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Sample records for subscale measuring physical

  1. Measurement of aggressive behaviors in dementia: comparison of the physical aggression subscales of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the Ryden Aggression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whall, Ann L; Kim, Hyojeong; Colling, Kathleen Byrne; Hong, Gwi-Ryung; DeCicco, Barry; Antonakos, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    One of the central issues in the development of research-based interventions for aggressive behavior (AB) in late-stage dementia is the provision of precise measurement of the major dependent variable, in this case, AB levels. To advance the nursing goal of evidence-based practice, this article presents the characteristics of two research instruments: the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) aggressive behavior subscale (CMAI-ABS) and the Ryden Aggression Scale (RAS) physically aggressive behavior subscale (RAS-PABS). A total of 282 shower bath events (which are most associated with AB) were observed for 107 nursing home residents with dementia in nine randomly selected nursing homes. Then, we compared the psychometric properties of the CMAI-ABS and the RAS-PABS. Moderate to substantial agreements between the two instruments were identified using Cohen's Kappa. A similar percentage of AB was found on both subscales. Similar items on both subscales, such as hitting and pushing, were moderately correlated. Overall, the study results support that the CMAI-ABS and RAS-PABS measure a single but multifaceted construct-physically aggressive behavior in dementia. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Functional autonomy measurement system: development of a social subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsonnault, E; Desrosiers, J; Dubuc, N; Kalfat, H; Colvez, A; Delli-Colli, N

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subscale assessing social functioning for the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF). The development of this new dimension was based on consultations (focus groups and nominal groups) of experts from different health care disciplines in Quebec, Canada, and France. Two interrater reliability studies were carried out with older people presenting a loss of functional autonomy and living either in an institution or at home. With the focus groups, the experts clarified the definition of social functioning and identified the factors involved. The nominal groups were used to construct a subscale composed of six items. The results of the first interrater reliability study showed a mean agreement percentage of 60% for the subscale and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.70 (CI: 0.57-0.80). The results of the second interrater reliability study showed higher coefficients with an agreement percentage of 74% for the subscale and an ICC of 0.83 (CI: 0.61-0.93). These preliminary results demonstrate that the new social functioning subscale has good reliability, but more studies are needed to show its validity. The new SMAF, including the social functioning subscale, should help clinicians and researchers to obtain a comprehensive profile of functional autonomy. It could also contribute to the improvement of health care for older people.

  3. The Subjective Index for Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO in Stroke: investigation of its subscale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steve

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and valid measures of the impact of a stroke on integration are required in health and social settings. The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO is one such measure. However, there are questions whether scores can be summed into a total score or whether subscale scores should be calculated. This paper aims to provide clarity on the internal construct validity of the subscales and the total scale. Methods SIPSO data were collected as part of two parallel surveys of the met and unmet needs of 445 younger people (aged 18-65 with non-recent stroke (at least one year and living at home. Factor, Mokken and Rasch analysis were used. Results Factor analysis supported a two factor structure (explaining 68% of the variance as did the Mokken analysis (overall Loevinger coefficient 0.77 for the Physical Integration subscale; 0.51 for the Social Integration subscale. Both subscales fitted the Rasch model (P > 0.01 after adjusting for some observed differential item functioning. The 10-items together did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions The SIPSO subscales are valid for use with stroke patients of working age but the total SIPSO is not. The conversion table can be used by clinicians and researchers to convert ordinal data to interval level prior to mathematical operations and other parametric procedures. Further work is required to explore the occurrence of bias by gender for some of the items.

  4. Exploring measurement invariance by gender in the profile of mood states depression subscale among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Smith, Tenbroeck

    2017-01-01

    The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) is a well-validated tool commonly used in medical/clinical research. Less attention has been paid to the measurement invariance of the POMS-the degree to which the structure and items behave similarly for different groups (e.g., women and men). This study investigated the measurement invariance of the POMS Depression subscale across gender groups in a sample of cancer survivors. The POMS Depression subscale has 8 items (Unhappy, Sad, Blue, Hopeless, Discouraged, Miserable, Helpless, and Worthless). Invariance was measured using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. This study used data from American Cancer Society Studies of Cancer Survivors-II, a population-based survey of adult cancer survivors (n = 9170). We found factor structures and factor loadings were invariant for gender groups, but moderate differential item functioning (DIF) in the question containing the word blue. With regard to cancer survivors' gender, we found the Depression subscale of the POMS-SF had configural invariance, and partial metric and scalar invariance. This suggests that results should be interpreted with caution, especially when gender is considered important. More broadly, our finding suggests that questions with the word blue may introduce DIF into other measures of depressive mood. More research is needed to replicate these findings in other samples and with other instruments.

  5. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M; Wu, Xiuyun; Hopman, Wilma; Mayo, Nancy; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Liu, Juxin; Prior, Jerilynn C; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Josse, Robert G; Towheed, Tanveer E; Davison, K Shawn; Sawatzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF), which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent) level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF) and mental health (MH) sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample. Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health) produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects. The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size. SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  6. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Lix

    Full Text Available Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF, which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF and mental health (MH sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample.Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos, which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects.The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size.SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  7. Measuring Neuroticism in Nepali: Reliability and Validity of the Neuroticism Subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Risal, A; Linde, M; Koju, R; Steiner, T J; Holen, A

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Short Form (12 items) (EPQRS-N) has proven to be a reliable and valid measure in multiple languages. To develop a single-factor Nepali-language version of the EPQRS-N for use in the adult population of Nepal. The original English version of EPQRS-N was translated into Nepali using a forward-backward translation protocol. The first set of translated items was modified after testing by factor analysis with principal component extraction in an outpatient sample. Items with low factor correlations or poor semantic consistencies were reworded to fit the gist of the original items in a Nepali cultural context; the revised version was then tested in a representative random sample from the general population. Again, the same statistical procedures were applied. The first trial gave three factors. Based on the factor distribution of the items or their semantic quality, five were reworded. In the second trial, a two-factor solution emerged; the second factor had only one item with high correlation, which also had modest correlation with the first factor. Accordingly, a forced one-factor solution was chosen. This gave an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.80, with item-to-factor correlations from 0.40 to 0.73, and item-to-sum correlations from 0.31 to 0.61. The final Nepali version of EPQRS-N achieved satisfactory internal consistency. The item distribution coincided with the original English version, providing acceptable construct validity. It is psychometrically adequate for use in capturing the personality trait of neuroticism, and has broad applicability to the adult population of Nepal because of the diversity of the participant samples in which it was developed.

  8. Comparative, validity and responsiveness of the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS to the WOMAC physical function subscale in total joint replacement for osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the internal consistency of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (HOOS-PS) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (KOOS-PS) in total hip replacement (THR) and total knee (TKR) replacement....... Construct validity and responsiveness were compared to the Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Likert 3.0 physical function (PF) subscale and the PF excluding the items in the short measures (PF-exclusions). METHODS: Participants completed the full HOOS or KOOS, measures...... of fatigue, anxiety, depression and the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) pre-surgery and the HOOS or KOOS 6 months post-surgery. Internal consistency for the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. For construct validity, it was hypothesized that correlations between the HOOS-PS or KOOS-PS and PF...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  10. Establishing a Common Metric for Physical Function: Linking the HAQ-DI and SF-36 PF Subscale to PROMIS(®) Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalet, Benjamin D; Revicki, Dennis A; Cook, Karon F; Krishnan, Eswar; Fries, Jim F; Cella, David

    2015-10-01

    Physical function (PF) is a common health concept measured in clinical trials and clinical care. It is measured with different instruments that are not directly comparable, making comparative effectiveness research (CER) challenging when PF is the outcome of interest. Our goal was to establish a common reporting metric, so that scores on commonly used physical function measures can be converted into PROMIS scores. Following a single-sample linking design, all participants completed items from the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Function (PROMIS PF) item bank and at least one other commonly used "legacy" measure: the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) or the Short Form-36 physical function ten-item PF scale (SF-36 PF). A common metric was created using analyses based on item response theory (IRT), producing score cross-walk tables. Participants (N = 733) were part of an internet panel, many of whom reported one or more chronic health conditions. PROMIS PF, SF-36 PF, and the HAQ-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Our results supported the hypothesis that all three scales measure essentially the same concept. Cross-walk tables for use in CER are therefore justified. HAQ-DI and SF-36 PF results can be expressed on the PROMIS PF metric for the purposes of CER and other efforts to compare PF results across studies that utilize any one of these three measures. Clinicians seeking to incorporate PROs into their clinics can collect patient data on any one of these three instruments and estimate the equivalent on the other two.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ... Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

  16. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’) was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption. PMID:22935297

  17. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2012-08-30

    The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy-balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). A four-item automaticity subscale (the 'Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index'; 'SRBAI') was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  1. Fewer study participants needed to demonstrate superior antidepressant efficacy when using the Hamilton melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) as outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bech, Per; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica

    2016-01-01

    Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item melanc...... questions addressed in this study.  Conclusions Both for ethical and financial reasons it is of interest to minimize the number of participants in clinical trials. Therefore, we suggest employing the HAM-D6 as outcome measure in clinical trials of depression.......Background In the development of new antidepressant treatments, the failed study has unfortunately become a prevalent problem. The number of failed studies could probably be reduced significantly by applying more informative outcome measures. Previous studies have indicated that the 6-item...... melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) may be more informative than other scales, due to its superior psychometric properties. In the present study we investigated whether the HAM-D6 had higher informativeness than the HAM-D17 based on data from a randomized...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact ...

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  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

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  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  19. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

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    Full Text Available ... When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. ... Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of ... 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ...

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    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational ... relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ...

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ... counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  14. Physics measurements and health education

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    HAJDUCH, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The thesis "Physical measurements and health education" looks at physical quantities that are related to human health and can be measured in a elementary school environment. It focuses especially on the cross-curricular relationship between physics and health education and also on the use of relevant online measurement systems. As part of this thesis, we suggest a number of activities that exploit this relationship.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... of Perceived Exertion Scale) Videos Glossary of Terms Personal Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, Age 32 Demetrise, Age 42 Susan, Age 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: ...

  1. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of Axivity AX3 accelerometers taped directly to the skin of 9-13-year-old children. METHODS: Children in 46 school classes (53.4% girls, age 11.0±1.0 years, BMI 17.7±2.8 kg*m) across Denmark wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers, one taped...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest ... Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your ... ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  6. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  7. Development and validation of subscales to assess perceived support for self-management of mood or emotional problems: Results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Haggerty, Jeannie; De Raad, Manon; Belzile, Eric; Bouharaoui, Fatima; Beaulieu, Christine; Yaffe, Mark; Ciampi, Antonio

    2017-06-10

    To validate 2 new patient-reported measures of self-management support from health professionals for mood and emotional problems. The sample comprised primary care patients with chronic physical conditions and co-morbid depressive symptoms enrolled in a randomized trial of telephone coaching of a depression self-care intervention (n=120). At 6-month follow-up, patients completed 2 subscales with respect to support for self-management of their chronic physical condition(s): 1) Self-Management Information (SMInfo-Phys); and 2) Care Plan (CP-Phys) and equivalent subscales adapted to assess self-management support for mood and emotional problems: SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood. Subscale scoring was assessed with Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis. Convergent validity of the mood subscales was assessed. The sensitivity of the mood and physical condition subscales to mental health interventions was assessed with generalized estimating equations (GEE). The mood subscales were associated with relevant measures of perceived unmet mental health needs. Both SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood were sensitive to the coaching intervention; CP-Mood was also sensitive to receipt of depression treatment outside the trial. This study provides preliminary evidence for the validity of the 2 new subscales. The subscales may be used to assess perceived health professional support for self-management of mood and emotional problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, R. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Vejcik, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Berger, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  9. Top Quark Physics: Future Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, John A

    2003-05-09

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  10. Top quark physics: Future Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Raymond; Gerdes, David; Jaros, John; Vejcik, Steve; Berger, Edmond L.; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cuypers, Frank; Drell, Persis S.; Fero, Michael; Hadley, Nicholas; Han, Tao; Heinson, Ann P.; Knuteson, Bruce; Larios, Francisco; Miettinen, Hannu; Orr, Lynne H.; Peskin, Michael E.; Rizzo, Thomas; Sarid, Uri; Schmidt, Carl; Stelzer, Tim; Sullivan, Zack

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  11. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  12. Learning in a Physics Classroom Community: Physics Learning Identity Construct Development, Measurement and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sissi L.

    introductory physics. The responses were analyzed using principal component exploratory factor analysis. The emergent factors were analyzed to create reliable subscales to measure PLI in terms of physics learning self-efficacy and social expectations about learning. Using these subscales, I present a case study of a student who performed well in the course but resisted the identity learning goals of the curriculum. These findings are used to support the factors that emerged from the statistical analysis and suggest a potential model of the relationships between the factors describing science learning and learning identity in large enrollment college science classes. This study offers an instrument with which to measure aspects of physics learning identity and insights on how PLI might develop in a classroom community of practice.

  13. Physical measures of sound and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The physical measurement of sound is examined through basic definitions and measuring techniques. The terminology of acoustics is presented with noise characterization, graphs, and mathematical formulas included.

