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group. Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially requires visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task. In a secondary analysis, we showed the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task. Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task.

  12. Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Wammes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group. Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially requires visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task. In a secondary analysis, we showed the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task. Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task.

  13. The Notion of Culture in Linguistic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Busch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works on intercultural communication from the field of linguistics share the assumption that influences of culture on social interaction will manifest in communicative exchanges—and conversely, that an academic's look at these exchanges will be a sufficient basis for an adequate description of what intercultural communication is supposed to be about. Linguistic theory itself lacking of places to integrate culture as a factor into its concepts, urges scholars to borrow operationalizations of culture from neighboring disciplines like e.g. different strands of psychology, sociology or anthropology. Approaches resulting from this transdisciplinary orientation as a consequence share very divergent assumptions on how, at what moment in a communicative process and with what effects culture influences social interaction. While many surveys on similar behalf distinguish between primordial and constructionist approaches, a closer look at different strands of empirical linguistic research may reveal even more precise and detailed distinctions on how culture may be captured and framed. This article will present and analyze a selection of approaches from the mentioned field, e.g. from intercultural and contrastive pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, ethnography of communication, ethnomethodology as well as discourse analysis. In each case, the underlying notions of culture will be revealed and put into contrast. Additionally, this exemplary analysis may show that most of the empirical schools mentioned follow and adopt changing notions of culture from social theory over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901508

  14. The interaction between specificity and linguistic contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kuniko

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have shown listeners' ability to remember fine phonetic details [e.g., Mullennix et al., 1989], providing support for the episodic view of speech perception. The imitation paradigm [Goldinger, 1998, Shockley et al., 2004], in which subjects' speech is compared before and after they are exposed to target speech (= study phase) has shown that subjects shift their production in the direction of the target. Our earlier results [Nielsen, 2005] showed that the imitation effect for extended VOT was generalized to new stimuli as well as to a new segment, suggesting that the locus of the imitation effect can be smaller than individual words or segments. The current study aims to further investigate how experienced speech input interacts with linguistic representations, by testing whether the imitation effect is observed when the modeled stimuli have reduced VOT (which could introduce linguistic ambiguity). In other words, do speakers imitate and generalize shorter VOT even if the change might impair linguistic contrasts? To address this question, the study phase includes words with initial /p/ with reduced VOT, while the pre- and post-study production list includes (1) the modeled words, (2) the modeled segments /p/ in new words, and (3) the new segment /k/.

  15. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  16. GEOLINGUISTICS: THE LINGUISTIC ATLAS OF PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Evangelina de Santana BELLI RODRIGUES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the methodology adopted by the Linguistic Atlas of Paraná – APLR (AGUILERA, 1990 and to describe its results in relation to other Brazilian atlas. To meet this objective, we first present the modifications, mainly methodological, under gone by Geolinguistics towards a more complete and in depth description of linguistic variation. The Pluridimensional Geolinguistics and Contractual model of Harald Thun (1998 and the Linguistics Atlas of Brazil – ALiB (CARDOSO et all, 2014, published in October, 2014, are presented. It was also necessary to describe, although briefly, the most traditional Geolinguistics research method, characteristic of the ALPR, before referring the text back to Aguilera’s Atlas. After discussing the criteria on which the ALPR was constructed, from choice of informers to the Geolinguistics charts that compose it, as well as its complementation by the ALPR II (ALTINO, 2007, it was possible to analyze the results and relate them to the hypotheses posed by the thesis which gave origin to it.

  17. LINGUISTIC EXPERTISE AS A LANGUAGE POLICY TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kara-Мurzа

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In sociolinguistic terms, certain aspects of academician Grot’s activity can be seen as language policy. Therefore a discussion of the new conflictological direction of sociolinguistics (along with status and corpus directions is of current importance. Its object is delinquent communicative situations: 1 speech crimes against non-proprietary rights of people and organizations (deffamation and libel, against societal and governmental rights to normal functioning (speech extremism; 2 discussions of mass media deontology violations. Its objectives are identification and resolution of conflicts in communication, as well as punishment and prevention of speech crimes. Within its framework, the decision of a court or a deontological authority is a direct act of language policy, whereas a linguistic expertise is its consecutive act and simultaneously its tool. A linguistic expertise as a procedure of search for an evidential base of a speech crime is performed in governmental and independent centers. This correlates with a governmental and public direction of speech policy, revealing their inherent contradictions. As an illustration the author uses a lawsuit on protection of honor and dignity of a «United Russia» party member V. Svirid versus a well-known political figure of the opposition field, A. Navalny, in which the court verdict didn't take into consideration the professional opinions of linguistical experts from a regional university.

