Sample records for subscale solid motor

  1. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 2; Sub-Scale Air Flow Simulation of Port Flows (United States)

    Yeh, Y. P.; Ramandran, N.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.


    The injection-flow issuing from a porous medium in the cold-flow simulation of internal port flows in solid rocket motors is characterized by a spatial instability termed pseudoturbulence that produces a rather non-uniform (lumpy) injection-velocity profile. The objective of this study is to investigate the interaction between the injection- and the developing axial-flows. The findings show that this interaction generally weakens the lumpy injection profile and affects the subsequent development of the axial flow. The injection profile is found to depend on the material characteristics, and the ensuing pseudoturbulence is a function of the injection velocity, the axial position and the distance from the porous wall. The flow transition (from laminar to turbulent) of the axial-flow is accelerated in flows emerging from smaller pores primarily due to the higher pseudoturbulence produced by the smaller pores in comparison to that associated with larger pores. In flows with rather uniform injection-flow profiles (weak or no pseudoturbulence), the axial and transverse velocity components in the porous duct are found to satisfy the sine/cosine analytical solutions derived from inviscid assumptions. The transition results from the present study are compared with previous results from surveyed literature, and detailed flow development measurements are presented in terms of the blowing fraction, and characterizing Reynolds numbers.

  2. ISRO's solid rocket motors (United States)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.


    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were

  3. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Graves, S. R.


    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  4. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.


    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  5. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.


    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  6. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.


    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan


    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  8. An Item Response Analysis of the Motor and Behavioral Subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale in Huntington Disease Gene Expansion Carriers (United States)

    Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.


    Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269

  9. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status (United States)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.


    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  10. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.


    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  11. Solid Rocket Motor Design Using Hybrid Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Albarado


    Full Text Available A particle swarm/pattern search hybrid optimizer was used to drive a solid rocket motor modeling code to an optimal solution. The solid motor code models tapered motor geometries using analytical burn back methods by slicing the grain into thin sections along the axial direction. Grains with circular perforated stars, wagon wheels, and dog bones can be considered and multiple tapered sections can be constructed. The hybrid approach to optimization is capable of exploring large areas of the solution space through particle swarming, but is also able to climb “hills” of optimality through gradient based pattern searching. A preliminary method for designing tapered internal geometry as well as tapered outer mold-line geometry is presented. A total of four optimization cases were performed. The first two case studies examines designing motors to match a given regressive-progressive-regressive burn profile. The third case study studies designing a neutrally burning right circular perforated grain (utilizing inner and external geometry tapering. The final case study studies designing a linearly regressive burning profile for right circular perforated (tapered grains.

  12. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishment, Lessons, and a Culture of Success (United States)

    Moore, D. R.; Phelps, W. J.


    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) represents the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) ever flown and the only human-rated solid motor. High reliability of the RSRM has been the result of challenges addressed and lessons learned. Advancements have resulted by applying attention to process control, testing, and postflight through timely and thorough communication in dealing with all issues. A structured and disciplined approach was taken to identify and disposition all concerns. Careful consideration and application of alternate opinions was embraced. Focus was placed on process control, ground test programs, and postflight assessment. Process control is mandatory for an SRM, because an acceptance test of the delivered product is not feasible. The RSRM maintained both full-scale and subscale test articles, which enabled continuous improvement of design and evaluation of process control and material behavior. Additionally RSRM reliability was achieved through attention to detail in post flight assessment to observe any shift in performance. The postflight analysis and inspections provided invaluable reliability data as it enables observation of actual flight performance, most of which would not be available if the motors were not recovered. RSRM reusability offered unique opportunities to learn about the hardware. NASA is moving forward with the Space Launch System that incorporates propulsion systems that takes advantage of the heritage Shuttle and Ares solid motor programs. These unique challenges, features of the RSRM, materials and manufacturing issues, and design improvements will be discussed in the paper.

  13. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes (United States)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.


    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  14. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishments, Lessons, and a Culture of Success (United States)

    Moore, Dennis R.; Phelps, Willie J.


    hardware segments. The reusable solid rocket motor achieved significant reliability via process control, ground test programs, and postflight assessment. Process control is mandatory for a solid rocket motor as an acceptance test of the delivered product is not feasible. Process control included process failure modes and effects analysis, statistical process control, witness panels, and process product integrity audits. Material controls and inspections were maintained throughout the sub tier vendors. Material fingerprinting was employed to assess any drift in delivered material properties. The RSRM maintained both full scale and sub-scale test articles. These enabled continuous improvement of design and evaluation of process control and material behavior. Additionally RSRM reliability was achieved through attention to detail in post flight assessment to observe any shift in performance. The postflight analysis and inspections provided invaluable reliability data as it enables observation of actual flight performance, most of which would not be available if the motors were not recovered. These unique challenges, features of the reusable solid rocket motor, materials and manufacturing issues, and design improvements will be discussed in the paper.

  15. Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle (United States)


    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 16 June 2015 – 31 July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motor... Rockets , Volume 52 Issue 4 July 2015 (AIAA 2015-1605) PA Case Number: #15348; Clearance Date: 6/26/2015 ©2015 AIAA The U.S. Government is joint author...of the work and has the right to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or 14. ABSTRACT In a solid rocket motor (SRM), when the

  16. Numerical Exploration of Solid Rocket Motor Blast Tube Flow Field


    Afroz Javed; Sinha, P.K.; Debasis Chakraborty


    The blast tube flowfield of a solid rocket motor is explored numerically by solving 3-D RANS equations with SST Turbulence model using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software CFX-10. Parametric studies are carried out to find out the effect of the blast tube diameter on the total pressure loss in the rocket motor. It is observed that the total pressure loss in the rocket motor is less than 4 per cent and the blast tube is contributing less than 1 per cent. It is also found ou...

  17. Multiple Changes to Reusable Solid Rocket Motors, Identifying Hidden Risks (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.; McCann, Bradley Q.


    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) baseline is subject to various changes. Changes are necessary due to safety and quality improvements, environmental considerations, vendor changes, obsolescence issues, etc. The RSRM program has a goal to test changes on full-scale static test motors prior to flight due to the unique RSRM operating environment. Each static test motor incorporates several significant changes and numerous minor changes. Flight motors often implement multiple changes simultaneously. While each change is individually verified and assessed, the potential for changes to interact constitutes additional hidden risk. Mitigating this risk depends upon identification of potential interactions. Therefore, the ATK Thiokol Propulsion System Safety organization initiated the use of a risk interaction matrix to identify potential interactions that compound risk. Identifying risk interactions supports flight and test motor decisions. Uncovering hidden risks of a full-scale static test motor gives a broader perspective of the changes being tested. This broader perspective compels the program to focus on solutions for implementing RSRM changes with minimal/mitigated risk. This paper discusses use of a change risk interaction matrix to identify test challenges and uncover hidden risks to the RSRM program.

  18. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Almostafa


    Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.

  19. The identification of parameter of solid rocket motor (United States)

    Fang, Dingyou


    An end-burning grain in which long metal wires are embedded is used here as an example of parameter identification in solid rocket motors. The results indicate that when the deposition and erosion at the nozzle throat are not considered or the characteristic velocity is inaccurate or the identification technique of identification and parameter initial value identification are inaccurate, the identification results are all inaccurate. Parameters measured and information obtained experimentally can be used to check the credibility of identified parameters.

  20. Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects on Mass Flow Rates in Solid Rocket Motors (United States)


    in Solid Rocket Motors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William Harrigan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Determination of mass flow rate in a solid rocket motor is critical in the design of a new motor due to its effect on the thrust produced. Fluid...mass flow rates. The FSI analyses with two‐way coupling provided a more accurate assessment of solid rocket motor internal ballistics. 15. SUBJECT

  1. Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow in Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Attili, A.; Favini, B.; Di Giacinto, M.; Serraglia, F.


    In the paper a general mathematical description of the flow in the internal chamber of solid rocket motors is presented. The formulation adopted take into account the multi-species and multiphase, reactive, multidimensional characteristics of the flow. The grain combustion is described by a pressure dependent law; aluminum droplet are modelled by a Lagrangian approach, coupled with the Eulerian formulation adopted for the gas phase. The mathematical model has been implemented in a simulation code and several simulations have been performed; in particular in the paper the re- sults for two geometries are described: a simple cylindrical port-area rocket and the Zefiro 9 SRM.

  2. State estimation for solid apogee motor burning of geostationary satellite (United States)

    Ono, S.; Tomomura, K.; Toyoda, T.


    The results of the state/orbit sequential estimation for a GEO satellite, based on an analysis of real Doppler data for the short-time boost phase of the solid apogee boost motor (ABM), are presented. The estimation was performed for three Japanese satellites. Two stochastic Kalman filters were used for the estimation. It was found that, for a satellite equipped with an offset antenna, the real Doppler data oscillate with a spin period. The estimated state at ABM burnout had good agreement with the drift orbit and attitude determined independently by the ordinary batch method.

  3. SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) propellant and polymer materials structural modeling (United States)

    Moore, Carleton J.


    The following investigation reviews and evaluates the use of stress relaxation test data for the structural analysis of Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellants and other polymer materials used for liners, insulators, inhibitors, and seals. The stress relaxation data is examined and a new mathematical structural model is proposed. This model has potentially wide application to structural analysis of polymer materials and other materials generally characterized as being made of viscoelastic materials. A dynamic modulus is derived from the new model for stress relaxation modulus and is compared to the old viscoelastic model and experimental data.

  4. Health Monitoring and Diagnosis of Solid Rocket Motors with Bore Cracks (United States)


    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2014-February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Health Monitoring and Diagnosis of Solid Rocket Motors with... rocket motors at various storage temperatures. Capabilities of a rocket motor health monitoring system are assessed based on the assumption that the...system can detect critical bore cracks in solid rocket motors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS structural health monitoring (SHM) · structural integrity · damage

  5. Influence of Structural Parameters on the Performance of Vortex Valve Variable-Thrust Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Wei, Xianggeng; Li, Jiang; He, Guoqiang


    The vortex valve solid variable thrust motor is a new solid motor which can achieve Vehicle system trajectory optimization and motor energy management. Numerical calculation was performed to investigate the influence of vortex chamber diameter, vortex chamber shape, and vortex chamber height of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor on modulation performance. The test results verified that the calculation results are consistent with laboratory results with a maximum error of 9.5%. The research drew the following major conclusions: the optimal modulation performance was achieved in a cylindrical vortex chamber, increasing the vortex chamber diameter improved the modulation performance of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor, optimal modulation performance could be achieved when the height of the vortex chamber is half of the vortex chamber outlet diameter, and the hot gas control flow could result in an enhancement of modulation performance. The results can provide the basis for establishing the design method of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor.

  6. Firing Tests of Thrust Controllable Solid Rocket Motors Part 1:300-mm-Diameter End-Burning Grain Motors


    GODAI, Tomifumi; SHIMIZU, Morio; Ito, Katsuya; Tanemura, Toshiharu; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; KUSAKA, Kazuo; Kisara, Katsuto; Sato, Masahiro; Takahashi, Mamoru; Izumikawa, Muneo; 五代, 富文; 清水, 盛生; 伊藤, 克弥; 種村, 利春; 藤原, 勉


    300-mm-diameter thrust controllable solid rocket motors were successfully fired under atmospheric conditions. Thrust magnitude control was attained by changing the flow rate of the hydrogen peroxide decomposition gas injected into the solid rocket motor. Incomplete combustion termination that occurred earlier than expected was due to the excessive heat flux irradiated from the hot surfaces of the ablative insulation liner towards the extinguished propellant surface. More effective liner mater...

  7. Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motors (United States)


    Fellowship Program (SFFP). V REFERENCES                                                                  1 Xiao, Y.M., R.S. Amano, " Aluminized ...Motors," Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol.11, pp. 10-23, 1995. 8 Hess, E., Chen, K., Acosta, P., Brent, D., Fendell, F.; "Effect of Aluminized ...No. 9, pp. 1763-1770, September 2003. 11 Bandera, A., Maggi, F., and Deluca, L.T., "Agglomeration of Aluminized Solid Rocket Propellants," in 45th

  8. Real-Time X-ray Radiography Diagnostics of Components in Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Cortopassi, A. C.; Martin, H. T.; Boyer, E.; Kuo, K. K.


    Solid rocket motors (SRMs) typically use nozzle materials which are required to maintain their shape as well as insulate the underlying support structure during the motor operation. In addition, SRMs need internal insulation materials to protect the motor case from the harsh environment resulting from the combustion of solid propellant. In the nozzle, typical materials consist of high density graphite, carbon-carbon composites and carbon phenolic composites. Internal insulation of the motor cases is typically a composite material with carbon, asbestos, Kevlar, or silica fibers in an ablative matrix such as EPDM or NBR. For both nozzle and internal insulation materials, the charring process occurs when the hot combustion products heat the material intensely. The pyrolysis of the matrix material takes away a portion of the thermal energy near the wall surface and leaves behind a char layer. The fiber reinforcement retains the porous char layer which provides continued thermal protection from the hot combustion products. It is of great interest to characterize both the total erosion rates of the material and the char layer thickness. By better understanding of the erosion process for a particular ablative material in a specific flow environment, the required insulation material thickness can be properly selected. The recession rates of internal insulation and nozzle materials of SRMs are typically determined by testing in some sort of simulated environment; either arc-jet testing, flame torch testing, or subscale SRMs of different size. Material recession rates are deduced by comparison of pre- and post-test measurements and then averaging over the duration of the test. However, these averaging techniques cannot be used to determine the instantaneous recession rates of the material. Knowledge of the variation in recession rates in response to the instantaneous flow conditions during the motor operation is of great importance. For example, in many SRM configurations

  9. Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models (United States)

    Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio


    In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe

  10. Integration of Flex Nozzle System and Electro Hydraulic Actuators to Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Nayani, Kishore Nath; Bajaj, Dinesh Kumar


    A rocket motor assembly comprised of solid rocket motor and flex nozzle system. Integration of flex nozzle system and hydraulic actuators to the solid rocket motors are done after transportation to the required place where integration occurred. The flex nozzle system is integrated to the rocket motor in horizontal condition and the electro hydraulic actuators are assembled to the flex nozzle systems. The electro hydraulic actuators are connected to the hydraulic power pack to operate the actuators. The nozzle-motor critical interface are insulation diametrical compression, inhibition resin-28, insulation facial compression, shaft seal `O' ring compression and face seal `O' ring compression.

  11. Effect of ambient vibration on solid rocket motor grain and propellant/liner bonding interface (United States)

    Cao, Yijun; Huang, Weidong; Li, Jinfei


    In order to study the condition of structural integrity in the process of the solid propellant motor launching and transporting, the stress and strain field analysis were studied on a certain type of solid propellant motor. the vibration acceleration on the solid propellant motors' transport process were monitored, then the original vibration data was eliminated the noise and the trend term efficiently, finally the characteristic frequency of vibration was got to the finite element analysis. Experiment and simulation results show that the monitored solid propellant motor mainly bear 0.2 HZ and 15 HZ low frequency vibration in the process of transportation; Under the low frequency vibration loading, solid propellant motor grain stress concentration position is respectively below the head and tail of the propellant/liner bonding surface and the grain roots.

  12. Performance Investigation of Solid-Rocket Motor with Nozzle Throat Erosion


    Suwicha Chankapoe; Nattawat Winya; Narupon Pittayaprasertkul


    In order to determine the performance and key design parameters of rocket, the erosion of nozzle throat during solid rocket motor burning have to be calculated. This study aims to predict the nozzle throat erosion in solid rocket motors according to the thrust profile of motor in operating conditions and develop a model for optimum performance of rocket. We investigate the throat radius change in the static test programs. The standard method and thrust coefficient are used for adjusting into...

  13. Reprogrammable Assembly of Molecular Motor on Solid Surfaces via Dynamic Bonds. (United States)

    Yu, Li; Sun, Jian; Wang, Qian; Guan, Yan; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Jingxuan; Zhang, Lanying; Yang, Huai


    Controllable assembly of molecular motors on solid surfaces is a fundamental issue for providing them to perform physical tasks. However, it can hardly be achieved by most previous methods due to their inherent limitations. Here, a general strategy is designed for the reprogrammable assembly of molecular motors on solid surfaces based on dynamic bonds. In this method, molecular motors with disulfide bonds can be remotely, reversibly, and precisely attached to solid surfaces with disulfide bonds, regardless of their chemical composition and microstructure. More importantly, it not only allows encoding geometric information referring to a pattern of molecular motors, but also enables erasing and re-encoding of geometric information via hemolytic photocleavage and recombination of disulfide bonds. Thus, solid surfaces can be regarded as "computer hardware", where molecular motors can be reformatted and reprogramed as geometric information. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint-4 Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie


    This study provides for development and test verification of a thermal model used for prediction of joint heating environments, structural temperatures and seal erosions in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzle Joint-4. The heating environments are a result of rapid pressurization of the joint free volume assuming a leak path has occurred in the filler material used for assembly gap close out. Combustion gases flow along the leak path from nozzle environment to joint O-ring gland resulting in local heating to the metal housing and erosion of seal materials. Analysis of this condition was based on usage of the NASA Joint Pressurization Routine (JPR) for environment determination and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) for structural temperature prediction. Model generated temperatures, pressures and seal erosions are compared to hot fire test data for several different leak path situations. Investigated in the hot fire test program were nozzle joint-4 O-ring erosion sensitivities to leak path width in both open and confined joint geometries. Model predictions were in generally good agreement with the test data for the confined leak path cases. Worst case flight predictions are provided using the test-calibrated model. Analysis issues are discussed based on model calibration procedures.

  15. Applied algorithm in the liner inspection of solid rocket motors (United States)

    Hoffmann, Luiz Felipe Simões; Bizarria, Francisco Carlos Parquet; Bizarria, José Walter Parquet


    In rocket motors, the bonding between the solid propellant and thermal insulation is accomplished by a thin adhesive layer, known as liner. The liner application method involves a complex sequence of tasks, which includes in its final stage, the surface integrity inspection. Nowadays in Brazil, an expert carries out a thorough visual inspection to detect defects on the liner surface that may compromise the propellant interface bonding. Therefore, this paper proposes an algorithm that uses the photometric stereo technique and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to assist the expert in the surface inspection. Photometric stereo allows the surface information recovery of the test images, while the KNN method enables image pixels classification into two classes: non-defect and defect. Tests performed on a computer vision based prototype validate the algorithm. The positive results suggest that the algorithm is feasible and when implemented in a real scenario, will be able to help the expert in detecting defective areas on the liner surface.

  16. Test and Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Ablative Materials (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie


    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved measurement of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero-thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  17. Investigation of the effects of solid rocket motor propellant composition on plume signature (United States)

    Snaza, Clay J.


    Three propellants with aluminum/silicon weight percentages of 18/0%, 13.5/4.5%, and 12/6% were fired in a subscale motor to determine if the plume infrared signature could be reduced without a significant loss in specific impulse. Spectral measurements from 2.5 to 5.5 micrometers and thermal measurements from 3.5 to 5.0 micrometers were made. Plume particle size measurements showed that only particles with small diameters (less than 1.93 micrometers) were present with any significant volume. Replacing a portion of the aluminum in a highly metallized solid propellant with silicon was found to eliminate the Al2O3 in favor of SiO2 and Al6SiO13, without any change in particulate mass concentration or any large change in particle size distribution. These particulates were found to have significantly lower absorptivity than Al2O3. An additional investigation was conducted to determine the particle size distribution at the nozzle entrance. Malvern ensemble scattering, phase-Doppler single particle scattering, and laser transmittance measurements made through windows in the combustion chamber at the nozzle entrance indicated that large particles were present (to 250 micrometers). However, most of the mass of the particles was contained in particles with diameters smaller than 5 micrometers. Approximate calculations made with the measured data showed that if 100 micrometer particles are present with the smoke (particles with diameters less than 2 micrometers) they could account for only approximately 10% of the article volume.

  18. Maturation of Structural Health Management Systems for Solid Rocket Motors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid rocket motor cases are subject to a variety of external environmental and loading conditions from cradle-to-grave. These conditions can significantly impact...

  19. A Green, Safe, Dual-pulse Solid Motor for CubeSat Orbit Changing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Small satellites such as CubeSats are in need of responsive propulsion, but are limited due to their size. Though single pulse, AP/HTPB fueled solid rocket motors...

  20. Detailed modal testing of a solid rocket motor using a portable test system (United States)

    Glozman, Vladimir; Brillhart, Ralph D.


    Modern analytical techniques have expended the ability to evaluate solid rocket motors used in launch vehicles. As more detailed models of solid rocket motors were developed, testing methods were required to verify the models. Experimental modal analysis (modal testing) of space structures and launch vehicles has been a requirement for model validation for many years. However, previous testing of solid rocket motors has not typically involved dynamic modal testing of full scale motors for verification of solid propellant or system assembly properties. Innovative approaches to the testing of solid rocket motors were developed and modal testing of a full scale, two segment Titan 34D Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) was performed to validate detailed computer modeling. Special modifications were made to convert an existing facility into a temporary modal test facility which would accommodate the test article. The assembly of conventional data acquisition equipment into a multiple channel count portable system has made modal testing in the field feasible. Special purpose hydraulic exciters were configured to apply the dynamic driving forces required. All instrumentation and data collection equipment were installed at the test site for the duration of the test program and removed upon completion. Conversion of an existing test facility into a temporary modal test facility, and use of a multiple channel count portable test data acquisition system allowed all test objectives to be met and resulted in validation of the computer model in a minimum time.

  1. Large Solid Rocket Motor Safety Analyses: Thermal Effects Issues (United States)


    source (industrial site…), hazard flux (propagation, toxic species dispersion, fire and explosion) and targets submitted to damage (personnel, material...and two propellant compositions (20% and 4% of Aluminium in mass) are tested within this first setup. The solid propellants are produced by the SME...and it is 1.10 mm/s ±0.04 mm/s with the 4% Aluminium one. In other words, higher aluminium rate in mass is, faster the solid propellant burns

  2. Ignition transient modelling for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Eagar, M. A.; Luke, G. D.; Stockham, L. W.


    Prediction of the ignition transient for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) for the Space Shuttle presents an unusual set of modelling challenges because of its high length-to-diameter ratio and complex internal flow environment. A review of ignition modelling experience on the Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), which is similar in size and configuration to the ASRM, reveals that classical igniter design theory and modelling methods under-predict, by a factor of two, the measured pressure and thrust rise rates experienced on the RSRM. This paper (1) reviews the Titan and Shuttle SRM test experience, (2) presents the results of 0-Dimensional (0-D) and 1-Dimensional (1-D) analysis of the RSRM and ASRM motors, and (3) addresses the need for advanced analysis techniques, as they relate to ASRM ignition transient modelling requirements and igniter design drivers.

  3. Validation of a Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environment Model (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    In a prior effort, a thermal/fluid model of the interior of Penn State University's laboratory-scale Insulation Test Motor (ITM) was constructed to predict both the convective and radiative heat transfer to the interior walls of the ITM with a minimum of empiricism. These predictions were then compared to values of total and radiative heat flux measured in a previous series of ITM test firings to assess the capabilities and shortcomings of the chosen modeling approach. Though the calculated fluxes reasonably agreed with those measured during testing, this exercise revealed means of improving the fidelity of the model to, in the case of the thermal radiation, enable direct comparison of the measured and calculated fluxes and, for the total heat flux, compute a value indicative of the average measured condition. By replacing the P1-Approximation with the discrete ordinates (DO) model for the solution of the gray radiative transfer equation, the radiation intensity field in the optically thin region near the radiometer is accurately estimated, allowing the thermal radiation flux to be calculated on the heat-flux sensor itself, which was then compared directly to the measured values. Though the fully coupling the wall thermal response with the flow model was not attempted due to the excessive computational time required, a separate wall thermal response model was used to better estimate the average temperature of the graphite surfaces upstream of the heat flux gauges and improve the accuracy of both the total and radiative heat flux computations. The success of this modeling approach increases confidence in the ability of state-of-the-art thermal and fluid modeling to accurately predict SRM internal environments, offers corrections to older methods, and supplies a tool for further studies of the dynamics of SRM interiors.

  4. Finite element analysis of propellant of solid rocket motor during ship motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qu


    Full Text Available In order to simulate the stress and strain of solid rocket motors (SRMs, a finite element analysis model was established. The stress spectra of the SRM elements with respect to time in the case that the vessel cruises under a certain shipping condition were obtained by simulation. According to the analysis of the simulation results, a critical zone was confirmed, and the Mises stress amplitudes of the different critical zones were acquired. The results show that the maximum stress and strain of SRM are less than the maximum tensile strength and elongation, respectively, of the propellant. The cumulative damage of the motor must also be evaluated by random fatigue loading.

  5. Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) (United States)

    Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.


    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

  6. Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints (United States)

    Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.


    A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

  7. Numerical Evaluation of the Use of Aluminum Particles for Enhancing Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Stability


    David Greatrix


    The ability to predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms typically necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. On the mitigation side, one in practice sees the use of inert or reactive particles for the suppression of pressure wave ...

  8. Indirect and direct methods for measuring a dynamic throat diameter in a solid rocket motor (United States)

    Colbaugh, Lauren

    In a solid rocket motor, nozzle throat erosion is dictated by propellant composition, throat material properties, and operating conditions. Throat erosion has a significant effect on motor performance, so it must be accurately characterized to produce a good motor design. In order to correlate throat erosion rate to other parameters, it is first necessary to know what the throat diameter is throughout a motor burn. Thus, an indirect method and a direct method for determining throat diameter in a solid rocket motor are investigated in this thesis. The indirect method looks at the use of pressure and thrust data to solve for throat diameter as a function of time. The indirect method's proof of concept was shown by the good agreement between the ballistics model and the test data from a static motor firing. The ballistics model was within 10% of all measured and calculated performance parameters (e.g. average pressure, specific impulse, maximum thrust, etc.) for tests with throat erosion and within 6% of all measured and calculated performance parameters for tests without throat erosion. The direct method involves the use of x-rays to directly observe a simulated nozzle throat erode in a dynamic environment; this is achieved with a dynamic calibration standard. An image processing algorithm is developed for extracting the diameter dimensions from the x-ray intensity digital images. Static and dynamic tests were conducted. The measured diameter was compared to the known diameter in the calibration standard. All dynamic test results were within +6% / -7% of the actual diameter. Part of the edge detection method consists of dividing the entire x-ray image by an average pixel value, calculated from a set of pixels in the x-ray image. It was found that the accuracy of the edge detection method depends upon the selection of the average pixel value area and subsequently the average pixel value. An average pixel value sensitivity analysis is presented. Both the indirect

  9. Investigation of the flow turning loss in unstable solid propellant rocket motors (United States)

    Matta, Lawrence Mark

    The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of the flow turning loss, which contributes to the damping of axial acoustic instabilities in solid propellant rocket motors. This understanding is needed to develop practical methods for designing motors that do not exhibit such instabilities. The flow turning loss results from the interaction of the flow of combustion products leaving the surface of the propellant with the acoustic field in an unstable motor. While state of the art solid rocket stability models generally account for the flow turning loss, its magnitude and characteristics have never been fully investigated. This thesis describes a combined theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation of the flow turning loss and its dependence upon various motor design and operating parameters. First, a one dimensional acoustic stability equation that verifies the existence of the flow turning loss was derived for a chamber with constant mean pressure and temperature. The theoretical development was then extended to include the effects of mean temperature gradients to accommodate combustion systems in which mean temperature gradients and heat losses are significant. These analyses provided the background and expressions necessary to guide an experimental study. The relevant equations were then solved for the developed experimental setup to predict the behavior of the flow turning loss and the other terms of the developed acoustic stability equation. This was followed by and experimental study in which the flow turning region of an unstable solid propellant rocket motor was simulated. The setup was used, with and without combustion, to determine the dependence of the flow turning loss upon operating conditions. These studies showed that the flow turning loss strongly depends upon the gas velocity at the propellant surface and the location of the flow turning region relative to the standing acoustic wave. The flow turning loss measured in the

  10. Performance of reinforced polymer ablators exposed to a solid rocket motor exhaust. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.; Burgess, T.; Bowen, J.; Deloach, K.; Talmy, I.


    Summarized in this report is the effort by the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD) and FMC Corporation (a launcher manufacturer) to identify new high performance ablators suitable for use on Navy guided missile launchers (GML) and ships' structures. The goal is to reduce ablator erosion by 25 to 50 percent compared to that of the existing ablators such as MXBE350 (rubbermodified phenolic containing glass fiber reinforcement). This reduction in erosion would significantly increase the number of new missiles with higher-thrust, longer burn rocket motors that can be launched prior to ablator refurbishment. In fact, there are a number of new Navy missiles being considered for development and introduction into existing GML: e.g., the Antisatellite Missile (ASM) and the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Missile. The U.S. Navy experimentally evaluated the eight best fiber-reinforced, polymer composites from a possible field of 25 off-the-shelf ablators previously screened by FMC Corporation. They were tested by the Navy in highly aluminized solid rocket motor exhaust plumes to determine their ability to resist erosion and to insulate.... Ablator, Guided Missile Launchers, Erosion, Tactical missiles, Convective heating, Solid rocket motors, Aluminum oxide particles.

  11. Real-Time Measurements of Aft Dome Insulation Erosion on Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    McWhorter, Bruce; Ewing, Mark; Albrechtsen, Kevin; Noble, Todd; Longaker, Matt


    Real-time erosion of aft dome internal insulation was measured with internal instrumentation on a static test of a lengthened version of the Space Shuffle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). This effort marks the first time that real-time aft dome insulation erosion (Le., erosion due to the combined effects of thermochemical ablation and mechanical abrasion) was measured in this kind of large motor static test [designated as Engineering Test Motor number 3 (ETM3)I. This paper presents data plots of the erosion depth versus time. The data indicates general erosion versus time behavior that is in contrast to what would be expected from earlier analyses. Engineers have long known that the thermal environment in the aft dome is severe and that the resulting aft dome insulation erosion is significant. Models of aft dome erosion involve a two-step process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and material ablation modeling. This modeling effort is complex. The time- dependent effects are difficult to verify with only prefire and postfire insulation measurements. Nozzle vectoring, slag accumulation, and changing boundary conditions will affect the time dependence of aft dome erosion. Further study of this data and continued measurements on future motors will increase our understanding of the aft dome flow and erosion environment.

  12. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.


    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  13. Elastomeric Thermal Insulation Design Considerations in Long, Aluminized Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    An all-new sounding rocket was designed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that featured an aft finocyl, aluminized solid propellant grain and silica-filled ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (SFEPDM) internal insulation. Upon the initial static firing of the first of this new design, the solid rocket motor (SRM) case failed thermally just upstream of the aft closure early in the burn time. Subsequent fluid modeling indicated that the high-velocity combustion-product jets emanating from the fin-slots in the propellant grain were likely inducing a strongly swirling flow, thus substantially increasing the severity of the convective environment on the exposed portion of the SFEPDM insulation in this region. The aft portion of the fin-slots in another of the motors were filled with propellant to eliminate the possibility of both direct jet impingement on the exposed SFEPDM and the appearance of strongly swirling flow in the aft region of the motor. When static-fired, this motor's case still failed in the same axial location, and, though somewhat later than for the first static firing, still in less than 1/3rd of the desired burn duration. These results indicate that the extreme material decomposition rates of the SFEPDM in this application are not due to gas-phase convection or shear but rather to interactions with burning aluminum or alumina slag. Further comparisons with between SFEPDM performance in this design and that in other hot-fire tests provide insight into the mechanisms of SFEPDM decomposition in SRM aft domes that can guide the upcoming redesign effort, as well as other future SRM designs. These data also highlight the current limitations of modeling elastomeric insulators solely with diffusion-controlled, gas-phase thermochemistry in SRM regions with significant viscous shear and/or condense-phase impingement or flow.