  14. Measuring student responsibility in Physical Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring student responsibility in Physical Education: Examinantion of CSR and PSR Models. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... It is, therefore, necessary to develop a new instrument for measuring student responsibility within the field of physical education. Key words: ...

  15. Results of subscale MTF compression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen; Mossman, A.; Donaldson, M.; Fusion Team, General

    2016-10-01

    In magnetized target fusion (MTF) a magnetized plasma torus is compressed in a time shorter than its own energy confinement time, thereby heating to fusion conditions. Understanding plasma behavior and scaling laws is needed to advance toward a reactor-scale demonstration. General Fusion is conducting a sequence of subscale experiments of compact toroid (CT) plasmas being compressed by chemically driven implosion of an aluminum liner, providing data on several key questions. CT plasmas are formed by a coaxial Marshall gun, with magnetic fields supported by internal plasma currents and eddy currents in the wall. Configurations that have been compressed so far include decaying and sustained spheromaks and an ST that is formed into a pre-existing toroidal field. Diagnostics measure B, ne, visible and x-ray emission, Ti and Te. Before compression the CT has an energy of 10kJ magnetic, 1 kJ thermal, with Te of 100 - 200 eV, ne 5x1020 m-3. Plasma was stable during a compression factor R0/R >3 on best shots. A reactor scale demonstration would require 10x higher initial B and ne but similar Te. Liner improvements have minimized ripple, tearing and ejection of micro-debris. Plasma facing surfaces have included plasma-sprayed tungsten, bare Cu and Al, and gettering with Ti and Li.

  16. A medical risk attitude subscale for DOSPERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Butler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT is a widely used instrument that measures perceived risk and benefit and attitude toward risk for activities in several domains, but does not include medical risks. Objective: To develop a medical risk domain subscale for DOSPERT. Methods: Sixteen candidate risk items were developed through expert discussion. We conducted cognitive telephone interviews, an online survey, and a random-digit dialing (RDD telephone survey to reduce and refine the scale, explore its factor structure, and obtain estimates of reliability. Participants: Eight patients recruited from UIC medical center waiting rooms participated in 45-60 minute cognitive interviews. Thirty Amazon Mechanical Turk workers completed the online survey. One hundred Chicago-area residents completed the RDD telephone survey. Results: On the basis of cognitive interviews, we eliminated five items due to poor variance or participant misunderstanding. The online survey suggested that two additional items were negatively correlated with the scale, and we considered them candidates for removal. Factor analysis of the responses in the RDD telephone survey and non-statistical factors led us to recommend a final set of 6 items to represent the medical risk domain. The final set of items included blood donation, kidney donation, daily medication use for allergies, knee replacement surgery, general anesthesia in dentistry, and clinical trial participation. The interitem reliability (Cronbach's alpha of the final set of 6 items ranged from 0.57-0.59 depending on the response task. Older respondents gave lower overall ratings of expected benefit from the activities. Conclusion: We refined a set of items to measure risk and benefit perceptions for medical activities. Our next step will be to add these items to the complete DOSPERT scale, confirm the scale's psychometric properties, determine whether medical risks constitute a psychologically

  17. Oxidation subscale of gamma-titanium aluminide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, R.; Verwerft, Marc; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Gronsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The subscale formed during high temperature rapid oxidation of gamma-titanium aluminum is revealed by transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis to consist of two phases: one hexagonal with unit cell dimensions a = 0.58 nm, c = 0.47 nm (+/- 0.005 nm), and a composition close to Ti6Al3O4; the

  18. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  19. Measuring physical activity environments: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F

    2009-04-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people's ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people's use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments.

  20. Wind Turbine Blade Design for Subscale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Kelley, Christopher L.; Maniaci, David C.

    2016-09-01

    Two different inverse design approaches are proposed for developing wind turbine blades for sub-scale wake testing. In the first approach, dimensionless circulation is matched for full scale and sub-scale wind turbine blades for equal shed vorticity in the wake. In the second approach, the normalized normal and tangential force distributions are matched for large scale and small scale wind turbine blades, as these forces determine the wake dynamics and stability. The two approaches are applied for the same target full scale turbine blade, and the shape of the blades are compared. The results show that the two approaches have been successfully implemented, and the designed blades are able to produce the target circulation and target normal and tangential force distributions.

  1. Childhood depression subscales using repeated sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale - revised (CDRS-R) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Ameena; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-08-01

    Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65-0.91). As a result, the clinicians' assessments of the various symptoms became

  2. Associations of objectively and subjectively measured physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PBSSs) calculated from physical activity (PA) questionnaires and accelerometry measures of PA with trabecular and cortical bone properties in prepubertal children. Methods. We compared PBSSs calculated from the bone-specific component of PA ...

  3. Subscale Acoustic Testing: Comparison of ALAT and ASMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Janice D.; Counter, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option. This paper compares the acoustic measurements of two different subscale tests: the 2% Ares Liftoff Acoustic Test conducted at Stennis Space Center and the 5% Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Measurements of non-physical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Igor F.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to suggest an approach to development of a theory of measurements for non-physical quantities. For these measurements it is not possible to ensure traceability because of their exclusive nature as substantiated by the author. This theory is presented as particularly important one for social and human sciences.

  5. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3) subscales predict unique variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has been implicated in the development and maintenance of a range of mental health problems. The development of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index - 3, a psychometrically sound index of AS, has provided the opportunity to better understand how the lower-order factors of AS - physical, psychological, and social concerns - are associated with unique forms of psychopathology. The present study investigated these associations among 85 treatment-seeking adults with high AS. Participants completed measures of AS, anxiety, and depression. Multiple regression analyses controlling for other emotional disorder symptoms revealed unique associations between AS subscales and certain types of psychopathology. Only physical concerns predicted unique variance in panic, only cognitive concerns predicted unique variance in depressive symptoms, and social anxiety was predicted by only social concerns. Findings emphasize the importance of considering the multidimensional nature of AS in understanding its role in anxiety and depression and their treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    CERN Document Server

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  7. Physical properties of quantum field theory measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, J. M.; Thiemann, T.; Velhinho, J. M.

    1999-05-01

    Well known methods of measure theory on infinite dimensional spaces are used to study physical properties of measures relevant to quantum field theory. The difference of typical configurations of free massive scalar field theories with different masses is studied. We apply the same methods to study the Ashtekar-Lewandowski (AL) measure on spaces of connections. In particular we prove that the diffeomorphism group acts ergodically, with respect to the AL measure, on the Ashtekar-Isham space of quantum connections modulo gauge transformations. We also prove that a typical, with respect to the AL measure, quantum connection restricted to a (piecewise analytic) curve leads to a parallel transport discontinuous at every point of the curve.

  8. Measured versus self-reported physical function in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Webb A; Li, Zhenghong; Loftin, Mark; Carlyle, Brent E; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-02-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) experience late effects that interfere with physical function. Limitations in physical function can affect CCS abilities to actively participate in daily activities. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the concordance between self-reported physical performance and clinically evaluated physical performance among adult CCS. CCS 18 yr or older and 10 yr or older from diagnosis who are participants in the St. Jude Lifetime cohort study responded to the physical function section of the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36). Measured physical performance was evaluated using the Physical Performance Test and the 6-Minute Walk Test. Individuals (N = 1778, 50.8% female) with a median time since diagnosis of 24.9 yr (range = 10.9-48.2) and a median age of 32.4 yr (range = 19.1-48.2) completed testing. Limitations in physical performance were self-reported by 14.1% of participants. The accuracy of self-report physical performance was 0.87 when the SF-36 was compared with the 6-Minute Walk Test or the Physical Performance Test. Reporting inaccuracies most often involved reporting a physical performance limitation. Poor accuracy was associated with previous diagnosis of a bone or CNS tumor, lymphoma, older age, and large body size. These results suggest that self-report, using the physical performance subscale of the SF-36, correctly identifies CCS who do not have physical performance limitations. In contrast, this same measure is less able to identify individuals who have performance limitations.

  9. Measurement theory in local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Kazuya, E-mail: okamura@math.cm.is.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ozawa, Masanao, E-mail: ozawa@is.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.

  10. Physical Measurements of Sea Bed Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, V. B.; Pawlak, G.

    2004-12-01

    Physical measurements of sea bed roughness were obtained using a boat-mounted acoustic altimetry system combined with diver-based observations with the goal of resolving scales between 10 and 100cm. The surveyed area extends from the wave breaking zone to a depth of 20 m and is characterized by a highly inhomogeneous sea bed. Theory suggests that these roughness scales play an important role in wave energy dissipation, despite the lack of established parameterizations for these high roughness regimes. This study attempts to address this issue by investigating methods for quantifying roughness and examining the relationships between physical and hydrodynamic roughness. Results show a significant variation of roughness over the study area indicating limitations in defining a single scale for the shallow water region. Various statistical estimators are examined as potential candidates for roughness parameterization schemes, including rms, standard deviation and consecutive angle difference in order to characterize bed morphologies. Wave number spectral analysis is used to highlight the dominant roughness scales. The analysis is directed towards merging the various roughness parameters with wave field observations and numerical wave model output, to produce a roughness map that establishes a link between the physical roughness measurements and hydrodynamic wave friction at the study area.

  11. "Moved by the spirit": does spirituality moderate the interrelationships between subjective well-being subscales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans-Stekhoven, James

    2010-07-01

    Despite the recent escalation of research into the spirituality and well-being link, past efforts have been plagued by methodological problems. However, the potential for measurement error within psychometric instruments remains largely unexplored. After reviewing theory and evidence suggesting spirituality might represent an affective misattribution, moderation modeling-with each subjective well-being (SWB) subscale as a dependent variable as predicted by the remaining SWB subscales-is utilized to test the assumption of scale invariance. These interrelationships were shown to vary in conjunction with spirituality; that is the analysis revealed significant spirituality x subscale interactions. Importantly, in all models the spirituality main effect was either nonsignificant or accounted for by other predictors. In combination, the findings suggest the interrelationship between the subscales rather than the level of SWB varies systematically with spirituality and casts considerable doubt on the previously reported "belief-as-benefit" effect.

  12. Potential physics measurement with ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.C., E-mail: dczhou@mail.ccnu.edu.c [Institute of Particle Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics, Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Mao, Y.X.; Wan, R.Z. [Institute of Particle Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics, Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Schutz, Y. [CERN, Geneva CH-1211, Switzerland and SUBATECH, IN2P3, Nantes (France); Yin, Z.-B.; Wang, Y.P.; Ma, K. [Institute of Particle Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics, Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Conesa, G. [Laboratori Nazionale Di Frascati, INFN, Via Enrico Fermi, 40, P.O box 13, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Kharlov, Y. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, 142281 (Russian Federation); Wang, M.L.; Zhu, X.R.; Yin, X.; Cai, X. [Institute of Particle Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics, Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China)

    2010-03-01

    We present the two electromagnetic calorimeters of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at LHC (Large Hadron Collider). One is the high-resolution PHOton Spectrometer (PHOS) made of lead tungsten crystals and the other is the ElectroMagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal), a Lead-Scintillator sampling calorimeter. They are dedicated to the measurement and identification of direct photons, light neutral mesons such as pi{sup 0}, eta and omega(782), and jets emitted in proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC energies. The PHOS is capable of precisely detecting photons with momentum range between 0.1 GeV/c and 100 GeV/c and the EMCal can extend the prompt photon and light neutral meson momentum measurement beyond 200 GeV/c. The objective of the study is to explore the physics of strongly interacting QCD matter under extreme conditions of energy density.

  13. The Correlation of SCL-90-R Anxiety, Depression, Somatization Subscale Scores with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilay, Utku; Guclu, Bulent; Goksel, Murat; Keskil, Semih

    2017-02-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores with chronic low back pain. In this study, 75 patients admitted with the complaint of chronic low back pain (patient group) and 75 healthy persons (control group) were evaluated. SCL-90-R anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons were measured. The mean values were paired and using two tailed t test they were statistically evaluated. The difference between SCL-90-R anxiety subscale subscores of patients having choronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05).The difference betweenSCL-90-R depression subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05). The difference between SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically significant (p 0.05). Our data show that SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores were higher in patients with low back pain. The treatment of low back pain can be more successful when combined with the treatment of somatization.

  14. Relating Unidimensional IRT Parameters to a Multidimensional Response Space: A Review of Two Alternative Projection IRT Models for Scoring Subscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Thompson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    A practical concern for many existing tests is that subscore test lengths are too short to provide reliable and meaningful measurement. A possible method of improving the subscale reliability and validity would be to make use of collateral information provided by items from other subscales of the same test. To this end, the purpose of this article…

  15. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical activity and sedentary behaviour in older adults? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:62. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-62]. 17. World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for. Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010. 18. Tudor-Locke C, Sisson SB, Collova T, Lee SM, ...