  18. The double identity of linguistic doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Brentari, Diane; Dupuis, Amanda; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2016-11-29

    Does knowledge of language consist of abstract principles, or is it fully embodied in the sensorimotor system? To address this question, we investigate the double identity of doubling (e.g., slaflaf, or generally, XX; where X stands for a phonological constituent). Across languages, doubling is known to elicit conflicting preferences at different levels of linguistic analysis (phonology vs. morphology). Here, we show that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, and they are demonstrably distinct from sensorimotor pressures. We first demonstrate that doubling in novel English words elicits divergent percepts: Viewed as meaningless (phonological) forms, doubling is disliked (e.g., slaflaf Language, and their capacity to do so depends on the structure of their spoken language (English vs. Hebrew). These results demonstrate that linguistic preferences doubly dissociate from sensorimotor demands: A single stimulus can elicit diverse percepts, yet these percepts are invariant across stimulus modality--for speech and signs. These conclusions are in line with the possibility that some linguistic principles are abstract, and they apply broadly across language modality.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression of the Neck Disability Index: Assessment If Subscales Are Equally Relevant in Whiplash and Nonspecific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Milam, Bryce; Meylor, Jade; Manning, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Because of previously published recommendations to modify the Neck Disability Index (NDI), we evaluated the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. Subjects who had sustained whiplash injuries of grade 2 or higher completed an NDI questionnaire. There were 123 subjects (55% female, of which 36% had recovered and 64% had chronic symptoms. NDI subscales were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, considering only the subscales and, secondly, using sex as an 11th variable. The subscales were also tested with multiple linear regression modeling using the total score as a target variable. When considering only the 10 NDI subscales, only a single factor emerged, with an eigenvalue of 5.4, explaining 53.7% of the total variance. Strong correlation (> .55) (P Multiple linear regression modeling revealed high internal consistency with all coefficients reaching significance (P < .0001). The 4 NDI subscales exerting the greatest effect were, in decreasing order, Sleeping, Lifting, Headaches, and Pain Intensity. A 2-factor model of the NDI is not justified based on our results, and in this population of whiplash subjects, the NDI was unidimensional, demonstrating high internal consistency and supporting the original validation study of Vernon and Mior.

  20. Mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarainen, Ashlee; Mikkonen, Kristina; Tuomikoski, Anna-Maria; Elo, Satu; Pitkänen, Salla; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To describe mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement and identify the factors that affect mentoring. Healthcare education is confronted by several challenges in a time characterized by globalization and increasing international migration. Nursing students from diverse backgrounds continue to experience difficulties during clinical placement. Students can overcome these difficulties and assume responsibility for their learning when mentored by supportive and competent mentors. A cross-sectional, descriptive explorative study design was used. Data were collected during spring 2016 through a survey sent to mentors (n = 3,355) employed at five university hospitals in Finland. Mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students was measured with the self-assessment Mentors' Competence Instrument and the Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Mentoring scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests and binary logistic regression analysis. Mentors with experience mentoring nursing students from diverse backgrounds rated their overall competence in mentoring as good. However, the results show continued challenges related to competence in linguistic diversity in mentoring. Seven factors that affect mentors' competence in linguistic diversity were identified. Despite high evaluations by mentors of competence related to cultural diversity in mentoring, there are still opportunities for improvement in this area. Innovative and effective strategies are needed to develop mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students. Educational and healthcare organizations should strive to enhance collaboration and increase the competence of both mentors and nursing students to work in increasingly diverse healthcare environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Linguistic Syncretism as the Development of Common Linguistic Ideas of Evolution and Systematic and Structural Language Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria A. Beresneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents categorical description of the phenomenon of language syncretism, called by the author as linguistic syncretism on the material of time forms in the German language for the first time in linguistics. Application of the famous epistemological admission to the interpretation of linguistic facts allowed to implement the linguistic syncretism in the general theory of the unity of the world and describe it as a phenomenon if integrative linguathinking human activity. The term «linguistic syncretism», based on the close connection between being and knowledge, is interpreted by the author in two ways: as a syncretism of language forms and a linguistic interpretation of the phenomenon of syncretism. Interpretation of linguistic syncretism as a dual linguistic category led ultimately to the characterization of linguistic syncretism as the embodiment and reflection of the world unity. It is given the methodology and the main results of the categorical analysis of the problem of linguistic syncretism. Due to the categorical scientific and linguistic research syncretism involving data philosophy and psychology about the patterns of being and thinking was able to recreate a complete picture of the ontological and logical syncretism as well as the mechanism of linguistic syncretism, reveal the inner logic of formation and development of the phenomenon of syncretism. The study contributes to the development of the theory of syncretism, as well as specified in the title of the article as general linguistic ideas in the direction of the in-depth study and understanding of the relationship and interaction of elements of the system and the results of their interaction.