  14. Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Harris, Robert E.


    Flexible inhibitors are generally used in solid rocket motors (SRMs) as a means to control the burning of propellant. Vortices generated by the flow of propellant around the flexible inhibitors have been identified as a driving source of instabilities that can lead to thrust oscillations in launch vehicles. Potential coupling between the SRM thrust oscillations and structural vibration modes is an important risk factor in launch vehicle design. As a means to predict and better understand these phenomena, a multidisciplinary simulation capability that couples the NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This capability is crucial to the development of NASA's new space launch system (SLS). This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the coupled software to demonstrate and investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena between pressure waves and flexible inhibitors inside reusable solid rocket motors (RSRMs). The features of the fluid and structural solvers are described in detail, and the coupling methodology and interfacial continuity requirements are then presented in a general Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The simulations presented herein utilize production level CFD with hybrid RANS/LES turbulence modeling and grid resolution in excess of 80 million cells. The fluid domain in the SRM is discretized using a general mixed polyhedral unstructured mesh, while full 3D shell elements are utilized in the structural domain for the flexible inhibitors. Verifications against analytical solutions for a structural model under a steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic modal analysis show excellent agreement in terms of displacement distribution and eigenmode frequencies. The preliminary coupled results indicate that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor

  15. Solid motor aft closure insulation erosion. [heat flux correlation for rate analysis (United States)

    Stampfl, E.; Landsbaum, E. M.


    The erosion rate of aft closure insulation in a number of large solid propellant motors was empirically analyzed by correlating the average ablation rate with a number of variables that had previously been demonstrated to affect heat flux. The main correlating parameter was a heat flux based on the simplified Bartz heat transfer coefficient corrected for two-dimensional effects. A multiplying group contained terms related to port-to-throat ratio, local wall angle, grain geometry and nozzle cant angle. The resulting equation gave a good correlation and is a useful design tool.

  16. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (United States)

    Russell, D. L.; Blacklock, K.; Langhenry, M. T.


    The recertification of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) and Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) has included an extensive rewriting of the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL). The evolution of the groundrules and methodology used in the analysis is discussed and compared to standard FMEA techniques. Especially highlighted are aspects of the FMEA/CIL which are unique to the analysis of an SRM. The criticality category definitions are presented and the rationale for assigning criticality is presented. The various data required by the CIL and contribution of this data to the retention rationale is also presented. As an example, the FMEA and CIL for the SRM nozzle assembly is discussed in detail. This highlights some of the difficulties associated with the analysis of a system with the unique mission requirements of the Space Shuttle.

  17. Assessment of tbe Performance of Ablative Insulators Under Realistic Solid Rocket Motor Operating Conditions (a Doctoral Dissertation) (United States)

    Martin, Heath Thomas


    Ablative insulators are used in the interior surfaces of solid rocket motors to prevent the mechanical structure of the rocket from failing due to intense heating by the high-temperature solid-propellant combustion products. The complexity of the ablation process underscores the need for ablative material response data procured from a realistic solid rocket motor environment, where all of the potential contributions to material degradation are present and in their appropriate proportions. For this purpose, the present study examines ablative material behavior in a laboratory-scale solid rocket motor. The test apparatus includes a planar, two-dimensional flow channel in which flat ablative material samples are installed downstream of an aluminized solid propellant grain and imaged via real-time X-ray radiography. In this way, the in-situ transient thermal response of an ablator to all of the thermal, chemical, and mechanical erosion mechanisms present in a solid rocket environment can be observed and recorded. The ablative material is instrumented with multiple micro-thermocouples, so that in-depth temperature histories are known. Both total heat flux and thermal radiation flux gauges have been designed, fabricated, and tested to characterize the thermal environment to which the ablative material samples are exposed. These tests not only allow different ablative materials to be compared in a realistic solid rocket motor environment but also improve the understanding of the mechanisms that influence the erosion behavior of a given ablative material.

  18. Modified computation of the nozzle damping coefficient in solid rocket motors (United States)

    Liu, Peijin; Wang, Muxin; Yang, Wenjing; Gupta, Vikrant; Guan, Yu; Li, Larry K. B.


    In solid rocket motors, the bulk advection of acoustic energy out of the nozzle constitutes a significant source of damping and can thus influence the thermoacoustic stability of the system. In this paper, we propose and test a modified version of a historically accepted method of calculating the nozzle damping coefficient. Building on previous work, we separate the nozzle from the combustor, but compute the acoustic admittance at the nozzle entry using the linearized Euler equations (LEEs) rather than with short nozzle theory. We compute the combustor's acoustic modes also with the LEEs, taking the nozzle admittance as the boundary condition at the combustor exit while accounting for the mean flow field in the combustor using an analytical solution to Taylor-Culick flow. We then compute the nozzle damping coefficient via a balance of the unsteady energy flux through the nozzle. Compared with established methods, the proposed method offers competitive accuracy at reduced computational costs, helping to improve predictions of thermoacoustic instability in solid rocket motors.

  19. Thermo-Structural Response Caused by Structure Gap and Gap Design for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun


    Full Text Available The thermo-structural response of solid rocket motor nozzles is widely investigated in the design of modern rockets, and many factors related to the material properties have been considered. However, little work has been done to evaluate the effects of structure gaps on the generation of flame leaks. In this paper, a numerical simulation was performed by the finite element method to study the thermo-structural response of a typical nozzle with consideration of the structure gap. Initial boundary conditions for thermo-structural simulation were defined by a quasi-1D model, and then coupled simulations of different gap size matching modes were conducted. It was found that frictional interface treatment could efficiently reduce the stress level. Based on the defined flame leak criteria, gap size optimization was carried out, and the best gap matching mode was determined for designing the nozzle. Testing experiment indicated that the simulation results from the proposed method agreed well with the experimental results. It is believed that the simulation method is effective for investigating thermo-structural responses, as well as designing proper gaps for solid rocket motor nozzles.

  20. A Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff


    A capability to couple NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the installed coupling software to demonstrate/investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between pressure wave and flexible inhibitor inside reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). First a unified governing equation for both fluid and structure is presented, then an Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is described to satisfy the interfacial continuity requirements. The features of fluid solver, Loci/CHEM and structural solver, CoBi, are discussed before the coupling methodology of the solvers is described. The simulation uses production level CFD LES turbulence model with a grid resolution of 80 million cells. The flexible inhibitor is modeled with full 3D shell elements. Verifications against analytical solutions of structural model under steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic condition of modal analysis show excellent agreements in terms of displacement distribution and eigen modal frequencies. The preliminary coupled result shows that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor.

  1. Arc Jet Test and Analysis of Asbestos Free Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Dome Ablative Materials (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie


    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were recently tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Arc Jet Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for solid rocket motor analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Active instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, in-depth thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for in-situ surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved determination of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  2. O-ring sealing verification for the space shuttle redesign solid rocket motor (United States)

    Lach, Cynthia L.


    As a part of the redesign of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor, the field and nozzle-to-case joints were redesigned to minimize the dynamic flexure caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for the joints were designed to accommodate both structural deflections and to promote pressure assistance. A test program was conducted to determine if a fluorocarbon elastomeric O-ring could meet this criteria in the redesigned gland. Resiliency tests were used to investigate the O-ring response to gap motion while static seal tests were used to verify design criteria of pressure assistance for sealing. All tests were conducted in face seal fixtures mounted in servo-hydraulic test machines. The resiliency of the O-ring was found to be extremely sensitive to the effects of temperature. The External Tank/Solid Rocket Booster attach strut loads had a negligible affect on the ability of the O-ring to track the simulated SRB field joint deflection. In the static pressure-assisted seal tests, as long as physical contact was maintained between the O-ring and the gland sealing surface, pressure assistance induced instantaneous sealing.

  3. Numerical Evaluation of the Use of Aluminum Particles for Enhancing Solid Rocket Motor Combustion Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Greatrix


    Full Text Available The ability to predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms typically necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. On the mitigation side, one in practice sees the use of inert or reactive particles for the suppression of pressure wave development in the motor chamber flow. With the focus of the present study placed on reactive particles, a numerical internal ballistic model incorporating relevant elements, such as a transient, frequency-dependent combustion response to axial pressure wave activity above the burning propellant surface, is applied to the investigation of using aluminum particles within the central internal flow (particles whose surfaces nominally regress with time, as a function of current particle size, as they move downstream as a means of suppressing instability-related symptoms in a cylindrical-grain motor. The results of this investigation reveal that the loading percentage and starting size of the aluminum particles have a significant influence on reducing the resulting transient pressure wave magnitude.

  4. A robust ballistic design approach for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Eagar, M. A.; Jordan, F. W.; Stockham, L. W.


    A robust design approach has been developed for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that enhances the potential for program success. This is accomplished by application of state of the art ballistic modelling techniques coupled with an aggressive contingency planning methodology. Application of this approach addresses the design challenges associated with development of the ASRM because of it's large size, high length to diameter ratio, and demanding thrust-time trace shape requirements. Advanced ballistic modelling techniques applied include deformed grain modelling, spatial burn rate mapping, erosive burning response characterization, and ballistic/structural/CFD flow-grain interactions. Model fidelity is further improved by utilizing the extensive RSRM experience base for validation proposes. In addition to this modelling approach, development of contingency plans covers the remaining prediction uncertainties, and readily allows fine tuning of the propellant grain configuration to meet design objectives after the first motor firing. This approach promises to produce an optimum flight motor design that meets all performance objectives while accommodating program development uncertainties.

  5. Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design (United States)

    Ables, Brett


    Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile

  6. Advanced Multi-Phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis (United States)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.; Doran, Denise


    It is known that the simulations of solid rocket motor internal flow field with AL-based propellants require complex multi-phase turbulent flow model. The objective of this study is to develop an advanced particulate multi-phase flow model which includes the effects of particle dynamics, chemical reaction and hot gas flow turbulence. The inclusion of particle agglomeration, particle/gas reaction and mass transfer, particle collision, coalescence and breakup mechanisms in modeling the particle dynamics will allow the proposed model to realistically simulate the flowfield inside a solid rocket motor. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes numerical code FDNS is used to simulate the steady-state multi-phase particulate flow field for a 3-zone 2-D axisymmetric ASRM model and a 6-zone 3-D ASRM model at launch conditions. The 2-D model includes aft-end cavity and submerged nozzle. The 3-D model represents the whole ASRM geometry, including additional grain port area in the gas cavity and two inhibitors. FDNS is a pressure based finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver with time-accurate adaptive second-order upwind schemes, standard and extended k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections, multi zone body-fitted formulations, and turbulence particle interaction model. Eulerian/Lagrangian multi-phase solution method is applied for multi-zone mesh. To simulate the chemical reaction, penalty function corrected efficient finite-rate chemistry integration method is used in FDNS. For the AL particle combustion rate, the Hermsen correlation is employed. To simulate the turbulent dispersion of particles, the Gaussian probability distribution with standard deviation equal to (2k/3)(exp 1/2) is used for the random turbulent velocity components. The computational results reveal that the flow field near the juncture of aft-end cavity and the submerged nozzle is very complex. The effects of the turbulent particles affect the flow field significantly and provide better

  7. Development of Flow and Heat Transfer Models for the Carbon Fiber Rope in Nozzle Joints of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Ewing, M. E.; Mathias, E. C.; Heman, J.; Smith, C.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    Methodologies have been developed for modeling both gas dynamics and heat transfer inside the carbon fiber rope (CFR) for applications in the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motor joints. Specifically, the CFR is modeled using an equivalent rectangular duct with a cross-section area, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient such that this duct has the same amount of mass flow rate, pressure drop, and heat transfer rate as the CFR. An equation for the friction factor is derived based on the Darcy-Forschheimer law and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from pipe flow correlations. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas inside the CFR are calculated using the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Various subscale tests, both cold flow and hot flow, have been carried out to validate and refine this CFR model. In particular, the following three types of testing were used: (1) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle-to-case joint geometry, (2) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle joint No. 2 geometry, and (3) hot flow in a RSRM nozzle joint environment simulator. The predicted pressure and temperature history are compared with experimental measurements. The effects of various input parameters for the model are discussed in detail.

  8. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.


    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  9. Pressure oscillations and instability of working processes in the combustion chambers of solid rocket motors (United States)

    Emelyanov, V. N.; Teterina, I. V.; Volkov, K. N.; Garkushev, A. U.


    Metal particles are widely used in space engineering to increase specific impulse and to supress acoustic instability of intra-champber processes. A numerical analysis of the internal injection-driven turbulent gas-particle flows is performed to improve the current understanding and modeling capabilities of the complex flow characteristics in the combustion chambers of solid rocket motors (SRMs) in presence of forced pressure oscillations. The two-phase flow is simulated with a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and transport equations of k - ε model are solved numerically for the gas. The particulate phase is simulated through a Lagrangian deterministic and stochastic tracking models to provide particle trajectories and particle concentration. The results obtained highlight the crucial significance of the particle dispersion in turbulent flowfield and high potential of statistical methods. Strong coupling between acoustic oscillations, vortical motion, turbulent fluctuations and particle dynamics is observed.

  10. Transient state study of electric motor heating and phase change solid-liquid cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellettre, J.; Sartre, V.; Lallemand, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Villeurbanne, 69 (France); Biais, F. [AUXILEC, Chatou, 78 (France)


    This study reports on modelling of an autosynchronous electric motor stator, operating at transient state. The developed model, of the modal type, includes around 20 nodes. The simulations showed that hot spots are localized on the winding heads and led to the choice of a solid-liquid phase change cooling system. The comparison between simulation and experiment permitted the identification of unknown parameters. The model gives a good accuracy during steady-state and in the rising temperature phase. The modelling of the phase change cooling is realized by the addition of two nodes. The sensitivity analysis to PCM properties shows that the hot spot temperature decreases with increasing conductivities, inertia and latent heat of melting of the PCM and with decreasing melting temperature. Gallium (metal melting at 30{sup o}C) is the best PCM for the cooling of hot spots and P116 paraffin is the best non-metallic PCM. (author)

  11. Laser Shearography Inspection of TPS (Thermal Protection System) Cork on RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motors) (United States)

    Lingbloom, Mike; Plaia, Jim; Newman, John


    Laser Shearography is a viable inspection method for detection of de-bonds and voids within the external TPS (thermal protection system) on to the Space Shuttle RSRM (reusable solid rocket motors). Cork samples with thicknesses up to 1 inch were tested at the LTI (Laser Technology Incorporated) laboratory using vacuum-applied stress in a vacuum chamber. The testing proved that the technology could detect cork to steel un-bonds using vacuum stress techniques in the laboratory environment. The next logical step was to inspect the TPS on a RSRM. Although detailed post flight inspection has confirmed that ATK Thiokol's cork bonding technique provides a reliable cork to case bond, due to the Space Shuttle Columbia incident there is a great interest in verifying bond-lines on the external TPS. This interest provided and opportunity to inspect a RSRM motor with Laser Shearography. This paper will describe the laboratory testing and RSRM testing that has been performed to date. Descriptions of the test equipment setup and techniques for data collection and detailed results will be given. The data from the test show that Laser Shearography is an effective technology and readily adaptable to inspect a RSRM.

  12. An Analysis of the Orbital Distribution of Solid Rocket Motor Slag (United States)

    Horstman, Matthew F.; Mulrooney, Mark


    The contribution made by orbiting solid rocket motors (SRMs) to the orbital debris environment is both potentially significant and insufficiently studied. A combination of rocket motor design and the mechanisms of the combustion process can lead to the emission of sufficiently large and numerous by-products to warrant assessment of their contribution to the orbital debris environment. These particles are formed during SRM tail-off, or the termination of burn, by the rapid expansion, dissemination, and solidification of the molten Al2O3 slag pool accumulated during the main burn phase of SRMs utilizing immersion-type nozzles. Though the usage of SRMs is low compared to the usage of liquid fueled motors, the propensity of SRMs to generate particles in the 100 m and larger size regime has caused concern regarding their contributing to the debris environment. Particle sizes as large as 1 cm have been witnessed in ground tests conducted under vacuum conditions and comparable sizes have been estimated via ground-based telescopic and in-situ observations of sub-orbital SRM tail-off events. Using sub-orbital and post recovery observations, a simplistic number-size-velocity distribution of slag from on-orbit SRM firings was postulated. In this paper we have developed more elaborate distributions and emission scenarios and modeled the resultant orbital population and its time evolution by incorporating a historical database of SRM launches, propellant masses, and likely location and time of particulate deposition. From this analysis a more comprehensive understanding has been obtained of the role of SRM ejecta in the orbital debris environment, indicating that SRM slag is a significant component of the current and future population.

  13. Asbestos Free Insulation Development for the Space Shuttle Solid Propellant Rocket Motor (RSRM) (United States)

    Allred, Larry D.; Eddy, Norman F.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)


    Asbestos has been used for many years as an ablation inhibitor in insulating materials. It has been a constituent of the AS/NBR insulation used to protect the steel case of the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) since its inception. This paper discusses the development of a potential replacement RSRM insulation design, several of the numerous design issues that were worked and processing problems that were resolved. The earlier design demonstration on FSM-5 (Flight Support Motor) of the selected 7% and 11% Kevlar(registered) filled EPDM (KF/EPDM) candidate materials was expanded. Full-scale process simulation articles were built and FSM-8 was manufactured using multiple Asbestos Free (AF) components and materials. Two major problems had to be overcome in developing the AF design. First, bondline corrosion, which occurred in the double-cured region of the aft dome, had to be eliminated. Second, KF/EPDM creates high levels of electrostatic energy (ESE), which does not readily dissipate from the insulation surface. An uncontrolled electrostatic discharge (ESD) of this surface energy during many phases of production could create serious safety hazards. Numerous processing changes were implemented and a conductive paint was developed to prevent exposed external insulation surfaces from generating ESE/ESD. Additionally, special internal instrumentation was incorporated into FSM-8 to record real-time internal motor environment data. These data included inhibitor insulation erosion rates and internal thermal environments. The FSM-8 static test was successfully conducted in February 2000 and much valuable data were obtained to characterize the AF insulation design.

  14. Facile assembly of light-driven molecular motors onto a solid surface. (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Carroll, Gregory T; Feringa, Ben L


    In order to improve the rotary motion of surface assembled light-driven molecular motors, tetra-acid-functionalized motors were bound to an amine-coated quartz surface without prior activation of the acid groups. In contrast to earlier bipodal motors, the tetravalent motor showed no significant reduction in the rotation speed when attached to a surface.

  15. Treatment of Solid Rocket Motors that Complies with Established Protocols to Ensure Planetary Protection (United States)

    Stefanski, Philip L.; Soler-Luna, Adrian


    This presentation discusses recent work being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate various methods that could be employed to provide for planetary protection of those solar system bodies that are candidates for extraterrestrial life, thus preventing contamination of such bodies. MSFC is presently involved in the development phase of the Europa Lander De-Orbital Stage (DOS) braking motor. In order to prevent bio-contamination of this Jovian satellite, three paths are currently being considered. The first is (1) Bio-Reduction of those microscopic organisms in or on the vehicle (in this case a solid rocket motor (SRM)) that might otherwise be transported during the mission. Possible methods being investigated include heat sterilization, application or incorporation of biocide materials, and irradiation. While each method can be made to work, effects on the SRM's components (propellant, liner, insulation, etc.) could well prove deleterious. A second path would be use of (2) Bio-Barrier material(s). So long as such barrier(s) can maintain their integrity, planetary protection should be afforded. Under the harsh conditions encountered during extended spaceflight (vacuum, temperature extremes, radiation), however, such barrier(s) could well experience a breach. Finally, a third path would be to perform (3) Pyrotechnic Sterilization of the SRM during its end-of-mission phase. Multiple pyrotechnic units would be triggered to ensure activation of such an event and provide for a final sterilization before vehicle impact. In light of Europa's stringent bio-reduction targets, the final and best choice to minimize risk will probably be some combination of the above.

  16. Oxidation subscale of gamma-titanium aluminide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, R.; Verwerft, Marc; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Gronsky, R.


    The subscale formed during high temperature rapid oxidation of gamma-titanium aluminum is revealed by transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis to consist of two phases: one hexagonal with unit cell dimensions a = 0.58 nm, c = 0.47 nm (+/- 0.005 nm), and a composition close to Ti6Al3O4; the

  17. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education. (United States)

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  18. Combustion of single and agglomerated aluminum particles in solid rocket motor flows (United States)

    Melcher, John Charles, IV


    Single and agglomerated aluminum droplets were studied in a solid rocket motor (SRM) test chamber with optical access to the internal flow at 6--22 atm and 2300 K. The chamber was pressurized by burning a main grain AP/HTPB propellant, and the burning aluminum droplets were generated by a smaller aluminized solid propellant sample, center-mounted in the flow. A 35 mm camera was used with a chopper wheel to give droplet flame diameter vs. time measurements of the burning droplets in flight, from which bum-rate laws were developed. A high-speed video CCD was used with high-magnification optics in order to image the flame/smoke cloud surrounding the burning liquid droplets. The intensity profiles of the droplet images were de-convoluted using an Abel inversion to give true intensity profiles. Both single and agglomerated droplets were studied, where agglomerates are comprised of hundreds of parent particles or more. The Abel inversion results show that the relative smoke cloud size is not constant with diameter, but instead grows as the droplet shrinks, by ˜D -0.5, for both the single and agglomerated droplets. Measured diameter trajectories show that for single droplets, the diameter law is D 0.75 = DO0.75 = 8·t [mu m, msec], and for agglomerated droplets, D 1.0 = Do1.0 - 20·t, such that the single droplets burn faster than the agglomerates. For both single and agglomerated droplets, the burning rate slope k did not change significantly over the chamber pressure studied. Lastly, a model was developed to describe the oxide cap accumulation on the droplet surface from the oxide smoke cloud surrounding the droplet. Results suggest that less oxide accumulates in high-pressure SRMs when considering mass burning rates for different relative cap sizes. The thermophoretic force, which can control oxide transport only over the cap, decreases with pressure.

  19. Study of plasticizer diffusion in a solid rocket motor´s bondline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Libardi


    Full Text Available This work aims to determine the diffusion coefficient of the plasticizers dibutyl phthalate (DBP, dioctyl phthalate (DOP and dioctyl azelate (DOZ on the internal insulating layer of solid rocket motors. These plasticizers are originally present in the layers of rubber, liner and propellant, respectively. This species are not chemically bonded and tend to diffuse from propellant to insulating and vice versa. A computer program based on the mathematical model of Fick’s second Law of diffusion was developed to perform the calculus from the concentration data obtained by gas chromatographic (GC analyses. The samples were prepared with two different adhesive liners; one conventional (LHNA and the other with barrier properties (LHNT. A common feature of both liners was that they were synthesized by the reaction of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and diisocyanates. However, a bond promoter was used to increase the crosslink density of the LHNT liner and to improve its performance as barrier against the diffusion. The effects of the diffusion of the plasticizers were also investigated by hardness analyses, which were executed on samples aged at room temperature and at 80ºC. The results showed an increase trend for the samples aged at room temperature and an opposite behavior for the tests carried out at 80ºC.

  20. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.


    Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

  1. Wind Turbine Blade Design for Subscale Testing (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Kelley, Christopher L.; Maniaci, David C.


    Two different inverse design approaches are proposed for developing wind turbine blades for sub-scale wake testing. In the first approach, dimensionless circulation is matched for full scale and sub-scale wind turbine blades for equal shed vorticity in the wake. In the second approach, the normalized normal and tangential force distributions are matched for large scale and small scale wind turbine blades, as these forces determine the wake dynamics and stability. The two approaches are applied for the same target full scale turbine blade, and the shape of the blades are compared. The results show that the two approaches have been successfully implemented, and the designed blades are able to produce the target circulation and target normal and tangential force distributions.

  2. Numerical and experimental study of liquid breakup process in solid rocket motor nozzle (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Hsin

    Rocket propulsion is an important travel method for space exploration and national defense, rockets needs to be able to withstand wide range of operation environment and also stable and precise enough to carry sophisticated payload into orbit, those engineering requirement makes rocket becomes one of the state of the art industry. The rocket family have been classified into two major group of liquid and solid rocket based on the fuel phase of liquid or solid state. The solid rocket has the advantages of simple working mechanism, less maintenance and preparing procedure and higher storage safety, those characters of solid rocket make it becomes popular in aerospace industry. Aluminum based propellant is widely used in solid rocket motor (SRM) industry due to its avalibility, combusion performance and economical fuel option, however after aluminum react with oxidant of amonimum perchrate (AP), it will generate liquid phase alumina (Al2O3) as product in high temperature (2,700˜3,000 K) combustion chamber enviornment. The liquid phase alumina particles aggromorate inside combustion chamber into larger particle which becomes major erosion calprit on inner nozzle wall while alumina aggromorates impinge on the nozzle wall surface. The erosion mechanism result nozzle throat material removal, increase the performance optimized throat diameter and reduce nozzle exit to throat area ratio which leads to the reduction of exhaust gas velocity, Mach number and lower the propulsion thrust force. The approach to avoid particle erosion phenomenon taking place in SRM's nozzle is to reduce the alumina particle size inside combustion chamber which could be done by further breakup of the alumina droplet size in SRM's combustion chamber. The study of liquid breakup mechanism is an important means to smaller combustion chamber alumina droplet size and mitigate the erosion tack place on rocket nozzle region. In this study, a straight two phase air-water flow channel experiment is set up

  3. An Internal Thermal Environment Model of an Aluminized Solid Rocket Motor with Experimental Validation (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    Due to the severity of the internal solid rocket motor (SRM) environment, very few direct measurements of that environment exist; therefore, the appearance of such data provides a unique opportunity to assess current thermal/fluid modeling capabilities. As part of a previous study of SRM internal insulation performance, the internal thermal environment of a laboratory-scale SRM featuring aluminized propellant was characterized with two types of custom heat-flux calorimeters: one that measured the total heat flux to a graphite slab within the SRM chamber and another that measured the thermal radiation flux. Therefore, in the current study, a thermal/fluid model of this lab-scale SRM was constructed using ANSYS Fluent to predict not only the flow field structure within the SRM and the convective heat transfer to the interior walls, but also the resulting dispersion of alumina droplets and the radiative heat transfer to the interior walls. The dispersion of alumina droplets within the SRM chamber was determined by employing the Lagrangian discrete phase model that was fully coupled to the Eulerian gas-phase flow. The P1-approximation was engaged to model the radiative heat transfer through the SRM chamber where the radiative contributions of the gas phase were ignored and the aggregate radiative properties of the alumina dispersion were computed from the radiative properties of its individual constituent droplets, which were sourced from literature. The convective and radiative heat fluxes computed from the thermal/fluid model were then compared with those measured in the lab-scale SRM test firings and the modeling approach evaluated.

  4. An Automated Fluid-Structural Interaction Analysis of a Large Segmented Solid Rocket Motor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rex, Brian


    .... The fluid-structural interaction (FSI) analysis of the ETM-3 motor used PYTHON, a powerful programming language, and FEM BUILDER, a pre- and post processor developed by ATK Thiokol Propulsion under contract to the AFRL, to automatically...

  5. Results of subscale MTF compression experiments (United States)

    Howard, Stephen; Mossman, A.; Donaldson, M.; Fusion Team, General


    In magnetized target fusion (MTF) a magnetized plasma torus is compressed in a time shorter than its own energy confinement time, thereby heating to fusion conditions. Understanding plasma behavior and scaling laws is needed to advance toward a reactor-scale demonstration. General Fusion is conducting a sequence of subscale experiments of compact toroid (CT) plasmas being compressed by chemically driven implosion of an aluminum liner, providing data on several key questions. CT plasmas are formed by a coaxial Marshall gun, with magnetic fields supported by internal plasma currents and eddy currents in the wall. Configurations that have been compressed so far include decaying and sustained spheromaks and an ST that is formed into a pre-existing toroidal field. Diagnostics measure B, ne, visible and x-ray emission, Ti and Te. Before compression the CT has an energy of 10kJ magnetic, 1 kJ thermal, with Te of 100 - 200 eV, ne 5x1020 m-3. Plasma was stable during a compression factor R0/R >3 on best shots. A reactor scale demonstration would require 10x higher initial B and ne but similar Te. Liner improvements have minimized ripple, tearing and ejection of micro-debris. Plasma facing surfaces have included plasma-sprayed tungsten, bare Cu and Al, and gettering with Ti and Li.

  6. Advanced Flow Analysis Tools for Transient Solid Rocket Motor Simulations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of designing, developing, and fielding man-rated propulsion systems continue to increase as NASA's mission moves forward with evolving solid...

  7. A medical risk attitude subscale for DOSPERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Butler


    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT is a widely used instrument that measures perceived risk and benefit and attitude toward risk for activities in several domains, but does not include medical risks. Objective: To develop a medical risk domain subscale for DOSPERT. Methods: Sixteen candidate risk items were developed through expert discussion. We conducted cognitive telephone interviews, an online survey, and a random-digit dialing (RDD telephone survey to reduce and refine the scale, explore its factor structure, and obtain estimates of reliability. Participants: Eight patients recruited from UIC medical center waiting rooms participated in 45-60 minute cognitive interviews. Thirty Amazon Mechanical Turk workers completed the online survey. One hundred Chicago-area residents completed the RDD telephone survey. Results: On the basis of cognitive interviews, we eliminated five items due to poor variance or participant misunderstanding. The online survey suggested that two additional items were negatively correlated with the scale, and we considered them candidates for removal. Factor analysis of the responses in the RDD telephone survey and non-statistical factors led us to recommend a final set of 6 items to represent the medical risk domain. The final set of items included blood donation, kidney donation, daily medication use for allergies, knee replacement surgery, general anesthesia in dentistry, and clinical trial participation. The interitem reliability (Cronbach's alpha of the final set of 6 items ranged from 0.57-0.59 depending on the response task. Older respondents gave lower overall ratings of expected benefit from the activities. Conclusion: We refined a set of items to measure risk and benefit perceptions for medical activities. Our next step will be to add these items to the complete DOSPERT scale, confirm the scale's psychometric properties, determine whether medical risks constitute a psychologically

  8. State/orbit estimation from real Doppler data for solid apogee motor burning phase of geostationary satellite (United States)

    Ono, S.

    Methods for the state/orbit sequential estimation from real Doppler data for the solid ABM burning phase are presented. The estimations were performed for Engineering Test Satellite 2, and for 2 satellites which both failed during this ABM phase. The state estimations were performed by deterministic and stochastic methods using real Doppler data intermittently acquired at the neighboring tracking stations. The deterministic method conquers this intermittence and estimates well the motor acceleration, but the attitude change is strongly influenced by the neighboring geometry. The stochastic Kalman sequential filter, constructed with spin dynamics considerations, conquers the intermittence and the neighboring geometry and excellently estimates the acceleration and the attitude drift due to an unbalance with reasonably converging variances. The estimated state/orbit at ABM burn out agrees well with the drift orbit and the attitude independently determined by the batch method.

  9. Development of a Low-Cost, Subscale Test System to Evaluate Particle Impingement Erosion in Nozzle Ablative Materials (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gordon, Gail H. (Technical Monitor)


    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview on the development of a low-cost, subscale test system to evaluate particle impingement erosion in nozzle ablative materials. Details are given on the need for a new test bed, solid fuel torch components, solid fuel torch test, additional uses for the solid fuel torch, the development of a supersonic blast tube (SSBT), and particle impingement material discrimination.