  16. Validation of the 4DSQ somatization subscale in the occupational health care setting as a screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vroege, Lars; Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Hoedeman, Rob; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2015-03-01

    Somatoform disorders (physical symptoms without medical explanation that cause dysfunction) are prevalent in the occupational health (OH) care setting and are associated with functional impairment and absenteeism. Availability of psychometric instruments aimed at assessing somatoform disorders is limited. In the OH setting, so far only the Patient-Health-Questionnaire 15 has been validated as screener for somatoform disorder, and has been shown to have moderate validity. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is frequently used in the OH setting but the Somatization subscale is not validated yet. The aim of this study is to validate the 4DSQ Somatization subscale as screener for DSM-IV somatoform disorder in the OH setting by using the MINI interview as gold standard. Employees absent from work due to physical symptoms, for a period longer than 6 weeks and shorter than 2 years, were asked to participate in this study. They filled out the 4DSQ and underwent a MINI interview by telephone for DSM-IV classification. Specificity and sensitivity scores were calculated for all possible cut-off scores and a receiver operator curve was computed for the Somatization subscale. 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for sensitivity and specificity. The Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ has an optimal cut point of 9, with specificity and sensitivity equal to 64.3 % [95 % CI (53.6; 73.7 %)] and 60.9 % [95 % CI (40.8; 77.8 %)], respectively. Receiver operator curves showed an area under the curve equal to 0.61 [SE = 0.07; 95 % CI (0.48; 0.75)] for the Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ. The 4DSQ Somatization subscale is a questionnaire of moderate sensitivity and specificity.

  17. The Wellness Child Care Assessment Tool: a measure to assess the quality of written nutrition and physical activity policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, Jennifer; Kenney, Erica L; Henderson, Kathryn E; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing interest in studying the influence of child-care center policies on the health of preschool-aged children. To develop a reliable and valid instrument to quantitatively evaluate the quality of written nutrition and physical activity policies at child-care centers. Reliability and validation study. A 65-item measure was created to evaluate five areas of child-care center policies: nutrition education, nutrition standards for foods and beverages, promoting healthy eating in the child-care setting, physical activity, and communication and evaluation. The total scale and each subscale were scored on comprehensiveness and strength. Analyses were conducted on 94 independent policies from Connecticut child-care centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to measure inter-rater reliability, and Cronbach's α was used to estimate internal consistency. To test construct validity, t tests were used to assess differences in scores between Head Start and non-Head Start centers and between National Association for the Education of Young Children-accredited and nonaccredited centers. Inter-rater reliability was high for total comprehensiveness and strength scores (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.98 and 0.94, respectively) and subscale scores (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.84 to 0.99). Subscales were adequately internally reliable (Cronbach's α=.53 to .83). Comprehensiveness and strength scores were higher for Head Start centers than non-Head Start centers across most domains and higher for National Association for the Education of Young Children-accredited centers than nonaccredited centers across some but not all domains, providing evidence of construct validity. This instrument provides a standardized method to analyze and compare the comprehensiveness and strength of written nutrition and physical activity policies in child-care centers. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic

  18. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  19. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  20. Measuring the Ability to Tolerate Activity-Related Discomfort: Initial Validation of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L; Arigo, Danielle; Raggio, Greer A; Kaufman, Alison Infield; Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Forman, Evan M

    2015-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for health, but many adults find PA adherence challenging. Acceptance of discomfort related to PA may influence an individual's ability to begin and sustain a program of exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Acceptance Questionnaire (PAAQ). The PAAQ was administered to 3 distinct samples (N = 418). Each sample completed additional self-report measures; 1 sample also wore accelerometers for 7 days (at baseline and 6 months later). The PAAQ demonstrated high internal validity for its total score (α = .89) and 2 subscales (Cognitive Acceptance α = .86, Behavioral Commitment α = .85). The PAAQ also showed convergent validity with measures of mindfulness, self-reported physical activity levels, and accelerometer-verified levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; P-values < .05). The Cognitive Acceptance subscale showed predictive validity for objectively-verified PA levels among individuals attempting to increase PA over 6 months (P = .05). Test-retest reliability for a subset of participants (n = 46) demonstrated high consistency over 1 week (P < .0001). The PAAQ demonstrates sound psychometric properties, and shows promise for improving the current understanding of PA facilitators and barriers among adults.

  1. The Mechanical Performance of Subscale Candidate Elastomer Docking Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for future exploration missions. The mechanism is a new state-of-the-art device for in-space assembly of structures and rendezvous of vehicles. At the interface between two pressurized modules, each with a version of the LIDS attached, a composite elastomer-metal seal assembly prevents the breathable air from escaping into the vacuum of space. Attached to the active LIDS, this seal mates against the passive LIDS during docking operation. The main interface seal assembly must exhibit low leak and outgas values, must be able to withstand various harsh space environments, must remain operational over a range of temperatures from -50 C to 75 C, and perform after numerous docking cycles. This paper presents results from a comprehensive study of the mechanical performance of four candidate subscale seal assembly designs at -50, 23, 50, and 75 C test temperatures. In particular, the force required to fully compress the seal during docking, and that which is required for separation during the undocking operation were measured. The height of subscale main interface seal bulbs, as well as the test temperature, were shown to have a significant effect on the forces the main interface seal of the LIDS may experience during docking and undocking operations. The average force values required to fully compress each of the seal assemblies were shown to increase with test temperature by approximately 50% from -50 to 75 C. Also, the required compression forces were shown to increase as the height of the seal bulb was increased. The seal design with the tallest elastomer seal bulb, which was 31% taller than that with the shortest bulb, required force values approximately 45% higher than those for the shortest bulb, independent of the test temperature. The force required to separate the seal was shown to increase with decreasing temperature after 15 hours of simulated docking. No adhesion

  2. The impact of atomic precision measurements in high energy physics

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the relevance of atomic physics in understanding some important questions about elementary particle physics. A particular attention is devoted to atomic parity violation measurements which seem to suggest new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic physics might also be relevant in discovering possible violations of the CPT symmetry.

  3. Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...

  4. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  5. The patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis subscale of the KOOS (KOOS-PF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crossley, Kay M; Macri, Erin M; Cowan, Sallie M

    2017-01-01

    for patellofemoral pain have methodological limitations. This study aimed to develop a new subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis (KOOS-PF), and evaluate its measurement properties. METHODS: Items were generated using input from 50 patients...... and interpretability of the final version of KOOS-PF and other KOOS subscales. RESULTS: From an initial 80 generated items, the final subscale included 11 items. KOOS-PF items loaded predominantly on one factor, pain during activities that load the patellofemoral joint. KOOS-PF had good internal consistency (Cronbach......'s α 0.86) and adequate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). Hypothesis testing supported convergent, divergent and known-groups validity. Responsiveness was confirmed, with KOOS-PF demonstrating a moderate correlation with Global Rating of Change scores (r 0.52) and large...

  6. Measuring teacher effectiveness in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Judith E

    2013-12-01

    This article summarizes the research base on teacher effectiveness in physical education from a historical perspective and explores the implications of the recent emphasis on student performance and teacher observation systems to evaluate teachers for physical education. The problems and the potential positive effects of using student performance scores as well as establishing a comprehensive evaluation program are explored with supportive evidence that some level of accountability is necessary in our field to make significant change.

  7. Evaluation of the Construction of the Subscales for the Piers-Harris and Tennessee Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julia Anne

    A sample of 234 fifth- and 259 sixth-grade students scaled the items of the Piers-Harris, Tennessee, Coopersmith, and Lipsett self-concept measures. The scaling of the Piers-Harris and the Tennessee inventories was examined in reference to their subscales. The present technique placed items on a bivariate plane of two orthogonal dimensions…

  8. Item-level and subscale-level factoring of Biggs' Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) in a mainland Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, J; Gao, L

    2000-09-01

    The learning process questionnaire (LPQ) has been the source of intensive cross-cultural study. However, an item-level factor analysis of all the LPQ items simultaneously has never been reported. Rather, items within each subscale have been factor analysed to establish subscale unidimensionality and justify the use of composite subscale scores. It was of major interest to see if the six logically constructed items groups of the LPQ would be supported by empirical evidence. Additionally, it was of interest to compare the consistency of the reliability and correlational structure of the LPQ subscales in our study with those of previous cross-cultural studies. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the six-factor item level model and to fit five representative subscale level factor models. A total of 1070 students between the ages of 15 to 18 years was drawn from a representative selection of 29 classes from within 15 secondary schools in Guangzhou, China. Males and females were almost equally represented. The six-factor item level model of the LPQ seemed to fit reasonably well, thus supporting the six dimensional structure of the LPQ and justifying the use of composite subscale scores for each LPQ dimension. However, the reliability of many of these subscales was low. Furthermore, only two subscale-level factor models showed marginally acceptable fit. Substantive considerations supported an oblique three-factor model. Because the LPQ subscales often show low internal consistency reliability, experimental and correlational studies that have used these subscales as dependent measures have been disappointing. It is suggested that some LPQ items should be revised and other items added to improve the inventory's overall psychometric properties.

  9. Simulation of a GOX-kerosene subscale rocket combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglauer, Christoph; Kniesner, Björn; Knab, Oliver; Kirchberger, Christoph; Schlieben, Gregor; Kau, Hans-Peter

    2011-12-01

    In view of future film cooling tests at the Institute for Flight Propulsion (LFA) at Technische Universität München, the Astrium in-house spray combustion CFD tool Rocflam-II was validated against first test data gained from this rocket test bench without film cooling. The subscale rocket combustion chamber uses GOX and kerosene as propellants which are injected through a single double swirl element. Especially the modeling of the double swirl element and the measured wall roughness were adapted on the LFA hardware. Additionally, new liquid kerosene fluid properties were implemented and verified in Rocflam-II. Also the influences of soot deposition and hot gas radiation on the wall heat flux were analytically and numerically estimated. In context of reviewing the implemented evaporation model in Rocflam-II, the binary diffusion coefficient and its pressure dependency were analyzed. Finally simulations have been performed for different load points with Rocflam-II showing a good agreement compared to test data.

  10. SPE5 Sub-Scale Test Series Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, Kevin S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reeves, Robert V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeHaven, Martin R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strickland, Shawn L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    A series of 2 SPE5 sub-scale tests were performed to experimentally confirm that a booster system designed and evaluated in prior tests would properly initiate the PBXN-110 case charge fill. To conduct the experiments, a canister was designed to contain the nominally 50 mm diameter booster tube with an outer fill of approximately 150 mm diameter by 150 mm in length. The canisters were filled with PBXN-110 at NAWS-China Lake and shipped back to LLNL for testing in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Piezoelectric crystal pins were placed on the outside of the booster tube before filling, and a series of piezoelectric crystal pins along with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes were placed on the outer surface of the canister to measure the relative timing and magnitude of the detonation. The 2 piezoelectric crystal pins integral to the booster design were also utilized along with a series of either piezoelectric crystal pins or piezoelectric polymer pads on the top of the canister or outside case that utilized direct contact, gaps, or different thicknesses of RTV cushions to obtain time of arrival data to evaluate the response in preparation for the large-scale SPE5 test. To further quantify the margin of the booster operation, the 1st test (SPE5SS1) was functioned with both detonators and the 2nd test (SPE5SS2) was functioned with only 1 detonator. A full detonation of the material was observed in both experiments as observed by the pin timing and PDV signals. The piezoelectric pads were found to provide a greater measured signal magnitude during the testing with an RTV layer present, and the improved response is due to the larger measurement surface area of the pad. This report will detail the experiment design, canister assembly for filling, final assembly, experiment firing, presentation of the diagnostic results, and a discussion of the results.

  11. Steps that count: Pedometer-measured physical activity, self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine the association between self-perceived and actual physical activity in relation to physical activity guidelines, with reference to volume, intensity and duration of steps/day, and to establish the level of agreement between pedometer-measured and selfreported ambulatory physical activity, in relation to current ...

  12. Measurement of Workload: Physics, Psychophysics, and Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reviews the results of two experiments in which workload analysis was conducted based upon performance measures, brain evoked potentials and magnitude estimations of subjective load. The three types of measures were jointly applied to the description of the behavior of subjects in a wide battery of experimental tasks. Data analysis shows both instances of association and dissociation between types of measures. A general conceptual framework and methodological guidelines are proposed to account for these findings.

  13. Evaluating PROMIS Physical Function Measures in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Tatsuoka PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Activities of daily living can be affected by cognitive decline. Self-report measurement of functioning is attractive due to ease of data collection, low cost, and accessibility via technology-assisted means, and for understanding patient perspective. A concern is with reliability of such measurement as cognitive decline occurs. We compared a widely used, self-report “legacy” measure of functioning, Lawton and Brody’s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS, with a subset of physical functioning items from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS. The study sample consisted of 304 individuals of varying cognitive status: normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, or early dementia. An expert consensus method was used to select PROMIS functional items most relevant to neurocognitive disorder and to identify major functional sub-domains. Selected PROMIS functional subscales and the IADLS were then evaluated with respect to cognitive status. Few PROMIS functional items were useful in identifying MCI, while we reaffirmed the utility of the IADLS. Also, even mild depression levels were found to have negative effects on functioning according to both PROMIS and IADLS.