  2. Clinical utility of the MMPI-A content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales in the assessment of suicidal risk factors in psychiatric adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopper, B A; Osman, A; Osman, J R; Hoffman, J

    1998-02-01

    This study of 143 inpatient adolescents (68 boys and 75 girls) investigated the clinical utility of the MMPI-A in assessing suicidal risk factors by examining the unique contribution of the content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales beyond what is provided by the basic clinical scales. The results of the regression analyses indicated that for boys, the Depression, Psychopathic Deviate and Hypomania scales; Alienation and Anxiety content scales: and Subjective Depression. Self Alienation, Imperturbability, and Amorality Harris-Lingoes subscales contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide probability. For girls, the Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, and Hypomania scales; Family Problems, Conduct Problems, School Problems, Depression, and Social Discomfort content scales; and the Subjective Depression, Self Alienation, Psychomotor Acceleration, and Imperturbability Harris-Lingoes subscales contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide probability.

  3. Chilean experimental version of the State-Trait Depression Questionnaire (ST-DEP: Trait sub-scale (T-DEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vera-Villarroel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This instrumental study presents the first validity and reliability data for the Trait subscale (T-DEP of the Chilean experimental version of the State and Trait Depression Inventory (ST-DEP: Euthymia and Dysthymia. The data were obtained from a sample of 300 university students. The internal consistency values for the TDEP were high (.90. The test-retest values from eight weeks time interval (fifty six days were elevated (.78. A factorial analysis of the principal components revealed a principal factor for all of the constructed items in this experimental version of the TDEP. The last, promax rotation showed two clear main factors similar in size: negative affectivity (Dysthymia and positive affectivity (Euthymia. The convergent validity indexes for the Beck Depression Inventory and the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, were also high, with indexes ranging from .64 to .71. The correlation between State- Trait Anxiety Inventory and the depression scales used in this study was high (between .63 and .78, once again indicating the usual overlapping between anxiety and depression seen in most depression inventories.

  4. The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly over a dry lakebed runway during a captive-carry test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-40 is attached to a sling which is suspended from the CH-47 by a 110-foot-long cable during the tests, while a small parachute trails behind to provide stability. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  5. Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfield T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

  6. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  7. Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Alan K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Canfield, Thomas R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [SNLA

    2010-10-14

    We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD) closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT) approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

  8. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL STUDIES: THE QUEST FOR NEW IDEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Kononenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of researching into text from the interdisciplinary linguistic and cultural perspective. Cognitological analysis of linguistic and extralinguistic cultural meanings reveals that there exist of specific linguistic and aesthetic formations best presented through the ‘language – culture – identity’ triad. One of the components of literary discourse is monocultural layer, which secures the continuity of national cultural tradition; researching into it, one should take into account mental and historical, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and other factors. Linguistic and aesthetic analysis helps to establish the system of linguistic and cultural means (metaphorization, imagery, verbal symbols, linguistic conceptualization, connotative meanings, which reveals its potential in literary texts. The lingual identity as a general notional category shows its nationally-oriented characteristics through the dichotomies of ‘addresser-addressee’ , ‘author-reader’, ‘narrator-narratee’ and is presented in the author’s idiolect.

  9. Searching for linguistic phenomena in literary digital libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Martínez, Felipe; Forcada, Mikel L.; Carrasco, Rafael C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a set of tools and Java classes that allow the Lucene text search engine to use morphological information to index and search; in particular, it describes the use of the linguistic resources developed for the Apertium open-source machine translation platform to extract morphological information while indexing. We describe which linguistic information is automatically obtained, how to use it when indexing new documents with Lucene, and how linguistic attributes can be used...