  10. Quantification, by solid-phase minisequencing, of the telomeric and centromeric copies of the survival motor neuron gene in families with spinal muscular atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, M; Sørensen, N; Hansen, F J


    In an analysis of 30 families affected by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) we have used the solid-phase minisequencing method to determine the ratio between the number of telomeric and centromeric copies of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN and cBCD541 respectively) on normal and SMA chromosomes...

  11. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan


    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  12. Hydromining a full-scale class 1.1 solid rocket motor (United States)

    Young, M. F.; Chleborad, O. W.; Cova, P. J.; Eccli, D. B.; Glad, T. J.; Kunkle, D. M.


    A class 1.1 full-scale Stage 2 Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (SICBM) was successfully deloaded using high pressure water jets at approximately 689 N (10,000 psia). The SICBM Stage 2 rocket motor contains approximately 2948 kg (6500 lb) of Class 1.1 propellant (nitrato ester polyester based propellant). A vertical hydromining facility was constructed to simulate a production operational mode in which the system water was continuously recycled to the high pressure water jet nozzles. A series of four in-line carbon absorption filter pairs were used to reduce nitrato ester concentrations to acceptable safety levels (e.g., less than 1 ppm of nitroglycerin). This paper will summarize the operating conditions used and the results of the successful study.

  13. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Pressure and Heat Rate Measurements (United States)

    vonEckroth, Wulf; Struchen, Leah; Trovillion, Tom; Perez, Ravael; Nereolich, Shaun; Parlier, Chris


    The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Main Flame Deflector (MFD) at Launch Complex 39A was instrumented with sensors to measure heat rates, pressures, and temperatures on the last three Space Shuttle launches. Because the SRB plume is hot and erosive, a robust Tungsten Piston Calorimeter was developed to compliment the measurements made by off-the-shelf sensors. Witness materials were installed and their melting and erosion response to the Mach 2 / 4500 F / 4-second duration plume was observed. The data show that the specification document used for the design of the MFD thermal protection system over-predicted heat rates by a factor of 3 and under-predicted pressures by a factor of 2. These findings will be used to baseline NASA Computational Fluid Dynamics models and develop innovative MFD designs for the Space Launch System (SLS) before this vehicle becomes operational in 2017.

  14. Acoustic-mean flow interaction in solid rocket motors using Navier-Stokes equations (United States)

    Vuillot, F.; Avalon, G.


    The presented numerical solution of laminar, two-dimensional, compressible and unsteady Navier-Stokes equations is aimed at a complete description of acoustic boundary layers that develop above a burning propellant. Such acoustic boundary layers are responsible for the so-called flow turning losses and also govern the local unsteady flow conditions that are seen by the burning propellant and to which it finally responds. In those respects, a complete understanding of such acoustic boundary layers is essential to improve existing solid rocket stability prediction codes. The full numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations permits to naturally incorporate into the analysis all the features of two-dimensional rocket chamber mean flow field. After a standing wave pattern is established through forcing at a given frequency, a special Fourier treatment is used to put the numerical results in a form directly comparable to available linear acoustic data. The presented results indicate that the acoustic boundary layer is substantially thinner than predicted by simplified models. Moreover, its acoustic admittance is found to significantly vary along the chamber, a result that is of major importance to stability predictions. Finally, the acoustic field is found to be rotational over a significant volume of the chamber, leading to a volume flow turning loss, rather than to a pure surface effect as usually assumed.

  15. Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...

  16. Functional autonomy measurement system: development of a social subscale. (United States)

    Pinsonnault, E; Desrosiers, J; Dubuc, N; Kalfat, H; Colvez, A; Delli-Colli, N


    The purpose of this study was to develop a subscale assessing social functioning for the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF). The development of this new dimension was based on consultations (focus groups and nominal groups) of experts from different health care disciplines in Quebec, Canada, and France. Two interrater reliability studies were carried out with older people presenting a loss of functional autonomy and living either in an institution or at home. With the focus groups, the experts clarified the definition of social functioning and identified the factors involved. The nominal groups were used to construct a subscale composed of six items. The results of the first interrater reliability study showed a mean agreement percentage of 60% for the subscale and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.70 (CI: 0.57-0.80). The results of the second interrater reliability study showed higher coefficients with an agreement percentage of 74% for the subscale and an ICC of 0.83 (CI: 0.61-0.93). These preliminary results demonstrate that the new social functioning subscale has good reliability, but more studies are needed to show its validity. The new SMAF, including the social functioning subscale, should help clinicians and researchers to obtain a comprehensive profile of functional autonomy. It could also contribute to the improvement of health care for older people.

  17. The sky is falling III: The effect of deposition from static solid rocket motor tests on juvenile crops. (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Curry, Eric; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin


    A mixture of combustion products (mainly hydrogen chloride, aluminum oxide, and water) and entrained soil, referred to as Test Fire Soil (TFS), can be deposited on crops during static solid rocket motor tests. The impact of a reported worst-case event was previously evaluated by exposing corn and alfalfa to 3200-gTFS/m(2) at 54days after emergence. Exposures via soil and leaves were evaluated separately. Reduced growth (soil exposure) and leaf "scorch" (leaf exposure) were attributed mainly to the high chloride concentrations in the TFS (56,000mg/kg). A follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a typical deposition event (70-gTFS/m(2), estimated by radar during several tests) and exposure (soil and leaves simultaneously) on juvenile corn, alfalfa, and winter wheat. Younger crops were used to examine potential age sensitivity differences. Impact was evaluated by comparing the growth, elemental composition, and leaf chlorophyll content of treated and untreated plants. The relationship between deposition exposure and response was also addressed. Growth of corn, alfalfa, and winter wheat exposed to a typical TFS loading was not impacted, although slightly elevated concentrations of aluminum and iron were found in the leaves. At the highest loadings used for the exposure-response experiment, concentrations of chloride and calcium were higher in TFS-exposed corn leaves than in the untreated leaves. Overall results indicate that exposure to a typical deposition event does not adversely impact juvenile crops and that younger plants may be less vulnerable to TFS. However, higher TFS loadings can cause leaf scorch and increase the leaf concentrations of some elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale differentially relate to the Big Five factors of personality. (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Wagner, Adina; Müller, Astrid; Eggert, Frank


    The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113). Selective positive correlations emerged between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion and between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism. This pattern of results was replicated in Study 2 (N = 132) using a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory. In Study 3, we analyzed BIS and NEO-FFI data obtained from a sample of patients with pathological buying (N = 68). In these patients, the relationship between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion was significantly weakened when compared to the non-clinical samples. At the same time, the relationship between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism was substantially stronger in the clinical sample. Our studies highlight the utility of the BIS subscales for clarifying the relationship between impulsiveness and the Big Five personality factors. We conclude that impulsiveness might occupy multiple places in multidimensional personality frameworks, which need to be specified to improve the interpretability of impulsiveness scales. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott


    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  20. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ. (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.


    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  1. Subscale Test Program for the Orion Conical Ribbon Drogue Parachute (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Stuart, Phil; Machin, Ricardo; Bourland, Gary; Schwing, Allen; Longmire, Ellen; Henning, Elsa; Sinclair, Rob


    A subscale wind tunnel test program for Orion's conical ribbon drogue parachute is under development. The desired goals of the program are to quantify aerodynamic performance of the parachute in the wake of the entry vehicle, including understanding of the coupling of the parachute and command module dynamics, and an improved understanding of the load distribution within the textile elements of the parachute. The test program is ten percent of full scale conducted in a 3x2.1 m (10x7 ft) closed loop subsonic wind tunnel. The subscale test program is uniquely suited to probing the aerodynamic and structural environment in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Non-intrusive diagnostics, including Particle Image Velocimetry for wake velocity surveys, high speed pressure transducers for canopy pressure distribution, and a high speed photogrammetric reconstruction, will be used to quantify the parachute's performance.

  2. Subscale Acoustic Testing: Comparison of ALAT and ASMAT (United States)

    Houston, Janice D.; Counter, Douglas


    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option. This paper compares the acoustic measurements of two different subscale tests: the 2% Ares Liftoff Acoustic Test conducted at Stennis Space Center and the 5% Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow (United States)

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James


    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  4. Simulation of reactive polydisperse sprays strongly coupled to unsteady flows in solid rocket motors: Efficient strategy using Eulerian Multi-Fluid methods (United States)

    Sibra, A.; Dupays, J.; Murrone, A.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.


    In this paper, we tackle the issue of the accurate simulation of evaporating and reactive polydisperse sprays strongly coupled to unsteady gaseous flows. In solid propulsion, aluminum particles are included in the propellant to improve the global performances but the distributed combustion of these droplets in the chamber is suspected to be a driving mechanism of hydrodynamic and acoustic instabilities. The faithful prediction of two-phase interactions is a determining step for future solid rocket motor optimization. When looking at saving computational ressources as required for industrial applications, performing reliable simulations of two-phase flow instabilities appears as a challenge for both modeling and scientific computing. The size polydispersity, which conditions the droplet dynamics, is a key parameter that has to be accounted for. For moderately dense sprays, a kinetic approach based on a statistical point of view is particularly appropriate. The spray is described by a number density function and its evolution follows a Williams-Boltzmann transport equation. To solve it, we use Eulerian Multi-Fluid methods, based on a continuous discretization of the size phase space into sections, which offer an accurate treatment of the polydispersion. The objective of this paper is threefold: first to derive a new Two Size Moment Multi-Fluid model that is able to tackle evaporating polydisperse sprays at low cost while accurately describing the main driving mechanisms, second to develop a dedicated evaporation scheme to treat simultaneously mass, moment and energy exchanges with the gas and between the sections. Finally, to design a time splitting operator strategy respecting both reactive two-phase flow physics and cost/accuracy ratio required for industrial computations. Using a research code, we provide 0D validations of the new scheme before assessing the splitting technique's ability on a reference two-phase flow acoustic case. Implemented in the industrial

  5. Description and Operation of the A3 Subscale Facility (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.; Varner, D. G.; Grover, J. B.


    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the general design and operation of the A3 Subscale test facility. The goal is to provide the reader with a general understanding of what the major facility systems are, where they are located, and how they are used to meet the objectives supporting the design of the A3 altitude rocket test facility. This paper also provides the reader with the background information prior to reading the subsequent papers detailing the design and test results of the various systems described herein.

  6. The Mechanical Performance of Subscale Candidate Elastomer Docking Seals (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for future exploration missions. The mechanism is a new state-of-the-art device for in-space assembly of structures and rendezvous of vehicles. At the interface between two pressurized modules, each with a version of the LIDS attached, a composite elastomer-metal seal assembly prevents the breathable air from escaping into the vacuum of space. Attached to the active LIDS, this seal mates against the passive LIDS during docking operation. The main interface seal assembly must exhibit low leak and outgas values, must be able to withstand various harsh space environments, must remain operational over a range of temperatures from -50 C to 75 C, and perform after numerous docking cycles. This paper presents results from a comprehensive study of the mechanical performance of four candidate subscale seal assembly designs at -50, 23, 50, and 75 C test temperatures. In particular, the force required to fully compress the seal during docking, and that which is required for separation during the undocking operation were measured. The height of subscale main interface seal bulbs, as well as the test temperature, were shown to have a significant effect on the forces the main interface seal of the LIDS may experience during docking and undocking operations. The average force values required to fully compress each of the seal assemblies were shown to increase with test temperature by approximately 50% from -50 to 75 C. Also, the required compression forces were shown to increase as the height of the seal bulb was increased. The seal design with the tallest elastomer seal bulb, which was 31% taller than that with the shortest bulb, required force values approximately 45% higher than those for the shortest bulb, independent of the test temperature. The force required to separate the seal was shown to increase with decreasing temperature after 15 hours of simulated docking. No adhesion

  7. Simulation of a GOX-kerosene subscale rocket combustion chamber (United States)

    Höglauer, Christoph; Kniesner, Björn; Knab, Oliver; Kirchberger, Christoph; Schlieben, Gregor; Kau, Hans-Peter


    In view of future film cooling tests at the Institute for Flight Propulsion (LFA) at Technische Universität München, the Astrium in-house spray combustion CFD tool Rocflam-II was validated against first test data gained from this rocket test bench without film cooling. The subscale rocket combustion chamber uses GOX and kerosene as propellants which are injected through a single double swirl element. Especially the modeling of the double swirl element and the measured wall roughness were adapted on the LFA hardware. Additionally, new liquid kerosene fluid properties were implemented and verified in Rocflam-II. Also the influences of soot deposition and hot gas radiation on the wall heat flux were analytically and numerically estimated. In context of reviewing the implemented evaporation model in Rocflam-II, the binary diffusion coefficient and its pressure dependency were analyzed. Finally simulations have been performed for different load points with Rocflam-II showing a good agreement compared to test data.

  8. Solid Propellant Subscale Burning Rate Analysis Methods for US and Selected NATO Facilities (United States)


    TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory February 2000. 9’ Morandi C., "Applicazione del Metodo HG alla Riduzione Dati Balistici di Motori Reali," M.Sc. Thesis in...reference for the standards laboratories used by the contractors. At each level of the hierarchy, there are formal calibration procedures. These procedures

  9. Subscale Testing of Nozzle Ablative Materials in a Supersonic Particle Impingement Environment (United States)

    Howse, S.; Lawrence, T.


    Recent efforts to evaluate materials to replace the current NARC rayon used in the nozzle ablative of the NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (SRM), several tests were developed to look at the performance of supersonic particle impact region of the aft exit cone. It was seen in early testing that some potential candidates did not perform as well as the current NARC based material and so the 24 inch Solid Rocket Motor (SRTM) exit cone design was extended and contoured to induce particle impingement in the aft end. The SRTM testing provided a larger testbed to evaluate the results seen in the Solid Fuel Supersonic Blast Tube. Testing was performed in each test bed on two variants of the final two candidate materials. The materials were a standard prewoven Lyocell, a postwoven Lyocell, an Enka rayon, and Enka rayon processed at a higher carbonization temperature. This paper presents the results of the four materials in the SSBT and the SRTM tests as compared against the NARC baseline. Erosion, char, and plylift results are discussed in detail.

  10. SPE5 Sub-Scale Test Series Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, Kevin S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reeves, Robert V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeHaven, Martin R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strickland, Shawn L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A series of 2 SPE5 sub-scale tests were performed to experimentally confirm that a booster system designed and evaluated in prior tests would properly initiate the PBXN-110 case charge fill. To conduct the experiments, a canister was designed to contain the nominally 50 mm diameter booster tube with an outer fill of approximately 150 mm diameter by 150 mm in length. The canisters were filled with PBXN-110 at NAWS-China Lake and shipped back to LLNL for testing in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Piezoelectric crystal pins were placed on the outside of the booster tube before filling, and a series of piezoelectric crystal pins along with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes were placed on the outer surface of the canister to measure the relative timing and magnitude of the detonation. The 2 piezoelectric crystal pins integral to the booster design were also utilized along with a series of either piezoelectric crystal pins or piezoelectric polymer pads on the top of the canister or outside case that utilized direct contact, gaps, or different thicknesses of RTV cushions to obtain time of arrival data to evaluate the response in preparation for the large-scale SPE5 test. To further quantify the margin of the booster operation, the 1st test (SPE5SS1) was functioned with both detonators and the 2nd test (SPE5SS2) was functioned with only 1 detonator. A full detonation of the material was observed in both experiments as observed by the pin timing and PDV signals. The piezoelectric pads were found to provide a greater measured signal magnitude during the testing with an RTV layer present, and the improved response is due to the larger measurement surface area of the pad. This report will detail the experiment design, canister assembly for filling, final assembly, experiment firing, presentation of the diagnostic results, and a discussion of the results.

  11. Applying posttraumatic stress disorder MMPI subscale to World War II POW veterans. (United States)

    Query, W T; Megran, J; McDonald, G


    In order to determine whether the MMPI-PTSD subscale has application for assessing DSM-III diagnosed PTSD among populations other than Vietnam veterans, a group of WWII POWs (N = 69) were given the subscale. Results indicated that the use of the PTSD subscale can be generalized to older veterans; in a small sample of Pacific POWs, PTSD is more common among those from the Pacific theater than those from Europe. However, the subscale fails to distinguish between Pacific and European POW veterans. Difficulties in sampling and confounding stressors are discussed, as well as implications for treatment of WWII veterans.

  12. Increasing the Precision of Subscale Scores by Using Out-of-Scale Information (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Kamata, Akihito


    In this study, the precision of subscale score estimates was evaluated when out-of-scale information was incorporated. Procedures that incorporated out-of-scale information and only information within a subscale were compared through a series of simulations. It was revealed that more information (i.e., more precision) was always provided for…

  13. Seal testing of large diameter rocket motors (United States)

    Moore, N. B.; Hellums, John W.; Bechtel, Thomas; Kittredge, Ken; Crossfield, Craig


    This investigative program examines leakage testing of elastomeric O-ring seals for a solid rocket casing and provides direction towards an improved nondestructive postassembly test. It also details test equipment for the Space Shuttle systems solid rocket boosters (SRB). The results are useful to designers of hardware for pressure containment vessels which use O-ring seals. Using several subscale seal and groove configuration test fixtures equipped with either two or three O-ring seals in series, seal integrity is investigated with both a pressure decay and flowmeter methods. Both types of test equipment adequately detect the practical range of expected seal leak rates of 1 to 0.0001 sccs. The flowmeter leak test equipment appears to reduce testing time substantially. Limited seal leakage testing is performed on full-sized rocket motor segment seals, a pre-Challenger short stack, providing comparison of bore seals to test specimen bore and face seals. The conclusions are that seal reliability, verified via a performance pressure test, can be affected by temperature, quantity of grease, test pressure, and seal pressure load direction. Potential seal failure scenarios including contamination, seal damage, and sealing surface damage are discussed. Recommendations are made for an improved test procedure.

  14. EUCC SRB Nozzle erosion motor test (United States)


    The roman candle effect as seen in this picture represents the testing of a solid rocket booster (SRB) for unexplained corrosion conditions (EUCC) which have occurred on the nozzles of redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRM). The motor being tested in this photo is a 48 M-NASA motor.

  15. Solid Rocket Motor Insulation Testing (United States)


    ablation test, analysis): $2K • Rapid testing of 5-6 samples per day (or more) •Nozzle materials can also be tested Propellant Test Insulation...Igniter Backing Nozzle Distribution A: Public Release. Distribution Unlimited 4 Distribution A: Public Release. Distribution unlimited Nanofilled EPDM as...Improved Ablative Potential Pathway to Increase Performance M i c r o f i b e r s SOTA EPDM Rubber NANO EPDM Rubber ... . .. .burn carbon char

  16. "Moved by the spirit": does spirituality moderate the interrelationships between subjective well-being subscales? (United States)

    Schuurmans-Stekhoven, James


    Despite the recent escalation of research into the spirituality and well-being link, past efforts have been plagued by methodological problems. However, the potential for measurement error within psychometric instruments remains largely unexplored. After reviewing theory and evidence suggesting spirituality might represent an affective misattribution, moderation modeling-with each subjective well-being (SWB) subscale as a dependent variable as predicted by the remaining SWB subscales-is utilized to test the assumption of scale invariance. These interrelationships were shown to vary in conjunction with spirituality; that is the analysis revealed significant spirituality x subscale interactions. Importantly, in all models the spirituality main effect was either nonsignificant or accounted for by other predictors. In combination, the findings suggest the interrelationship between the subscales rather than the level of SWB varies systematically with spirituality and casts considerable doubt on the previously reported "belief-as-benefit" effect.

  17. The Correlation of SCL-90-R Anxiety, Depression, Somatization Subscale Scores with Chronic Low Back Pain. (United States)

    Adilay, Utku; Guclu, Bulent; Goksel, Murat; Keskil, Semih


    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores with chronic low back pain. In this study, 75 patients admitted with the complaint of chronic low back pain (patient group) and 75 healthy persons (control group) were evaluated. SCL-90-R anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons were measured. The mean values were paired and using two tailed t test they were statistically evaluated. The difference between SCL-90-R anxiety subscale subscores of patients having choronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05).The difference betweenSCL-90-R depression subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05). The difference between SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically significant (p 0.05). Our data show that SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores were higher in patients with low back pain. The treatment of low back pain can be more successful when combined with the treatment of somatization.

  18. The Subjective Index for Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO in Stroke: investigation of its subscale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steve


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and valid measures of the impact of a stroke on integration are required in health and social settings. The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO is one such measure. However, there are questions whether scores can be summed into a total score or whether subscale scores should be calculated. This paper aims to provide clarity on the internal construct validity of the subscales and the total scale. Methods SIPSO data were collected as part of two parallel surveys of the met and unmet needs of 445 younger people (aged 18-65 with non-recent stroke (at least one year and living at home. Factor, Mokken and Rasch analysis were used. Results Factor analysis supported a two factor structure (explaining 68% of the variance as did the Mokken analysis (overall Loevinger coefficient 0.77 for the Physical Integration subscale; 0.51 for the Social Integration subscale. Both subscales fitted the Rasch model (P > 0.01 after adjusting for some observed differential item functioning. The 10-items together did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions The SIPSO subscales are valid for use with stroke patients of working age but the total SIPSO is not. The conversion table can be used by clinicians and researchers to convert ordinal data to interval level prior to mathematical operations and other parametric procedures. Further work is required to explore the occurrence of bias by gender for some of the items.

  19. A summary of laboratory testing performed to characterize and select an elastomeric O-ring material to be used in the redesigned solid rocket motors of the space transportation system (United States)

    Turner, J. E.


    An elastomeric O-ring material is used in the joints of the redesigned solid motors (RSRM's) of the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). The selection of the O-ring material used in the RSRM's was a very thorough process that included efforts by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Langley Research Center, and the Thiokol Corporation. One of the efforts performed at MSFC was an extensive in-house laboratory test regime to screen potential O-ring materials and ultimately to characterize the elastomeric material that was chosen to be used in the RSRM's. The laboratory tests performed at MSFC are summarized.

  20. Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry


    The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

  1. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn


    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...

  2. Subscales of the vestibular activities and participation questionnaire could be applied across cultures. (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alshebber, Kefah; Strobl, Ralf; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-momani, Murad O; Furman, Joseph M; Grill, Eva


    The objective of this study was to assess the objectivity, cross-cultural validity, and convergent validity of the Vestibular Activities and Participation (VAP) questionnaire among four countries, Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in four specialized outpatient dizziness clinics in Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. A total of 453 participants were included in the study. The Rasch analysis revealed two separate subscales. Subscale 1 items included focusing attention, lying down, standing, bending, lifting and carrying objects, and sports. Subscale 2 items included walking long distances, climbing, running, moving around within buildings other than home, using transportation, and driving. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the summary score of the VAP subscale 1 was 0.66 and was 0.64 for subscale 2. Owing to its shortness and intercultural adaptability, the new two-scale version of the VAP questionnaire lends itself to clinical practice and research across countries to estimate the effect of vertigo and dizziness on activity limitation and participation restrictions. Psychometrically sound summary scores can be calculated. More extended versions of the VAP can be used for comprehensive clinical assessment where summary scores are not needed or a more detailed documentation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls? (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan


    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  4. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya


    This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia.

  5. The patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis subscale of the KOOS (KOOS-PF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crossley, Kay M; Macri, Erin M; Cowan, Sallie M


    for patellofemoral pain have methodological limitations. This study aimed to develop a new subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis (KOOS-PF), and evaluate its measurement properties. METHODS: Items were generated using input from 50 patients...... and interpretability of the final version of KOOS-PF and other KOOS subscales. RESULTS: From an initial 80 generated items, the final subscale included 11 items. KOOS-PF items loaded predominantly on one factor, pain during activities that load the patellofemoral joint. KOOS-PF had good internal consistency (Cronbach......'s α 0.86) and adequate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). Hypothesis testing supported convergent, divergent and known-groups validity. Responsiveness was confirmed, with KOOS-PF demonstrating a moderate correlation with Global Rating of Change scores (r 0.52) and large...

  6. Validation of the 4DSQ somatization subscale in the occupational health care setting as a screener. (United States)

    de Vroege, Lars; Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Hoedeman, Rob; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M


    Somatoform disorders (physical symptoms without medical explanation that cause dysfunction) are prevalent in the occupational health (OH) care setting and are associated with functional impairment and absenteeism. Availability of psychometric instruments aimed at assessing somatoform disorders is limited. In the OH setting, so far only the Patient-Health-Questionnaire 15 has been validated as screener for somatoform disorder, and has been shown to have moderate validity. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is frequently used in the OH setting but the Somatization subscale is not validated yet. The aim of this study is to validate the 4DSQ Somatization subscale as screener for DSM-IV somatoform disorder in the OH setting by using the MINI interview as gold standard. Employees absent from work due to physical symptoms, for a period longer than 6 weeks and shorter than 2 years, were asked to participate in this study. They filled out the 4DSQ and underwent a MINI interview by telephone for DSM-IV classification. Specificity and sensitivity scores were calculated for all possible cut-off scores and a receiver operator curve was computed for the Somatization subscale. 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for sensitivity and specificity. The Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ has an optimal cut point of 9, with specificity and sensitivity equal to 64.3 % [95 % CI (53.6; 73.7 %)] and 60.9 % [95 % CI (40.8; 77.8 %)], respectively. Receiver operator curves showed an area under the curve equal to 0.61 [SE = 0.07; 95 % CI (0.48; 0.75)] for the Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ. The 4DSQ Somatization subscale is a questionnaire of moderate sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels


    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  8. Analysis of the Subscales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. (United States)

    Gellen, Murray I.; Hoffman, Roy A.


    Factor analyzed the item responses comprising each of the five external dimensions and the three internal dimensions of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The results indicated that seven of the eight subscales are essentially single-factor scales. Implications for counseling are discussed. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of the Construction of the Subscales for the Piers-Harris and Tennessee Inventories. (United States)

    Thomas, Julia Anne

    A sample of 234 fifth- and 259 sixth-grade students scaled the items of the Piers-Harris, Tennessee, Coopersmith, and Lipsett self-concept measures. The scaling of the Piers-Harris and the Tennessee inventories was examined in reference to their subscales. The present technique placed items on a bivariate plane of two orthogonal dimensions…

  10. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-antiangiogenesis subscale. (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David


    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.92). Test-retest reliability was also good (0.72-0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy–antiangiogenesis subscale (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David


    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)–Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70–0.92). Test–retest reliability was also good (0.72–0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:25619758

  12. Executive functions as predictors of visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability. (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman


    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between visual-motor integration and executive functions, and in particular, the extent to which executive functions can predict visual-motor integration skills in children with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 90 children (54 boys, 36 girls; M age = 11.3 yr., SD = 2.7, range 7-15) with intellectual disabilities of various etiologies. The measure of executive functions were 8 subscales of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) consisting of Inhibition, Shifting, Emotional Control, Initiating, Working memory, Planning, Organization of material, and Monitoring. Visual-motor integration was measured with the Acadia test of visual-motor integration (VMI). Regression analysis revealed that BRIEF subscales explained 38% of the variance in VMI scores. Of all the BRIEF subscales, only two were statistically significant predictors of visual-motor integration: Working memory and Monitoring. Possible implications of this finding are further elaborated.

  13. Recent advances in the prediction of SRM thrust oscillations; Progres recents dans la prevision des oscillations de poussee des moteurs a propergol solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillot, F. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France); Le Breton, P. [SNPE, 33 - Saint Medard en Jalles (France); Guery, J.F. [SNPE, Centre de Recherche du Bouchet, 91 - Vert le Petit (France); Prevost, M. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 31 - Mauzac (France)


    A sub-scale experimental and numerical program has been carried out in order to improve the knowledge of vortex shedding driven pressure oscillations phenomena in segmented solid rocket motors. Full Navier-Stokes simulations have provided pressure amplitudes in the same range than the experimental ones, for different configurations of non-metallized propellant sub-scale motors having metallic restrictors or no restrictor on the last segment forward face. An original scenario has been proposed which rely mostly on surface vortex shedding originating on the burning surface of the propellant. This phenomenon is particularly present in the no-restrictor configuration but also in some configurations with metallic restrictors whose shape (bent versus non bent) has been identified as an influent parameter. First numerical computations of all the firing of a motor, done with SNPE MOPTI suite, shows instabilities zones very close to experimental ones. A new scenario proposed by ONERA relying on aluminum distributed combustion in surface vortex-shedding area is proposed to explain the levels of pressure oscillation obtained at full scale. (authors)

  14. Motor Music


    Richards, John


    Motor Music II (2014) for small group and motors What happens when an AC or DC motor is plugged raw into a mixing desk or connected directly to a speaker? Motor Music II explores ‘low level’ instrument design and a reductionist approach. The piece also sets up a proposition concerning electronic music: ‘How can it be done simpler?’ The motor as ‘instrument’ encourages an objection-orientated approach to sound and music making: the motor itself has inherent musical qualities and po...

  15. Thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling of space-based orbit transfer vehicle cryogenic propellant resupply (United States)

    Defelice, David M.; Aydelott, John C.


    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for spacebased orbit transfer vehicles. As part of the NASA Lewis ongoing efforts in microgravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques were developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. Analytical results have shown that subscale experimental modeling of liquid resupply can be used to validate analytical models when the appropriate target temperature is selected to relate the model to its prototype system. Further analyses were used to develop a thermodynamic model of the tank chilldown process which is required prior to the no-vent fill operation. These efforts were incorporated into two FORTRAN programs which were used to present preliminary analyticl results.

  16. Exploring measurement invariance by gender in the profile of mood states depression subscale among cancer survivors. (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Smith, Tenbroeck


    The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) is a well-validated tool commonly used in medical/clinical research. Less attention has been paid to the measurement invariance of the POMS-the degree to which the structure and items behave similarly for different groups (e.g., women and men). This study investigated the measurement invariance of the POMS Depression subscale across gender groups in a sample of cancer survivors. The POMS Depression subscale has 8 items (Unhappy, Sad, Blue, Hopeless, Discouraged, Miserable, Helpless, and Worthless). Invariance was measured using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. This study used data from American Cancer Society Studies of Cancer Survivors-II, a population-based survey of adult cancer survivors (n = 9170). We found factor structures and factor loadings were invariant for gender groups, but moderate differential item functioning (DIF) in the question containing the word blue. With regard to cancer survivors' gender, we found the Depression subscale of the POMS-SF had configural invariance, and partial metric and scalar invariance. This suggests that results should be interpreted with caution, especially when gender is considered important. More broadly, our finding suggests that questions with the word blue may introduce DIF into other measures of depressive mood. More research is needed to replicate these findings in other samples and with other instruments.

  17. Childhood depression subscales using repeated sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale - revised (CDRS-R) scores. (United States)

    Isa, Ameena; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham


    Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65-0.91). As a result, the clinicians' assessments of the various symptoms became

  18. Relating Unidimensional IRT Parameters to a Multidimensional Response Space: A Review of Two Alternative Projection IRT Models for Scoring Subscales (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Thompson, Tony


    A practical concern for many existing tests is that subscore test lengths are too short to provide reliable and meaningful measurement. A possible method of improving the subscale reliability and validity would be to make use of collateral information provided by items from other subscales of the same test. To this end, the purpose of this article…

  19. Item-level and subscale-level factoring of Biggs' Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) in a mainland Chinese sample. (United States)

    Sachs, J; Gao, L


    The learning process questionnaire (LPQ) has been the source of intensive cross-cultural study. However, an item-level factor analysis of all the LPQ items simultaneously has never been reported. Rather, items within each subscale have been factor analysed to establish subscale unidimensionality and justify the use of composite subscale scores. It was of major interest to see if the six logically constructed items groups of the LPQ would be supported by empirical evidence. Additionally, it was of interest to compare the consistency of the reliability and correlational structure of the LPQ subscales in our study with those of previous cross-cultural studies. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the six-factor item level model and to fit five representative subscale level factor models. A total of 1070 students between the ages of 15 to 18 years was drawn from a representative selection of 29 classes from within 15 secondary schools in Guangzhou, China. Males and females were almost equally represented. The six-factor item level model of the LPQ seemed to fit reasonably well, thus supporting the six dimensional structure of the LPQ and justifying the use of composite subscale scores for each LPQ dimension. However, the reliability of many of these subscales was low. Furthermore, only two subscale-level factor models showed marginally acceptable fit. Substantive considerations supported an oblique three-factor model. Because the LPQ subscales often show low internal consistency reliability, experimental and correlational studies that have used these subscales as dependent measures have been disappointing. It is suggested that some LPQ items should be revised and other items added to improve the inventory's overall psychometric properties.