  14. Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key points When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained

  15. Manual for soil physical measurements; Version 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, J.

    1997-01-01

    Manuals are given for several laboratory methods for determining hydraulic conductivity, water retention and shrinkage characteristics of soil. Measurement techniques described are: the constant-head and falling-head methods for saturated conductivitythe drip infiltrometer for unsaturated

  16. Implementation of measurement instruments in physical therapist practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anita Stevens

    2010-01-01

    The use of measurement instruments has become a major issue in physical therapy, but their use in daily practice is infrequent. The aims of this case report were to develop and evaluate a plan for the systematic implementation of two measurement instruments frequently recommended in Dutch physical

  17. Calorimetry energy measurement in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wigmans, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Particle physics is the science that pursues the age-old quest for the innermost structure of matter and the fundamental interactions between its constituents. Modern experiments in this field rely increasingly on calorimetry, a detection technique in which the particles of interest are absorbed in the detector. Calorimeters are very intricate instruments. Their performance characteristics depend on subtle, sometimes counter-intuitive design details. This book, written by one of the world's foremost experts, is the first comprehensive text on this topic. It provides a fundamental and systematic introduction to calorimetry. It describes the state of the art in terms of both the fundamental understanding of calorimetric particle detection, and the actual detectors that have been or are being built and operated in experiments. The last chapter discusses landmark scientific discoveries in which calorimetry has played an important role. This book summarizes and puts into perspective the work described in some 900...

  18. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  19. Hadron Production Measurements for Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Panman, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    One of the limiting factors for the precision of neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Recently, dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data and are being planned to supply measurements which can significantly reduce these uncertainties. The HARP experiment has presented results on the measurements of the double‐differential production cross‐section of charged pions in proton interactions with beryllium, carbon, aluminium, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets. These results are relevant for a detailed understanding of neutrino flux in accelerator neutrino experiments K2K (p–Al data) and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE (p–Be data), for a better prediction of atmospheric neutrino fluxes (p–C, π + – C and π − – C data) as well as for a systematic improvement of hadron production models. The E910 experiment at BNL has recently published their p–Be data. NA49 has measured pion production spectra in p–C interactions and...

  20. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-antiangiogenesis subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.92). Test-retest reliability was also good (0.72-0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy–antiangiogenesis subscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)–Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70–0.92). Test–retest reliability was also good (0.72–0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:25619758

  2. Measuring Physical Activity in Youth Settings: Considerations for Instrument Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Hickerson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing physical activity participation has become one of the primary strategies for prevention of early-onset health conditions including obesity and Type II diabetes. Youth programs including summer camps and after-school programs are premium providers of physical activity opportunities, but researchers and administrators of these programs must be able to effectively collect and interpret physical activity data to make program adjustments and communicate results. This article reviews existing methods for physical activity measurement including self-reports and objective instruments and makes suggestions for their applicability. Pedometers are covered in-depth as they may be the method of choice in many youth settings. These devices are unobtrusive, have a relatively low cost, and provide excellent data quality. Proper physical activity measurement in youth settings can provide information about effective intervention strategies and may also encourage on-site participants to increase their physical activity frequency.

  3. Resilience, physical performance measures, and self-perceived physical and mental health in older Catholic nuns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret; Avers, Dale; Brooks, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The importance of physical performance measures and their influence on predicting future disability has been suggested; however, the association between resilience and physical performance measures in older women needs further study. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the resilience level in a convenience sample of older women who happened to be Roman Catholic nuns. The relationships of resilience with specific physical performance measures, self-perceived physical and mental health status, and depressive symptoms were also explored. Descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. Data from 54 volunteer Roman Catholic nuns, aged 55-94 were collected beginning with self report questionnaires followed by physical performance tests. Self-report measures included the Resilience Scale, Short-Form revised (SF-12v2) Health Survey, and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The 12-point Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and fast gait speed were the physical performance tests measured. This sample of nuns had moderate levels of resilience. Those with fewer depressive symptoms and better health had higher resilience levels. Fast gait speed was positively associated with resilience. The positive relationship between resilience and gait speed is an important finding of this study because it reinforces the connection between physical and emotional health. Future studies should examine if resilience and gait speed can serve as predictors of disability in a broader sample of older adults or if resilience can be targeted as a means of improving physical performance. Maintaining functional ability and recovering when physical injury is experienced is of great importance in older adults. It is reasonable for physical therapists to consider both resilience and physical performance measures when attempting to identify older women at risk for poor outcomes. Resilience may play a role in helping older adults recover from a physical injury.

  4. Recommended measures for the assessment of cognitive and physical performance in older patients with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossers, Willem J R; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Boersma, Froukje; Scherder, Erik J A; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2012-01-01

    AIM/GOAL: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. A literature search (2005-2011) yielded 89 randomized controlled trials. To provide information on test recommendations the frequency of test use, effect size of the test outcome, study quality, and psychometric properties of tests were analyzed. Fifty-nine neuropsychological tests (cognitive domains: global cognition, executive functioning, memory, and attention) and 10 exercise tests (physical domains: endurance capacity, muscle strength, balance, and mobility) were found. The Severe Impairment Battery, Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale were recommended to measure global cognition. The Verbal Fluency Test Category/Letters, Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Test-B were recommended to measure executive functioning. No specific memory test could be recommended. The Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test-A were recommended to measure attention. As physical exercise tests, the Timed Up and Go and Six Meter Walk for mobility, the Six Minute Walk Distance for endurance capacity, and the Tinetti Balance Scale were recommended.

  5. Recommended Measures for the Assessment of Cognitive and Physical Performance in Older Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.R. Bossers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Goal: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. Methods: A literature search (2005–2011 yielded 89 randomized controlled trials. To provide information on test recommendations the frequency of test use, effect size of the test outcome, study quality, and psychometric properties of tests were analyzed. Results: Fifty-nine neuropsychological tests (cognitive domains: global cognition, executive functioning, memory, and attention and 10 exercise tests (physical domains: endurance capacity, muscle strength, balance, and mobility were found. Conclusion: The Severe Impairment Battery, Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale – cognitive subscale were recommended to measure global cognition. The Verbal Fluency Test Category/Letters, Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Test-B were recommended to measure executive functioning. No specific memory test could be recommended. The Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test-A were recommended to measure attention. As physical exercise tests, the Timed Up and Go and Six Meter Walk for mobility, the Six Minute Walk Distance for endurance capacity, and the Tinetti Balance Scale were recommended.

  6. Subscale Test Program for the Orion Conical Ribbon Drogue Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Stuart, Phil; Machin, Ricardo; Bourland, Gary; Schwing, Allen; Longmire, Ellen; Henning, Elsa; Sinclair, Rob

    2011-01-01

    A subscale wind tunnel test program for Orion's conical ribbon drogue parachute is under development. The desired goals of the program are to quantify aerodynamic performance of the parachute in the wake of the entry vehicle, including understanding of the coupling of the parachute and command module dynamics, and an improved understanding of the load distribution within the textile elements of the parachute. The test program is ten percent of full scale conducted in a 3x2.1 m (10x7 ft) closed loop subsonic wind tunnel. The subscale test program is uniquely suited to probing the aerodynamic and structural environment in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Non-intrusive diagnostics, including Particle Image Velocimetry for wake velocity surveys, high speed pressure transducers for canopy pressure distribution, and a high speed photogrammetric reconstruction, will be used to quantify the parachute's performance.

  7. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  8. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  9. Brownian Motion as a Limit to Physical Measuring Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    formulated a general conclusion concerning the nature of physical measurements, namely that there is a definite limit to the ultimate sensitivity of measuring instruments beyond which we cannot advance, and that this limit is determined by Brownian motion. Ising’s conclusion agreed with experiments......In this paper, we examine the history of the idea that noise presents a fundamental limit to physical measuring processes. This idea had its origins in research aimed at improving the accuracy of instruments for electrical measurements. Out of these endeavors, the Swedish physicist Gustaf A. Ising...... and received widespread recognition, but his way of modeling the system was contested by his contemporaries. With the more embracing notion of noise that developed during and after World War II, Ising’s conclusion was reinterpreted as showing that noise puts a limit on physical measurement processes. Hence...

  10. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Richard P; Berrigan, David; Dodd, Kevin W; Mâsse, Louise C; Tilert, Timothy; McDowell, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    To describe physical activity levels of children (6-11 yr), adolescents (12-19 yr), and adults (20+ yr), using objective data obtained with accelerometers from a representative sample of the U.S. population. These results were obtained from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population in the United States. Data are described from 6329 participants who provided at least 1 d of accelerometer data and from 4867 participants who provided four or more days of accelerometer data. Males are more physically active than females. Physical activity declines dramatically across age groups between childhood and adolescence and continues to decline with age. For example, 42% of children ages 6-11 yr obtain the recommended 60 min x d(-1) of physical activity, whereas only 8% of adolescents achieve this goal. Among adults, adherence to the recommendation to obtain 30 min x d(-1) of physical activity is less than 5%. Objective and subjective measures of physical activity give qualitatively similar results regarding gender and age patterns of activity. However, adherence to physical activity recommendations according to accelerometer-measured activity is substantially lower than according to self-report. Great care must be taken when interpreting self-reported physical activity in clinical practice, public health program design and evaluation, and epidemiological research.

  11. The role of quantum measurements in physical processes and protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    In this mainly pedagogical article, we discuss under what circumstances measurements play a special role in quantum processes. In particular, we discuss the following facts that appear to be a common area of confusion. (i) From a fundamental point of view, measurements play no special role whatsoever: all dynamics that can be generated by measurements can be generated by unitary processes (for which post-selection is no exception). (ii) From a purely physical point of view, measurements are not ‘outside’ of quantum mechanics. (iii) The only difference between the abilities of measurement-based protocols and unitary circuits for quantum computing comes from practical (technology dependent) constraints. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between differences that are (i) fundamental but without physical import; (ii) fundamental and possess physical import; and (iii) are not fundamental but have practical import. We also emphasise the importance of separating theoretical and experimental elements of measurement, primarily projection and amplification, which are physically very different. Note that since we are concerned with facts regarding physical processes, this article has little if anything to do with interpretations of quantum mechanics.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity in the Elderly: Some Implications for Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity patterns is discussed in terms of data obtained by attitude assessment, activity questionnaires, personal monitoring devices, and fitness assessment. Problems of each technique are described. Application of activity measures to the estimation of total dietary needs is discussed. (SK)

  13. Description and Operation of the A3 Subscale Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.; Varner, D. G.; Grover, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the general design and operation of the A3 Subscale test facility. The goal is to provide the reader with a general understanding of what the major facility systems are, where they are located, and how they are used to meet the objectives supporting the design of the A3 altitude rocket test facility. This paper also provides the reader with the background information prior to reading the subsequent papers detailing the design and test results of the various systems described herein.

  14. The uncertainty in physical measurements an introduction to data analysis in the physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    All measurements of physical quantities are affected by uncertainty. Understanding the origin of uncertainty, evaluating its extent and suitably taking it into account in data analysis is essential for assessing the degree of accuracy of phenomenological relationships and physical laws in both scientific research and technological applications. The Uncertainty in Physical Measurements: An Introduction to Data Analysis in the Physics Laboratory presents an introduction to uncertainty and to some of the most common procedures of data analysis. This book will serve the reader well by filling the gap between tutorial textbooks and highly specialized monographs. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is a phenomenological introduction to measurement and uncertainty: properties of instruments, different causes and corresponding expressions of uncertainty, histograms and distributions, and unified expression of uncertainty. The second part contains an introduction to probability theory, random variable...

  15. Measuring psychological consequences of screening: adaptation of the psychological consequences questionnaire into Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsburger, A. J.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; van As, E.; Cockburn, J.; de Koning, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of a Dutch adaptation of an originally Australian instrument measuring the psychological impact of breast cancer screening. METHODS: The three subscales (emotional, physical, social) of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire (PCQ) underwent

  16. Comparative Validity of Physical Activity Measures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLBERT, LISA H.; MATTHEWS, CHARLES E.; HAVIGHURST, THOMAS C.; KIM, KYUNGMANN; SCHOELLER, DALE A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the validity of various physical activity measures with doubly labeled water (DLW)–measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in free-living older adults. Methods Fifty-six adults aged ≥65 yr wore three activity monitors (New Lifestyles pedometer, ActiGraph accelerometer, and a SenseWear (SW) armband) during a 10-d free-living period and completed three different surveys (Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), and a modified Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (modPASE)). Total energy expenditure was measured using DLW, resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry, the thermic effect of food was estimated, and from these, estimates of PAEE were calculated. The degree of linear association between the various measures and PAEE was assessed, as were differences in group PAEE, when estimable by a given measure. Results All three monitors were significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.48–0.60, P < 0.001). Of the questionnaires, only CHAMPS was significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). Statistical comparison of the correlations suggested that the monitors were superior to YPAS and modPASE. Mean squared errors for all correlations were high, and the median PAEE from the different tools was significantly different from DLW for all but the YPAS and regression-estimated PAEE from the ActiGraph. Conclusions Objective devices more appropriately rank PAEE than self-reported instruments in older adults, but absolute estimates of PAEE are not accurate. Given the cost differential and ease of use, pedometers seem most useful in this population when ranking by physical activity level is adequate. PMID:20881882

  17. Measurements of new physics in B→ππ decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seungwon; Botella, F. J.; London, David; Silva, João P.