  10. COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AT ENGLISH DEPARTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vladan Pavlović

    2010-01-01

    The paper first shortly presents the basic postulates of cognitive linguistics, including A. Goldberg's construction grammar, as an important theory developing within the cognitive linguistic approach to the grammatical level of language structure.Then it moves on to examine the ways the various theoretical insights of cognitive linguistics can practically be applied to language teaching at English departments, with the focus being primarily on the syntactic and the lexical levels. Apart from...

  11. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  12. Linguistically motivated statistical machine translation models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Deyi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a wide variety of algorithms and models to integrate linguistic knowledge into Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). It helps advance conventional SMT to linguistically motivated SMT by enhancing the following three essential components: translation, reordering and bracketing models. It also serves the purpose of promoting the in-depth study of the impacts of linguistic knowledge on machine translation. Finally it provides a systematic introduction of Bracketing Transduction Grammar (BTG) based SMT, one of the state-of-the-art SMT formalisms, as well as a case study of linguistically motivated SMT on a BTG-based platform.

  13. A Bayesian approach to simultaneously quantify assignments and linguistic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC FREDERICKSBURG; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2010-10-07

    Subject matter expert assessments can include both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. This paper examines assessments containing linguistic uncertainty associated with a qualitative description of a specific state of interest and the assignment uncertainty associated with assigning a qualitative value to that state. A Bayesian approach is examined to simultaneously quantify both assignment and linguistic uncertainty in the posterior probability. The approach is applied to a simplified damage assessment model involving both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. The utility of the approach and the conditions under which the approach is feasible are examined and identified.

  14. Psychological and Linguistic Portrait of Criminals. Introduction to Discussion

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    Jadwiga Stawnicka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns one aspect of forensic linguistics, which concerns determination by the challenged statements. This is done in collaboration with linguist – creating a profile linguistic songwriter – and a psychologist – that creates a psychological profile. The cooperation of specialists can be used at the level of assessment, which is used for the purposes of investigation and legal proceedings. Expertise in the field of forensic linguistics (forensic linguistics, German. Forensische Linguistik include setting by/performance of speech based on the content of spoken or written (eg. The farewell letters, threatening letters, ransom demands; the possibility of setting texts by anonymous on the Internet, to determine the characteristics of linguistic stalkers and cyberstalkerów that can identify the sender of the message sender identification of the origin country, constructing linguistic profile anonymous author, the linguistic profile of the author of the well-known text. It should be added that the analysis of the content in content-language document contains emotional component, which is related to our knowledge about the determinants of language to express emotions, both negative and positive. An important element of the text is a matter of psychological portrait of the sender (author and / or performer of the text based on the identified linguistic features.

  15. Scientific terminology as a factor of linguistic competence formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ірина Іванівна Вакулик

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the components of technique of linguistic competence formation (correct use of phonological components, knowledge of vocabulary, grammatical categories and paradigms, syntax rules) is given...

  16. Linguistic Peculiarities of Methodical Educational Publications Issued in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Žukienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents linguistic peculiarities of methodical educational publications prepared and published using European structural funds allocated to the VGTU Transport Engineering, Biomechanics and Aviation Mechanical Engineering project “Renewal of the Study Programmes in Accordance with the EU Requirements by Improving the Quality of the Studies and Applying Innovative Study Methods” carried out in accordance with the Lithuania’s 2007–2013 year Human Resources Development Operational Programme, priority axis 2 “Education and Lifelong Learning”, measure VP1-2.2-MES-07-K “Improving Studies Quality, Increasing Internationalization”. Characteristic properties of style and culture of writing, compliance with language norms, and instances of foreign words used in aviation are analysed.

  17. Gesture for Linguists: A Handy Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Natasha; Cooperrider, Kensy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Humans communicate using language, but they also communicate using gesture – spontaneous movements of the hands and body that universally accompany speech. Gestures can be distinguished from other movements, segmented, and assigned meaning based on their forms and functions. Moreover, gestures systematically integrate with language at all levels of linguistic structure, as evidenced in both production and perception. Viewed typologically, gesture is universal, but nevertheless exhibits constrained variation across language communities (as does language itself ). Finally, gesture has rich cognitive dimensions in addition to its communicative dimensions. In overviewing these and other topics, we show that the study of language is incomplete without the study of its communicative partner, gesture. PMID:26807141

  18. Gesture for Linguists: A Handy Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Natasha; Cooperrider, Kensy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Humans communicate using language, but they also communicate using gesture - spontaneous movements of the hands and body that universally accompany speech. Gestures can be distinguished from other movements, segmented, and assigned meaning based on their forms and functions. Moreover, gestures systematically integrate with language at all levels of linguistic structure, as evidenced in both production and perception. Viewed typologically, gesture is universal, but nevertheless exhibits constrained variation across language communities (as does language itself ). Finally, gesture has rich cognitive dimensions in addition to its communicative dimensions. In overviewing these and other topics, we show that the study of language is incomplete without the study of its communicative partner, gesture.