  20. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa. (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin


    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using data from Multidimensional Pain Inventory subscales to assess functioning in pain rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlacher, Uwe; Persson, Ann L; Rivano-Fischer, Marcelo


    The aim of this study was to examine whether Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) subscale score changes can be used for monitoring interdisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain rehabilitation programmes, using the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index as an independent variable...... of rehabilitation outcome. Data from 434 consecutively referred patients disabled by chronic pain were analysed. The intervention was a 4-week interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation group programme (5 h/day), based on biopsychosocial and cognitive behavioural principles. Mean PGWB total scores improved after...... rehabilitation (P...

  2. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)


    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  3. Insights into the Behavior of Potential Structural Failures Originating from Localized High Stress Regions in Configurations Relevant to Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles (United States)

    McCutcheon, David Matthew


    During the structural certification effort for the Space Launch System solid rocket booster nozzle, it was identified that no consistent method for addressing local negative margins of safety in non-metallic materials had been developed. Relevant areas included bond-line terminations and geometric features in the composite nozzle liners. In order to gain understanding, analog test specimens were designed that very closely mimic the conditions in the actual full scale hardware. Different locations in the nozzle were represented by different analog specimen designs. This paper describes those tests and corresponding results. Finite element analysis results for the tests are presented. Strain gage correlation of the analysis to the test results is addressed. Furthermore, finite fracture mechanics (a coupled stress and energy failure criterion) is utilized to predict the observed crack pop-in loads for the different configurations. The finite fracture mechanics predictions are found to be within a 10% error relative to the average measured pop-in load for each of four configurations. Initiation locations, arrest behaviors, and resistances to further post-arrest crack propagation are also discussed.

  4. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/ Fluid Sciences & Engineering Dept.; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.; Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.


    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  5. Changes to the subscales of two vision-related quality of life questionnaires are proposed. (United States)

    de Boer, Michiel R; de Vet, Henrica C W; Terwee, Caroline B; Moll, Annette C; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J M; van Rens, Ger H M B


    Psychometrically sound questionnaires for the assessment of vision-related quality of life (QOL) are scarce. Therefore, the objective was to further validate two vision-related QOL questionnaires in a Dutch population of visually impaired elderly. A total of 329 visually impaired older persons referred to low vision services completed the low vision QOL (LVQOL) and Vision-Related Quality of Life Core Measure (VCM1) questionnaires at baseline, after 1-4 weeks (retest), and after 5 months. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed on baseline data. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was assessed, based on the standard error of measurement (SEM). Change scores between the baseline and 5 months follow-up data were related to a general transition question to assess the minimal important change (MIC). Furthermore, the MIC was related to the SDC, to examine whether the MICs were detectable beyond measurement error. The original factor structures could not be confirmed. After omitting items and remodeling, adequate fits were obtained. SDCs comprised at least one quarter of the scale for all scales and subscales on the individual level and exceeded the MICs on every occasion. We propose MICs of 5-10 points for the scales and subscales of the LVQOL and VCM1. The questionnaires are not useful in the follow-up of individual patients.

  6. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.


    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  7. The use of Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists. (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H


    Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly - to develop a trait anxiety profile of subaquatic specialists; 2ndly - to investigate the predictive value of trait anxiety measures upon entering an occupational field; and 3rdly - to establish the reliability of these scores over time. Archival trait-anxiety data from 322 subjects were analyzed statistically. Analysis of the available scores revealed a highly homogenous as well as a very low trait anxiety profile for the investigated occupational group. Additionally, low trait anxiety was somewhat associated with success during specialist training: fewer candidates with high trait anxiety scores completed their qualification. Moreover, measurement of trait anxiety was stable over time, which suggests that when scores for this occupational group are screened, deviations from previous scores could signify a potential need for referral to an intervention from health professionals. Using the trait anxiety subscale as part of occupational health surveillance of subaquatic specialists could support prevention of accidents by identifying high-risk candidates during their annual health assessments, and referral for timeous intervention.

  8. Topographic effect of Sub-scale Mountains around the main Tibetan Plateau on Asian climate (United States)

    Sha, Yingying; Shi, Zhengguo


    As one of the most important tectonic events in Cenozoic, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is considered to have profound influences on the evolution of Asian climate.However, the potential influence from the sub-scale mountains around the main TP is largely neglected. In actual, these sub-scale mountains may affect some climate systems, which facilitates from their sensitive locations. Taking the Mongolian Plateau (MP) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP, SW China) as examples, they are located at the core paths of mid-latitude winter westerly and Indian summer southwesterly monsoon, respectively, and seem to significantly block the eastward propagation of these systems from modern climatological data. In this study, general circulation model experiments with and without mountains are employed to evaluate the topographic effect of MP and YGP on the Asian climate. The results show that, the MP, despite its smaller size, exerts a great influence on the strengthened winter climate over East Asia, including the East Asian trough, the subtropical westerly jet and the winter monsoon. The YGP, however, plays an opposite role in the Indian monsoon change, compared to the main TP. It weakens the Indian summer monsoon circulation and associated precipitation. Thus, the response of Asian climate to the mountain uplift depends closely on the actual distributions of topography rather than a simplified bulk of main TP.

  9. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children. (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua


    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)


    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared


    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  12. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH


    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  13. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Switch. Welte et al, 1998, Gross et al, 2002. Motion of Lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos. Page 7. • Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a ...

  14. Molecular motors (United States)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre


    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  15. Stability of memories of parental rearing among psychiatric inpatients: a replication based on EMBU subscales. (United States)

    Richter, J; Eisemann, M


    With regard to information about parental rearing, retrospective data are exclusively available among adults. These data are vulnerable due to various biases. This study was performed in order to replicate the findings of overall stability of three perceived parental rearing factors of the EMBU (Swedish acronym for 'own memories of childhood upbringing') based on 14 rather detailed subscales. A consecutive sample of 220 depressive inpatients were investigated on admission and at discharge by means of the EMBU, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Perceived parental rearing scores showed high stability despite clinically significant changes in the severity of depression, except for 'tolerance', 'guilt engendering', 'performance orientation' and 'shaming' parenting with probable gender-specific effects which were found to covary with dysfunctional attitudes. Recall of parenting should be taken as a subjective truth when it is assessed by standardised behaviour-oriented questionnaires like the EMBU. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3) subscales predict unique variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Stewart, Sherry H


    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has been implicated in the development and maintenance of a range of mental health problems. The development of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index - 3, a psychometrically sound index of AS, has provided the opportunity to better understand how the lower-order factors of AS - physical, psychological, and social concerns - are associated with unique forms of psychopathology. The present study investigated these associations among 85 treatment-seeking adults with high AS. Participants completed measures of AS, anxiety, and depression. Multiple regression analyses controlling for other emotional disorder symptoms revealed unique associations between AS subscales and certain types of psychopathology. Only physical concerns predicted unique variance in panic, only cognitive concerns predicted unique variance in depressive symptoms, and social anxiety was predicted by only social concerns. Findings emphasize the importance of considering the multidimensional nature of AS in understanding its role in anxiety and depression and their treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.


    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  18. The technology - activities of daily living questionnaire: a version with a technology-related subscale. (United States)

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L; Riveros, Rodrigo; Núñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea


    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled the Technology version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30 years). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = -0.70; FAB: r = -0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = -0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p questions to the ADLQ, our experience suggested that this has to be done cautiously, since the sensitivity of these additional items could vary in different populations. The T-ADLQ needs to be validated in a different population of dementia subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.


    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Construct Validity and Reliability of the SARA Gait and Posture Sub-scale in Early Onset Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitske F. Lawerman


    Full Text Available Aim: In children, gait and posture assessment provides a crucial marker for the early characterization, surveillance and treatment evaluation of early onset ataxia (EOA. For reliable data entry of studies targeting at gait and posture improvement, uniform quantitative biomarkers are necessary. Until now, the pediatric test construct of gait and posture scores of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia sub-scale (SARA is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to validate the construct validity and reliability of the pediatric (SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scale.Methods: We included 28 EOA patients [15.5 (6–34 years; median (range]. For inter-observer reliability, we determined the ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores by three independent pediatric neurologists. For convergent validity, we associated SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores with: (1 Ataxic gait Severity Measurement by Klockgether (ASMK; dynamic balance, (2 Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS; static balance, (3 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale -extended and revised version (GMFCS-E&R, (4 SARA-kinetic scores (SARAKINETIC; kinetic function of the upper and lower limbs, (5 Archimedes Spiral (AS; kinetic function of the upper limbs, and (6 total SARA scores (SARATOTAL; i.e., summed SARAGAIT/POSTURE, SARAKINETIC, and SARASPEECH sub-scores. For discriminant validity, we investigated whether EOA co-morbidity factors (myopathy and myoclonus could influence SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores.Results: The inter-observer agreement (ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores was high (0.97. SARAGAIT/POSTURE was strongly correlated with the other ataxia and functional scales [ASMK (rs = -0.819; p < 0.001; PBS (rs = -0.943; p < 0.001; GMFCS-E&R (rs = -0.862; p < 0.001; SARAKINETIC (rs = 0.726; p < 0.001; AS (rs = 0.609; p = 0.002; and SARATOTAL (rs = 0.935; p < 0.001]. Comorbid myopathy influenced SARAGAIT/POSTURE scores by concurrent muscle weakness, whereas comorbid myoclonus predominantly influenced

  1. Stepper motor (United States)

    Dekramer, Cornelis


    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  2. Compulsive cell phone use and history of motor vehicle crash. (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Whitehill, Jennifer M; King, Kevin M; Kernic, Mary A; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian W; Mack, Christopher D; Ebel, Beth E


    Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use, and to explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an online assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style, to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. We found the CPOS to be composed of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (relative ratio, 1.13; confidence interval, 1.01-1.26). For each 1-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Correlation between an Accelerometer-Based Algorithm for Detecting Parkinsonian Gait and UPDRS Subscales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero


    Full Text Available BackgroundOur group earlier developed a small monitoring device, which uses accelerometer measurements to accurately detect motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson’s (On and Off state based on an algorithm that characterizes gait through the frequency content of strides. To further validate the algorithm, we studied the correlation of its outputs with the motor section of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part-III (UPDRS-III.MethodSeventy-five patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease were asked to walk both in the Off and the On state while wearing the inertial sensor on the waist. Additionally, all patients were administered the motor section of the UPDRS in both motor phases. Tests were conducted at the patient’s home. Convergence between the algorithm and the scale was evaluated by using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient.ResultsCorrelation with the UPDRS-III was moderate (rho −0.56; p < 0.001. Correlation between the algorithm outputs and the gait item in the UPDRS-III was good (rho −0.73; p < 0.001. The factorial analysis of the UPDRS-III has repeatedly shown that several of its items can be clustered under the so-called Factor 1: “axial function, balance, and gait.” The correlation between the algorithm outputs and this factor of the UPDRS-III was −0.67 (p < 0.01.ConclusionThe correlation achieved by the algorithm with the UPDRS-III scale suggests that this algorithm might be a useful tool for monitoring patients with Parkinson’s disease and motor fluctuations.

  4. Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification (United States)

    Sung, In-Kyung

    Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical

  5. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners’ Oppositional Subscale (United States)

    Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Beijsterveldt, Van; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.


    OBJECTIVE Although Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) which may differentially predict outcome, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of mother’s report on the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S). METHOD Data were obtained from mother’s report for Dutch twins (7 year-old [n = 7,597], 10 year-old [n = 6,548], and 12 year-old [n = 5,717]) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Samples partially overlapped at ages 7 and 10 (19% overlapping) and at ages 10 and 12 (30% overlapping), but not at ages 7 and 12. Oppositional defiant behavior was measured using the 6-item Oppositional subscale of the CPRS-R:S. Multilevel LCA with robust standard error estimates was performed using Latent Gold to control for twin-twin dependence in the data. Class assignment across ages was determined and an estimate of heritability for each class was calculated. Comparisons to maternal report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores were examined using linear mixed models at each age, corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The LCA identified an optimal solution of 4-classes across age groups: Class 1 was associated with no or low symptom endorsement (69–75% of the children), class 2 was characterized by defiance (11–12%), class 3 was characterized by irritability (9–11%), and class 4 was associated with elevated scores on all symptoms (5–8%). Odds ratios for twins being in the same class at each successive age point were higher within classes across ages than between classes. Heritability within the two “intermediate” classes was nearly as high as for the class with all symptoms, except for boys at age 12. Children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have mood symptoms

  6. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.


    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  7. A scaling method for combustion stability rating of coaxial gas liquid injectors in a subscale chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon; Kim, Young Jun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mog [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pikalov, Valery P. [Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation)


    A scaling method to examine combustion stability characteristics of a coaxial injector is devised based on the acoustics and combustion dynamics in a chamber. The method is required for a subscale test of stability rating with a model chamber, which is cost effective compared with an actual full scale test. First, scaling and similarity rules are considered for stability rating and thereby, three conditions of acoustic, hydrodynamic, and flame condition similarities are proposed. That is, for acoustic similarity, the natural or resonant frequencies in the actual chamber should be maintained in the model chamber. And, two parameters of density ratio and velocity ratio are derived for the requirement of hydrodynamic and flame condition similarities between the actual and the model conditions. Next, one example of an actual combustion chamber with high performance is selected and the proposed scaling method is applied to the chamber for understanding of the method. The design operating condition for a model test is presented by mass flow rates of propellants. Stability boundaries can be identified on the coordinate plane of chamber pressure and mixture ratio of fuel and oxidizer by applying the scaling method.

  8. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh


    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  9. Measuring Neuroticism in Nepali: Reliability and Validity of the Neuroticism Subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Risal, A; Linde, M; Koju, R; Steiner, T J; Holen, A


    The Neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Short Form (12 items) (EPQRS-N) has proven to be a reliable and valid measure in multiple languages. To develop a single-factor Nepali-language version of the EPQRS-N for use in the adult population of Nepal. The original English version of EPQRS-N was translated into Nepali using a forward-backward translation protocol. The first set of translated items was modified after testing by factor analysis with principal component extraction in an outpatient sample. Items with low factor correlations or poor semantic consistencies were reworded to fit the gist of the original items in a Nepali cultural context; the revised version was then tested in a representative random sample from the general population. Again, the same statistical procedures were applied. The first trial gave three factors. Based on the factor distribution of the items or their semantic quality, five were reworded. In the second trial, a two-factor solution emerged; the second factor had only one item with high correlation, which also had modest correlation with the first factor. Accordingly, a forced one-factor solution was chosen. This gave an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.80, with item-to-factor correlations from 0.40 to 0.73, and item-to-sum correlations from 0.31 to 0.61. The final Nepali version of EPQRS-N achieved satisfactory internal consistency. The item distribution coincided with the original English version, providing acceptable construct validity. It is psychometrically adequate for use in capturing the personality trait of neuroticism, and has broad applicability to the adult population of Nepal because of the diversity of the participant samples in which it was developed.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PKBS-2 Subscales for Assessing Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Education (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria; Benitez, Juan L.; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Fernando; Garcia, Trinidad; Garcia-Berben, Ana; Justicia, Ana; Alba, Guadalupe


    Introduction: Different research studies point out the importance of social competence as a protective factor against antisocial behavior. They likewise alert us of the importance of having valid, reliable instruments that measure these constructs in early childhood. Method: The objective of this research is to validate the subscales of the…

  11. The development of the items-easy (Ie) and items-difficult (Id) subscales for the MMPI-A. (United States)

    Krakauer, S Y; Archer, R P; Gordon, R A


    This research involves the development, validation, and cross-validation of the Items-Easy (Ie) and Items-Difficult (Id) subscales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992). These subscales were designed to assess the degree to which reading comprehension deficits may be responsible for significant elevations of validity Scale F and the standard clinical scales on adolescents' MMPI-A profiles. A difference score, bared on the two 13-item subscales, was created in order to compare subjects' responses to subsets of the more comprehensible (Ie) and less comprehensible (Id) items within the test. Hit rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power were calculated on the basis of simple (Id - Ie) and weighted (3Id - 1Ie) difference scores for the validation (N = 495) and cross-validation (N = 264) samples, and for specific high-F profile subsamples. Although some of the indices reflected classification accuracy as high as 95%, none of the indices yielded consistently high results across the various samples and subsamples. It has been concluded that the Ie and Id subscales should be used only for research purposes at this time.

  12. Validity of the Sleep Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.


    Currently there are no available sleep disorder measures for individuals with severe and profound intellectual disability. We, therefore, attempted to establish the external validity of the "Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II" (DASH-II) sleep subscale by comparing daily observational sleep data with the responses of…

  13. Comparison of behavioral activation subscales of Gray’s original reinforcement sensitivity theory in opioid and methamphetamine dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghaderi


    Results: The methamphetamine-dependents group had a higher BAS-DR subscale score than the opioid dependent group (P0.05. The BAS-RR scores of the methamphetamine-dependents group were higher than the other two groups (P


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders


    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  15. [Turkish expressive and receptive language test: I. Standardization, reliability and validity study of the receptive vocabulary sub-scale]. (United States)

    Kazak Berument, Sibel; Güven, Ayşe Gül


    A reliable, valid and original test to assess the receptive vocabulary skills of children in Turkey was not available. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop a receptive vocabulary test for Turkish children based on the Turkish language. For the Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale (TIFALDI-RT) 242 concrete and abstract words were chosen from word frequency lists and a comprehensive Turkish Dictionary. Pilot data were collected from 648 children aged 2 to 13 from Ankara, and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 3755 children. Item analysis (item difficulty, discrimination and distractor) was carried out on the pilot data and based on the results, the total item number was reduced to 157. Further, three parameter item analyses (IRT) were carried out on the norm data by using BILOG-MG (SSI, 2002), and the results indicated that the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale could be reduced to 104 items to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were calculated for the whole sample and age groups separately, and all the coefficients were high. For the validity, the relationship between the WISC-R and Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (AGTE) and Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale were investigated. Once again, the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale scores were found to be significantly related to WISC-R and AGTE scores. The TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale was developed on the basis of the Turkish Language and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample. The TIFALDI-RT also had a high reliability and validity. Thus, the TIFALDI-RT can be used to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary skills.

  16. The genetic and environmental structure of the character sub-scales of the temperament and character inventory in adolescence. (United States)

    Lester, Nigel; Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Cloninger, C Robert; Anckarsäter, Henrik


    The character higher order scales (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) in the temperament and character inventory are important general measures of health and well-being [Mens Sana Monograph 11:16-24 (2013)]. Recent research has found suggestive evidence of common environmental influence on the development of these character traits during adolescence. The present article expands earlier research by focusing on the internal consistency and the etiology of traits measured by the lower order sub-scales of the character traits in adolescence. The twin modeling analysis of 423 monozygotic pairs and 408 same sex dizygotic pairs estimated additive genetics (A), common environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) influences on twin resemblance. All twins were part of the on-going longitudinal Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). The twin modeling analysis suggested a common environmental contribution for two out of five self-directedness sub-scales (0.14 and 0.23), for three out of five cooperativeness sub-scales (0.07-0.17), and for all three self-transcendence sub-scales (0.10-0.12). The genetic structure at the level of the character lower order sub-scales in adolescents shows that the proportion of the shared environmental component varies in the trait of self-directedness and in the trait of cooperativeness, while it is relatively stable across the components of self-transcendence. The presence of this unique shared environmental effect in adolescence has implications for understanding the relative importance of interventions and treatment strategies aimed at promoting overall maturation of character, mental health, and well-being during this period of the life span.

  17. Solid rocket technology advancements for space tug and IUS applications (United States)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.


    In order for the shuttle tug or interim upper stage (IUS) to capture all the missions in the current mission model for the tug and the IUS, an auxiliary or kick stage, using a solid propellant rocket motor, is required. Two solid propellant rocket motor technology concepts are described. One concept, called the 'advanced propulsion module' motor, is an 1800-kg, high-mass-fraction motor, which is single-burn and contains Class 2 propellent. The other concept, called the high energy upper stage restartable solid, is a two-burn (stop-restartable on command) motor which at present contains 1400 kg of Class 7 propellant. The details and status of the motor design and component and motor test results to date are presented, along with the schedule for future work.

  18. The use of Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists


    Van Wijk, Charles H


    Objectives: Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly – to develop a trait...

  19. Mars Ascent Vehicle-First Stage Motor (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Doudrick, Scott; Williams, Jacob


    This project is development effort of a first stage solid motor based on a two-stage solid motor Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) design for the robotic Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission (fig. 1). The MSR MAV has been studied for decades and multiple concepts have been shown to meet the mission objectives as posed.1 However, there remains significant uncertainty with the MAV requirements. The sample container and sample cache itself is immature. Additionally, MAV-specific requirements ranging from full three-axis controlled and strict communication requirements to minimal capability concepts are still under consideration. Given the maturity of the overall mission requirements, the MAV has been limited to a large number of parametric analyses and paper studies. Recently, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory study highlighted the flexibility of a two-stage solid motor concept. The MAV itself is driven by the constraints of the Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL) system. Within the EDL constraints, there is a range of MAV options ranging in complexity from simple spun upper stage options to higher capability three-axis controlled solutions. There are also options to trade the ratio of mission (Delta)V between the first and second stage. Finally, sensitivity studies also indicated that solid motors with a high percentage of off-load flexability only had minor impact on the total system mass over a single point design optimized motor. This flexibility in the first stage motor has allowed NASA to mature the design of the motor beyond parametric analyses and start to address known design challenges of the motor.

  20. The Child Behavior Checklist-Obsessive-Compulsive Subscale Detects Severe Psychopathology and Behavioral Problems Among School-Aged Children. (United States)

    Saad, Laura O; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Manfro, Gisele G; Shavitt, Roseli G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Alvarenga, Pedro G


    The aims of this study were (1) to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) dimensionally in a school-aged community sample and to correlate them with clinical and demographical variables; (2) to determine a subgroup with significant OCS ("at-risk for OCD") using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-OCS) and (3) to compare it with the rest of the sample; (4) To review the CBCL-OCS subscale properties as a screening tool for pediatric OCD. Data from the Brazilian High Risk Cohort were analyzed. The presence and severity of OCS were assessed through the CBCL-OCS subscale. DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were obtained by the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Youth Strengths Inventory, and the CBCL internalizing and externalizing behavior subscales. A total of 2512 (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) children were included. Moderate correlations were found between OCS severity and functional impairment (r = 0.36, p behavioral problems (p behavioral patterns and psychiatric comorbidities (e.g., tics [odds ratios, OR = 6.41, p approach suggests that the presence of OCS in children is associated with higher rates of comorbidity, behavioral problems, and impairment. The "at-risk for OCD" group defined by the CBCL revealed a group of patients phenotypically similar to full blown OCD.

  1. Development and validation of subscales to assess perceived support for self-management of mood or emotional problems: Results from a randomized trial. (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Haggerty, Jeannie; De Raad, Manon; Belzile, Eric; Bouharaoui, Fatima; Beaulieu, Christine; Yaffe, Mark; Ciampi, Antonio


    To validate 2 new patient-reported measures of self-management support from health professionals for mood and emotional problems. The sample comprised primary care patients with chronic physical conditions and co-morbid depressive symptoms enrolled in a randomized trial of telephone coaching of a depression self-care intervention (n=120). At 6-month follow-up, patients completed 2 subscales with respect to support for self-management of their chronic physical condition(s): 1) Self-Management Information (SMInfo-Phys); and 2) Care Plan (CP-Phys) and equivalent subscales adapted to assess self-management support for mood and emotional problems: SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood. Subscale scoring was assessed with Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis. Convergent validity of the mood subscales was assessed. The sensitivity of the mood and physical condition subscales to mental health interventions was assessed with generalized estimating equations (GEE). The mood subscales were associated with relevant measures of perceived unmet mental health needs. Both SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood were sensitive to the coaching intervention; CP-Mood was also sensitive to receipt of depression treatment outside the trial. This study provides preliminary evidence for the validity of the 2 new subscales. The subscales may be used to assess perceived health professional support for self-management of mood and emotional problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 10/21/2016 Briefing Charts 01 October 2016 - 31 October 2016 Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL Robert Antypas Air...Unclassified SAR 18 R. Antypas N/A Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL 21 Oct 2016 Robert Antypas AFRL/RQRO -Distribution A: Approved for Public Release...Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 2 Agenda • Solid Rocket Motors • History of Sea Level Testing • Small Component Testing • Full-scale Testing • Altitude

  3. Chemotherapy-related neuropathic symptoms and functional impairment in adult survivors of extracranial solid tumors of childhood: results from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. (United States)

    Ness, Kirsten K; Jones, Kendra E; Smith, Webb A; Spunt, Sheri L; Wilson, Carmen L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Gurney, James G


    To ascertain prevalence of peripheral sensory and motor neuropathy, and to evaluate impairments in relation to function. St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, a clinical follow-up study designed to evaluate adverse late effects in adult survivors of childhood cancer. A children's research hospital. Eligibility required treatment for an extracranial solid malignancy between 1962 and 2002, age ≥ 18 years, ≥ 10 years postdiagnosis, and no history of cranial radiation. Survivors (N=531) were included in the evaluation with a median age of 32 years and a median time from diagnosis of 25 years. Not applicable. Primary exposure measures were cumulative doses of vinca-alkaloid and platinum-based chemotherapies. Survivors with scores ≥ 1 on the sensory subscale of the Modified Total Neuropathy Score were classified with prevalent sensory impairment. Those with sex-specific z scores of ≤-1.3 for dorsiflexion strength were classified with prevalent motor impairment. Participants completed the 6-minute walk test (endurance), the Timed Up & Go test (mobility), and the Sensory Organization Test (balance). The prevalence of sensory and motor impairment was 20% and 17.5%, respectively. Vinca-alkaloid exposure was associated with an increased risk of motor impairment (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.64) without evidence for a dose response. Platinum exposure was associated with increased risk of sensory impairment (adjusted OR=1.62; 95% CI, .97-2.72) without evidence of a dose response. Sensory impairment was associated with poor endurance (OR=1.99; 95% CI, .99-4.0) and mobility (OR=1.65; 95% CI, .96-2.83). Vincristine and cisplatin exposure may increase risk for long-term motor and sensory impairment, respectively. Survivors with sensory impairment are at increased risk for functional performance limitations. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gross motor control (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  5. Direct Electrical Arc Ignition of Hybrid Rocket Motors


    Judson, Michael I., Jr.


    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven dicult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintrod...

  6. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio


    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.

  7. Relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination in three-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko eNakagawa


    Full Text Available Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ, the Sensory Profile (SP-J, and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ, this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control through path analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.

  8. Correlations between motor and sensory functions in upper limb chronic hemiparetics after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Botossi Scalha


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the somatosensory function of the affected upper limb of hemiparetic stroke patients and investigate the correlations between measurements of motor and sensory functions in tasks with and without visual deprivation. METHOD: We applied the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Nottingham Sensory Assessment (NSA, and several motor and sensory tests: Paper manipulation (PM, Motor Sequences (MS, Reaching and grasping (RG Tests Functional (TF, Tactile Discrimination (TD, Weight Discrimination (WD and Tactile Recognition of Objects (RO. RESULTS: We found moderate correlations between the FMA motor subscale and the tactile sensation score of the NSA. Additionally, the FMA sensitivity was correlated with the NSA total; and performance on the WD test items correlated with the NSA. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between the sensory and motor functions of the upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients. Additionally, there was a greater reliance on visual information to compensate for lost sensory-motor skills.

  9. Motor control for a brushless DC motor (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)


    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  10. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  11. Classification of quality of life subscales within the ICF framework in burn research: identifying overlaps and gaps. (United States)

    Meirte, J; van Loey, N E E; Maertens, K; Moortgat, P; Hubens, G; Van Daele, U


    Quality of life (QOL) is one of the leading outcomes in burn care research. This study classifies subscales of common QOL measures within the International Classification of Functioning disability and health (ICF) framework to determine to which extent the measures are complementary or overlapping and to investigate whether the instruments are able to describe the full spectrum of patients' functioning. A literature search was performed to determine the most frequently used questionnaires in burn research. The subscales of the three mostly used questionnaires were classified within the ICF framework. Two generic measures, the Short Form-36 items (SF-36) and the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and a disease specific measure, the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B), were analyzed. The BSHS-B covered most domains and was the only scale that included personal factors. The SF-36 included only one domain in the activity limitations and similar to the EQ-5D no contextual factors were included. Environmental factors were not addressed in the questionnaires, even though these may have an impact on the quality of life in patients with burns. To capture the full spectrum of dysfunctioning a combination of the BSHS-B with a generic questionnaire seems obligatory. However still some domains of functioning remain uncovered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  13. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Evers-Stephan, A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Thewissen, V.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home.

  14. Design and Analysis of Subscale and Full-Scale Buckling-Critical Cylinders for Launch Vehicle Technology Development (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Rankin, Charles


    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project has the goal of developing new analysis-based shell buckling design factors (knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale levels. This paper describes the design and analysis of three different orthogrid-stiffeNed metallic cylindrical-shell test articles. Two of the test articles are 8-ft-diameter, 6-ft-long test articles, and one test article is a 27.5-ft-diameter, 20-ft-long Space Shuttle External Tank-derived test article.

  15. Diabetes fatalism and its emotional distress subscale are independent predictors of glycemic control among Lebanese patients with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Egede, Leonard E; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya


    Achieving and sustaining optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is difficult because of socio-cultural and psychosocial factors including diabetes fatalism. Diabetes fatalism is 'a complex psychological cycle characterized by perceptions of despair, hopelessness, and powerlessness'. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether diabetes fatalism and other psychosocial and socio-cultural variables are correlates of glycemic control in Lebanese population with T2DM. A convenience sample of 280 adult participants with T2DM were recruited from a major hospital in greater Beirut-Lebanon area and from the community. Diabetes fatalism was assessed using the Arabic version of 12-item Diabetes Fatalism Scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between HbA1c and psychosocial and socio-cultural characteristics including diabetes fatalism. Four models were run to examine the independent association between HbA1c and diabetes fatalism and to identify which of the 3 subscales (emotional distress, spiritual coping and perceived self-efficacy) were associated with HbA1c. The mean age of the participants was 58.24(SD = 13.48) and the majority were females (53.76%), while 32.73% of the sample had diabetes for more than 10 years. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that higher scores on diabetes fatalism and the emotional distress subscale (P = 0.018) were significantly associated with higher HbA1c values. In addition, having diabetes for more than 11 years (P = 0.05) and a higher number of diabetes complications (P fatalism as an independent predictor of glycemic control among Lebanese. Future studies should further investigate this construct to guide interventions that can address it for better diabetes outcomes.