    2005-12-01

    If new physics (NP) is present in B→ππ decays, it can affect the isospin I=2 or I=0 channels. In this paper, we discuss various methods for detecting and measuring this NP. The techniques have increasing amounts of theoretical hadronic input. If NP is eventually detected in B→ππ—there is no evidence for it at present—one will be able to distinguish I=2 and I=0, and measure its parameters, using these methods.

  18. Digital image technology and a measurement tool in physical models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phelp, David

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in digital image technology has allowed us to use accurate, but relatively cost effective technology to measure a number of varied activities in physical models. The capturing and manipulation of high resolution digital images can be used...

  19. Ultracold atoms for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms has been one of the most active fields of research in physics in recent years. Several methods were demonstrated to reach temperatures as low as a few nanokelvin allowing, for example, the investigation of quantum degenerate gases. The ability to control the quantum degrees of freedom of atoms opens the way to applications for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities. Experiments in progress, planned or being considered using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms, namely atom interferometers and atomic clocks, will be discussed.

  20. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  1. Accelerometry-measured physical activity and inflammation after gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Véronique; Vigneault, Jessica; Weisnagel, S John; Tchernof, André; Robitaille, Julie

    2013-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse metabolic outcomes after delivery. Physical activity practice improves the inflammatory profile; however, whether this association exists in women with prior GDM remains unknown. Our objective was to examine the cardiometabolic and inflammatory risk factors associated with accelerometer-based measures of physical activity in women with prior GDM. Ninety-six women who had GDM between 2003 and 2010 were tested 2.9 ± 2.2 yr after delivery. The physical activity practice was measured with ActiGraph GT3X (ActiGraph™, Pensacola, FL) accelerometers worn ≥ 5 d, and the time spent weekly in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was derived. The waist circumference was measured and the inflammatory marker or cytokine concentrations were measured in fasting plasma by the xMAP technology using the Bio-Plex 200 system. The lipid profile was also measured from fasting blood samples. Only 31% of women accumulated at least 150 min of MVPA per week. No association was observed between the MVPA practice and any of the metabolic measurements in the whole group of women. The MVPA did not differ in groups stratified by waist circumference activator inhibitor-1 (r = -0.32, P = 0.04), and triglycerides (r = -0.44, P = 0.003). No association was seen with plasma interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α; and total, LDL, or HDL cholesterol concentrations. These analyses suggest that in the years after delivery, longer time spent in MVPA practice is associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk only in women with prior GDM who do not have abdominal obesity.

  2. Measurement of the physical properties of the snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinar, N. J.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews measurement techniques and corresponding devices used to determine the physical properties of the seasonal snowpack from distances close to the ground surface. The review is placed in the context of the need for scientific observations of snowpack variables that provide inputs for predictive hydrological models that help to advance scientific understanding of geophysical processes related to snow in the near-surface cryosphere. Many of these devices used to measure snow are invasive and require the snowpack to be disrupted, thereby precluding the possibility for multiple measurements to be made at the same sampling location. Moreover, many devices rely on the use of empirical calibration equations that may not be valid at all geographic locations. The spatial density of observations with most snow measurement devices is often inadequate. There is a need for improved automation of snowpack measurement instrumentation with an emphasis on field-based feedback of measurement validity in lieu of postprocessing of samples or data at a lab or office location. The scientific future of snow measurement instrumentation thereby requires a synthesis between science and engineering principles that takes into consideration geophysics and the physics of device operation.

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PKBS-2 Subscales for Assessing Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria; Benitez, Juan L.; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Fernando; Garcia, Trinidad; Garcia-Berben, Ana; Justicia, Ana; Alba, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Different research studies point out the importance of social competence as a protective factor against antisocial behavior. They likewise alert us of the importance of having valid, reliable instruments that measure these constructs in early childhood. Method: The objective of this research is to validate the subscales of the…

  4. Validity of the Sleep Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no available sleep disorder measures for individuals with severe and profound intellectual disability. We, therefore, attempted to establish the external validity of the "Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II" (DASH-II) sleep subscale by comparing daily observational sleep data with the responses of…

  5. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instrument (COSMIN). "Best evidence synthesis" was made using COSMIN outcomes and the quality of findings. RESULTS: Twenty-four out of 1792 publications were eligible......OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... for inclusion. Twenty-one performance-based measures were evaluated including 15 single-activity measures and six multi-activity measures. Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (three measures), reliability (16 measures), measurement error (14 measures), validity (nine measures...

  6. Lilith: a tool for constraining new physics from Higgs measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Dumont, Béranger

    2015-09-01

    The properties of the observed Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV can be affected in a variety of ways by new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The wealth of experimental results, targeting the different combinations for the production and decay of a Higgs boson, makes it a non-trivial task to assess the patibility of a non-SM-like Higgs boson with all available results. In this paper we present Lilith, a new public tool for constraining new physics from signal strength measurements performed at the LHC and the Tevatron. Lilith is a Python library that can also be used in C and C++/ ROOT programs. The Higgs likelihood is based on experimental results stored in an easily extensible XML database, and is evaluated from the user input, given in XML format in terms of reduced couplings or signal strengths.The results of Lilith can be used to constrain a wide class of new physics scenarios.

  7. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2.......8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age...

  8. Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, G J; Corbin, C B; Dale, D

    2000-06-01

    This paper reviewed the nature of children's physical activity patterns and how the unique nature of children can impact the assessment of physical activity. To accurately assess children's activity patterns, an instrument must be sensitive enough to detect, code, or record sporadic and intermittent activity. Care also must be used to select criterion measures that reflect appropriate physical activity guidelines for children. A number of different measurement approaches have been described for assessing children's activity, but no specific method can be identified as the best option for all studies. Selection of an appropriate instrument depends on the specific research question being addressed as well as the relative importance of accuracy and practicality (Baranowski & Simons-Morton, 1991). For example, accurate measures of energy expenditure using doubly-labeled water, indirect calorimetry, or heart rate calibration equations may be needed for certain clinical studies, but the cost and inconvenience would make them impractical for field-based assessments on larger samples. The "accuracy-practicality" trade-off presents a more challenging predicament with children than for adults. In adults, a number of self-report instruments have been found useful for large epidemiological studies or interventions where less precision is needed. Because of developmental differences, especially in ability to think abstractly and perform detailed recall (Going et al., 1999; Sallis, 1991), children are less likely to make accurate self-report assessment than adults. Though self-report methods are still likely to be a principal source of information for many studies, other approaches (or the use of combined measures) may be needed to better characterize children's activity levels. While objective instruments (e.g., direct observation or activity monitoring) require more time and resources than self-report, there are options available to simplify data collection. One approach may

  9. Comparison of cone beam computed tomography imaging with physical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratemann, S A; Huang, J C; Maki, K; Miller, A J; Hatcher, D C

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of measuring linear distances between landmarks commonly used in orthodontic analysis on a human skull using two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems. Measurements of length were taken using volumetric data from two CBCT systems and were compared with physical measures using a calliper applied to one human adult skull. Landmarks were identified with chromium steel balls embedded at 32 cranial and 33 mandibular landmarks and the linear measures were taken with a digital calliper. The skull was then scanned with two different CBCT systems: the NewTom QR DVT 9000 (Aperio Inc, Sarasota, FL) and the Hitachi MercuRay (Hitachi Medico Technology, Tokyo, Japan). CT data including the landmark point data were threshold segmented using CyberMed's CB Works software (CB Works 1.0, CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea). The resulting segmentations were exported from CB Works as VRML (WRL) files to Amira software (Amira 3.1, Mercury Computer Systems GmbH, Berlin, Germany). The error was small compared with the gold standard of the physical calliper measures for both the NewTom (0.07+/-0.41 mm) and CB MercuRay (0.00+/-0.22 mm) generated data. Absolute error to the gold standard was slightly positive, indicating minor compression relative to the calliper measurement. The error was slightly smaller in the CB MercuRay than in the NewTom, probably related to a broader greyscale range for describing beam attenuation in 12-bit vs 8-bit data. The volumetric data rendered with both CBCT systems provided highly accurate data compared with the gold standard of physical measures directly from the skulls, with less than 1% relative error.

  10. SCALE DEVELOPMENT FOR MEASURING AND PREDICTING ADOLESCENTS' LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arribas Galarraga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents' physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127 and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198, selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items' time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context

  11. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived...... outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Residents' perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention at the within- and between-site levels. Associations were similar across study sites...

  12. Changes to the subscales of two vision-related quality of life questionnaires are proposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Michiel R; de Vet, Henrica C W; Terwee, Caroline B; Moll, Annette C; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J M; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2005-12-01

    Psychometrically sound questionnaires for the assessment of vision-related quality of life (QOL) are scarce. Therefore, the objective was to further validate two vision-related QOL questionnaires in a Dutch population of visually impaired elderly. A total of 329 visually impaired older persons referred to low vision services completed the low vision QOL (LVQOL) and Vision-Related Quality of Life Core Measure (VCM1) questionnaires at baseline, after 1-4 weeks (retest), and after 5 months. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed on baseline data. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was assessed, based on the standard error of measurement (SEM). Change scores between the baseline and 5 months follow-up data were related to a general transition question to assess the minimal important change (MIC). Furthermore, the MIC was related to the SDC, to examine whether the MICs were detectable beyond measurement error. The original factor structures could not be confirmed. After omitting items and remodeling, adequate fits were obtained. SDCs comprised at least one quarter of the scale for all scales and subscales on the individual level and exceeded the MICs on every occasion. We propose MICs of 5-10 points for the scales and subscales of the LVQOL and VCM1. The questionnaires are not useful in the follow-up of individual patients.

  13. The use of Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly - to develop a trait anxiety profile of subaquatic specialists; 2ndly - to investigate the predictive value of trait anxiety measures upon entering an occupational field; and 3rdly - to establish the reliability of these scores over time. Archival trait-anxiety data from 322 subjects were analyzed statistically. Analysis of the available scores revealed a highly homogenous as well as a very low trait anxiety profile for the investigated occupational group. Additionally, low trait anxiety was somewhat associated with success during specialist training: fewer candidates with high trait anxiety scores completed their qualification. Moreover, measurement of trait anxiety was stable over time, which suggests that when scores for this occupational group are screened, deviations from previous scores could signify a potential need for referral to an intervention from health professionals. Using the trait anxiety subscale as part of occupational health surveillance of subaquatic specialists could support prevention of accidents by identifying high-risk candidates during their annual health assessments, and referral for timeous intervention.

  14. Summary of ORSphere Critical and Reactor Physics Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J. J. Lynn, and J. R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. This critical configuration has been evaluated. Preliminary results were presented at ND2013. Since then, the evaluation was finalized and judged to be an acceptable benchmark experiment for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP). Additionally, reactor physics measurements were performed to determine surface button worths, central void worth, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron decay constant, fission density and neutron importance. These measurements have been evaluated and found to be acceptable experiments and are discussed in full detail in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. The purpose of this paper is summary summarize all the critical and reactor physics measurements evaluations and, when possible, to compare them to GODIVA experiment results.

  15. Teaching environmental physics with a field measurement campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Johan; Dynefors, Bertil; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2003-09-01

    With 15 years of experience of teaching environmental physics, we still need to develop our curriculum. In this paper we present our findings from teaching environmental physics in close association with mathematical statistics in an applied field measurement campaign. Here not only environmental physics is taught, but also the concept of experimental planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of a field measurement campaign. The field measurement gives the students the opportunity to follow the whole process starting from experimental planning, including formulating the questions to answer, through design of the experiment, sample collection, analysis, and evaluation, together with the writing of a final report. All possible aspects of the problem that the students are working on can be carefully investigated, but the emphasis has been on understanding the whole process of carrying out a field campaign. This holistic view gives the students more interest in and better motivation for exploring the subject. This course gave the students insight into the field of interdisciplinary environmental research, promoted their creativity, and also gave the teachers a feeling of satisfaction.