  19. Linguistics: Modelling the dynamics of language death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2003-08-01

    Thousands of the world's languages are vanishing at an alarming rate, with 90% of them being expected to disappear with the current generation. Here we develop a simple model of language competition that explains historical data on the decline of Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Quechua (the most common surviving indigenous language in the Americas) and other endangered languages. A linguistic parameter that quantifies the threat of language extinction can be derived from the model and may be useful in the design and evaluation of language-preservation programmes.

  20. MODERN MEDIA LANGUAGE: CATEGORICAL LINGUISTIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova, I.B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the categorical features of modern media language. It is interactive, dialogical (dialogizated and potentially hypertextual, and has a stylistic diversity. Contemporary journalists’ speech, depending on the social orientation of the publication, differs in its cultural and linguistic features. It has some special characteristics such as polyphony, polycodeness, visualization. Media speech is anthropocentric, reflects the author's worldview, interpretation of events and phenomena, it is directed not to average citizen, but to representatives at least of a particular stratum, the individual. Modern discourse is narrative: a journalist creates his own picture of the world, tells his story about life, which reflects his cognitive, axiological, creative preferences.

  1. The computational linguistics of biological sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searls, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. Protein sequences are analogous in many respects, particularly their folding behavior. Proteins have a much richer variety of interactions, but in theory the same linguistic principles could come to bear in describing dependencies between distant residues that arise by virtue of three-dimensional structure. This tutorial will concentrate on nucleic acid sequences.

  2. Youth slang is the linguistic interesting phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Barannyk, E.; Vereshchak, A.; Malyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Raising of problem. That such the Ukrainian youth slang? He is named now the interesting linguistic phenomenon existence of that limit not only by certain age–old scopes, as it clear from his name, but also by social, temporal, spatial scopes. He exists mainly in the environment of young people, that studies, but is clear for other.Analysis of previous researches. The problem of youth slang plenty of scientific works is sanctified to: to research of Ukrainian–language slangy and substandard v...

  3. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Campión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

  4. Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Semantic Processing in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; Chernenok, Mariya; Gordon, Barry; Ledoux, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulties with language, particularly higher-level functions like semantic integration. Yet some studies indicate that semantic processing of non-linguistic stimuli is not impaired, suggesting a language-specific deficit in semantic processing. Using a semantic priming task, we…

  5. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  6. Studies in Romance Linguistics. Proceedings of the Fifth Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Michio Peter, Ed.

    This volume consists of the following papers delivered at the Fifth Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages: (1) "The Heuristics of Substratum," by Dieter Wanner; (2) "The Auxiliary in Romance," by Frederick B. Agard; (3) "Lusitanian Portuguese," by Wayne J. Redenbarger; (4) "Paradigmatic Evolution of Diphthongs: Marsian Italian and Chicano…

  7. Working Papers in Linguistics. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopen, Tim, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, compiled in an effort to improve the dissemination of linguistic information, provides information about 53 working papers series. It is the result of responses to questionnaires sent out during the past year. Most of the inquiries were made at institutions within the United States, but a few entries from other…

  8. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  9. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. PRAGMATIC AND AESTHETIC VALUE OF «MASS LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Remchukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a common trend in linguistic creativity in modern Russian language and its widespread and common character determined by a number of linguistic and extra-linguistic reasons. The author highlights the linguistic creativity of the Internet, media texts, and commercial naming, analyzes specific lexical and grammatical creative linguistic mechanisms (potential derivation, actualized polysemy, graphic hybridization, etc. as well as aesthetic and pragmatic value of «the widespread linguistic creativity». This term implies an ability of a native speaker of Russian to create in language not necessary bound by a literary text. This article suggests that it is not the aesthetic function of a text that is important; it is the actualization of the communicative and voluntary function that comes to the fore. Pragmatics then is more important than aesthetics in linguistic creativity. To prove her thesis, the author analyzes the language of advertising from the point of view of the correlation between pragmatics and aesthetics. These ads, or «mini texts» demonstrate innovations, which function in the context of “syntactic minimalism.” These innovations are determined by the addresser’s pragmatic choice of a specific, non-conventional expression mode. In some cases, these innovations become valuable from an aesthetic point of view. This study also deals with certain trends in linguistic creativity in the sphere of commercial naming, e.g.in naming of restaurants, cafes, shops. These trends are determined not only by the addresser’s perception of linguistic creativity as an attention-getting mechanism but also by the possibilities inherent in the linguistic system of the Russian language. This article suggests that the aesthetic value of commercial names could be determined by combining verbal and non-verbal devices, because the latter play an important role in the sphere of the widespread linguistic creativity. 