  16. The concurrent validity of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale in adolescent patients in an urban federally qualified health center. (United States)

    Kelly, Sharon M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; Schwartz, Robert P


    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses. Adolescents (N = 525; 93% African American, 55% female) 12-17 years of age awaiting primary care appointments at a Federally Qualified Health Center in Baltimore, Maryland completed the 17-item POSIT substance use/abuse subscale and items from a modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview corresponding to DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were examined with DSM-5 AUD, CUD, and a diagnosis of either or both disorders for the standard and revised subscales using risk cutoffs of either 1 or 2 POSIT "yes" responses. For the 17-item subscale, sensitivities were generally high using either cutoff (range: 0.79-1.00), although a cutoff of 1 was superior (sensitivities were 1.00 for AUD, CUD, and for either disorder). Specificities were also high using either cutoff (range: 0.81-0.95) but were higher using a cutoff of 2. For the 11-item subscale, a cutoff of 1 yielded higher sensitivities than a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.96-1.00 and 0.79-0.86, respectively). Specificities for this subscale were higher using a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.82-0.89 and 0.89-0.96, respectively). Findings suggest that the POSIT's substance use/abuse subscale is a potentially useful tool for screening adolescents in primary care for AUD or CUD using a cutoff of 1 or 2. The briefer, revised subscale may be preferable to the standard subscale in

  17. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J


    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  18. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.


    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression of the Neck Disability Index: Assessment If Subscales Are Equally Relevant in Whiplash and Nonspecific Neck Pain. (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Milam, Bryce; Meylor, Jade; Manning, Richard


    Because of previously published recommendations to modify the Neck Disability Index (NDI), we evaluated the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. Subjects who had sustained whiplash injuries of grade 2 or higher completed an NDI questionnaire. There were 123 subjects (55% female, of which 36% had recovered and 64% had chronic symptoms. NDI subscales were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, considering only the subscales and, secondly, using sex as an 11th variable. The subscales were also tested with multiple linear regression modeling using the total score as a target variable. When considering only the 10 NDI subscales, only a single factor emerged, with an eigenvalue of 5.4, explaining 53.7% of the total variance. Strong correlation (> .55) (P Multiple linear regression modeling revealed high internal consistency with all coefficients reaching significance (P < .0001). The 4 NDI subscales exerting the greatest effect were, in decreasing order, Sleeping, Lifting, Headaches, and Pain Intensity. A 2-factor model of the NDI is not justified based on our results, and in this population of whiplash subjects, the NDI was unidimensional, demonstrating high internal consistency and supporting the original validation study of Vernon and Mior.

  20. Solid electrolytes (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed


    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  1. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  2. Clinical utility of the MMPI-A content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales in the assessment of suicidal risk factors in psychiatric adolescents. (United States)

    Kopper, B A; Osman, A; Osman, J R; Hoffman, J


    This study of 143 inpatient adolescents (68 boys and 75 girls) investigated the clinical utility of the MMPI-A in assessing suicidal risk factors by examining the unique contribution of the content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales beyond what is provided by the basic clinical scales. The results of the regression analyses indicated that for boys, the Depression, Psychopathic Deviate and Hypomania scales; Alienation and Anxiety content scales: and Subjective Depression. Self Alienation, Imperturbability, and Amorality Harris-Lingoes subscales contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide probability. For girls, the Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, and Hypomania scales; Family Problems, Conduct Problems, School Problems, Depression, and Social Discomfort content scales; and the Subjective Depression, Self Alienation, Psychomotor Acceleration, and Imperturbability Harris-Lingoes subscales contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide probability.

  3. Chilean experimental version of the State-Trait Depression Questionnaire (ST-DEP: Trait sub-scale (T-DEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vera-Villarroel


    Full Text Available This instrumental study presents the first validity and reliability data for the Trait subscale (T-DEP of the Chilean experimental version of the State and Trait Depression Inventory (ST-DEP: Euthymia and Dysthymia. The data were obtained from a sample of 300 university students. The internal consistency values for the TDEP were high (.90. The test-retest values from eight weeks time interval (fifty six days were elevated (.78. A factorial analysis of the principal components revealed a principal factor for all of the constructed items in this experimental version of the TDEP. The last, promax rotation showed two clear main factors similar in size: negative affectivity (Dysthymia and positive affectivity (Euthymia. The convergent validity indexes for the Beck Depression Inventory and the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, were also high, with indexes ranging from .64 to .71. The correlation between State- Trait Anxiety Inventory and the depression scales used in this study was high (between .63 and .78, once again indicating the usual overlapping between anxiety and depression seen in most depression inventories.

  4. The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly (United States)


    The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly over a dry lakebed runway during a captive-carry test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-40 is attached to a sling which is suspended from the CH-47 by a 110-foot-long cable during the tests, while a small parachute trails behind to provide stability. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  5. Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfield T.R.


    Full Text Available We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

  6. Comparative Responsiveness of the PROMIS Pain Interference Short Forms, Brief Pain Inventory, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain Subscale. (United States)

    Kean, Jacob; Monahan, Patrick O; Kroenke, Kurt; Wu, Jingwei; Yu, Zhangsheng; Stump, Tim E; Krebs, Erin E


    To compare the sensitivity to change and the responsiveness to intervention of the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), 3-item PEG scale, and SF-36 Bodily Pain subscale in a sample of patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain of moderate severity. Standardized response means, standardized effect sizes, and receiver operating curve analyses were used to assess change between baseline and 3-month assessments in 250 participants who participated in a randomized clinical effectiveness trial of collaborative telecare management for moderate to severe and persistent musculoskeletal pain. The BPI, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain measures were more sensitive to patient-reported global change than the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, especially for the clinically improved group, for which the change detected by the PROMIS short forms was not statistically significant. The BPI was more responsive to the clinical intervention than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures. Post hoc analyses exploring these findings did not suggest that differences in content or rating scale structure (number of response options or anchoring language) adequately explained the observed differences in the detection of change. In this clinical trial, the BPI and PEG measures were better able to detect change than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures.

  7. Psychometric properties of the existence subscale of the purpose in life questionnaire for Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Law, Ben M F


    The current study aims to test the psychometric properties of the Existence Subscale of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire (EPIL) for early adolescence. The Purpose in Life Questionnaire (PIL), originally created by Craumbaugh and Maholick, is a 20-item scale measuring different dimensions of life purposes. The current study selected seven items representative of the existence dimension to form another scale, the EPIL. The analysis was based on 2842 early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 14 years old. Principal axis factoring found one factor, with 60% variance being explained. Cronbach's alpha for the EPIL was 0.89, which was high. The factor structure was stable across genders. Criterion-related validity was determined when the scale was used to differentiate volunteers and nonvolunteers. Construct validity was found when the scale was associated with life satisfaction. The results give support to the fact that the EPIL could be used alone to measure the psychological well-being of early adolescents and the appropriateness of the EPIL in adolescent research.

  8. Analysis of the laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber (United States)

    Wohlhüter, Michael; Zhukov, Victor P.; Sender, Joachim; Schlechtriem, Stefan


    The laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The ignition test case used in the present paper was generated during the In-Space Propulsion project (ISP-1), a project focused on the operation of propulsion systems in space, the handling of long idle periods between operations, and multiple reignitions under space conditions. Regarding the definition of the numerical simulation and the suitable domain for the current model, 2D and 3D simulations have been performed. Analysis shows that the usage of a 2D geometry is not suitable for this type of simulation, as the reduction of the geometry to a 2D domain significantly changes the conditions at the time of ignition and subsequently the flame development. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results shows a strong discrepancy in the pressure evolution and the combustion chamber pressure peak following the laser spark. The detailed analysis of the optical Schlieren and OH data leads to the conclusion that the pressure measurement system was not able to capture the strong pressure increase and the peak value in the combustion chamber during ignition. Although the timing in flame development following the laser spark is not captured appropriately, the 3D simulations reproduce the general ignition phenomena observed in the optical measurement systems, such as pressure evolution and injector flow characteristics.

  9. Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Alan K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Canfield, Thomas R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [SNLA


    We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD) closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT) approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

  10. Relationship between children's performance-based motor skills and child, parent, and teacher perceptions of children's motor abilities using self/informant-report questionnaires. (United States)

    Lalor, Aislinn; Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki


    Occupational therapists often assess the motor skill performance of children referred to them as part of the assessment process. This study investigated whether children's, parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's motor skills using valid and reliable self/informant-report questionnaires were associated with and predictive of children's actual motor performance, as measured by a standardised performance-based motor skill assessment. Fifty-five typically developing children (8-12 years of age), their parents and classroom teachers were recruited to participate in the study. The children completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The parents completed the Developmental Profile III (DP-III) and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, whereas the teachers completed the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Behavior. Children's motor performance composite scores were determined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were calculated to identify if significant correlations existed and multiple linear regression was used to identify whether self/informant report data were significant predictors of children's motor skill performance. The child self-report scores had the largest number of significant correlations with the BOT-2 composites. Regression analysis found that the parent report DP-III Physical subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Manual Coordination composite and the child-report questionnaire PSDQ. Endurance subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Strength and Agility composite. The findings support the use of top-down assessment methods from a variety of sources when evaluating children's motor abilities. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M; Wu, Xiuyun; Hopman, Wilma; Mayo, Nancy; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Liu, Juxin; Prior, Jerilynn C; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Josse, Robert G; Towheed, Tanveer E; Davison, K Shawn; Sawatzky, Richard


    Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF), which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent) level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF) and mental health (MH) sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample. Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health) produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects. The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size. SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  12. Motor/generator (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL


    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  13. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  14. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.


    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  15. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  16. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness. (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  17. Adverse learning strategy: the Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory and its subscale replicability in a medical student population. (United States)

    Welch, G; Pearce, K; Lewis, M; Mellsop, G


    The Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory (ADLIMS) is a measure of learning styles and learning pathologies that was designed to investigate the impact of traditional approaches to learning versus problem-based learning and to identify students whose approach to learning tasks predicted poor academic performance. In this study, some important psychometric properties of the ADLIMS were examined, including its factor structure. In this study, factor replicability across samples was argued to provide a more robust and psychologically meaningful factor solution than that which can be obtained using traditional mathematical criteria. The results of the factor analysis did not confirm the presence of the four factor solution earlier reported for the ADLIMS, but did identify three clear factors that had very high replicability. An inspection of the items comprising these three factors showed that factor 1 tapped subjective distress related to poor study habits, lack of motivation to study, and distraction from social activities. Factor 2 tapped distress arising from high achievement expectations that were hampered by superficial or disorganized study habits that did not enable the student to grasp the relationships between concepts and ideas. Factor 3 tapped positive feelings and a sense of satisfaction associated with a problem-based approach to the learning of new study material. Although the internal reliability of the ADLIMS subscales met the requirements of a measure to be used in general research such as in the investigation of correlates among groups of medical students, they did not meet the higher requirements of a measure to be used to identify or predict individuals with pathological learning styles.

  18. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam


    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  19. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders. (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie


    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Measurement of aggressive behaviors in dementia: comparison of the physical aggression subscales of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the Ryden Aggression Scale. (United States)

    Whall, Ann L; Kim, Hyojeong; Colling, Kathleen Byrne; Hong, Gwi-Ryung; DeCicco, Barry; Antonakos, Cathy


    One of the central issues in the development of research-based interventions for aggressive behavior (AB) in late-stage dementia is the provision of precise measurement of the major dependent variable, in this case, AB levels. To advance the nursing goal of evidence-based practice, this article presents the characteristics of two research instruments: the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) aggressive behavior subscale (CMAI-ABS) and the Ryden Aggression Scale (RAS) physically aggressive behavior subscale (RAS-PABS). A total of 282 shower bath events (which are most associated with AB) were observed for 107 nursing home residents with dementia in nine randomly selected nursing homes. Then, we compared the psychometric properties of the CMAI-ABS and the RAS-PABS. Moderate to substantial agreements between the two instruments were identified using Cohen's Kappa. A similar percentage of AB was found on both subscales. Similar items on both subscales, such as hitting and pushing, were moderately correlated. Overall, the study results support that the CMAI-ABS and RAS-PABS measure a single but multifaceted construct-physically aggressive behavior in dementia. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Complex Relationships Among Masculine Norms and Health/Well-Being Outcomes: Correlation Patterns of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory Subscales. (United States)

    Gerdes, Zachary T; Levant, Ronald F


    The Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI) is a widely used multidimensional scale. Studies using the CMNI most often report only total scale scores, which are predominantly associated with negative outcomes. Various studies since the CMNI's inception in 2003 using subscales have reported both positive and negative outcomes. The current content analysis examined studies ( N = 17) correlating the 11 subscales with 63 criterion variables across 7 categories. Most findings were consistent with past research using total scale scores that reported negative outcomes. For example, conformity to masculine norms has been inversely related to help-seeking and positively correlated with concerning health variables, such as substance use. Nonetheless, past reliance on total scores has obscured the complexity of associations with the CMNI in that 30% of the findings in the present study reflected positive outcomes, particularly for health promotion. Subscales differed in their relationships with various outcomes: for one subscale they were predominantly positive, but six others were mostly negative. The situational and contextual implications of conformity to masculine norms and their relationships to positive and negative outcomes are discussed.

  2. Toward defining a cutoff score for elevated fear of hypoglycemia on the hypoglycemia fear survey worry subscale in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajós, Tibor R S; Polonsky, William H; Pouwer, Frans


    OBJECTIVE To determine a cutoff score for clinically meaningful fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) on the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey Worry subscale (HFS-W). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on the HFS-W, history of hypoglycemia, emotional well-being (World Health Organization-5 well-being index...

  3. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning. (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea


    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  4. Control motor brushless sensorless


    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo


    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  5. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin


    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  6. Effects of oral motor therapy in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Nural Sigan


    Full Text Available Aim: Oral motor dysfunction is a common issue in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Drooling, difficulties with sucking, swallowing, and chewing are some of the problems often seen. In this study, we aimed to research the effect of oral motor therapy on pediatric CP patients with feeding problems. Materials and Methods: Included in this single centered, randomized, prospective study were 81 children aged 12-42 months who had been diagnosed with CP, had oral motor dysfunction and were observed at the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic of the Children′s Health and Diseases Department, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University. Patients were randomized into two groups: The training group and the control group. One patient from the training group dropped out of the study because of not participating regularly. Following initial evaluation of all patients by a blinded physiotherapist and pedagogue, patients in the training group participated in 1 h oral motor training sessions with a different physiotherapist once a week for 6 months. All patients kept on routine physiotherapy by their own physiotherapists. Oral motor assessment form, functional feeding assessment (FFA subscale of the multidisciplinary feeding profile (MFP and the Bayley scales of infant development (BSID-II were used to evaluate oral motor function, swallowing, chewing, the gag reflex, the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, tongue, jaw, and mouth function, severity of drooling, aspiration, choking, independent feeding and tolerated food texture during the initial examination and 6 months later. Results: When the initial and post-therapy FFA and BSID-II scores received by patients in the training and the study group were compared, the training group showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral motor therapy has a beneficial effect on feeding problems in children with CP.


    Defelice, D. M.


    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for space-based transfer vehicles. As part of NASA Lewis's ongoing efforts in micro-gravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques have been developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. These efforts have been incorporated into two FORTRAN programs, TARGET and CRYOCHIL. The TARGET code is used to determine the maximum temperature at which the filling of a given tank can be initiated and subsequently filled to a specified pressure and fill level without venting. The main process is the transfer of the energy stored in the thermal mass of the tank walls into the inflowing liquid. This process is modeled by examining the end state of the no-vent fill process. This state is assumed to be at thermal equilibrium between the tank and the fluid which is well mixed and saturated at the tank pressure. No specific assumptions are made as to the processes or the intermediate thermodynamic states during the filling. It is only assumed that the maximum tank pressure occurs at the final state. This assumption implies that, during the initial phases of the filling, the injected liquid must pass through the bulk vapor in such a way that it absorbs a sufficient amount of its superheat so that moderate tank pressures can be maintained. It is believed that this is an achievable design goal for liquid injection systems. TARGET can be run with any fluid for which the user has a properties data base. Currently it will only run for hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen since pressure-enthalpy data sets have been included for these fluids only. CRYOCHIL's primary function is to predict the optimum liquid charge to be injected for each of a series of charge-hold-vent chilldown cycles. This information can then be used with specified mass flow rates and valve response times to control a liquid injection system for tank chilldown operations. This will

  8. Influence of Affordances in the Home Environment on Motor Development of Young Children in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mori


    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that the home environment is a significant factor in early child development. The present study examined influence of the multidimensional home environment on young Japanese children’s motor development. A Japanese translation of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR was used to assess home motor affordances in 262 families. Motor ability was assessed by parental report using the Enjoji Infant Analytic Developmental Test. We also asked parents to rate their own physical activity in terms of level and years of experience. As results, we found that the home environment in Japan was generally sufficient for children’s motor development and that children’s access to Fine Motor Toys (FMT and Gross Motor Toys (GMT had the strongest influence on their development. Analysis also indicated that AHEMD-SR scores were higher for children of parents who had some level of physical activity experience compared to children whose parents indicated no physical activity experience. Parents’ self-reported activity level was correlated with higher scores for the subscales FMT and GMT and for total AHEMD-SR score. These results indicate that both the physical and social-psychological environments (parental experience and views of the home influenced children’s motor development.

  9. Motor Simulation without Motor Expertise: Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability in Visually Experienced Dance Spectators (United States)

    Jola, Corinne; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Pollick, Frank E.; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène


    The human “mirror-system” is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or “novices” who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities heighten

  10. Motor simulation without motor expertise: enhanced corticospinal excitability in visually experienced dance spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jola

    Full Text Available The human "mirror-system" is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or "novices" who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities

  11. Motor simulation without motor expertise: enhanced corticospinal excitability in visually experienced dance spectators. (United States)

    Jola, Corinne; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Pollick, Frank E; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène


    The human "mirror-system" is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or "novices" who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities heighten motor

  12. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Lix

    Full Text Available Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF, which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF and mental health (MH sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample.Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos, which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects.The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size.SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  13. "Pure" motor hemiplegia. (United States)

    Chokroverty, S; Rubino, F A


    Attenuation of cerebral evoked responses after stimulation of the median nerve in the hemiplegic limbs suggested that an apparently pure motor hemiplegia in some patients may not have pure involvement of the corticospinal system. Frontoparietal metastasis, infarction in basis pontis and medullary pyramid, and occlusion of internal carotid artery in the neck resulted in pure motor hemiplegia in some individuals. Images PMID:1185228

  14. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.


    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  15. The Emotional Motor System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.


    A large number of new descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord have been recognized recently. Nevertheless all the new pathways seem to belong to one of three motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). This survey gives an overvieuw of the pathways belonging to the

  16. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars


    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system...

  17. Information on stepping motors (United States)

    Fongarland, G.


    The principles of the stepping motors which are often used in servomechanisms are reviewed. Variable reluctance as well as permanent magnet stepping motors are considered. Their operation is explained which includes permanent rotation, starting, stopping, and resonance effects. Several application examples, drawn from problems in automation, are outlined.

  18. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph


    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  19. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes


    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  20. Induction motor control (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.


    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  1. Induction motor control (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    machine tool systems wherever the existing production batch sizes and frequency of manufacture justifies it in a developing country. This is so mainly because numerically controlled (NC) ... Because the NC machine is an expensive item of equipment it is ... electric stepping motor is a very precise unit with. 10k ohms.

  3. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  4. The effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention in pre-schoolers with motor problems depends on gender but not environmental context. (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Descamps, Sofie; Verhoeven, Liesbeth; De Pooter, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; D'Hondt, Eva


    This study evaluated the effect of a 10-week fundamental motor skill programme in pre-schoolers with motor problems. Alongside the general effect of the intervention, we also explored possible gender differences and the role of the environmental context (living community, socio-economic status, and recreational space inside/outside the house). The intervention group (n=47; 20 ♂ and 27 ♀) received twenty 60-min motor skill sessions (2 per week) in addition to the regular physical education curriculum for pre-schoolers; the control group (n=46; 21 ♂ and 25 ♀) did not receive additional practice. General motor competence, and locomotor and object control subscales, were assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition (TGMD-2). Data regarding environmental factors were gathered through a questionnaire. A Group×Gender×Time ANOVA revealed that the intervention group benefited significantly from the intervention and scored better than the control group at the post-test for general motor competence and both sub-categories (locomotor and object control skill). Moreover, the intervention programme was found to be effective in helping 49% of the intervention group to achieve an average motor skill level, according to the TGMD-2 norms, while a further decline in motor competence was observed in the control group. Interestingly, the effect appeared to be gender-specific, since object control skill improved only in girls of the intervention group. Considering the environmental context, none of the above-mentioned factors was found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the intervention. The present study highlights the need for an early motor skill programme with a gender-specific approach in order to help low skilled boys and girls master a diverse set of motor skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  6. Examining the Role of Predictor Variables of Mental Health and Personality Subscales in Internet Addiction of Students in Medical and non-Medical Universities of Sanandaj in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Salahian


    Full Text Available Background and objective: According to the high and increasing prevalence of internet addiction, and the fact that little research has been done on the predictors of internet addiction in Iran, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of predictor variables of mental health and personality subscales in internet addiction of students in medical and non-medical universities of Sanandaj in 2014. Methods: The Method of this research was correlation and the statistical population were all of medical and non-medical students of Sanandaj Universities in 2014. In this study, 250 students (125 female and 125 male, were randomly selected, and completed the checklist of mental health symptoms, NEO personality questionnaire, and internet addiction questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation, stepwise regression, and T test by SPSS software version 20. Results: The results indicated that obsession-compulsion, openness, consciousness, aggression and somatization subscales had predictor roles in internet addiction, and totally 51 percent of variances predicted the internet addiction (F=29.97; P=0.001. Conclusion: The internet addiction of university students is dependent upon their mental health and personality, and one can predict the internet addiction of students via subscales of mental health and personality.

  7. Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S (United States)

    Rønningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils


    Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

  8. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert


    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  9. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo


    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  10. Motor Carrier Crash Data - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  11. Molecular motors: Dynein's gearbox. (United States)

    Cross, R A


    A new optical trapping study shows that the stepsize of cytoplasmic dynein varies according to the applied force, suggesting that this motor can change gear. Complementary biochemical kinetic work on yeast dynein mutants hints at the allosteric mechanisms involved.

  12. Comparison of the sensitivity to change of the Functional Independence Measure with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills within different rehabilitation populations. (United States)

    Choo, Silvana X; Stratford, Paul; Richardson, Julie; Bosch, Jackie; Pettit, Susan M; Ansley, Barbara J; Harris, Jocelyn E


    To determine whether there was a difference in the sensitivity to change of the subscales of the Functional Independence Measure and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills within three different post-acute inpatient rehabilitation populations. We conducted retrospective chart review of patients consecutively admitted to inpatient rehabilitation units, with both admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills scores. A total of 276 participants were included and categorized into diagnostic groups (orthopedic, oncology, and geriatric). Within group, sensitivity to change was evaluated for the subscales of each measure by calculating the difference in standardized response means (SRM) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Functional Independence Measure motor subscale was more sensitive to change than the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills in the orthopedic and geriatric groups (SRMdifference = 1.53 [95% CI 0.93, 2.3] and 0.65 [95% CI 0.3, 1.02], respectively) but not in the oncology group (SRMdifference = 0.42 [95% CI -0.2, 1.04]). For the cognitive subscales, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was more sensitive to change than the Functional Independence Measure in all three groups (SRMdifference = 0.38 [95% CI 004, 0.74], 0.65 [95% CI 0.45, 0.90], and 1.15 [95% CI 0.77, 1.69] for orthopedic, geriatric, and oncology, respectively). The Functional Independence Measure is a mandated measure for all rehabilitation units in Canada. As the cognitive subscale of the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills is more sensitive to change than the Functional Independence Measure, we recommend also administering the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills to better detect changes in the cognitive aspect of function. Implications for rehabilitation When deciding between the Functional Independence Measure or the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, it is important to consider whether patients

  13. Diagnostic method for induction motor using simplified motor simulator


    Doumae, Yukihiro; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun; Asada, Hideki; Kitamura, Akira


    In this paper, an identification method of motor parameters for the diagnosis of rotor bar defects in the squirrel cage induction motor is proposed. It is difficult to distinguish the degree of deterioration by a conventional diagnostic method such as Fourier analysis. To overcome the difficulty, a motor simulator is used to identify the degree of deterioration of rotors in the squirrel cage induction motor. Using this method, the deterioration of rotor bars in the motor can be estimated quan...

  14. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH


    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  15. Aluminum Agglomeration and Trajectory in Solid Rocket Motors (United States)


    agglomerates coming off the surface of a burning propellant. These methods include film studies 6, quench particles combustion bomb (QPCB) devices similar...34the stepwise oxidation of aluminum (that) is caused by the sequence of polymorphic phase transitions occurring in the growing oxide film ",2 5 . 25... cinematography data from China Lake. Task 2.2, Aluminum Agglomeration Model Selection (SEA/BYU/ATK Task) Part of the model selection task has already been

  16. An Investigation of Particulate Behavior in Solid Rocket Motors (United States)


    together with corresponding pictures taken with the high- speed cinematography method. The latter were obtained from the films taken by Diloreto [Ref...High-Speed Cinematography Metallized Propellants Holography Light Scattering 20. AT~tFT (C.U50us on Fever aide if ft oGo. IF d Ids t I- I IO 1101...Page I. INTRODUCTION ---------------------------------- 10 II. -METHOD OF INVESTIGATION ----------------------- 19 III. HIGH-SPEED CINEMATOGRAPHY

  17. Design Methods in Solid Rocket Motors. Revised Version 1988 (United States)


    souleves par l’evaluation des caracteristiques en vieillissement , l’assurance de la qualite et la verification des marges de securite. 3.4. Conception et...2.2.2 VIEILLISSEMENT Chaque sp~cimen fabriqu~ doit ~tre capable d’assurer ses fonctions avec une probabilit~ sup~rieure A une valeur minimale lors de

  18. Modeling of Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (United States)


    techniques required to deal with such discontinuities are discussed in Sections 2.5 and 6.4. Ihe inclusion of end burning effects does not require any...provide a vent time of approximately 20% of the period of the fundamento acoustic mode of the chamber. By varying the design of the pulser, it is possible

  19. Controllable Solid Propulsion Combustion and Acoustic Knowledge Base Improvements (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel; Fischbach, Sean; Fredrick, Robert


    Controllable solid propulsion systems have distinctive combustion and acoustic environments that require enhanced testing and analysis techniques to progress this new technology from development to production. In a hot gas valve actuating system, the movement of the pintle through the hot gas exhibits complex acoustic disturbances and flow characteristics that can amplify induced pressure loads that can damage or detonate the rocket motor. The geometry of a controllable solid propulsion gas chamber can set up unique unsteady flow which can feed acoustic oscillations patterns that require characterization. Research in this area aids in the understanding of how best to design, test, and analyze future controllable solid rocket motors using the lessons learned from past government programs as well as university research and testing. This survey paper will give the reader a better understanding of the potentially amplifying affects propagated by a controllable solid rocket motor system and the knowledge of the tools current available to address these acoustic disturbances in a preliminary design. Finally the paper will supply lessons learned from past experiences which will allow the reader to come away with understanding of what steps need to be taken when developing a controllable solid rocket propulsion system. The focus of this survey will be on testing and analysis work published by solid rocket programs and from combustion and acoustic books, conference papers, journal articles, and additionally from subject matter experts dealing currently with controllable solid rocket acoustic analysis.

  20. Electric vehicle motors and controllers (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.


    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  1. Effectiveness of autogenic training in improving motor performances in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Ajimsha, M S; Majeed, Nisar A; Chinnavan, Elanchezhian; Thulasyammal, Ramiah Pillai


    Relaxation training can be an important adjunct in reducing symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Autogenic Training (AT) is a simple, easily administered and inexpensive technique for retraining the mind and the body to be able to relax. AT uses visual imagery and body awareness to promote a state of deep relaxation. To investigate whether AT when used as an adjunct to Physiotherapy (PT) improves motor performances in PD in comparison with a control group receiving PT alone. Randomized, controlled, single blinded trial. Movement Disorder Clinic and Department of Physiotherapy, Sree Chithira Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology in Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Patients with PD of grade 2 or 3 of Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale (N = 66). AT group or control group. The techniques were administered by Physiotherapists trained in AT and consisted of 40 sessions per patient over 8 weeks. Motor score subscale of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used to measure the motor performances. The primary outcome measure was the difference in Motor score subscale of UPDRS scores between Week 1 (pretest score), Week 8 (posttest score), and follow-up at Week 12 after randomization. The simple main effects analysis showed that the AT group performed better than the control group in weeks 8 and 12 (P < .005). Patients in the AT and control groups reported a 51.78% and 35.24% improvement, respectively, in their motor performances in Week 8 compared with that in Week 1, which persisted, in the follow-up (Week 12) as 30.82% in the AT group and 21.42% in the control group. This study provides evidence that AT when used as an adjunct to PT is more effective than PT alone in improving motor performances in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospective study on cost-effectiveness of home-based motor assessment in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Cubo, E; Mariscal, N; Solano, B; Becerra, V; Armesto, D; Calvo, S; Arribas, J; Seco, J; Martinez, A; Zorrilla, L; Heldman, D


    Introduction Treatment adjustments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are in part dependent on motor assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of home-based motor monitoring plus standard in-office visits versus in-office visits alone in patients with advanced PD. Methods The procedures consisted of a prospective, one-year follow-up, randomized, case-control study. A total of 40 patients with advanced PD were randomized into two groups: 20 patients underwent home-based motor monitoring by using wireless motion sensor technology, while the other 20 patients had in-office visits. Motor and non-motor symptom severities, quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and comorbidities were assessed every four months. Direct costs were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Both groups of PD patients were largely comparable in their clinical and demographic variables at baseline; however, there were more participants using levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel in the home-based motor monitoring group. There was a trend for lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale functional status (UPDRS II) scores in the patients monitored at home compared to the standard clinical follow-up ( p = 0.06). However, UPDRS parts I, III, IV and quality-adjusted life-years scores were similar between both groups. Home-based motor monitoring was cost-effective in terms of improvement of functional status, motor severity, and motor complications (UPDRS II, III; IV subscales), with an ICER/UPDRS ranging from €126.72 to €701.31, respectively. Discussion Home-based motor monitoring is a tool which collects cost-effective clinical information and helps augment health care for patients with advanced PD.

  3. Scale effects on quasi-steady solid rocket internal ballistic behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greatrix, D. R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B2K3 (Canada)


    The ability to predict with some accuracy a given solid rocket motor's performance before undertaking one or several costly experimental test firings is important. On the numerical prediction side, as various component models evolve, their incorporation into an overall internal ballistics simulation program allows for new motor firing simulations to take place, which in turn allows for updated comparisons to experimental firing data. In the present investigation, utilizing an updated simulation program, the focus is on quasi-steady performance analysis and scale effects (influence of motor size). The predicted effects of negative/positive erosive burning and propellant/casing deflection, as tied to motor size, on a reference cylindrical-grain motor's internal ballistics, are included in this evaluation. Propellant deflection has only a minor influence on the reference motor's internal ballistics, regardless of motor size. Erosive burning, on the other hand, is distinctly affected by motor scale. (author)

  4. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor. (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis


    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications.

  5. Self-Harm Subscale of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP): Predicting Suicide Attempts Over 8 Years of Follow-Up (United States)

    Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Walsh, Zach; Edelen, Maria O.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Markowitz, John C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Morey, Leslie C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.