  16. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  17. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  18. Principles of Technology Student Achievement in Advanced Physics Measured by a Normed Physics Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James Alan

    1991-02-01

    The Principles of Technology (PT) curriculum, now in approximately 1,200 schools, has produced a profound change in the delivery of applied physics. If high school PT programs and traditional physics courses deliver comparable student outcomes, as some research suggests, the PT curriculum may find wider acceptance in vocational programs and postsecondary schools may have rationale for accepting PT as physics. This study measured PT student performance on an advanced physics test, after they have had one year (7 units) of PT. The 1988R version of the National Association of Physics Teachers and National Science Teachers Association physics test, with more than 7500 copies sold, was selected as the research instrument. This test covers advanced aspects of traditional high school physics. A secondary enquiry included an attempt to link PT teacher preparation and credentialing and/or PT site demographics to variation in PT student scores on the 1988R test. The 10 PT sites in this study were self-selected from the 29 PT field study schools, the most mature PT sites. The researcher determined, that the 1988R physics test lacked content validity for the PT students tested. The PT students tested had a composite mean score of 17.67 questions correct out of 80, (below the second percentile), not statistically different than a chance score. No differences were found between site mean scores. Interpretation of the results regarding the effect of teachers, or demographics was not justified. The value of PT to the vocational-technical programs that it was designed for was not measured, nor was the awarding of general science credit for PT completion. One year of the PT curriculum, at the sampled schools, has not prepared students in the advanced scientific aspects of traditional physics found on the 1988R examination. The primary implication is that educators should not expect year one PT to prepare students for classes or curricula that include traditional physics as a

  19. Measuring verbal communication in initial physical therapy encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa C; Whittle, Christopher T; Cleland, Jennifer; Wald, Mike

    2013-04-01

    Communication in clinical encounters is vital in ensuring a positive experience and outcome for both patient and clinician. The purpose of this study was to measure verbal communication between physical therapists and patients with back pain during their initial consultation and trial management of the data using a novel, Web-based application. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Nine musculoskeletal physical therapists and 27 patients with back pain participated in this study. Twenty-five initial consultations were observed, audio recorded, and categorized using the Medical Communications Behavior System. Data were managed using Synote, a freely available application enabling synchronization of audio recordings with transcripts and coded notes. In this sample, physical therapists spoke for 49.5% of the encounter and patients for 33.1%. Providers and patients spent little time overtly discussing emotions (1.4% and 0.9%, respectively). More-experienced clinicians used more "history/background probes," more "advice/suggestion," and less "restatement" than less-experienced staff, although they demonstrated a greater prevalence of talking concurrently and interrupting patients (7.6% compared with 2.6%). Although studies measuring actual behavior are considered to be the gold standard, audio recordings do not enable nonverbal behaviors to be recorded. This study investigated a method for measuring the verbal content of clinical encounters in a physical therapy outpatient setting. The study has directly contributed to developing a research-friendly version of the application (i.e., Synote Researcher). Given the pivotal role of communication in ensuring a positive experience and outcome for both patient and provider, investing time in further developing communication skills should be an on-going priority for providers. Further work is needed to explore affective behaviors and the prevalence of interrupting patients, considering differences in sex and provider

  20. Tophaceous gout: quantitative evaluation by direct physical measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, H Ralph; Becker, Michael A; Palo, William A; Streit, Janet; MacDonald, Patricia A; Joseph-Ridge, Nancy

    2005-12-01

    The absence of accepted standardized methods for monitoring tophaceous gout limits the ability to track tophus progression or regression. This multicenter study assessed intra- and interrater reproducibility of a simple and direct physical measurement. The quantitative evaluation was the area (mm2) of each measurable tophus and was determined independently by 2 raters on 2 occasions within 10 days. Intra- and interrater reproducibilities were determined by calculating mean differences and average percentage differences (APD) in measurements of areas for the same tophus at each of 2 visits and by each rater, respectively. Fifty-two tophi were measured in 13 subjects: 22 on the hand/wrist, 16 on the elbow, and 14 on the foot/ankle. The mean (+/- SD) difference in tophus areas between visits was -0.2 +/- 835 mm2 (95% CI -162 to 162 mm2) and the mean (+/- SD) APD was 29% +/- 33%. The mean (+/- SD) APD between raters was 32% +/- 27%. The largest variations in measurements were noted for elbow tophi and variations were least for well demarcated tophi on the hands. This simple and reproducible method can be easily utilized in clinical trials and in practice as a measure of efficacy of urate-lowering treatment in tophaceous gout. Among factors contributing to variability in these measurements were the anatomic site of tophi and rater experience with the method. Restriction of measurements to well circumscribed hand or foot tophi could improve reliability, but major changes, as expected with effective therapy, can clearly be documented with this simple technique.

  1. Subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale differentially relate to the Big Five factors of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Wagner, Adina; Müller, Astrid; Eggert, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113). Selective positive correlations emerged between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion and between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism. This pattern of results was replicated in Study 2 (N = 132) using a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory. In Study 3, we analyzed BIS and NEO-FFI data obtained from a sample of patients with pathological buying (N = 68). In these patients, the relationship between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion was significantly weakened when compared to the non-clinical samples. At the same time, the relationship between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism was substantially stronger in the clinical sample. Our studies highlight the utility of the BIS subscales for clarifying the relationship between impulsiveness and the Big Five personality factors. We conclude that impulsiveness might occupy multiple places in multidimensional personality frameworks, which need to be specified to improve the interpretability of impulsiveness scales. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Development of a reliable, valid measure to assess parents' and teachers' understanding of postural care for children with physical disabilities: the (UKC PostCarD) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, S; Hutton, E; Hamilton-West, K E

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has highlighted lack of knowledge, understanding and confidence among parents and teachers responsible for the postural care of children with physical disability. Interventions designed to improve these qualities require a reliable and validated tool to assess pre- and post-intervention levels. Currently, however, no validated measure of postural care confidence (i.e. self-efficacy) exists. Hence, the aim of this research was to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess parents' and teachers' confidence, alongside knowledge and understanding of postural care - the Understanding Knowledge and Confidence in providing POSTural CARe for children with Disabilities (UKC PostCarD) questionnaire. Items were developed by a multidisciplinary team and designed to map onto the content of 'An A-to-Z of Postural Care'. Parents, teachers and therapists assessed items for face validity. Scale reliability was then assessed using Cronbach's alpha and known-group validity was assessed by comparing scores of an 'expert' group (physiotherapists and occupational therapists) with those of a 'non-expert' group (with no formal training in postural care). The total scale and all three subscales (understanding and knowledge, confidence and concerns) demonstrated adequate reliability (α > 0.83) and subscale correlations formed a logical pattern (understanding and knowledge correlated positively with confidence and negatively with concerns). Experts' (n = 111) scores were higher than non-experts' (n = 79) for the total scale and all subscales (P < 0.001). Findings support the reliability and validity of the UKC PostCarD questionnaire as a measure of understanding, knowledge and confidence in providing postural care for children with disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Measuring (bio)physical tree properties using accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Hut, Rolf; Gentine, Pierre; Selker, John; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Trees play a crucial role in the water, carbon and nitrogen cycle on local, regional and global scales. Understanding the exchange of heat, water, and CO2 between trees and the atmosphere is important to assess the impact of drought, deforestation and climate change. Unfortunately, ground measurements of tree dynamics are often expensive, or difficult due to challenging environments. We demonstrate the potential of measuring (bio)physical properties of trees using robust and affordable acceleration sensors. Tree sway is dependent on e.g. mass and wind energy absorption of the tree. By measuring tree acceleration we can relate the tree motion to external loads (e.g. precipitation), and tree (bio)physical properties (e.g. mass). Using five months of acceleration data of 19 trees in the Brazilian Amazon, we show that the frequency spectrum of tree sway is related to mass, precipitation, and canopy drag. This presentation aims to show the concept of using accelerometers to measure tree dynamics, and we acknowledge that the presented example applications is not an exhaustive list. Further analyses are the scope of current research, and we hope to inspire others to explore additional applications.

  4. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  5. Physical function metric over measure: An illustration with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron J; Schalet, Benjamin D; Rutsohn, Joshua; Jensen, Roxanne E; Cella, David

    2017-09-08

    Measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is becoming an integral component of quality improvement initiatives, clinical care, and research studies in cancer, including comparative effectiveness research. However, the number of PROs limits comparability across studies. Herein, the authors attempted to link the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Physical Well-Being (FACT-G PWB) subscale with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) calibrated item bank. The also sought to augment a subset of the conceptually most similar FACT-G PWB items with PROMIS PF items to improve the linking. Baseline data from 5506 participants in the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health) study were used to identify the optimal items for linking FACT-G PWB with PROMIS PF. A mixed methods approach identified the optimal items for creating the 5-item FACT/PROMIS-PF5 scale. Both the linked and augmented relationships were cross-validated using the follow-up MY-Health data. A 5-item FACT-G PWB item subset was found to be optimal for linking with PROMIS PF. In addition, a 2-item subset, including only items that were conceptually very similar to the PROMIS item bank content, were augmented with 3 PROMIS PF items. This new FACT/PROMIS-PF5 provided superior score recovery. The PROMIS PF metric allows for the evaluation of the extent to which similar questionnaires can be linked and therefore expressed on the same metric. These results allow for the aggregation of existing data and provide an optimal measure for future studies wishing to use the FACT yet also report on the PROMIS PF metric. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    For 60 years, superallowed 0+→0+ nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision (±0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix (±0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from 10C to 74Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, GV, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, Vud. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  7. The genetic and environmental structure of the character sub-scales of the temperament and character inventory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Nigel; Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Cloninger, C Robert; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The character higher order scales (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) in the temperament and character inventory are important general measures of health and well-being [Mens Sana Monograph 11:16-24 (2013)]. Recent research has found suggestive evidence of common environmental influence on the development of these character traits during adolescence. The present article expands earlier research by focusing on the internal consistency and the etiology of traits measured by the lower order sub-scales of the character traits in adolescence. The twin modeling analysis of 423 monozygotic pairs and 408 same sex dizygotic pairs estimated additive genetics (A), common environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) influences on twin resemblance. All twins were part of the on-going longitudinal Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). The twin modeling analysis suggested a common environmental contribution for two out of five self-directedness sub-scales (0.14 and 0.23), for three out of five cooperativeness sub-scales (0.07-0.17), and for all three self-transcendence sub-scales (0.10-0.12). The genetic structure at the level of the character lower order sub-scales in adolescents shows that the proportion of the shared environmental component varies in the trait of self-directedness and in the trait of cooperativeness, while it is relatively stable across the components of self-transcendence. The presence of this unique shared environmental effect in adolescence has implications for understanding the relative importance of interventions and treatment strategies aimed at promoting overall maturation of character, mental health, and well-being during this period of the life span.

  8. Lilith: a tool for constraining new physics from Higgs measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernon, Jeremy [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Dumont, Beranger [Universite Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The properties of the observed Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV can be affected in a variety of ways by new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The wealth of experimental results, targeting the different combinations for the production and decay of a Higgs boson, makes it a non-trivial task to assess the compatibility of a non-SM-like Higgs boson with all available results. In this paper we present Lilith, a new public tool for constraining new physics from signal strength measurements performed at the LHC and the Tevatron. Lilith is a Python library that can also be used in C and C++/ROOT programs. The Higgs likelihood is based on experimental results stored in an easily extensible XML database, and is evaluated from the user input, given in XML format in terms of reduced couplings or signal strengths.The results of Lilith can be used to constrain a wide class of new physics scenarios. (orig.)

  9. Fixed target measurements at LHCb for cosmic rays physics

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has the unique possibility, among the LHC experiments, to be operated in fixed target mode, using its internal gas target. The energy scale achievable at the LHC, combined with the LHCb forward geometry and detector capabilities, allow to explore particle production in a wide Bjorken-$x$ range at the $\\sqrt {s_{NN}} ~$ ~ 100 GeV energy scale, providing novel inputs to nuclear and cosmic ray physics. The first measurement of antiproton production in collisions of LHC protons on helium nuclei at rest is presented. The knowledge of this cross-section is of great importance for the study of the cosmic antiproton flux, and the LHCb results are expected to improve the interpretation of the recent high-precision measurements of cosmic antiprotons performed by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments.

  10. Measurement uncertainties physical parameters and calibration of instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book fulfills the global need to evaluate measurement results along with the associated uncertainty. In the book, together with the details of uncertainty calculations for many physical parameters, probability distributions and their properties are discussed. Definitions of various terms are given and will help the practicing metrologists to grasp the subject. The book helps to establish international standards for the evaluation of the quality of raw data obtained from various laboratories for interpreting the results of various national metrology institutes in an international inter-comparisons. For the routine calibration of instruments, a new idea for the use of pooled variance is introduced. The uncertainty calculations are explained for (i) independent linear inputs, (ii) non-linear inputs and (iii) correlated inputs. The merits and limitations of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) are discussed. Monte Carlo methods for the derivation of the output distribution from the...