  11. Les linguistes et les questions de langue au Quebec: points de vue (Linguists and Language Questions in Quebec: Points of View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshaies, Denise, Ed.; Ouellon, Conrad, Ed.

    Papers, all in French, address four issues concerning linguistics and language in Quebec: language quality and linguistic reality; linguistic politics and the future of French in Quebec; the linguist's role in modern society; and dictionaries. Each section includes an untitled, substantive introduction and several papers. Papers include:…

  12. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Tair

    2017-07-05

    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Linguistic Markers of Inference Generation While Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Carlson, Sarah E; Seipel, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Words can be informative linguistic markers of psychological constructs. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between word use and the process of making meaningful connections to a text while reading (i.e., inference generation). To achieve this purpose, think-aloud data from third-fifth grade students ([Formula: see text]) reading narrative texts were hand-coded for inferences. These data were also processed with a computer text analysis tool, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, for percentages of word use in the following categories: cognitive mechanism words, nonfluencies, and nine types of function words. Findings indicate that cognitive mechanisms were an independent, positive predictor of connections to background knowledge (i.e., elaborative inference generation) and nonfluencies were an independent, negative predictor of connections within the text (i.e., bridging inference generation). Function words did not provide unique variance towards predicting inference generation. These findings are discussed in the context of a cognitive reflection model and the differences between bridging and elaborative inference generation. In addition, potential practical implications for intelligent tutoring systems and computer-based methods of inference identification are presented.

  14. Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery Using Linguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Warta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is taken for granted that students' vocabulary can be developed to a certain degree and its development can be done through a number of ways. This study investigated the effectiveness of linguistic approach in developing EFL learners' vocabulary. 50 participants were involved in the study. They were divided into experimental and controlled groups, consisting of 25 students. The experimental group was taught using linguistic method while the controlled was instructed with a conventional method. The experiment was carried out in the classroom setting and lasted for one semester. The two groups were evaluated by means of pre-and post-test. The results show that the experimental group performed better than the controlled. The value of t-test is bigger than the value of t-table, and assessment of student' performance level, by the help of two native speakers, shows significant development; it developed from marginal to modest or between modest and competent, or from basic level to intermediate with the mean difference of 1.76.

  15. Linguistic and pragmatic constraints on utterance interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelman, Elizabeth A.

    1990-05-01

    In order to model how people understand language, it is necessary to understand not only grammar and logic but also how people use language to affect their environment. This area of study is known as natural language pragmatics. Speech acts, for instance, are the offers, promises, announcements, etc., that people make by talking. The same expression may be different acts in different contexts, and yet not every expression performs every act. We want to understand how people are able to recognize other's intentions and implications in saying something. Previous plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. They can, however, be made sensitive to both linguistic and propositional information. This dissertation presents a method of speech act interpretation which uses patterns of linguistic features (e.g., mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to identify a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are then filtered and elaborated by inferences about agents' goals and plans. In many cases the plan reasoning consists of short, local inference chains (that are in fact conversational implicatures) and, extended reasoning is necessary only for the most difficult cases. The method is able to accommodate a wide range of cases, from those which seem very idiomatic to those which must be analyzed using knowledge about the world and human behavior. It explains how, Can you pass the salt, can be a request while, Are you able to pass the salt, is not.