    Objective We examined the predictive power of the self-harm subscale of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) to identify suicide attempters in the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (CLPS). Method The SNAP, a self-report personality inventory, was administered to 733 CLPS participants at baseline, of whom 701 (96%) had at least 6 months of follow-up data. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to examine the SNAP–self-harm subscale (SNAP-SH) in predicting the 129 suicide attempters over 8 years of follow-up. Possible moderators of prediction were examined, including borderline personality disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance use disorder. We also compared baseline administration of the SNAP-SH to subsequent administrations more proximal to the suicide attempt, and to a higher-order SNAP-negative temperament (SNAP-NT) subscale. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted using suicide attempts (n = 58) over the first year of follow-up to provide reference points for sensitivity and specificity. Results The SNAP-SH demonstrated good predictive power for suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 1.28, P < .001) and appeared relatively consistent across borderline personality disorder, MDD, and substance use disorder diagnoses. Using more proximal scores did not increase predictive power. The SNAP-SH compared favorably to the predictive power of the higher-order SNAP-NT. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicate several cutoff scores on the SNAP-SH that yield moderate to high sensitivity and specificity for predicting suicide attempts over the first year of follow-up. Conclusions The SNAP-SH may be a useful screening instrument for risk of suicide attempts in nonpsychotic psychiatric patients. PMID:21294991

  6. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing (United States)

    Rogers, C. J.


    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  7. Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Function in Phenylketonuria: Psychometric Properties of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Inattention Subscale in Phenylketonuria. (United States)

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash


    Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales

  8. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression. (United States)

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André


    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  9. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)


    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  10. Solar panel driven air purging apparatus for motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobier, J.A.; Brown, G.E.


    This patent describes improvement in a motor vehicle having an enclosable cabin an internal combustion engine, a battery, an ignition switch having an on position for enabling the internal combustion engine and an off position, an electric motor coupled in driving relationship with an air circulating fan for circulating air through the cabin. The improvement comprises: a solar panel mounted upon the vehicle having a panel output exhibiting variable voltage levels including a peak voltage level and substantially constant current; a power transfer regulator for transferring power form the panel to the motor when enabled, including: energy storage means connectable across the panel output and chargeable by the current to variable charge levels; solid-state switch means connected in energy transfer relationship with the energy storage means and actuable between conducting and non-conducting states when the power transfer regulator is enabled; inductor means connected with the solid-state switch means and connectable with the electric motor for conveying current thereto from the panel and the energy storage means when the solid-state switch means is in the conducting state.

  11. The comparison of performances of preschool children on two motor assessments. (United States)

    Logan, S Wood; Robinson, Leah E; Getchell, Nancy


    Understanding children's motor performance on different assessments is important for researchers. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) are motor assessments that use either a process- or product-oriented scoring approach. However, no studies have examined how performances are related to these two types of assessment. This study compared the performance of preschool children on the TGMD-2 and the MABC-2. 32 children (M age = 4.2 yr., SD = 9) completed each test to assess whether each described motor performance similarly. Significant low to moderate Spearman's rank correlations (r2 range = .13-.40) were found between the subscales of the assessments. A related-samples Wilcoxon signed rank test was not significant between total performances on the TGMD-2 and MABC-2. From a practical standpoint, each assessment provides a similar overall description of motor competence in preschool children. However, each assessment results in scores that present different information about motor performance.

  12. Solid rocket technology advancement for Space Tug and IUS applications. [Interim Upper Stage (United States)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.


    Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.

  13. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George


    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  14. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei


    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  15. A Nonlinear Dynamic Subscale Model for Partially Resolved Numerical Simulation (PRNS)/Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) of Internal Non-Reacting Flows (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey


    A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.

  16. Association between somatization subscale score and serotonin transporter availability in healthy volunteers--a single photon emission computed tomography study with [¹²³I] ADAM. (United States)

    Chou, Ming Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Lee, I Hui; Yao, Wei Jen; Chen, Po See; Chang, Kang-Wei; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Yang, Yen Kuang


    Serotonin is one of the key neuromodulators involved in fundamental cerebral functions and behaviors. Previous study has demonstrated that somatization symptoms are probably associated with central serotonergic circuits, which are implicated in anxiety and nociception regulation. This study aims to examine the correlation between somatization subscale score and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in healthy volunteers. Sixty-four healthy participants, 26 males and 38 females, were enrolled from the community and were administered the single somatization subscale of the Chinese symptom checklist 90 revised (SCL90-R). Single photon emission computed tomography with [(123)I] 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine was also performed to examine SERT availability. The somatization scores were negatively correlated with SERT availability (Spearman's ρ = -0.35, p = 0.005), particularly in males (Spearman's ρ = -0.54, p = 0.004). This result reconfirmed the correlation between central serotonergic activity and the intensity of somatization symptoms, even in healthy participants. However, a gender difference exists in this correlation.

  17. Observed Agreement Problems between Sub-Scales and Summary Components of the SF-36 Version 2 - An Alternative Scoring Method Can Correct the Problem (United States)

    Tucker, Graeme; Adams, Robert; Wilson, David


    Purpose A number of previous studies have shown inconsistencies between sub-scale scores and component summary scores using traditional scoring methods of the SF-36 version 1. This study addresses the issue in Version 2 and asks if the previous problems of disagreement between the eight SF-36 Version 1 sub-scale scores and the Physical and Mental Component Summary persist in version 2. A second study objective is to review the recommended scoring methods for the creation of factor scoring weights and the effect on producing summary scale scores Methods The 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey dataset was used for the production of coefficients. There were 3,014 observations with full data for the SF-36. Data were analysed in LISREL V8.71. Confirmatory factor analysis models were fit to the data producing diagonally weighted least squares estimates. Scoring coefficients were validated on an independent dataset, the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Problems of agreement were observed with the recommended orthogonal scoring methods which were corrected using confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions Confirmatory factor analysis is the preferred method to analyse SF-36 data, allowing for the correlation between physical and mental health. PMID:23593428

  18. Examining unidimensionality and improving reliability for the eight subscales of the SF-36 in opioid-dependent patients using Rasch analysis. (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yu, Wan-Hui; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsi; Hsieh, Ching-Lin


    The Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most commonly used questionnaires for monitoring the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of opioid-dependent patients. However, the unidimensionality and reliability of the SF-36 have not been verified in opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study was to examine the unidimensionality and to improve the test reliability of the SF-36 for use in opioid-dependent patients. A total of 583 opioid-dependent patients were recruited in the study. Unidimensionality was examined by conducting unidimensional Rasch analysis. Item fit statistics and principle component analysis were used to check the item-model fit in each of the eight subscales of the SF-36. Reliability was evaluated by applying both unidimensional and multidimensional Rasch analyses. After three misfitting items were excluded, the remaining items of each subscale in the SF-36 represented a single construct. The test reliabilities (0.80-0.87) yielded by the multidimensional approach were much higher than those (0.68-0.82) produced by the unidimensional approach. The remaining 32 items of the SF-36 are appropriate for evaluating the HRQOL in opioid-dependent patients in terms of unidimensionality. Additionally, the test scores produced by the multidimensional approach were more accurate than those obtained by the unidimensional approach.

  19. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index (United States)


    Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’) was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption. PMID:22935297

  20. Clinical meaningfulness of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale change in relation to goal attainment in patients on cholinesterase inhibitors. (United States)

    Rockwood, Kenneth; Howlett, Susan E; Hoffman, Deborah; Schindler, Rachel; Mitnitski, Arnold


    The clinical meaningfulness of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) subscale change is disputed. We compared 2- to 4-point ADAS-Cog changes with changes in Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) and everyday function across initial ADAS-Cog scores and treatment responses. This exploratory analysis evaluated mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease patients treated with donepezil (12 months) or galantamine (8 months). Clinical meaningfulness was defined as concomitant ADAS-Cog and GAS changes of ±3 points and/or functional improvement. Patients with ≥3-point ADAS-Cog improvement significantly improved on GAS but not on standard tests of everyday function. ADAS-Cog "no change" (≤±3 points) was seen with mean GAS improvement. Initial ADAS-Cog improvement made endpoint improvement (ADAS-Cog 3 points and GAS 1 point) more likely (odds ratio = 6.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.5-19.5). In contrast, initial deterioration made endpoint improvement unlikely (0.33; 0.14-0.64). ADAS-Cog improvement and no change were each associated with GAS improvement. Initial ADAS-Cog worsening was unlikely to result in later improvement. ISRCTN26167328. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler memory scale – third edition (WMS-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Nicole Lamb


    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC, respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III. COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e. met carriers relative to val homozygotes was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  2. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index. (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan


    The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy-balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). A four-item automaticity subscale (the 'Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index'; 'SRBAI') was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  3. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  4. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  5. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b) The...

  6. Aprendizaje y desarrollo motor


    Guillén Guillén, Eva I.


    El desarrollo evolutivo general del niño/a en relación con los procesos de maduración motora, procesos de aprendizaje y desarrollo motor. Técnicas de aprendizaje. Técnica de solución de conflictos. Balances musculares.

  7. Spherically Actuated Motor (United States)

    Peeples, Steven


    A three degree of freedom (DOF) spherical actuator is proposed that will replace functions requiring three single DOF actuators in robotic manipulators providing space and weight savings while reducing the overall failure rate. Exploration satellites, Space Station payload manipulators, and rovers requiring pan, tilt, and rotate movements need an actuator for each function. Not only does each actuator introduce additional failure modes and require bulky mechanical gimbals, each contains many moving parts, decreasing mean time to failure. A conventional robotic manipulator is shown in figure 1. Spherical motors perform all three actuation functions, i.e., three DOF, with only one moving part. Given a standard three actuator system whose actuators have a given failure rate compared to a spherical motor with an equal failure rate, the three actuator system is three times as likely to fail over the latter. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory reliability studies of NASA robotic spacecraft have shown that mechanical hardware/mechanism failures are more frequent and more likely to significantly affect mission success than are electronic failures. Unfortunately, previously designed spherical motors have been unable to provide the performance needed by space missions. This inadequacy is also why they are unavailable commercially. An improved patentable spherically actuated motor (SAM) is proposed to provide the performance and versatility required by NASA missions.

  8. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SENBIL


    Full Text Available Motorization in terms of passenger cars in 14 Asian countries and passenger cars and motorcycles in three metropolitan areas are analyzed in this study. Using country-based data which cover 20 years (1980–2000, a linear regression is conducted by panel estimation with random and fixed effects. As a result from the model, fixed income elasticity for the region was found to be 1.75. Fixed effect estimated separately for each country characterizes the motorization pace in the countries. Two groups of countries were detected with a significant difference in motorization paces—Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Philippines, Pakistan, Indonesia and Thailand have motorization paces higher than the rest of the countries. Additionally, using a cross-sectional data household car and motorcycle ownerships were analyzed for three metropolitan areas characterizing South-East Asia that are Jabotabek (Indonesia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia and Manila (Philippines metropolitan areas. Results indicate that ownership of cars and motorcycles are independent of each other in Jabotabek and Manila, but negatively correlated in Kuala Lumpur; and generally, income is more influential on car ownership than motorcycle ownership.

  10. Rocket Motor Joint Construction Including Thermal Barrier (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr. (Inventor)


    A thermal barrier for extremely high temperature applications consists of a carbon fiber core and one or more layers of braided carbon fibers surrounding the core. The thermal barrier is preferably a large diameter ring, having a relatively small cross-section. The thermal barrier is particularly suited for use as part of a joint structure in solid rocket motor casings to protect low temperature elements such as the primary and secondary elastomeric O-ring seals therein from high temperature gases of the rocket motor. The thermal barrier exhibits adequate porosity to allow pressure to reach the radially outward disposed O-ring seals allowing them to seat and perform the primary sealing function. The thermal barrier is disposed in a cavity or groove in the casing joint, between the hot propulsion gases interior of the rocket motor and primary and secondary O-ring seals. The characteristics of the thermal barrier may be enhanced in different applications by the inclusion of certain compounds in the casing joint, by the inclusion of RTV sealant or similar materials at the site of the thermal barrier, and/or by the incorporation of a metal core or plurality of metal braids within the carbon braid in the thermal barrier structure.

  11. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska


    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  12. Effect of motor limitations on the expression of aggressiveness among adolescents. (United States)

    Tripković, Mara; Matijević, Valentina; Marković, Hrvoje; Ercegovi, Nela


    This study examined how motor limitations in terms of reduced possibilities to move influence aggression, starting from the fact that motor skills and movement have an important place in the expression of aggression, as well as the tendency of adolescents to "body language". Adolescent with motor deficit is hindered in gaining experience of one's own body, which is reflected in the formation of complete experience of himself, or constitution of the self. In many of the functions of motor skills and movement aggression has a significant place that we wanted to determine without deeper analysis of whether the origin of aggression is instinctive or it is always just the result of frustration. The sample on which testing was performed consisted of 100 randomly selected subjects of both genders aged 16-18 years. Fifty subjects had motor limitations due to illness or injury, and another fifty subjects had intact motor functions. The study used three instruments: 1) A-87 questionnaire for aggressiveness examination; 2) structured interview; and 3) protocol for observation under natural conditions. Results of the analysis of data obtained in total score, as well as in all five subscales of the A-87 questionnaire for aggressiveness examination showed that the two groups were not significantly different. The results obtained by structured interview showed the adolescents with motor limitations to demonstrate greater verbal aggressiveness, then latent physical aggressiveness. A statistically significant between-group difference was obtained on the factor of self-destructiveness, which implies that adolescents with motor limitations are somewhat more self-destructive compared to those in control group. From the results obtained by the protocol for systematic observation in natural conditions, it was evident that there were significant differences on most of perceptual conducts between control and experimental group, whereby adolescents with motor limitations were more

  13. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies


    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G.; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit


    Objective: To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Methods: Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  15. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report. (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  16. Synthesis of functionalized molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Wiel, MKJ; Feringa, BL


    Synthetic routes to two molecular motors are reported. The sterically hindered central olefinic bond connecting the two halves of these C,symmetric molecules was prepared by a McMurry reaction. In this way, a motor with two five-membered rings and a motor with two six-membered rings were prepared,

  17. Brushless direct-current motors (United States)

    Bahm, E. J.


    Survey results are presented on the use of unconventional motor windings and switching sequences to optimize performance of brushless dc motors. A motor was built, each coil terminal having a separate, accessible lead. With the shaft and all electronics excluded, length and outside diameter measured 1.25 and 0.75 in., respectively.

  18. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald


    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  19. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert


    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  20. Modeling solid-to-solid biocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.J.F.


    In this thesis, a kinetic model is described for the conversion of solid Ca-maleate to solid Ca-D-malate. The reaction is catalysed by maleate hydratase in permeabilized Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and is executed in a batch reactor seeded

  1. Inter- and Intrarater Reliabilities of the Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition Among Experienced TGMD-2 Raters. (United States)

    Maeng, Hyokju; Webster, E Kipling; Pitchford, E Andrew; Ulrich, Dale A


    The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intrarater reliabilities of the Test of Gross Motor Development-third edition (TGMD-3). The TGMD-3 was administered to 10 typically developing children. Five raters with experience using the Test of Gross Motor Development-second edition (TGMD-2) scored the digitally recorded performances and then rescored the same performances after a period of 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to examine both inter- and intrarater reliabilities of scores. Interrater reliability for the total score, locomotor subscale, and ball skills subscale (ICC: 0.92-0.96) were all excellent, while individual skills (ICC: 0.51-0.93) had fair-to-excellent reliability. Intrarater reliability across all raters was also excellent (ICC: 0.77-0.98) but varied widely for individual raters (ICC: 0.28-1.00) including multiple examples of poor reliability. While raters experienced with the TGMD-2 can produce consistent scores for TGMD-3 total scale and subscales, additional training is needed to improve skill-specific reliability.

  2. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern. (United States)

    Wenning, Angela; Norris, Brian J; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L


    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Comparative, validity and responsiveness of the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS to the WOMAC physical function subscale in total joint replacement for osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the internal consistency of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (HOOS-PS) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (KOOS-PS) in total hip replacement (THR) and total knee (TKR) replacement....... Construct validity and responsiveness were compared to the Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Likert 3.0 physical function (PF) subscale and the PF excluding the items in the short measures (PF-exclusions). METHODS: Participants completed the full HOOS or KOOS, measures...... of fatigue, anxiety, depression and the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) pre-surgery and the HOOS or KOOS 6 months post-surgery. Internal consistency for the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. For construct validity, it was hypothesized that correlations between the HOOS-PS or KOOS-PS and PF...

  4. Validity of the definite and semidefinite questionnaire version of the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Hamilton subscale and the Melancholia Scale. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Bent; Bech, Per


    , and their corresponding definite versions of the self-rating questionnaires DMQ and DHAM6 were accepted by the Rasch analysis, and only these four valid scales discriminated significantly between the effect of citalopram and placebo treatment. Our results are limited to patients with moderate depression. Two new self......-reporting versions (definitely and semidefinitely anchored) corresponding to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Subscale (HAM6), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were compared to each other and the clinician-rated version. The unidimensional property of the sum score in each scale...... was tested by the item-response theory model ad modum Rasch. The scales were also tested for their sensitivity to discriminate between placebo and citalopram therapy. The sum scores and the sum score variances of the definite self-rating versions did not differ significantly from the sum scores...

  5. Evidence That the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) Subscales Should Not Be Scored: Bifactor Modelling, Reliability, and Validity in Clinical and Community Samples. (United States)

    Raykos, Bronwyn; Erceg-Hurn, David; McEvoy, Peter; Byrne, Susan M


    The Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA 3.0) is the most widely used instrument assessing psychosocial impairment secondary to eating disorder symptoms. However, there is conflicting advice regarding the dimensionality and optimal method of scoring the CIA. We sought to resolve this confusion by conducting a comprehensive factor analytic study of the CIA in a community sample ( N = 301) and clinical sample comprising patients with a diagnosed eating disorder ( N = 209). Convergent and discriminant validity were also assessed. The CIA and measures of eating disorder symptoms were administered to both samples. Factor analyses indicated there is a general impairment factor underlying all items on the CIA that is reliably measured by the CIA Global score. CIA Global demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. CIA Global is a reliable and valid measure of psychosocial impairment secondary to eating disorder symptoms; however, subscale scores should not be computed.

  6. Motor fuel prices in Turkey


    Erdogdu, Erkan


    The world’s most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsi...

  7. The human motor corpus callosum. (United States)

    Wahl, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf


    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter fiber bundle to connect the two hemispheres of the brain. It is thought to be essential for interhemispheric transfer of information. The motor CC is that part of the CC which connects the primary motor cortices. Relatively little is known, in particular in humans, about where these fibers are located in the CC, what their function is, and how the structure of the motor CC relates to its function. This review surveys current knowledge about the human motor CC, with a focus on recent studies which assessed the motor CC by multimodal advanced neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques.

  8. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy. (United States)

    Leontjevas, Ruslan; Evers-Stephan, Alexandra; Smalbrugge, Martin; Pot, Anne Margriet; Thewissen, Viviane; Gerritsen, Debby L; Koopmans, Raymond T C M


    To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. Cross-sectional design. Nursing home. 100 residents of 4 dementia special care units (n = 58) and 3 somatic units (n = 42). Primary professional caregivers were interviewed to score the AES-10 and NPIa. The elderly care physician and the psychologist of each unit examined residents for clinical apathy using diagnostic criteria. The AES-10 and NPIa correlated moderately with each other (r(s) = 0.62, P AES-10 correlated weakly (r(s) = 0.27, P = .024) and the NPIa moderately (r(s) = 0.46, P = .001) with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.72 (P AES-10 and 0.67 (P AES-10 produced higher sums of sensitivity and negative predictive value than the NPIa. Explorative analyses revealed that both instruments produced higher scores in dementia independently of having an apathy diagnosis, whereas AUCs were significant in nondementia (AES-10: AUC = 0.88, P AES-10 and NPIa may be used to distinguish apathetic from nonapathetic residents in a heterogeneous sample with and without dementia, or in residents without dementia. The AES-10 may be preferable to the NPIa apathy subscale when ruling out or screening for apathy. The performance of the scales against diagnostic criteria of apathy in dementia need to be further examined. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM


    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  10. Libert-E Motor (United States)

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph


    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  11. 350 KVA motor generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Each logic circuit in the central computers consumes only a fraction of a watt: however, the final load constituted by many such circuits plus peripheral equipment is nearly half a million watts. Shown here are two 350 KVA motor generators used to convert 50 Hz mains to 60 Hz (US standard). Flywheels on the M.G. shafts remove power dropouts of up to 0.5 s.

  12. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  13. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)


    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  14. Organic and Related Solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Organic solid state is a fascinating area of current research. The design of such solids follows the well laid principles based on inter-molecular interactions and establishes the relationships between the structures of a molecular solid and its properties. The term. 'Crystal Engineering' is now well-established in the ...

  15. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test of Children's Gross Motor Skills. (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wu, Hing-Man; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin


    To (1) develop a computerized adaptive test for gross motor skills (GM-CAT) as a diagnostic test and an outcome measure, using the gross motor skills subscale of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT-GM) as the candidate item bank; and (2) examine the psychometric properties and the efficiency of the GM-CAT. Retrospective study. A developmental center of a medical center. Children with and without developmental delay (N=1738). Not applicable. The CDIIT-GM contains 56 universal items on gross motor skills assessing children's antigravity control, locomotion, and body movement coordination. The item bank of the GM-CAT had 44 items that met the dichotomous Rasch model's assumptions. High Rasch person reliabilities were found for each estimated gross motor skill for the GM-CAT (Rasch person reliabilities =.940-.995, SE=.68-2.43). For children aged 6 to 71 months, the GM-CAT had good concurrent validity (r values =.97-.98), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristics curve =.80-.98), and moderate to large responsiveness (effect size =.65-5.82). The averages of items administered for the GM-CAT were 7 to 11, depending on the age group. The results of this study support the use of the GM-CAT as a diagnostic and outcome measure to estimate children's gross motor skills in both research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical evaluation of thermodynamic design procedures for rocket motor igniters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Knoetze


    Full Text Available There are different methods that can be used for the thermodynamic design of igniters for solid rocket motors. These methods are mostly empirically based and can easily lead to an under-designed or over-designed igniter. The best-known methods are the free volume method, the surface area method, the critical pressure, the Bryan-Lawrence equation, the ignition delay-free volume method, the mass discharge coefficient method and the heat flux method.

  17. Scale effects on solid rocket combustion instability behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greatrix, D. R. [Ryerson University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    The ability to understand and predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. A numerical model incorporating pertinent elements, such as a representative transient, frequency-dependent combustion response to pressure wave activity above the burning propellant surface, is applied to the investigation of scale effects (motor size, i.e., grain length and internal port diameter) on influencing instability-related behaviour in a cylindrical-grain motor. The results of this investigation reveal that the motor's size has a significant influence on transient pressure wave magnitude and structure, and on the appearance and magnitude of an associated base pressure rise. (author)

  18. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R


    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  19. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves AGENCY: Nuclear... for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves.'' This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to... devices that are integral with the motor starter for electric motors on motor-operated valves. ADDRESSES...

  20. Interference in motor learning - is motor interference sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards, but not all motor activities cause interference. After all it is not necessary to remain completely still after practicing a task for learning to occur. Here we ask which...... mechanisms determine whether or not interference occurs. We hypothesised that interference requires the same neural circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Early motor memory...... learning of the primary task, no interference was observed. Previous studies have suggested that primary motor cortex (M1) may be involved in early motor memory consolidation. 1Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below ankle movement threshold...

  1. High-power downhole motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C.; Evans, C.R. [Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Westcott, P.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)


    New high power motors are being developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in an attempt to reduce drilling costs in deep gas wells. Conventional 2 3/8-in. (60-mm) and 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motors operated in overpowered conditions (i.e., high flow rates and high differential pressures) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. A new high-power 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor is being developed that utilizes additional stages and tighter interference between the rotor and stator to increase motor pressure drop, torque, and power output. This new high-power motor delivers up to 238 hp (177 kW) compared to 50 hp (37 kW) for a conventional 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor operating at rated operating conditions. Temperature probes showed that temperatures in different stages of motors vary considerably, showing that some sections do more work than others. A better understanding of temperatures within the stators is needed because thermal degradation and ``chunking`` of the rubber is a leading cause of failures in motors operating at high power levels. These tests were very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of developing reliable, high-power motors.

  2. Developmental profile and diagnoses in children presenting with motor stereotypies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cardona


    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor stereotypies represent a typical example of the difficulty in distinguishing non-clinical behaviors (physiological and transient from symptoms or among different disorders (primary stereotypies, associated with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD, Intellectual Disabilities, genetic syndromes, sensory impairment. The aim of this study was to obtain an accurate assessment on the relationship between stereotypies and neurodevelopmental disorders.Methods: We studied 23 children (3 girls aged 36 to 95 months, who requested a consultation due to the persistence or increased severity of motor stereotypies. None of patients had a previous diagnosis of ASD. The assessment included the Motor Severity Stereotypy Scale (MSSS, the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R, the Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM, the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1 ½ -5 or 4-18 (CBCL, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule- Second edition (ADOS 2. Results: All patients were showing motor stereotypies for periods of time varying from 6 to 77 months. The MSSS showed each child had a limited number of stereotypies; their frequency and intensity were mild. The interference of stereotypies was variable; the impairment in daily life was mild. The RBS-R scores were positive for the subscale of Stereotypic behaviors in all children. Moreover, several children presented other repetitive behaviors, mainly Ritualistic behavior and Sameness behavior. All patients showed a normal cognitive level. The CBCL evidenced behavioral problems in 22% of the children: Internalizing problems, Attention and Withdrawn were the main complaints. On the SRS, all but one of the tested patients obtained clinical scores in the clinical range for at least one area. On the ADOS 2, four patients obtained scores indicating a moderate level of ASD symptoms, four had a mild level and fifteen showed no or minimal signs of ASD

  3. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor (United States)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan


    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  4. Adequate sizing and motor exploitation: Motor energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.


    Full Text Available Motor energy management includes adequate sizing, control and improvement of electric energy quality, i.e. voltage quality (reducing voltage unbalance and harmonics distortion, and the proper maintenance. The specific motor price per kW is approximately constant for motors rated from 5 kW to 20 kW. By adequate sizing, or by proper replacement of the old motor with the new one, with rated output power reduced by 20% to 50% the smaller motor will be also cheaper by 20% to 50%. When the 22 kW motor is replaced with the new 15 kW that costs 64% of the price of a new 22 kW motor, the efficiency is increased by 3.6% (Example in paper. On the basis of our investigation results, it is confirmed that there are significant possibilities for energy savings by setting voltage values within the ±5% voltage band (Un±5%, since more than 80% induction motors are under loaded (£70%, especially small and medium rated power (1-30 kW motors.

  5. Changes in Basic Movement Ability and Activities of Daily Living After Hip Fractures: Correlation Between Basic Movement Scale and Motor-Functional Independence Measure Scores. (United States)

    Toyama, Shogo; Sawada, Koshiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Mikami, Yasuo; Mori, Isamu; Takamuku, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Tai; Kubo, Toshikazu


    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between basic movement ability and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery and predict ADL outcomes from changes in basic movement ability. Fifty-four patients receiving rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery were collected prospectively. Ambulatory ability was evaluated using a Basic Movement Scale (BMS), and ADL was evaluated using the motor subscale of the Functional Independence Measure (motor-FIM). From the results of evaluating BMS and motor-FIM weekly, the important postoperative period to regain ADL was investigated. There was a close correlation between BMS and motor-FIM scores at each evaluation point (r = 0.971, P basic movement ability at POW 2 also reflected the prognosis, constructive interventions should be implemented early to help patients ambulate and regain other basic movements by no later than POW 2.

  6. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety (United States)


    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment...

  7. Control of synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul


    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  8. Bearingless switched reluctance motor (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)


    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  9. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley


    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  10. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor (United States)

    Vaidya, J. G.


    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  11. High-performance motor drives


    Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, José; Pérez, Marcelo; León Galván, José Ignacio


    This article reviews the present state and trends in the development of key parts of controlled induction motor drive systems: converter topologies, modulation methods, as well as control and estimation techniques. Two- and multilevel voltage-source converters, current-source converters, and direct converters are described. The main part of all the produced electric energy is used to feed electric motors, and the conversion of electrical power into mechanical power involves motors ranges from...

  12. Motor development of blind toddler


    Likar, Petra


    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  13. Motor cortical plasticity induced by motor learning through mental practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAvanzino


    Full Text Available Several investigations suggest that actual and mental actions trigger similar neural substrates. Motor learning via physical practice results in long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, whether this neuroplasticity process contributes to improve motor performance through mental practice remains to be determined. Here, we tested skill learning-dependent changes in primary motor cortex (M1 excitability and plasticity by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation in subjects trained to physically execute or mentally perform a sequence of finger opposition movements. Before and after physical practice and motor-imagery practice, M1 excitability was evaluated by measuring the input-output (IO curve of motor evoked potentials. M1 long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD-like plasticity was assessed with paired-associative stimulation (PAS of the median nerve and motor cortex using an interstimulus interval of 25 ms (PAS25 or 10 ms (PAS10, respectively. We found that even if after both practice sessions subjects significantly improved their movement speed, M1 excitability and plasticity were differentially influenced by the two practice sessions. First, we observed an increase in the slope of IO curve after physical but not after motor-imagery practice. Second, there was a reversal of the PAS25 effect from LTP-like plasticity to LTD-like plasticity following physical and motor-imagery practice. Third, LTD-like plasticity (PAS10 protocol increased after physical practice, whilst it was occluded after motor-imagery practice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that motor-imagery practice lead to the development of neuroplasticity, as it affected the PAS25- and PAS10- induced plasticity in M1. These results, expanding the current knowledge on how motor-imagery training shapes M1 plasticity, might have a potential impact in

  14. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun


    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  15. Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease - correlations with inflammatory cytokines in serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lindqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Motor symptoms are the focus of pharmacotherapy, yet non-motor features of the disease (e.g. fatigue, mood disturbances, sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety are both common and disabling for the patient. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the non-motor symptoms in PD are yet to be untangled. The main objective of this study was to investigate associations between pro-inflammatory substances and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL-6, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in blood samples from PD patients (n=86 and healthy controls (n=40. Symptoms of fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleeping difficulties were assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, and the Scales for Outcome in PD-Sleep Scale respectively. RESULTS: IL-6 was significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients displayed significantly higher mean scores on HAD and lower scores on FACIT, thus indicating more severe symptoms as measured with these scales. Within the PD sample, high levels of both sIL-2R and TNF-α were significantly associated with more severe symptoms assessed by means of FACIT and HAD (depression and anxiety subscales. SIL-2-R levels were able to significantly predict FACIT and HAD scores after the effects of age, gender, anti-parkinsonian medications, and severity of motor symptoms were controlled for. DISCUSSION: We suggest that non-motor symptoms in PD patients, such as fatigue and depressive symptoms, might be generated via inflammatory mechanisms. This knowledge might contribute to the development of novel treatment options in PD, specifically targeting non-motor symptoms.

  16. On Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.


    All liquid propellant rocket instability calculations in current use have limited value in the predictive sense and serve mainly as a correlating framework for the available data sets. The well-known n-t model first introduced by Crocco and Cheng in 1956 is still used as the primary analytical tool of this type. A multitude of attempts to establish practical analytical methods have achieved only limited success. These methods usually produce only stability boundary maps that are of little use in making critical design decisions in new motor development programs. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of combustion instability in solid propellant rockets"' provides a firm foundation for a new approach to prediction, diagnosis, and correction of the closely related problems in liquid motor instability. For predictive tools to be useful in the motor design process, they must have the capability to accurately determine: 1) time evolution of the pressure oscillations and limit amplitude, 2) critical triggering pulse amplitude, and 3) unsteady heat transfer rates at injector surfaces and chamber walls. The method described in this paper relates these critical motor characteristics directly to system design parameters. Inclusion of mechanisms such as wave steepening, vorticity production and transport, and unsteady detonation wave phenomena greatly enhance the representation of key features of motor chamber oscillatory behavior. The basic theoretical model is described and preliminary computations are compared to experimental data. A plan to develop the new predictive method into a comprehensive analysis tool is also described.