  11. Measurement of the physical properties of secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannosto, J.

    2012-07-01

    The work of this thesis concentrates on applying the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI, Dekati Ltd.) and scanning/differential mobility particle sizer (SMPS/DMPS) to estimate the particle density and particle solidity of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) d{sub me} < 200 nm. The density estimation method has been extended to smaller particle sizes and the data treatment of the method has been modified to be suitable for large data series and multimodal size distributions. The limitations of the method have been studied using both laboratory tests and simulations. The lowest mode particle diameter for the density method was found to be 10 nm. For multimodal size distributions, the density results varied approximately by 15 %. The density measurements were performed at the SMEAR II station and the density of boreal forest particles was measured. The ELPI was used to study the physical phase of the fresh SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of pure {alpha}-pinene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of a living Scots pine in a chamber. The phase of SOA particles formed in the boreal forest was analyzed as well. The particles were found to bounce from smooth impaction plates of ELPI towards lower impactor stages. The behavior was interpreted as an indication of a solid physical phase of the particles. The interpretation was corroborated by SEM (Scanning electron microscope) images. In the TEM (Tunneling electron microscope) analysis, the particles were non-crystalline. Based on these results, the particles were inferred to have adopted an amorphous (glassy) physical state. The {alpha}-pinene particles had similar bouncing ability as the Scots pine derived particles indicating similar physical phase behavior. The measured bounce factor did not significantly change during the particle growth for particles larger than 40 nm, indicating no changes in particle solidity. For the smallest particles (below 40 nm), the calculated bounce factor increased as the particles grew

  12. Measures of the physical activity: revision of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Physical activity has been linked with several health benefi ts. Despite the evidence from population surveys, the measurement of physical activity has presented a challenge for researches in the area. The present study intends to show the main instruments for measuring physical activity, as well as their limitations and advantages. The choice of the most adequate instrument should observe criteria such as quality, simplicity or others. Currently, the lack of a “gold standard” instrument, suggests that a combination of methods would be the means of providing better data. The development of new instruments, improvement of current ones and the combination of methods are possible choices presented in this study for the use of better quality instruments. A atividade física tem sido relacionada a diversos benefícios para a saúde. Apesar de evidências levantadas em estudos populacionais, a mensuração da atividade física tem representado um desafio para pesquisadores da área. O presente estudo pretende apresentar os principais instrumentos de medida da atividade física, suas vantagens e limitações. A escolha do instrumento mais adequado deve atender a alguns critérios como a qualidade, a praticidade do instrumento entre outros. A falta de um instrumento considerado “padrão” sugere atualmente a utilização de uma combinação de métodos de maneira a fornecer dados mais confi áveis e precisos. A construção de novos instrumentos, o refi namento dos instrumentos existentes e a combinação de métodos são possibilidades consideradas para o uso de instrumentos de melhor qualidade.

  13. Tracking of Accelerometer-measured Physical Activity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Khoury, Philip R.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Claytor, Randal P.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining healthy physical activity (PA) levels is important throughout life. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of PA tracking between ages 3 and 7 y. Objective measures of PA (RT3, triaxial accelerometer) were collected every 4 mo from ages 3 to 7; data from 234 children with PA measures available during each year of age were analyzed. Mean PA (total, moderate/vigorous(MV), and inactivity(IA)) was calculated for each year of age and adjusted for wear time. Correlations with age 3 PA were moderate at age 4 (r=0.42–0.45) but declined by age 7 (r=0.19–0.25). After classification into sex-specific tertiles of PA at age 3, boys in the High age 3 MVPA tertile maintained significantly higher PA at all subsequent ages, while girls in the High age 3 MVPA tertile were not significantly higher at age 6 and 7. Boys and girls in the High age 3 IA tertile had significantly higher IA at multiple subsequent years of age (P<0.05 at ages 5 and 6). In conclusion, boys who were relatively more active at age 3 remained more active for several subsequent years. These findings highlight early childhood differences in physical activity patterns between boys and girls. PMID:23877325

  14. External meeting - Geneva University: Precision measurements in spin physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél: 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 28 March 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Precision measurements in spin physics by Dr. Steven Bass / CERN - Innsbruck The proton spin problem has been challenging experimentalists and theorists alike for the last 20 years. Polarized deep inelastic scattering experiments at CERN, DESY and SLAC have told us that quark partons contribute only about 30% of the proton's spin whereas relativistic quark models predict 60%. Where is the missing spin and why is the quark spin contribution so small? In this talk I will give an overview of the proton spin problem and what it may be telling us about QCD, the vacuum and dynamical symmetry breaking. A precise measurement of neutrino-proton elastic scattering would make a vital contribution to resolving many of the outstanding issues. Information: http://dpnc...

  15. Torsor Theory of Physical Quantities and their Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domotor Zoltan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this paper is to provide a torsor theory of physical quantities and basic operations thereon. Torsors are introduced in a bottom-up fashion as actions of scale transformation groups on spaces of unitized quantities. In contrast, the shortcomings of other accounts of quantities that proceed in a top-down axiomatic manner are also discussed. In this paper, quantities are presented as dual counterparts of physical states. States serve as truth-makers of metrological statements about quantity values and are crucial in specifying alternative measurement units for base quantities. For illustration and ease of presentation, the classical notions of length, time, and instantaneous velocity are used as primordial examples. It is shown how torsors provide an effective description of the structure of quantities, systems of quantities, and transformations between them. Using the torsor framework, time-dependent quantities and their unitized derivatives are also investigated. Lastly, the torsor apparatus is applied to deterministic measurement of quantities.

  16. Comparison of accelerometry and oxymetry for measuring daily physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Noda, Akiko; Hirai, Makoto; Saito, Hidehiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki

    2002-08-01

    To assess the validity of accelerometry in measuring daily physical activity, the energy consumption calculated by accelerometry, with respiratory gas analysis as a reference, was evaluated in 45 non-athletes during various exercise tests. Subjects were required to (1) walk on a treadmill ergometer at various speeds, (2) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed and with a stride of 20% more or 20% less than that when walking freely, (3) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed wearing either sneakers or leather-soled shoes, and (4) cycle on a bicycle ergometer. There were strong linear relationships between the measurements during the progressively graded treadmill test, with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean estimated difference ranged from -0.77 to 0.27 kcal/min and the coefficients of variation from 13.2% to 22.2%. However, the difference between the methods was not negligible for individual subjects. Accelerometry overestimated energy expenditure during short-step walking, and underestimated it during long-step walking. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found according to the type of shoes worn. Cycling activity was not recorded by accelerometry. Accelerometry is a reasonably accurate and feasible method for evaluating the physical activities of non-athletes, and could be a common tool for epidemiological research and health promotion despite its limitations.

  17. Physical effects on visible temperature measurements of shocked foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, J.; Falk, K.; Fryer, C.; Greef, C.; Williams, J.; Schmidt, D.; McCoy, C.; Boehly, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments measuring the temperature of shock compressed foams at pressures from ~ 50 to >300 GPA. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility and utilized the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) to measure the optical emission from the shocked foam targets and infer the temperature. A comparison of our results to both standard equation of state (EOS) tables and to quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations result in temperatures that are below these theoretical predictions, especially at the higher pressures. This indicates either an error in these models or a limitation with this type of measurement technique. In order to estimate whether the emission from the shock front is consistent with the bulk temperature of the shocked material, a series of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations were performed. We find these simulations predict emission more consistent with the measurements at high pressures, similar to previous results for shocked Silicon. The effect of specific physics issues at the shock front, including temperature relaxation, electron thermal conduction, and radiation transport are evaluated to determine the magnitude of their affect on the emission. Both experimental and simulations results will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of the NNSA/DOE.

  18. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy - Cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and assessment of its reliability in Polish conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzepota, Justyna; Sadowska, Dorota; Sempolska, Katarzyna; Pelczar, Małgorzata

    2017-12-23

    The assessment of physical activity during pregnancy is crucial in perinatal care and it is an important research topic. Unfortunately, in Poland there is a lack of one commonly accepted questionnaire of physical activity during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to adapt the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to Polish conditions and assess the reliability of its Polish version (PPAQ-PL). The PPAQ was translated from English into Polish and its reliability tested. 64 correctly completed (twice, one week apart) questionnaires were qualified for analysis. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). As a result of the adaptation and psychometric assessment, in the Polish version of the questionnaire the number of questions was reduced from 36 to 35 by removing the question concerning 'mowing lawn while on a riding mower'. The ICC value for total activity was 0.75, which confirms a substantial level of reliability. The ICC values for subscales of intensity ranged from 0.53 (light) - 0.86 (vigorous). For subscales of type, ICC values ranged from 0.59 (transportation) - 0.89 (household/caregiving). The PPAQ-PL can be accepted as a reliable tool for the assessing physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Information obtained using the questionnaire might be helpful in monitoring health behaviours, preventing obesity, as well as designing and promoting physical activity programmes for pregnant women.

  19. Applying posttraumatic stress disorder MMPI subscale to World War II POW veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Query, W T; Megran, J; McDonald, G

    1986-03-01

    In order to determine whether the MMPI-PTSD subscale has application for assessing DSM-III diagnosed PTSD among populations other than Vietnam veterans, a group of WWII POWs (N = 69) were given the subscale. Results indicated that the use of the PTSD subscale can be generalized to older veterans; in a small sample of Pacific POWs, PTSD is more common among those from the Pacific theater than those from Europe. However, the subscale fails to distinguish between Pacific and European POW veterans. Difficulties in sampling and confounding stressors are discussed, as well as implications for treatment of WWII veterans.

  20. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P.; Reis, Jared P.; Carroll, Dianna D.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  2. Physical Activity and Enjoyment: Measurement, Evaluation, and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Childhood engagement in physical activity improves health and contributes to the sustainment of physical activity in adulthood. My dissertation research broadens scholarship by disentangling the effects of sports- vs. non-sports-focused summer camps on children’s physical activity and identifying modifiable activity characteristics contributing to physical activity enjoyment, an important predictor of physical activity sustainment. My work also challenges current discourse by presenting the a...

  3. Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

  4. Measuring Student Effort and Engagement in an Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Multiple scales reflecting student effort were developed using factor and scale analysis on data from an introductory physics course. This data included interactions with an on-line homework system. One of the scales displays many characteristics of a metric of the individual level of engagement in the course. This scale is shown to be a good predictor of performance on class exams and the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Furthermore, normalized learning gains on the FCI are well predicted by this scale while pre-instructional FCI scores provide no additional predictive ability, agreeing with observations by Richard Hake. This scale also correlates strongly with epistemological beliefs that learning is related to effort and is the responsibility of the student. The factors that enter into this scale, writing and mastering expert-like problem-solving, are consistent with this being a measure of individual levels of class engagement.

  5. The use of Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wijk, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly – to develop a trait...

  6. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  7. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  8. Validity of 24-h physical activity recall: physical activity measurement survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J; Kim, Youngwon; Stanfill, Bryan; Osthus, David A; Calabro, Miguel A; Nusser, Sarah M; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of an interviewer-administered, 24-h physical activity recall (PAR) compared with that of the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for estimation of energy expenditure (EE) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of adults. A secondary goal was to compare measurement errors for various demographic subgroups (gender, age, and weight status). A sample of 1347 adults (20-71 yr, 786 females) wore an SWA for a single day and then completed a PAR, recalling the previous day's physical activity. The participants each performed two trials on two randomly selected days across a 2-yr time span. The EE and MVPA values for each participant were averaged across the 2 d. Group-level and individual-level agreement were evaluated using 95% equivalence testing and mean absolute percent error, respectively. Results were further examined for subgroups by gender, age, and body mass index. The PAR yielded equivalent estimates of EE (compared with those in the SWA) for almost all demographic subgroups, but none of the comparisons for MVPA were equivalent. Smaller mean absolute percent error values were observed for EE (ranges from 10.3% to 15.0%) than those for MVPA (ranges from 68.6% to 269.5%) across all comparisons. The PAR yielded underestimates of MVPA for younger, less obese people but overestimates for older, more obese people. For EE measurement, the PAR demonstrated good agreement relative to the SWA. However, the use of PAR may result in biased estimates of MVPA both at the group and individual level in adults.

  9. Exponential Families and MaxEnt Calculations for Entropy Measures of Statistical Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Game theoretical treatment of MaxEnt-optimization for non-extensive entropy measures of statistical physics.......Game theoretical treatment of MaxEnt-optimization for non-extensive entropy measures of statistical physics....

  10. Physics potential for the measurement of ${\\sigma(H\

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinović-Dumbelović, G; Grefe, C; Kačarević, G; Lukić, S; Pandurović, M; Roloff, P; Smiljanić, I

    2015-01-01

    The future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) offers a possibility for a rich precision physics programme, in particular in the Higgs sector through the energy staging. This is the first paper addressing the measurement of the Standard Model Higgs boson decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC. With respect to similar studies at future linear colliders, this paper includes several novel contributions to the statistical uncertainty of the measurement. The later includes the Equivalent Photon Approximation and realistic forward electron tagging based on energy deposition maps in the forward calorimeters, as well as several processes with the Beamstrahlung photons that results in irreducible contribution to the signal. In addition, coincidence of the Bhabha scattering with the signal and background processes is considered, altering the signal selection efficiency. The study is performed using a fully simulated CLIC_ILD detector model. It is shown that the branching ratio for the Higgs decay into a pair of muons BR(${H\\r...