  16. What Is Un-Cartesian Linguistics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Hinzen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Un-Cartesian linguistics is a research program with the aim of rethinking the nature of grammar as a domain of scientific inquiry, raising new questions about the constitutive role of grammar in the organization of our (rational minds and selves. It reformulates the ‘Cartesian’ foundations of the modern Universal Grammar project, shifting emphasis away from the study of a domain-specific ‘innate’ module separate from thought, to the study of a sapiens-specific mode of cognition conditioned by both grammatical and lexical organization, and thus a particular cognitive phenotype, which is uniquely also a linguistic one. The purpose of this position paper is to introduce and motivate this new concept in its various dimensions and in accessible terms, and to define the ‘Un-Cartesian Hypothesis’: that the grammaticalization of the hominin brain in the evolutionary transition to our species uniquely explains why our cognitive mode involves a capacity for thought in a propositional format.

  17. Advertising books: a linguistic analysis of blurbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Lluïsa Gea Valor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a preliminary approach to the study of blurbs, brief texts traditionally displayed on bookcovers, and nowadays also on the Internet, which provide information about a book to potential readers. This study focuses on four of the most widelyknown publishing and bookselling companies in the English-speaking world: Penguin, Ballantine, Routledge, and Barnes & Noble, and analyses more than 60 blurbs displayed on their web sites. The study indicates that blurbs may constitute a genre characterised by a definite communicative purpose and by the use of specific linguistic and discourse conventions. Blurbs perform an informative function based on the description of the contents of a book. But this function is secondary to their persuasive purpose, characteristic of advertising discourse, because blurbs recommend the book by means of review extracts from various sources in an attempt to persuade the prospective reader to buy the "product." In order to achieve their communicative purpose, blurbs make use of a wide range of linguistic and discourse conventions typical of advertising discourse: complimenting, elliptical syntactic patterns, the imperative, the address form "you," and what I have called "curiosity arousers," usually in the form of rhetorical questions and excerpts from the book.

  18. Linguistic intergroup bias in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Zurloni, Valentino; Riva, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    The Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB) illustrates the disposition to communicate positive in-group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors. The present research examined the function of language in reinforcing this bias in political communication. To illustrate the LIB, the Linguistic Category Model (LCM) was used, including a nouns category. Because social stereotypes are usually conveyed by nominal terms, the aim was to observe the relationship between stereotypes and language in political communication. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing the psychological processes that drive the LIB. Therefore, we verified whether the LIB is more related to language abstractness than to agent-patient causality. Several political debates and interviews, which took place before the latest Italian provincial elections, were analyzed. Results suggested that the language politicians use in communicating about political groups are conceptualized as stereotypes rather than as trait-based categories. Moreover, it seems that the LIB could not be explained only at a lexical level. Social implications of the present findings in interpersonal relations and causal attribution were discussed.

  19. Mindful attention reduces linguistic intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincher, Moses M; Lebois, Lauren A M; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    A brief mindfulness intervention diminished bias in favor of one's in-group and against one's out-group. In the linguistic intergroup bias (LIB), individuals expect in-group members to behave positively, and out-group members to behave negatively. Consequently, individuals choose abstract language beset with character inferences to describe these expected behaviors, and in contrast, choose concrete, objective language to describe unexpected behaviors. Eighty-four participants received either mindful attention instructions (observe their thoughts as fleeting mental states) or immersion instructions (become absorbed in the vivid details of thoughts). After instruction, participants viewed visual depictions of an imagined in-group or out-group member's positive or negative behavior, selecting the best linguistic description from a set of four descriptions that varied in abstractness. Immersion groups demonstrated a robust LIB. Mindful attention groups, however, exhibited a markedly tempered LIB, suggesting that even a brief mindfulness-related instruction can implicitly reduce the propensity to perpetuate stereotypical thinking through language. These results contribute to understanding the mechanisms that facilitate unprejudiced thinking.

  20. A linguistic Analysis of Husseini Slogans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besma Khalid Inghaish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the linguistic phenomenon of slogans which is deep-rooted in the values, traditions, beliefs and conventions of any society. It investigates the slogans uttered by Imam Hussein Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib (Peace be upon them in his revolution against the crookedness and deviations of the evil rule of Yazid or those uttered by his followers and adherents have been collected from Al-Qarashi (2011, Al-Yaasiry (2009, Al-Jaraadi (2010 and At-Tublaani (2012. The paper aims to investigate the linguistic features of slogans (on the phonological, lexical and syntactic levels and show the macro-strategies used to achieve these religious slogans. The conclusions can be summarized as the following: The analysis has shown that Hosu and Pavelea’s model of slogans fits at the phonological and lexical levels but it lacks some devices on the syntactic level namely: negation, comparison and vocative. In the light of this, the researcher proposes a modified model to include these devices.