  17. Segmented motor drive - with multi-phase induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    to various sources bearing currents, which in worst case conditions can destroy the bearings, on a multi-phase motor can be reduced considerably by using special pulse wide modulation strategies. This topic is however not analyzed further in this thesis. A six-phase motor drive system is built...

  18. Motor power control circuit for ac induction motors (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)


    A motor power control of the type which functions by controlling the power factor wherein one of the parameters of power factor current on time is determined by the on time of a triac through which current is supplied to the motor. By means of a positive feedback circuit, a wider range of control is effected.

  19. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes. (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal


    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.


    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  1. Fewer study participants needed to demonstrate superior antidepressant efficacy when using the Hamilton melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) as outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bech, Per; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica


    Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item melanc...... questions addressed in this study.  Conclusions Both for ethical and financial reasons it is of interest to minimize the number of participants in clinical trials. Therefore, we suggest employing the HAM-D6 as outcome measure in clinical trials of depression.......Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item...... melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) may be more informative than other scales, due to its superior psychometric properties. In the present study we investigated whether the HAM-D6 had higher informativeness than the HAM-D17 based on data from a randomized...

  2. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) Final Report (United States)

    Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping


    NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve fuel efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.

  3. Sub-Scale Orion Parachute Test Results from the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- By 120-ft Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Anderson, Brian P.; Greathouse, James S.; Powell, Jessica M.; Ross, James C.; Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura; Porter, Barry J.; Goulding, Patrick W., II; Zwicker, Matthew L.; Mollmann, Catherine


    A two-week test campaign was conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80 x 120-ft Wind Tunnel in support of Orion parachute pendulum mitigation activities. The test gathered static aerodynamic data using an instrumented, 3-tether system attached to the parachute vent in combination with an instrumented parachute riser. Dynamic data was also gathered by releasing the tether system and measuring canopy performance using photogrammetry. Several canopy configurations were tested and compared against the current Orion parachute design to understand changes in drag performance and aerodynamic stability. These configurations included canopies with varying levels and locations of geometric porosity as well as sails with increased levels of fullness. In total, 37 runs were completed for a total of 392 data points. Immediately after the end of the testing campaign a down-select decision was made based on preliminary data to support follow-on sub-scale air drop testing. A summary of a more rigorous analysis of the test data is also presented.

  4. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y


    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  5. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann


    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  6. Near net shape forming unsing semi-solid metal forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G


    Full Text Available Cost of material same as standard casting alloys Semi-solid state achieved direct from liquid. Oxidation reduced – reduced oxide entrapment. Reduced loss of metal during reheating. SSM scrap can be recycled in house. Hydrogen... CYLINDERS •SUSPENSION ARMS •WHEELS •PISTONS •KNUCKELS •ENGINE MOUNTS •PULEYS •ROCKER ARMS •BELT COVERS •MOTOR HOUSINGS •SPACE FRAMES 2005 Thin walled structural parts in doors A-Pillar Door AUDI A3 2005 Rear seat cover BMW R 1200 C motor bike...

  7. Circuit changes in motor cortex during motor skill learning. (United States)

    Papale, Andrew E; Hooks, Bryan M


    Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system. Rodent neocortex contains well-differentiated motor and sensory regions, as well as neurons expressing similar genetic markers to many of the same circuit components in human cortex. Furthermore, rodents have circuit mapping tools for labeling, targeting, and manipulating these cell types as circuit nodes. Crucially, the projection from rodent primary somatosensory cortex to primary motor cortex is a well-studied corticocortical projection and a model of sensorimotor integration. We first summarize some of the descending pathways involved in making dexterous movements, including reaching. We then describe local and long-range circuitry in mouse motor cortex, summarizing structural and functional changes associated with motor skill acquisition. We then address which specific connections might be responsible for plasticity. For insight into the range of plasticity mechanisms employed by cortex, we review plasticity in sensory systems. The similarities and differences between motor cortex plasticity and critical periods of plasticity in sensory systems are discussed. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions (United States)

    Michel, Eva


    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  9. Persistent Motor Deficits in DAMP


    J Gordon Millichap


    Motor control in ability to perform everyday and spare-time activities was assessed at 11 to 12 years of age in 10 boys with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) and compared with a group of 20 boys without DAMP.

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies. (United States)

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F; Horvath, Rita


    To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  12. Power control for ac motor (United States)

    Dabney, R. W. (Inventor)


    A motor controller employing a triac through which power is supplied to a motor is described. The open circuit voltage appearing across the triac controls the operation of a timing circuit. This timing circuit triggers on the triac at a time following turn off which varies inversely as a function of the amplitude of the open circuit voltage of the triac.

  13. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Keywords. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA); poly phase; rotary actuator; torque; ripple. Abstract. Design and characterization of a new shape memory alloy wire based Poly Phase Motor has been reported in this paper. The motor can be used either in stepping mode or ...

  14. Motors and Bulbs in Series (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert J.


    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

  15. [Relationship between the motor development of the body and the acquisition of oral skills]. (United States)

    Telles, Mariângela Silva; Macedo, Célia Sperandeo


    the literature points to the influence of body posture on the oral skills of children which sensorimotor deficits. Only a few studies with normal children exist on this subject. to study the relationship between motor skills and oral motor skills in children, from the first day of life to 24 months of age. 42 children were video recorded at the first day of life, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age. Recordings were made in the following postures: supine, prone, seated, standing and during breast and bottle feeding (until 5 months), using spoon (purée: 3 - 12 months); cup (water or juice: 6 - 24 months) and eating solid food (6 -24 months). Quantitative scores for body motor development and oral skills were established; and for the statistical analysis the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test was used with a significance level of 5%. the results of motor development point to similar data between supine, prone, seated and standing positions; for the oral motor skills (during feeding/ breastfeeding, using spoon, cup and chewing). A similarity was observed in the acquisition of motor abilities related to the lips, tongue and jaw in each of the feeding situations. There was an association between the motor and the oral motor skills; the results indicate that the motor development (motor skills) occurred prior to the development of the oral skills from the 5th to 24 months and that the skills related to the jaw when using a cup and spoon occurred prior to the development of the skills related to the lips and tongue. there was a growing increase in the acquisition of motor and oral skills along the ages, as well as a variability of skills in the ages between the 3rd and 24 months and a significant association between the motor and oral skills.

  16. Piezoelectric wave motor (United States)

    Yerganian, Simon Scott


    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  17. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control... motor controller for a vital propulsion auxiliary which can be restarted from a central control station...

  18. Mindfulness for Motor and Nonmotor Dysfunctions in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka


    Full Text Available Background. Motor and nonmotor symptoms negatively influence Parkinson’s disease (PD patients’ quality of life. Mindfulness interventions have been a recent focus in PD. The present study explores effectiveness of a manualized group mindfulness intervention tailored for PD in improving both motor and neuropsychiatric deficits in PD. Methods. Fourteen PD patients completed an 8-week mindfulness intervention that included 6 sessions. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, PD Cognitive Rating Scale, Unified PD Rating Scale, PD Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45 were administered before and after the intervention. Participants also completed the FFMQ-15 at each session. Gains at postassessment and at 6-month follow-up were compared to baseline using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests. Results. A significant increase in FFMQ-Observe subscale, a reduction in anxiety, depression, and OQ-45 symptom distress, an increase in PDCRS-Subcortical scores, and an improvement in postural instability, gait, and rigidity motor symptoms were observed at postassessment. Gains for the PDCRS were sustained at follow-up. Conclusion. The mindfulness intervention tailored for PD is associated with reduced anxiety and depression and improved cognitive and motor functioning. A randomised controlled trial using a large sample of PD patients is warranted.

  19. Molecular Motors: A Theorist's Perspective (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Fisher, Michael E.

    Individual molecular motors, or motor proteins, are enzymatic molecules that convert chemical energy, typically obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), into mechanical work and motion. Processive motor proteins, such as kinesin, dynein, and certain myosins, step unidirectionally along linear tracks, specifically microtubules and actin filaments, and play a crucial role in cellular transport processes, organization, and function. In this review some theoretical aspects of motor-protein dynamics are presented in the light of current experimental methods that enable the measurement of the biochemical and biomechanical properties on a single-molecule basis. After a brief discussion of continuum ratchet concepts, we focus on discrete kinetic and stochastic models that yield predictions for the mean velocity, V(F, [ATP],…), and other observables as a function of an imposed load force F, the ATP concentration, and other variables. The combination of appropriate theory with single-molecule observations should help uncover the mechanisms underlying motor-protein function.

  20. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper


    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... and skill acquisition. Thirty-two healthy young male subjects were randomly allocated into either an exercise or control group. Following either an intense bout of cycling or rest subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention 1 hour, 24...... hours and 7 days after practice. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and lactate were analyzed at baseline, immediately after exercise or rest and during motor...

  1. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.


    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  2. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.


    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  3. EV and HEV Motor Development in TOSHIBA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arata, Masanori; Kurihara, Yoshihiro; Misu, Daisuke; Matsubara, Masakatsu


    .... Therefore, motors employing permanent magnets have been commonly used recently. For HEV and EV motors, Toshiba developed a motor that delivers a high reluctance torque, known as PRM, and has been applying it to various vehicles...

  4. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F


    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  5. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)


    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  6. Motor imagery in physical therapist practice. (United States)

    Dickstein, Ruth; Deutsch, Judith E


    Motor imagery is the mental representation of movement without any body movement. Abundant evidence on the positive effects of motor imagery practice on motor performance and learning in athletes, people who are healthy, and people with neurological conditions (eg, stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson disease) has been published. The purpose of this update is to synthesize the relevant literature about motor imagery in order to facilitate its integration into physical therapist practice. This update also will discuss visual and kinesthetic motor imagery, factors that modify motor imagery practice, the design of motor imagery protocols, and potential applications of motor imagery.

  7. Recent Advances of Reluctance Torque Assisted Motors (United States)

    Ohyama, Kazunobu

    The history of motor technology began with the discovery of electromagnetic induction by Faraday. Various kinds of motors were developed by the recent progress of the fundamental technology (magnetic structure, magnetic material, drive circuit, control method). Especially, motors using the reluctance torque have many advantages and some of them are used as high efficient motors. This paper overviews recent advances of reluctance torque assisted motors such as Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Khoshvaght


    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive neuro-developmental disorders that are caused by damage to the developing brain and affect movement and posture. Children with cerebral palsy suffer difficulty in motor function (coordination and control.The present inquiry investigated the impact of conductive education on motor skills in children having cerebral palsy. Methods: A quasi-experimental research was done using pretest-posttest and control group design. The study subjects consisted of all children with cerebral palsy in Shiraz. A sample of 30 subjects was randomly chosen to employ convenience sampling procedure and classified to two groups of treatment (15 subjects and control (15 subjects. The pretest was performed for both groups, and the experimental group received conductive education in 20 sessions. While the control subjects did not have this education, finally, the post-test was performed for both groups. The Lincoln-Oseretsky test was used to measure motor skills. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA and MANCOVA. Results: The results showed that conductive education had a significant effect on motor skills (P<0.001 and its subscales such as speed of movement (P<0.001, general static coordination (P<0.001, general dynamic coordination (P<0.001, dynamic manual coordination (P<0.001, synchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001, and asynchronous-asymmetrical voluntary movements (P<0.001 in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusion: The findings indicated the effectiveness of conductive education on cerebral palsy children’s motor skills. Therefore, it is recommended to design and implement a conductive education program to improve motor skills of cerebral palsy children.

  9. Terminal decline in motor function. (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Boyle, Patricia A; Hizel, Loren P; Bennett, David A


    The study aim was to test the hypothesis that motor function undergoes accelerated decline proximate to death. As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, 124 older Roman Catholic nuns, priests, and monks completed at least 7 annual clinical evaluations, died, and underwent brain autopsy and uniform neuropathologic examination. Each evaluation included administration of 11 motor tests and 19 cognitive tests from which global measures of motor and cognitive function were derived. The global motor measure (baseline M = 0.82, SD = 0.21) declined a mean 0.024 unit per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.032, -0.016) until a mean of 2.46 years (95% CI: -2.870, -2.108) before death when rate of decline increased nearly fivefold to -0.117 unit per year (95% CI: -0.140, -0.097). The global cognitive measure (baseline M = 0.07, SD = 0.45) declined a mean of 0.027-unit per year (95% CI: -0.041, -0.014) until a mean of 2.76 years (95% CI: -3.157, -2.372) before death when rate of decline increased more than 13-fold to -0.371 unit per year (95% CI: -0.443, -0.306). Onset of terminal motor decline was highly correlated with onset of terminal cognitive decline (r = .94, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), but rates of motor and cognitive change were not strongly correlated (preterminal r = .20, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.38; terminal r = .34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). Higher level of plaques and tangles was associated with earlier onset of terminal decline in motor function, but no pathologic measures were associated with rate of preterminal or terminal motor decline. The results demonstrate that motor and cognitive functions both undergo a period of accelerated decline in the last few years of life. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Speech perception: motoric contributions versus the motor theory. (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T; Aydelott, Jennifer


    Recent studies indicate that the motor cortex is involved not only in the production of speech, but also in its perception. These studies have sparked a renewed interest in gesture-based theories of speech perception.

  11. Infant and child motor development. (United States)

    Edwards, Sara L; Sarwark, John F


    Identifying infant and child developmental delay is a skill important for orthopaedic surgeons to master because they often are asked to distinguish between normal and abnormal movement. An emphasis has been placed on early detection and referral for intervention, which has been shown to enhance the lives of the infant or child and his or her family. Appropriate recognition of delay is necessary for referral to early intervention services, which serve to help these children overcome or improve motor dysfunction and to help families grow more confident in caring for children with special needs. We define early intervention, discuss normal and abnormal motor development, and provide useful examination tools to assess motor development.

  12. Using AC Motors in Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Marzi


    Full Text Available It has been proven that fuzzy controllers are capable of controlling non-linear systems where it is cumbersome to develop conventional controllers based on mathematical modeling. This paper describes designing fuzzy controllers for an AC motor run mechanism. It also compares performance of two controllers designed based on Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno with the conventional control scheme in a short track length, following a high disturbance. Fine and rapid control of AC motors have been a challenge and the main obstacle in gaining popularity in use of AC motors in robots actuators. This chapter reviews how use of intelligent control scheme can help to solve this problem.

  13. State observer for synchronous motors (United States)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.


    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  14. Liquid-liquid interface motion of a capsule motor powered by the interlayer Marangoni effect. (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Pumera, Martin


    A novel thin capsule motor has been described in this report. It utilizes the Marangoni effect for the solid capsule to run at a water-oil interlayer, which has not been reported previously. Intrinsic and environment factors influencing the motion were investigated. It is also possible for the velocity, direction, and start/stop of the motion of the capsule to be manipulated.

  15. Motor neurons and the generation of spinal motor neurons diversity


    Nicolas eStifani


    Motor neurons (MNs) are neuronal cells located in the central nervous system (CNS) controlling a variety of downstream targets. This function infers the existence of MN subtypes matching the identity of the targets they innervate. To illustrate the mechanism involved in the generation of cellular diversity and the acquisition of specific identity, this review will focus on spinal motor neurons (SpMNs) that have been the core of significant work and discoveries during the last decades. SpMNs a...

  16. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.


    or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise......Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...

  17. Low-Dimensional Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; O'Hare, Dermot


    With physical properties that often may not be described by the transposition of physical laws from 3D space across to 2D or even 1D space, low-dimensional solids exhibit a high degree of anisotropy in the spatial distribution of their chemical bonds. This means that they can demonstrate new phenomena such as charge-density waves and can display nanoparticulate (0D), fibrous (1D) and lamellar (2D) morphologies. Low-Dimensional Solids presents some of the most recent research into the synthesis and properties of these solids and covers: Metal Oxide Nanoparticles; Inorganic Nanotubes and Nanowir

  18. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D


    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  19. Estimation of Pressure Index and Temperature Sensitivity Coefficient of Solid Rocket Propellants by Static Evaluation


    Himanshu Shekhar


    Burning rate of a solid rocket propellant depends on pressure and temperature. Conventional strand burner and Crawford bomb test on propellant strands was conducted to assess these dependent parameters. However, behaviour of propellant in rocket motor is different from its behaviour in strand form. To overcome this anomaly, data from static evaluation of rocket motor was directly used for assessment of these burningrate controlling parameters. The conventional empirical power law (r=aoexp[p{T...

  20. Scale Effects on Solid Rocket Combustion Instability Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Greatrix


    Full Text Available The ability to understand and predict the expected internal behaviour of a given solid-propellant rocket motor under transient conditions is important. Research towards predicting and quantifying undesirable transient axial combustion instability symptoms necessitates a comprehensive numerical model for internal ballistic simulation under dynamic flow and combustion conditions. A numerical model incorporating pertinent elements, such as a representative transient, frequency-dependent combustion response to pressure wave activity above the burning propellant surface, is applied to the investigation of scale effects (motor size, i.e., grain length and internal port diameter on influencing instability-related behaviour in a cylindrical-grain motor. The results of this investigation reveal that the motor’s size has a significant influence on transient pressure wave magnitude and structure, and on the appearance and magnitude of an associated base pressure rise.

  1. STIMA: a short screening test for ideo-motor apraxia, selective for action meaning and bodily district. (United States)

    Tessari, Alessia; Toraldo, Alessio; Lunardelli, Alberta; Zadini, Antonietta; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida


    We propose STIMA, a short test for ideo-motor apraxia, allowing us to quantify the apraxic deficit according to action meaning and affected body segment. STIMA is based on a neurocognitive model holding that there are two processes involved in action imitation (i.e., a semantic route for recognizing and imitating known gestures, and a direct route for reproducing new gestures). The test allows to identify which imitative process has been selectively impaired by brain damage (direct vs. semantic route) and possible deficits depending on the body segment involved (hand/limb vs. hand/fingers). N = 111 healthy participants were administered with an imitation task in two separated blocks of known and new gestures. In each block, half of the gestures were performed mainly with the proximal part of the upper limb and the remaining half with the distal one. It resulted in 18 known gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) and 18 new gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) for a total of 36. Each gesture was presented up to a maximum of two times. Detailed criteria are used to assign the final imitation score. Cut offs, equivalent scores and main percentile scores were computed for each subscale. Participants imitated better known than new gestures, and proximal better than distal gestures. Age influenced performance on all subscales, while education only affected one subscale. STIMA is easy and quick to administer, and compared to previous tests, it offers important information for planning adequate rehabilitation programs based on the functional locus of the deficit.

  2. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : Gender and motor performance differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.; van der Net, J.; Jak, S.; Helders, P.J.M.; Jongmans, M.J.


    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  3. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use - Motor Tip Sheet #10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Motors use no energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard efficiency motor with a NEMA Premium® efficiency motor. In fact, given that 97% of the life cycle cost of purchasing and operating a motor is energy-related, turning a motor off 10% of the time could reduce energy costs enough to purchase three new motors.

  4. Aluminum Doped Parahydrogen Solids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fajardo, Mario


    ...) solids doped with large (- 1 %) concentrations of Al atoms. We incorporated into our apparatus a commercially available effusive Al atom source capable of delivering Al atom fluxes in excess of 10(exp 17...

  5. Solid Waste Management Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  6. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.


    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  7. Solid Earth: Introduction (United States)

    Rummel, R.


    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  8. High Temperature Bell Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a technical...

  9. Cryogenic Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Piezoelectric motors operate on the principal of converting the high-frequency oscillation of high-force, precision ceramic elements into useful continuous motion....

  10. Cryogenic Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Piezoelectric motors operate on the principal of high frequency oscillation of high force precision ceramic elements. The high power oscillations are converted to...

  11. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  12. Motor Impairments in Angelman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Of 33 children and adolescents (median age 6 years investigated for learning disability, epilepsy, and motor dysfunction to detect suspected Angelman syndrome (AS, in a study at Goteborg University, Sweden, 23 fulfilled criteria for AS.

  13. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko


    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  14. MISR Motor Data V003 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Level 1A Motor Data are acquired as part of an on-orbit calibration experiment. These data consist of measurements of the MISR instrument calibration panel...

  15. Solid polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.


    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  16. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus


    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  17. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy (United States)

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth


    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  18. Motor Proficiency in Young Children


    Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas


    This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF) was administered to 540 children (272 boys), 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex) × 4 (age groups) ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did ...

  19. Surgery on motor area metastasis. (United States)

    Rossetto, Marta; Ciccarino, Pietro; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Rolma, Giuseppe; Cecchin, Diego; Della Puppa, Alessandro


    The role of surgery on central area metastasis remains unclear, and outcome data are still controversial. The aim of our study is to analyze the predictive value of clinical and surgical data on motor and functional outcome of patients, taking into account new emerging data on boundary irregularity of brain metastasis. We retrospectively analyzed 47 consecutive patients who underwent surgery assisted by neurophysiologic monitoring for a solitary metastasis in central area between 2010 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were as follows: good functional status (Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥70), controlled systemic disease, and absence of extra-cranial dissemination. At 1-month follow up, motor and functional outcomes were compared with preoperative clinical status, response to corticosteroids, extent of tumor resection, boundary irregularity, and size of tumor. Gross total resection was achieved in 93.6% of cases. In preoperative symptomatic patients, motor outcome (according to Medical Research Council grading scale) improved in 55.5% and worsened in 16.7%, while functional outcome (according to KPS score) improved in 50% and worsened in 14.2% of cases. No worsening occurred in preoperative asymptomatic patients. Motor outcome resulted to be not correlated with preoperative deficits, tumor volume, or preoperative response to corticosteroid treatment. Remarkably, motor outcome and extent of surgical resection appeared strongly correlated with tumor boundary irregularity (p < 0.05). Surgery with neurophysiologic monitoring on motor area metastasis can improve functional and motor condition in selected patients. Tumor volume does not represent a limit in surgery. The high correlation between clinical outcome, resection rate, and tumor boundary irregularity strengthens a new belief on the infiltrative growing pattern of brain metastasis. Motor function was evaluated according to Medical Research Council grading scale (Ott et al. 2014) while functional status was

  20. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  1. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC...

  2. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin


    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  3. Sistim Proteksi Pada Motor Induksi Tiga Phasa.




    Motor induksi tiga phasa beroperasi berdasarkan prinsip induksi elektromagnetik. Pada motor induksi tiga phasa sering terjadi gangguan-gangguan yang menyebabkan motor tersebut tidak bisa bekerja dengan baik. Gangguangangguan yang terjadi antara lain gangguan beban lebih, gangguan hubung singkat, dan gangguan phasa ke phasa. Untuk memproteksi terjadinya gangguangangguan tersebut maka perlu adanya suatu peralatan yang dapat memproteksi atau melindungi motor dari gangguan-gangg...

  4. Estimation of physical parameters in induction motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, H.; Knudsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Henrik


    Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors......Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors...

  5. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  6. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in underground...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those vehicles...

  8. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome (United States)

    Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling


    Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ≥4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

  9. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul


    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  10. Teaching about operation of brushless DC motors


    Čufar, Aleksandra


    Brush DC motor is being replaced by brushless DC motors on every area of application. My diploma thesis is a presentation of brushless DC motor, how it works and its application. Within first part we describe various electric motors and their application. There are several types of electric motors division. Last to be added is a brushless motor. Within second part of thesis we look into a brushless DC motor, how it works, its application and control. In the third part of thesis we construct a...

  11. Quality of life issues in motor neurone disease: the development and validation of a coping strategies questionnaire, the MND Coping Scale. (United States)

    Lee, J N; Rigby, S A; Burchardt, F; Thornton, E W; Dougan, C; Young, C A


    A person's ability to cope with having motor neurone disease may be an important factor in determining their quality of life. We have developed a scale to measure coping strategies in people with MND. A disease-specific and patient-focused approach was employed. Open-ended interviews were used to generate initial items. Coping with the condition was an important consideration for all subjects. The final scale was administered to a sample of 44 people with MND. A factor analysis of the results demonstrated subscales comprised of distinct styles of coping. Reliability and validity were demonstrated within individual subscales. Significant correlations were shown between coping styles and psychological well being, disease duration and disability. Although still at a preliminary stage of development, the MND Coping Scale is proposed as a useful tool for further longitudinal study of coping in MND, with the potential to discover cause effect relationships between coping and psychological outcome.

  12. Scale Effects on Quasi-Steady Solid Rocket Internal Ballistic Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Greatrix


    Full Text Available The ability to predict with some accuracy a given solid rocket motor’s performance before undertaking one or several costly experimental test firings is important. On the numerical prediction side, as various component models evolve, their incorporation into an overall internal ballistics simulation program allows for new motor firing simulations to take place, which in turn allows for updated comparisons to experimental firing data. In the present investigation, utilizing an updated simulation program, the focus is on quasi-steady performance analysis and scale effects (influence of motor size. The predicted effects of negative/positive erosive burning and propellant/casing deflection, as tied to motor size, on a reference cylindrical-grain motor’s internal ballistics, are included in this evaluation. Propellant deflection has only a minor influence on the reference motor’s internal ballistics, regardless of motor size. Erosive burning, on the other hand, is distinctly affected by motor scale.

  13. Scale Effects on Quasi-Steady Solid Rocket Internal Ballistic Behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greatrix, David R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    The ability to predict with some accuracy a given solid rocket motor’s performance before undertaking one or several costly experimental test firings is important. On the numerical prediction side, as various component models evolve, their incorporation into an overall internal ballistics simulation program allows for new motor firing simulations to take place, which in turn allows for updated comparisons to experimental firing data. In the present investigation, utilizing an updated simulation program, the focus is on quasi-steady performance analysis and scale effects (influence of motor size). The predicted effects of negative/positive erosive burning and propellant/casing deflection, as tied to motor size, on a reference cylindrical-grain motor’s internal ballistics, are included in this evaluation. Propellant deflection has only a minor influence on the reference motor’s internal ballistics, regardless of motor size. Erosive burning, on the other hand, is distinctly affected by motor scale.

  14. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas


    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  15. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors (United States)


    ... finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in the July 2009 final rule, but opted to... for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 87... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle Identification...

  17. Relationship between impulsivity traits and awareness of motor intention. (United States)

    Giovannelli, F; Mastrolorenzo, B; Rossi, A; Gavazzi, G; Righi, S; Zaccara, G; Viggiano, M P; Cincotta, M


    Deficient voluntary control of behaviour and impulsivity are key aspects of impulse control disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between behavioural measures of impulsivity and the awareness of voluntary action. Seventy-four healthy volunteers completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), a questionnaire used to measure impulsive personality traits, and a go/no-go task. Moreover, all participants performed a behavioural task based on the Libet's clock paradigm in which they were requested to report the time of a self-initiated movement (M-judgement) or the time they first feel their intention to move (W-judgement). A positive relationship between the time in which subjects reported the intention to move (W-judgement) and impulsivity measures emerged. Namely, the higher was the score in the attentional and motor impulsivity subscales of the BIS and the number of inhibitory failure responses in the go/no-go task, the lower was the difference between the W-judgement and the actual movement (i.e. the awareness of intention to move was closer to the voluntary movement execution). In contrast, no relationship emerged with M-judgement. The present findings suggest that impulsivity is related to a delayed awareness of voluntary action. We hypothesize that in impulse control disorders, the short interval between conscious intention and actual movement may interfere with processes underlying the conscious 'veto' of the impending action. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Motor demand-dependent activation of ipsilateral motor cortex. (United States)

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Revill, Kate Pirog; Shuster, Linda; Hines, Benjamin; Parsons, Michael


    The role of ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in hand motor control during complex task performance remains controversial. Bilateral M1 activation is inconsistently observed in functional (f)MRI studies of unilateral hand performance. Two factors limit the interpretation of these data. As the motor tasks differ qualitatively in these studies, it is conceivable that M1 contributions differ with the demand on skillfulness. Second, most studies lack the verification of a strictly unilateral execution of the motor task during the acquisition of imaging data. Here, we use fMRI to determine whether ipsilateral M1 activity depends on the demand for precision in a pointing task where precision varied quantitatively while movement trajectories remained equal. Thirteen healthy participants used an MRI-compatible joystick to point to targets of four different sizes in a block design. A clustered acquisition technique allowed simultaneous fMRI/EMG data collection and confirmed that movements were strictly unilateral. Accuracy of performance increased with target size. Overall, the pointing task revealed activation in contralateral and ipsilateral M1, extending into contralateral somatosensory and parietal areas. Target size-dependent activation differences were found in ipsilateral M1 extending into the temporal/parietal junction, where activation increased with increasing demand on accuracy. The results suggest that ipsilateral M1 is active during the execution of a unilateral motor task and that its activity is modulated by the demand on precision. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Assessing social isolation in motor neurone disease: a Rasch analysis of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale. (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris J; Thornton, Everard W; Ealing, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Talbot, Kevin; Tennant, Alan; Young, Carolyn A


    Social withdrawal is described as the condition in which an individual experiences a desire to make social contact, but is unable to satisfy that desire. It is an important issue for patients with motor neurone disease who are likely to experience severe physical impairment. This study aims to reassess the psychometric and scaling properties of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale (MND-SWS) domains and examine the feasibility of a summary scale, by applying scale data to the Rasch model. The MND Social Withdrawal Scale was administered to 298 patients with a diagnosis of MND, alongside the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The factor structure of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Model fit, category threshold analysis, differential item functioning (DIF), dimensionality and local dependency were evaluated. Factor analysis confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution suggested by the original authors. Mokken scale analysis suggested the removal of item five. Rasch analysis removed a further three items; from the Community (one item) and Emotional (two items) withdrawal subscales. Following item reduction, each scale exhibited excellent fit to the Rasch model. A 14-item Summary scale was shown to fit the Rasch model after subtesting the items into three subtests corresponding to the Community, Family and Emotional subscales, indicating that items from these three subscales could be summed together to create a total measure for social withdrawal. Removal of four items from the Social Withdrawal Scale led to a four factor solution with a 14-item hierarchical Summary scale that were all unidimensional, free for DIF and well fitted to the Rasch model. The scale is reliable and allows clinicians and researchers to measure social withdrawal in MND along a unidimensional construct. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lower motor neuron findings after upper motor neuron injury: Insights from postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Florman


    Full Text Available Hypertonia and hypereflexia are classically described responses to upper motor neuron injury. However, acute hypotonia and areflexia with motor deficit are hallmark findings after many central nervous system insults such as acute stroke and spinal shock. Historic theories to explain these contradictory findings have implicated a number of potential mechanisms mostly relying on the loss of descending corticospinal input as the underlying etiology. Unfortunately, these simple descriptions consistently fail to adequately explain the pathophysiology and connectivity leading to acute hyporeflexia and delayed hypereflexia that result from such insult. This article highlights the common observation of acute hyporeflexia after central nervous system insults and explores the underlying anatomy and physiology. Further, evidence for the underlying connectivity is presented and implicates the dominant role of supraspinal inhibitory influence originating in the supplementary motor area descending through the corticospinal tracts. Unlike traditional explanations, this theory more adequately explains the findings of postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome in which hyporeflexive motor deficit is observed acutely in the face of intact primary motor cortex connections to the spinal cord. Further, the proposed connectivity can be generalized to help explain other insults including stroke, atonic seizures, and spinal shock.

  1. Cogasification of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.; Jurczyk, K.; Mullin, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Zanardi, M. [Sao Paulo State Univ., Guaratingueta, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Energy Dept.; Peres, S. [Univ. of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)


    High efficiency gas turbine based systems, utility deregulation and more stringent environmental regulations strongly favor the use of natural gas over coal and other solid fuels in new electricity generators. Solid fuels could continue to compete, however, if a low cost gasifier fed by low cost feedstocks can be coupled with a gas turbine system. The authors examine on-site gasification of coal with other domestic fuels in an indirectly heated gasifier as a strategy to lower the costs of solid fuel systems. The systematics of gaseous pyrolysis yields assembled with the help of thermal measurement data and molecular models suggests blending carbonaceous fuels such as coal, coke or char with oxygenated fuels such as biomass, RDF, MSW, or dried sewage sludge. Such solid fuel blending can, with the help of inexpensive catalysts, achieve an optimum balance of volatiles, heating values and residual char thus reducing the technical demands upon the gasifier. Such simplifications should lower capital and operating costs of the gasifier to the mutual benefit of both solid fuel communities.

  2. Rasch analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (hads for use in motor neurone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Pamela J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS is commonly used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in motor neurone disease (MND. The measure has never been specifically validated for use within this population, despite questions raised about the scale's validity. This study seeks to analyse the construct validity of the HADS in MND by fitting its data to the Rasch model. Methods The scale was administered to 298 patients with MND. Scale assessment included model fit, differential item functioning (DIF, unidimensionality, local dependency and category threshold analysis. Results Rasch analyses were carried out on the HADS total score as well as depression and anxiety subscales (HADS-T, D and A respectively. After removing one item from both of the seven item scales, it was possible to produce modified HADS-A and HADS-D scales which fit the Rasch model. An 11-item higher-order HADS-T total scale was found to fit the Rasch model following the removal of one further item. Conclusion Our results suggest that a modified HADS-A and HADS-D are unidimensional, free of DIF and have good fit to the Rasch model in this population. As such they are suitable for use in MND clinics or research. The use of the modified HADS-T as a higher-order measure of psychological distress was supported by our data. Revised cut-off points are given for the modified HADS-A and HADS-D subscales.

  3. Disentangling motor execution from motor imagery with the phantom limb. (United States)

    Raffin, Estelle; Mattout, Jérémie; Reilly, Karen T; Giraux, Pascal


    Amputees can move their phantom limb at will. These 'movements without movements' have generally been considered as motor imagery rather than motor execution, but amputees can in fact perform both executed and imagined movements with their phantom and they report distinct perceptions during each task. Behavioural evidence for this dual ability comes from the fact that executed movements are associated with stump muscle contractions whereas imagined movements are not, and that phantom executed movements are slower than intact hand executed movements whereas the speed of imagined movements is identical for both hands. Since neither execution nor imagination produces any visible movement, we hypothesized that the perceptual difference between these two motor tasks relies on the activation of distinct cerebral networks. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in functional connectivity (dynamic causal modelling), we examined the activity associated with imagined and executed movements of the intact and phantom hands of 14 upper-limb amputees. Distinct but partially overlapping cerebral networks were active during both executed and imagined phantom limb movements (both performed at the same speed). A region of interest analysis revealed a 'switch' between execution and imagination; during execution there was more activity in the primary somatosensory cortex, the primary motor cortex and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum, while during imagination there was more activity in the parietal and occipital lobes, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. In overlapping areas, task-related differences were detected in the location of activation peaks. The dynamic causal modelling analysis further confirmed the presence of a clear neurophysiological distinction between imagination and execution, as motor imagery and motor execution had opposite effects on the supplementary motor area-primary motor cortex network. This is the first imaging evidence that the

  4. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Cryogenic Solid Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Adirim, Harry; Lo, Roger; Knecht, Thomas; Reinbold, Georg-Friedrich; Poller, Sascha


    Under the sponsorship of the German Aerospace Center DLR, Cryogenic Solid Propulsion (CSP) is now in its 6th year of R&D. The development proceeds as a joint international university-, small business-, space industry- and professional research effort (Berlin University of Technology / AI: Aerospace Institute, Berlin / Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia / ASTRIUM GmbH, Bremen / Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Berghausen). This paper aims at introducing CSP as a novel type of chemical propellant that uses frozen liquids as Oxygen (SOX) or Hydrogen Peroxide (SH2O2) inside of a coherent solid Hydrocarbon (PE, PU or HTPB) matrix in solid rocket motors. Theoretically any conceivable chemical rocket propellant combination (including any environmentally benign ,,green propellant") can be used in solid rocket propellant motors if the definition of solids is not restricted to "solid at ambient temperature". The CSP concept includes all suitable high energy propellant combinations, but is not limited to them. Any liquid or hybrid bipropellant combination is (Isp-wise) superior to any conventional solid propellant formulation. While CSPs do share some of the disadvantages of solid propulsion (e.g. lack of cooling fluid and preset thrust-time function), they definitely share one of their most attractive advantages: the low number of components that is the base for high reliability and low cost of structures. In this respect, CSPs are superior to liquid propellant rocket motors with whom, they share the high Isp performance. High performance, low cost, low pollution CSP technology could bring about a near term improvement for chemical Earth-to-orbit high thrust propulsion. In the long run it could surpass conventional chemical propulsion because it is better suited for applying High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) than any other mode of propulsion. So far, ongoing preliminary analyses have not shown any insuperable problems in areas of concern, such as

  5. Comparing two motor assessment tools to evaluate neurobehavioral intervention effects in infants with very low birth weight at 1 year. (United States)

    Van Hus, Janeline W P; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; Van Sonderen, Loekie; Kok, Joke H; Nollet, Frans; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G


    Infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for motor deficits, which may be reduced by early intervention programs. For detection of motor deficits and to monitor intervention, different assessment tools are available. It is important to choose tools that are sensitive to evaluate the efficacy of intervention on motor outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Dutch Second Edition (BSID-II-NL) in their ability to evaluate effects of an early intervention, provided by pediatric physical therapists, on motor development in infants with VLBW at 12 months corrected age (CA). This was a secondary study in which data collected from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) were used. At 12 months CA, 116 of 176 infants with VLBW participating in an RCT on the effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program were assessed with both the AIMS and the PDI. Intervention effects on the AIMS and PDI were compared. Corrected for baseline differences, significant intervention effects were found for AIMS and PDI scores. The highest effect size was for the AIMS subscale sit. A significant reduction of abnormal motor development in the intervention group was found only with the AIMS. No Dutch norms are available for the AIMS. The responsiveness of the AIMS to detect intervention effects was better than that of the PDI. Therefore, caution is recommended in monitoring infants with VLBW only with the PDI, and the use of both the AIMS and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development is advised when evaluating intervention effects on motor development at 12 months CA.

  6. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ertl, Gerhard


    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  7. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T


    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  8. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.


    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  9. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun


    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J


    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  11. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick


    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  12. A psychometric evaluation of the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R cognitive distress, fatigue, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia subscales in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April N Naegeli


    Full Text Available April N Naegeli1, Timothy E Stump2, Risa P Hayes11Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Consultant, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To explore the use of Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R Cognitive Distress, Fatigue, Hyperglycemia, and Hypoglycemia subscales as measures of acute diabetesassociated symptoms in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes.Research design and methods: Our study was conducted in context of two international, multicenter, randomized clinical trials for inhaled insulin. Confirmatory factor analyses and assessments of reliability and construct validity were performed.Results: Study participants were 371 patients with type 2 (56% male; mean age, 57 years and 481 with type 1 diabetes (57% male, mean age, 40 years. In both populations a four-factor model was the best fit. Cronbach’s α ≥ 0.79 and intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.63; subscales correlated (P ≤ 0.05 with measures of well-being and satisfaction (0.12 ≤ r ≤ 0.71. In patients with type 1 diabetes, three subscales correlated (P < 0.05 with A1C.Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the DSC-R Cognitive Distress, Fatigue, Hyperglycemia, and Hypoglycemia suggest they may be utilized in clinical trials as reliable and valid measures of acute symptoms of diabetes.Keywords: Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised, DSC-R, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, psychometric validation

  13. Learning in the Rodent Motor Cortex. (United States)

    Peters, Andrew J; Liu, Haixin; Komiyama, Takaki


    The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning. This synaptic reorganization translates into changes in spiking activity, which appear to result in a modification and refinement of the relationship between motor cortical activity and movement. This review presents the progress that has been made using rodents to establish the motor cortex as an adaptive structure that supports motor learning.

  14. Visuomotor learning by passive motor experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eSakamoto


    Full Text Available Humans can adapt to unfamiliar dynamic and/or kinematic transformations through the active motor experience. Recent studies of neurorehabilitation using robots or brain-computer interface (BCI technology suggest that passive motor experience would play a measurable role in motor recovery, however our knowledge of passive motor learning is limited. To clarify the effects of passive motor experience on human motor learning, we performed arm reaching experiments guided by a robotic manipulandum. The results showed that the passive motor experience had an anterograde transfer effect on the subsequent motor execution, whereas no retrograde interference was confirmed in the ABA paradigm experiment. This suggests that the passive experience of the error between visual and proprioceptive sensations leads to the limited but actual compensation of behavior, although it is fragile and cannot be consolidated as a persistent motor memory.

  15. Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eKheradmand


    Full Text Available An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural-functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: 1 the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements and gaze-holding, 2 the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained vestibular responses, and 3 the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region for saccades and pursuit initiation.

  16. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... are expected to have minimum effect on grid and motor connected to it, i.e. currents drawn from grid should be within specified limits and currents injecting in to machine should not overheat the machine windings to avoid insulation failure due to harmonics. It is also necessary that electric drives should...... when it comes to the development of any kind of power converter topology for power electronic applications. Concerning the use of a power converter in motor integrated VSDs, the first two mentioned aspects receive an even greater im-portance. Power converter design for integrated drives poses a host...

  17. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, Matthew; Hazelton, Craig; Kano, Kimi


    The development of highly reliable downhole equipment is an essential element in enabling the widespread utilization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The downhole equipment used in these systems will be required to operate at high voltages and temperatures on the order of 200 to 250°C (and eventually to 300°C). These conditions exceed the practical operating ranges of currently available thermoplastic wire insulations, and thus limit the operating lifetime of tools such as Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs). In this work, high-temperature insulations based on composite materials were developed and demonstrated. The products of this work were found to exhibit electrical resistivities and dielectric breakdown strengths that PEEK at temperatures above 250C. In addition, sub-scale motor windings were fabricated and tested to validate the performance of this technology

  18. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)


    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  19. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives


    Singh, Yash Veer


    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives are expected to have minimum effect on grid and motor connected to it, i.e. currents drawn from grid should be within specified limits and currents injecting in to machine should not overheat the m...

  20. Primary face motor area as the motor representation of articulation. (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shigeki; Tsuji, Shoji


    No clinical data have yet been presented to show that a lesion localized to the primary motor area (M1) can cause severe transient impairment of articulation, although a motor representation for articulation has been suggested to exist within M1. Here we describe three cases of patients who developed severe dysarthria, temporarily mimicking speech arrest or aphemia, due to a localized brain lesion near the left face representation of the human primary motor cortex (face-M1). Speech was slow, effortful, lacking normal prosody, and more affected than expected from the degree of facial or tongue palsy. There was a mild deficit in tongue movements in the sagittal plane that impaired palatolingual contact and rapid tongue movements. The speech disturbance was limited to verbal output, without aphasia or orofacial apraxia. Overlay of magnetic resonance images revealed a localized cortical region near face-M1, which displayed high intensity on diffusion weighted images, while the main portion of the corticobulbar fibers arising from the lower third of the motor cortex was preserved. The cases suggest the existence of a localized brain region specialized for articulation near face-M1. Cortico-cortical fibers connecting face-M1 with the lower premotor areas including Broca's area may also be important for articulatory control.

  1. motor and non-motor features of parkinson's disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2008 ... Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative brain disease in developed countries where population of the elderly is high. PD is increasingly being documented in developing countries where there are rapid demographic changes. Motor features of PD have been documented in ...

  2. Motor learning as a criterion for evaluating coordination motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczynski Tomasz


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of motor learning based on objective, metric criteria, in terms of pedagogical process aimed at improving the accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. A group of 77 students of physical education participated in the study. Within 8 months there were performed 11 measurement sessions. In each session, subjects performed 10 hits a golf ball to the target from a distance of 9 m. Accuracy of hits was recorded. Effect of motor learning has been demonstrated in the progress of 10 consecutive hits a golf ball to the target in each session (operational control; in the dynamics of performance improvement between sessions (current control; as well as in the total result of eight-month experiment (stage control. There were developed norms for quantitative and qualitative assessment of accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. Developed quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the speed of motor learning in various conditions of the educational process creates the possibility of organization the operational, current and stage control of the level of human coordination motor abilities, as required by leading process.

  3. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards. We hypothesised that interference requires the same circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects...

  4. Predicting clinically significant changes in motor and functional outcomes after robot-assisted stroke rehabilitation. (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-wei; Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Ching-yi; Lien, Hen-yu; Chen, Jean-lon; Chen, Chih-chi; Chang, Wei-han


    To investigate the predictors of minimal clinically important changes on outcome measures after robot-assisted therapy (RT). Observational cohort study. Outpatient rehabilitation clinics. A cohort of outpatients with stroke (N=55). Patients with stroke received RT for 90 to 105min/d, 5d/wk, for 4 weeks. Outcome measures, including the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Motor Activity Log (MAL), were measured before and after the intervention. Potential predictors include age, sex, side of lesion, time since stroke onset, finger extension, Box and Block Test (BBT) score, and FMA distal score. Statistical analysis showed that the BBT score (odds ratio[OR]=1.06; P=.04) was a significant predictor of clinically important changes in the FMA. Being a woman (OR=3.9; P=.05) and BBT score (OR=1.07; P=.02) were the 2 significant predictors of clinically significant changes in the MAL amount of use subscale. The BBT score was the significant predictor of an increased probability of achieving clinically important changes in the MAL quality of movement subscale (OR=1.07; P=.02). The R(2) values for the 3 logistic regression models were low (.114-.272). The results revealed that patients with stroke who had greater manual dexterity measured by the BBT appear to have a higher probability of achieving clinically significant motor and functional outcomes after RT. Further studies are needed to evaluate other potential predictors to improve the models and validate the findings. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid-Waste Management (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973


    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  6. Introducing solid foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To encourage and establish healthy eating habits, parents and caregivers should offer a wide variety of dark green, leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. Pure fruit juices (115-170 ml/day) may be introduced into the diet after six months of age.14. Introducing solid foods. Lombard MJ, PhD, NICUS Manager, ...

  7. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present a time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation ...

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  9. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  10. Coupling with concentric contact around motor shaft for line start synchronous motor (United States)

    Melfi, Michael J.; Burdeshaw, Galen E.


    A method comprises providing a line-start synchronous motor. The motor has a stator, a rotor core disposed within the stator, and a motor shaft. In accordance with a step of the method, a coupling for coupling a load to the motor is provided. The coupling has a motor shaft attachment portion configured to provide substantially concentric contact around the shaft at the end of the motor shaft. The coupling has a load attachment portion configured to operatively connect to a load. In accordance with a step of the method, a load is coupled to the motor with the coupling, and driven from start to at least near synchronous speed during steady state operation of the motor with a load coupled thereto. The motor shaft attachment portion may comprise a bushing assembly with matching and opposed tapered surfaces that cooperate to secure the motor shaft attachment portion around the motor shaft.

  11. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt


    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  12. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C


    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  13. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.


    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  14. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamic response compared to the motors that use SMA strips or springs Kuribayashi 1989a;. 1989b. Looking at the energy efficiency of an SMA actuator, it can never have a greater efficiency than a Carnot cycle between heating and cooling temperatures. Because of this, an SMA actuator will never compete with classical ...

  15. Motor neuron disease in blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 19, 1989 ... We reported earlier that motor neuron disease occurs more commonly among blacks than Parkinson's disease, which is relatively rare in this race group.! The hypothesis that these conditions, and other neuronal abiotrophies, are the result of previous subclinical neuronal insult and subsequent age-related.

  16. Ironless-armature brushless motor (United States)

    Fisher, R. L.


    Device uses 12-pole samarium cobalt permanent-magnet rotor and three Hall-effect sensors for commutation. In prototype motor, torque constant (3-phase delta) is 65 oz-in/amp; electrical time constant (L/R) is 0.2 x 0.001 sec, and armature resistance is 20 ohms.

  17. Motor Dynamics of Embodied Cognition (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah Elizabeth


    Predominant theories of cognition have previously emphasized the modularity of processing, in which individual isolated modules process information free from the influence of other types of information. However, more recent theories suggest that cognition is much more linked to motor and sensory processes than modular theories suggest. In this…

  18. Treatment of functional motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelauff, Jeannette M.; Dreissen, Yasmine E. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Stone, Jon


    For the treatment of functional motor disorder, we recommend a three-stage approach. Firstly, patients must be assessed and given an unambiguous diagnosis, with an explanation that helps them understand that they have a genuine disorder, with the potential for reversibility. A key ingredient is

  19. Stages of motor skill learning. (United States)

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M


    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods.

  20. Treatment of functional motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelauff, Jeannette M.; Dreissen, Yasmine E. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Stone, Jon

    OPINION STATEMENT: For the treatment of functional motor disorder, we recommend a three-stage approach. Firstly, patients must be assessed and given an unambiguous diagnosis, with an explanation that helps them understand that they have a genuine disorder, with the potential for reversibility. A key


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Krivonosov


    Full Text Available Large quantity of asynchronous motors work in heavily dusted environments. On the end-winding insulation of the motors to 55 kW operating in the mining and smelting enterprise there is a 3 cm dust layer, which may lead to the asynchronous motor end-winding local overheat and consequent early breakdown. Contemporary literature allocates insufficient consideration to the issue of studying the impact the winding dust pollution has on the motor lifespan; for the most part they are experimental researches. The article investigates and establishes correlation relationship between the additional winding heating and the end-winding dust layer thickness. The investigation considers the induction motor winding to be a homogeneous solid and assumes the motor thermal conditions steady inasmuch as the winding insulation dust-cover forming time is much greater than the motor-heating time constant. The obtained expression permits determining the winding dust level by temperature variations; the dependence has linear character. Neither the motor type, size, nor the capacity do affect the local insulation overheating since the temperature difference between the windings being dust laden does not exceed 10 % for asynchronous motors of various capacity. The authors develop an appliance that enables the winding dustiness level monitoring and signals of necessity for the preventive cleaning measures implementation. The appliance operation principle is based on measuring results comparison of the two temperature-sensing devices mounted on the end-winding: one – in the upper part, and the other – in the bottom. The differential in the sensors reading-out allows estimating the dust layer sedimentation on the end-winding. A patent of invention has been issued on the investigation results. 

  2. Study of radiation chemistry in solids using solid hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Having simple and highly symmetric structure, solid hydrogen is a useful matrix on the study of radiation-chemical processes in solid phase which have been less understood in previous studies. We have found three outstanding findings: resonance effects on the tunneling reaction H+H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2} + H, effects of pressure on the dissociation and recombination of H{sub 2} molecules in solid hydrogen, and high-resolution ESR spectroscopy using a solid parahydrogen matrix. (author)

  3. Commercializing a U.S. piezoceramic linear motor (United States)

    Diehl, Rick W.


    A small low-cost piezoceramic linear motor has been developed in the US and is being commercialized by EDO Corporation, working with a leading motion control OEM and with a prominent US corporate research laboratory. First generation motor design has emphasized high displacement at up to 200mm per second velocity with 3.5 Newtons force with high resolution, short time constant and a 15 volt power supply at a cost of less than 100 dollars. Motor dimensions of 30 by 50 by 4 mm allow broad configuration choices, al hidden within the motion control slide. The EDO approach was to build on its core competence in high reliability electroceramic material engineering and production, and to use a strategy of back-integrating, or outsourcing of recent advances outside Edo in piezoceramics, while forward- integrating into specific emerging applications known intimately by the OEM in the market. The strategy provided design focus that has led to a cost-effective advance in 'solid-state actuation and control'. This is considered a classic case of successful industrial integration of an enabling technology across organizations in order to access the needed mix of technology for development of an innovative and competitive solution.

  4. Ventajas de los motores de flujo axial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M Basanta Otero


    Full Text Available Es importante conocer sobre una familia de motores que a diferencia de los convencionales o tradicionales no presentanun flujo rotatorio radial, denominados motores de flujo axial. Dichos motores presentan altos valores de par motriz abajas velocidades, una alta eficiencia y alta densidad de potencia. Este trabajo constituye un breve análisis dealgunos motores de la referencia bibliográfica.  Is important to know about a family of motors that at difference whit the traditional, don't have a rotator radial flux,called, axial flux motors. These motors have high torque for low speed, high efficiency and high power density. Thiswork is a brief analysis of several motors of the bibliographic references.

  5. Optimization analysis of propulsion motor control efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qingnan


    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to strengthen the control effect of propulsion motors and decrease the energy used during actual control procedures.[Methods] Based on the traditional propulsion motor equivalence circuit, we increase the iron loss current component, introduce the definition of power matching ratio, calculate the highest efficiency of a motor at a given speed and discuss the flux corresponding to the power matching ratio with the highest efficiency. In the original motor vector efficiency optimization control module, an efficiency optimization control module is added so as to achieve motor efficiency optimization and energy conservation.[Results] MATLAB/Simulink simulation data shows that the efficiency optimization control method is suitable for most conditions. The operation efficiency of the improved motor model is significantly higher than that of the original motor model, and its dynamic performance is good.[Conclusions] Our motor efficiency optimization control method can be applied in engineering to achieve energy conservation.

  6. Magnetic Signature of Brushless Electric Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, David


    Brushless electric motors are used in a number of underwater vehicles. When these underwater vehicles are used for mine clearance operations the magnetic signature of the brushless motors is important...

  7. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Gary A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  8. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  9. Survival in Parkinson's disease. Relation with motor and non-motor features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lau, Lonneke M. L.; Verbaan, Dagmar; Marinus, Johan; van Hilten, Jacobus J.


    Background: Survival in patients with Parkinson's disease is reduced as compared to the general population. We aimed to identify motor and non-motor features that predict mortality in Parkinson's disease. Methods: A broad range of motor and non-motor features were assessed in a hospital-based cohort

  10. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors (United States)


    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3 / Wednesday, January 5, 2011... Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  11. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, K. M. M.; Veldman, M. P.; Solnik, S.; Koch, G.; Zijdewind, I.; Hortobagyi, T.

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation

  12. Motor Learning Is Optimally Tuned to the Properties of Motor Noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Beers, Robert J


    ... is the best. This is a very simple example of a motor learning task in which errors in previous movements can be used to modify planning of future movements. Motor learning can take more complicated forms, such as learning a new motor skill like juggling ( Shadmehr and Wise, 2005 ), but virtually all forms of motor learning are based on the movement erro...

  13. 75 FR 62879 - Individual Exemption Involving General Motors Company, General Motors Holdings LLC, and General... (United States)


    ... Benefits Security Administration Individual Exemption Involving General Motors Company, General Motors Holdings LLC, and General Motors LLC, Located in Detroit, MI AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security... ERISA (the Notice).\\2\\ The proposed exemption was requested in an application filed by General Motors...

  14. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National..., trailers, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough to... Economy Reports. 538 Manufacturing Incentives for Alternative Fuel Vehicles. 541 Federal Motor Vehicle...

  15. 77 FR 22383 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA (United States)


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor... full the petition of Tesla Motors Inc's. (Tesla) for an exemption of the Model S vehicle line in... is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the...

  16. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system - Limbic and non-limbic components (United States)

    Holstege, Gert


    Research on descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord in the spinal motor system is reviewed. Particular attention is given to somatic and autonomic motoneurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, local projections to motoneurons, bulbospinal interneurons projecting to motoneurons, descending pathways of somatic motor control systems, and descending pathways involved in limbic motor control systems.

  17. Motor Control: The Heart of Kinesiology (United States)

    Latash, Mark L.


    This brief review presents the subjective view of the author on the history of motor control and its current state among the subdisciplines of kinesiology. It summarizes the current controversies and challenges in motor control and emphasizes the necessity for an adequate set of notions that would make motor control (and kinesiology) a science.…

  18. Motor development in visually impaired children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallemans, Ann


    ..., a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life. Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development in infants. W...

  19. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin


    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  20. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual. (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  1. Unawareness of motor phenoconversion in Huntington disease. (United States)

    McCusker, Elizabeth A; Gunn, David G; Epping, Eric A; Loy, Clement T; Radford, Kylie; Griffith, Jane; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S


    To determine whether Huntington disease (HD) mutation carriers have motor symptoms (complaints) when definite motor onset (motor phenoconversion) is diagnosed and document differences between the groups with and without unawareness of motor signs. We analyzed data from 550 HD mutation carriers participating in the multicenter PREDICT-HD Study followed through the HD prodrome. Data analysis included demographics, the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Participant HD History of symptoms, self-report of progression, and cognitive, behavioral, and imaging measures. Unawareness was identified when no motor symptoms were self-reported but when definite motor HD was diagnosed. Of 38 (6.91%) with onset of motor HD, almost half (18/38 = 47.36%) had no motor symptoms despite signs of disease on the UHDRS motor rating and consistent with unawareness. A group with motor symptoms and signs was similar on a range of measures to the unaware group. Those with unawareness of HD signs reported less depression. Patients with symptoms had more striatal atrophy on imaging measures. Only half of the patients with newly diagnosed motor HD had motor symptoms. Unaware patients were less likely to be depressed. Self-report of symptoms may be inaccurate in HD at the earliest stage.

  2. Neuropsychological investigation of motor impairments in autism. (United States)

    Duffield, Tyler C; Trontel, Haley G; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B; Travers, Brittany; Green, Ryan R; Cariello, Annahir N; Cooperrider, Jason; Nielsen, Jared; Alexander, Andrew; Anderson, Jeffrey; Fletcher, P Thomas; Lange, Nicholas; Zielinski, Brandon; Lainhart, Janet


    It is unclear how standardized neuropsychological measures of motor function relate to brain volumes of motor regions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all-male sample composed of 59 ASD and 30 controls (ages 5-33 years) completed three measures of motor function: strength of grip (SOG), finger tapping test (FTT), and grooved pegboard test (GPT). Likewise, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging with region of interest (ROI) volumes obtained to include the following regions: motor cortex (precentral gyrus), somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus), thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and caudal middle frontal gyrus. These traditional neuropsychological measures of motor function are assumed to differ in motor complexity, with GPT requiring the most followed by FTT and SOG. Performance by ASD participants on the GPT and FTT differed significantly from that of controls, with the largest effect size differences observed on the more complex GPT task. Differences on the SOG task between the two groups were nonsignificant. Since more complex motor tasks tap more complex networks, poorer GPT performance by those with ASD may reflect less efficient motor networks. There was no gross pathology observed in classic motor areas of the brain in ASD, as ROI volumes did not differ, but FTT was negatively related to motor cortex volume in ASD. The results suggest a hierarchical motor disruption in ASD, with difficulties evident only in more complex tasks as well as a potential anomalous size-function relation in motor cortex in ASD.

  3. [Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, N.J.; Nijhof, A.; Tissingh, G.


    Parkinson's disease has traditionally been viewed as a disease with only motor features. Nowadays, a wide variety of non-motor symptoms and signs are also recognised as being characteristic of the disease. Non-motor symptoms, most importantly autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric symptoms and

  4. Dynamic instability of collective myosin II motors (United States)

    Li, Jin-Fang; Wang, Zi-Qing; Li, Qi-Kun; Xing, Jian-Jun; Wang, Guo-Dong


    Some kinds of muscles can oscillate spontaneously, which is related to the dynamic instability of the collective motors. Based on the two-state ratchet model and with consideration of the motor stiffness, the dynamics of collective myosin II motors are studied. It is shown that when the motor stiffness is small, the velocity of the collective motors decreases monotonically with load increasing. When the motor stiffness becomes large, dynamic instability appears in the force-velocity relationship of the collective-motor transport. For a large enough motor stiffness, the zero-velocity point lies in the unstable range of the force-velocity curve, and the motor system becomes unstable before the motion is stopped, so spontaneous oscillations can be generated if the system is elastically coupled to its environment via a spring. The oscillation frequency is related to the motor stiffness, motor binding rate, spring stiffness, and the width of the ATP excitation interval. For a medium motor stiffness, the zero-velocity point lies outside the unstable range of the force-velocity curve, and the motion will be stopped before the instability occurs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205123).

  5. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a designated...

  6. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be rated...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed and...

  8. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The operator... storage tank or loading flange. (b) During transfer operations, no person may— (1) Stop or park a motor...

  9. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Stacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L.


    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs

  10. Fracture of brittle solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lawn, Brian


    This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the at...

  11. Acoustics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Beltzer, Abraham I


    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  12. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis


    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  13. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  15. Compressibility of solids (United States)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Rose, J. H.; Smith, J. R.


    A universal form is proposed for the equation of state (EOS) of solids. Good agreement is found for a variety of test data. The form of the EOS is used to suggest a method of data analysis, which is applied to materials of geophysical interest. The isothermal bulk modulus is discussed as a function of the volume and of the pressure. The isothermal compression curves for materials of geophysical interest are examined.

  16. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.


    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  17. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and...

  18. Stepper motor control that adjusts to motor loading (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)


    A system and method are provided for controlling a stepper motor having a rotor and a multi-phase stator. Sinusoidal command signals define a commanded position of the motor's rotor. An actual position of the rotor is sensed as a function of an electrical angle between the actual position and the commanded position. The actual position is defined by sinusoidal position signals. An adjustment signal is generated using the sinusoidal command signals and sinusoidal position signals. The adjustment signal is defined as a function of the cosine of the electrical angle. The adjustment signal is multiplied by each sinusoidal command signal to generate a corresponding set of excitation signals, each of which is applied to a corresponding phase of the multi-phase stator.

  19. Chemistry in motion: tiny synthetic motors. (United States)

    Colberg, Peter H; Reigh, Shang Yik; Robertson, Bryan; Kapral, Raymond


    CONSPECTUS: Diffusion is the principal transport mechanism that controls the motion of solute molecules and other species in solution; however, the random walk process that underlies diffusion is slow and often nonspecific. Although diffusion is an essential mechanism for transport in the biological realm, biological systems have devised more efficient transport mechanisms using molecular motors. Most biological motors utilize some form of chemical energy derived from their surroundings to induce conformational changes in order to carry out specific functions. These small molecular motors operate in the presence of strong thermal fluctuations and in the regime of low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces dominate inertial forces. Thus, their dynamical behavior is fundamentally different from that of macroscopic motors, and different mechanisms are responsible for the production of useful mechanical motion. There is no reason why our interest should be confined to the small motors that occur naturally in biological systems. Recently, micron and nanoscale motors that use chemical energy to produce directed motion by a number of different mechanisms have been made in the laboratory. These small synthetic motors also experience strong thermal fluctuations and operate in regimes where viscous forces dominate. Potentially, these motors could be directed to perform different transport tasks, analogous to those of biological motors, for both in vivo and in vitro applications. Although some synthetic motors execute conformational changes to effect motion, the majority do not, and, instead, they use other mechanisms to convert chemical energy into directed motion. In this Account, we describe how synthetic motors that operate by self-diffusiophoresis make use of a self-generated concentration gradient to drive motor motion. A description of propulsion by self-diffusiophoresis is presented for Janus particle motors comprising catalytic and noncatalytic faces. The properties

  20. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John


    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...