  11. Increasing the Precision of Subscale Scores by Using Out-of-Scale Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Kamata, Akihito

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the precision of subscale score estimates was evaluated when out-of-scale information was incorporated. Procedures that incorporated out-of-scale information and only information within a subscale were compared through a series of simulations. It was revealed that more information (i.e., more precision) was always provided for…

  12. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  13. Questionnaires for measuring physical activity in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bertoldo Benedetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identifi cation of the best amount of physical activity is fundamental so that coherent physical activity practices can be advised regarding the amount, intensity, and frequency, as well as intervention programs can be built to minimize and control problems from functional decline with age. Amongst the methods and techniques, questionnaires have been the most used tool to evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure. Thus, the present study proposed to evaluate psychometric characteristics, advantages and limitations of questionnaires that measure physical activity level in the elderly. A literature review in electronic databases was performed using Ovid Medline and also in personal fi les. After identifying the questionnaires, a new search was run. Six questionnaires were found, and their characteristics were presented. The Baecke and the IPAQ questionnaires are the only forms translated into Portuguese and validated. The IPAQ seemed to show the best conditions to be applied in aged Brazilians. Thus, the questionnaires evaluating physical activity level in the elderly population in Brazil have good reliability, but low validity. RESUMO Identificar a quantidade ideal de atividade física é fundamental para que se possa orientar práticas coerentes em relação à quantidade, intensidade e freqüência, bem como construir programas de intervenções para minimizar e controlar os problemas relacionados com o declínio funcional em idosos. Dentre os métodos e técnicas, os questionários têm sido os mais empregados para avaliar a atividade física e o gasto energético. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar as características, origens, aspectos psicométricos, vantagens e limitações de questionários que medem o nível de atividade física em idosos. Realizou-se umarevisão bibliográfi ca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos: Ovid Medline e o acervo bibliográfi co pessoal. Após a identifi cação dos instrumentos, realizou

  14. Associations between objectively measured physical activity and later mental health outcomes in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jane V; Sera, Francesco; Cummins, Steven; Flouri, Eirini

    2018-02-01

    The beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on mental health in adults is well established, but less is known about this relationship in children. We examine associations between objectively measured sedentary time, PA and mental health in 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). Longitudinal data from MCS sweeps 4 (age 7) and 5 (age 11) were used (n=6153). Accelerometer data were collected at MCS4, and mental health was measured at MCS4 and MCS5 using subscales (peer, emotional, conduct, hyperactivity) of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between mean daily PA minutes at different intensities (sedentary, light, moderate-to-vigorous) at MCS4 and SDQ outcomes at MCS5 (score range 0-10) were estimated using multiple linear regression models, adjusting for SDQ at MCS4 and individual and family characteristics, and stratified by gender. In fully adjusted models, increased PA at MCS4 was associated with fewer peer problems in boys and girls at MCS5. For each additional 15 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), peer problems decreased -0.077 points (95% CI -0.133 to -0.022) in boys. For girls, light PA was associated with decreased peer problems (-0.071 points/30 min, 95% CI -0.130 to -0.013). Greater sedentary time was associated with more peer problems and fewer hyperactivity symptoms in boys and girls. Increased MVPA was associated with more conduct and hyperactivity problems in boys and more hyperactivity in girls. Increased sedentary time is associated with more peer problems in children, and PA, generally, is beneficial for peer relations in children aged 11. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, Marina; Reid, Kieran F; Miciek, Renee; Lajevardi, Newsha; Choong, Karen; Krasnoff, Joanne B; Storer, Thomas W; Fielding, Roger A; Bhasin, Shalender; Lebrasseur, Nathan K

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with physical function and mobility in older men. Cross-sectional. Academic research center. Eighty-two community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with self-reported mobility limitations were divided into a low-activity and a high-activity group based on the median average daily physical activity counts of the whole sample. Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest press maximal strength and peak power. Older men with higher physical activity levels had a 1.4-point higher mean SPPB score and a 0.35-m/s faster walking speed than those with lower physical activity levels. They also climbed a standard flight of stairs 1.85 seconds faster and completed 60% more shelves in a lift-and-lower task (all Pactivity groups. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models showed that physical activity is positively associated with all physical function and mobility measures, leg press strength, and VO(2) max. Older men with higher physical activity levels demonstrate better physical function and mobility than their less-active peers. Moreover, physical activity levels are predictive of performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Future work is needed to determine whether modifications in physical activity levels can improve or preserve physical performance in later life. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. 34 CFR 106.43 - Standards for measuring skill or progress in physical education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for measuring skill or progress in physical... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.43 Standards for measuring skill or progress in physical education classes. If use of a single standard of measuring skill or progress in physical education classes...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  18. The technology - activities of daily living questionnaire: a version with a technology-related subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L; Riveros, Rodrigo; Núñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled the Technology version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30 years). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = -0.70; FAB: r = -0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = -0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p questions to the ADLQ, our experience suggested that this has to be done cautiously, since the sensitivity of these additional items could vary in different populations. The T-ADLQ needs to be validated in a different population of dementia subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  20. THE IMPACT OF SUZAKU MEASUREMENTS ON ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Ota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from the Suzaku X-ray broad-band observations of clusters of galaxies are summarized. Aiming at understanding the physics of gas heating/particle acceleration and the cluster dynamical evolution, we search for non-thermal hard X-ray emission from merging clusters, particularly A2163 and the Bullet Cluster, based on the Suzaku and XMM-Newton/Chandra joint analyses. The observed hard X-ray emission is well represented by single- or multi-temperature thermal models, including super-hot (kT ~ 20 keV gas. However, no significant non-thermal hard X-ray emission has been detected. Together with the presently available literature, the hard X-ray properties have been studied for about 10 clusters with Suzaku. The present status on Suzaku measurements of non-thermal X-ray emission and the cluster magnetic field are summarized and compared with those from the RXTE, BeppoSAX, and Swift satellites. The future prospects are briefly mentioned.

  1. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T.; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity. PMID:26317865

  2. Objectively measured habitual physical activity in a highly obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, S A; Summerbell, C D; Reilly, J J

    2009-05-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children continues to grow nationally, prevalence in the North-East of England is among the highest in the UK. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual physical activity levels in a particularly obesogenic environment in the North-East of England. Eight primary schools were selected using a stratified random sampling frame ranking average deprivation levels. Participating children (n = 246, mean age 10 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph, GT-256) over five consecutive days (weekend plus three weekdays). Total daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was calculated using thresholds by Puyau and colleagues. Only 7% (17/246) of children were sufficiently active. Boys were more physically active than girls (766 +/- 268 vs. 641 +/- 202 counts/min, 95% CI for the difference 63-186 cpm.). Total physical activity was not influenced significantly by deprivation levels or weight status, and there were no significant differences in physical activity between school or weekend days. The North-East of England is a recognized 'hot spot' for paediatric obesity and the present study shows that low levels of habitual physical activity are typical. Choice of accelerometry threshold affects both the apparent amount of physical activity and the ability to detect groups with particularly low levels of physical activity.

  3. Measures for enhancing participation in physical exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity is beneficial for the physical and mental health of the elderly by helping to prevent occurrence of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, falls, cognitive decline, dementia, and depression. ... They however agreed, to be provided with opportunities and facilities and moral support for them to participate in exercises.

  4. Measure of sleep and physical activity by a single accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2012-01-01

    Accelerometers could potentially be used to assess physical activity and sleep using the same monitor; however, two different positions are typically used for the assessment of physical activity and sleep (waist and wrist, respectively). The aim of this study is to evaluate the concordance betwee...

  5. The relationship between school physical activity policy and objectively measured physical activity of elementary school students: a multilevel model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Guy; Zeglen, Laura; Leatherdale, Scott; Manske, Steve; Stone, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence of school level variability in the physical activity of children and youth. Less is known about factors that may contribute to this variation. The purpose of this study was to examine if the school health environment (Healthy Physical Environment, Instruction and Programs, Supportive Social Environment, and Community Partnerships) is associated with objectively measured time spent in light to vigorous physical activity among a sample of Toronto children. Methods T...

  6. Self-reported physical fitness of older persons : A substitute for performance-based measures of physical fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHeuvelen, MJG; Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests

  7. Measuring physical inactivity: do current measures provide an accurate view of "sedentary" video game time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle

    2014-01-01

    Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as "sedentary" may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  8. Tracking of objectively measured physical activity from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Møller, N C; Korsholm, L

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated tracking of physical activity from childhood to adolescence and, in general, these studies have been based on methods with some degree of subjectivity (e.g., questionnaires). The aim of the present study was to evaluate tracking of physical activity from...... childhood to adolescence using accelerometry, taking into account major sources of variation in physical activity. Both a crude and an adjusted model was fitted, and, in the adjusted model, analyses were corrected for seasonal variation, within-week variation, activity registration during night time sleep......, in the adjusted model highly significant stability coefficients of 0.53 and 0.48 for boys and girls, respectively, were observed. It was concluded that physical activity behavior tends to track moderately from childhood to adolescence....

  9. Lifting and Carrying Capacities Relative to Physical Fitness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-21

    26 FEB L 8’C-88) ~~~~FEB i 98 i0 i Approved mIn p’ibI~c roeleae distittmi’ton mijo nipt ,.J. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER O SP.O. BOX 85122ii ! i SAN...METHODS............................................. 4 2.1 Subjects ...................................... 4 2.2 Testing Sequence...40 .......... SUMNARY Through the Physical Readiness Test (PRT), the Navy assesses the physical fitness and body composition of its members. Those

  10. Hierarchy of individual calibration levels for heart rate and accelerometry to measure physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Combining accelerometry with heart rate (HR) monitoring may improve precision of physical activity measurement. Considerable variation exists in the relationships between physical activity intensity (PAI) and HR and accelerometry, which may be reduced by individual calibration. However, individual...

  11. Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved...

  12. MINOR MALFORMATIONS AND PHYSICAL MEASURES IN AUTISM: DATA FROM NOVA SCOTIA. (R824758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the context of an epidemiological study of autism in Nova Scotia, subjects were evaluated for minor physical anomalies and physical measurements. Normal control children, children with autism and their siblings, and children with developmental disabilities and their siblings w...

  13. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  14. Physical and performance measures of university cricket players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the fourth team. In conclusion, this study found that various physical characteristics such as age and body fat percentage significantly influenced throwing velocity, while body mass, hip circumference and total arm length had a significant influence on peak torque. Keywords: Cricket, throwing velocity, muscle strength ...

  15. Advanced Quantitative Measurement Methodology in Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and…

  16. Measuring damage in physical model tests of rubble mounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Rosa-Santos, Paulo; Taveira-Pinto, Francisco; Lemos, Rute; Mendonça, A.; Juana Fortes, C

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies novel ways to evaluate armour damage in physical models of coastal structures. High-resolution damage data for reference rubble mound breakwaters obtained under the HYDRALAB+ joint-research project are analysed and discussed. These tests are used to analyse the way to describe

  17. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  18. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners’ Oppositional Subscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Beijsterveldt, Van; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) which may differentially predict outcome, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of mother’s report on the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S). METHOD Data were obtained from mother’s report for Dutch twins (7 year-old [n = 7,597], 10 year-old [n = 6,548], and 12 year-old [n = 5,717]) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Samples partially overlapped at ages 7 and 10 (19% overlapping) and at ages 10 and 12 (30% overlapping), but not at ages 7 and 12. Oppositional defiant behavior was measured using the 6-item Oppositional subscale of the CPRS-R:S. Multilevel LCA with robust standard error estimates was performed using Latent Gold to control for twin-twin dependence in the data. Class assignment across ages was determined and an estimate of heritability for each class was calculated. Comparisons to maternal report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores were examined using linear mixed models at each age, corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The LCA identified an optimal solution of 4-classes across age groups: Class 1 was associated with no or low symptom endorsement (69–75% of the children), class 2 was characterized by defiance (11–12%), class 3 was characterized by irritability (9–11%), and class 4 was associated with elevated scores on all symptoms (5–8%). Odds ratios for twins being in the same class at each successive age point were higher within classes across ages than between classes. Heritability within the two “intermediate” classes was nearly as high as for the class with all symptoms, except for boys at age 12. Children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have mood symptoms

  19. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Stephanie M., E-mail: Stephanie.Leon@uth.tmc.edu; Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Brateman, Libby F. [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: That scattered radiation negatively impacts the quality of medical radiographic imaging is well known. In mammography, even slight amounts of scatter reduce the high contrast required for subtle soft-tissue imaging. In current clinical mammography, image contrast is partially improved by use of an antiscatter grid. This form of scatter rejection comes with a sizeable dose penalty related to the concomitant elimination of valuable primary radiation. Digital mammography allows the use of image processing as a method of scatter correction that might avoid effects that negatively impact primary radiation, while potentially providing more contrast improvement than is currently possible with a grid. For this approach to be feasible, a detailed characterization of the scatter is needed. Previous research has modeled scatter as a constant background that serves as a DC bias across the imaging surface. The goal of this study was to provide a more substantive data set for characterizing the spatially-variant features of scatter radiation at the image detector of modern mammography units. Methods: This data set was acquired from a model of the radiation beam as a matrix of very narrow rays or pencil beams. As each pencil beam penetrates tissue, the pencil widens in a predictable manner due to the production of scatter. The resultant spreading of the pencil beam at the detector surface can be characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were calculated from measurements obtained using the beam stop method. Two digital mammography units were utilized, and the SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and presence or absence of a grid. These values were then used to generate general equations allowing the SF and MRE to be calculated for any combination of the above parameters. Results: With a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of about 0.05 to a maximum of about 0

  20. Classification of quality of life subscales within the ICF framework in burn research: identifying overlaps and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirte, J; van Loey, N E E; Maertens, K; Moortgat, P; Hubens, G; Van Daele, U

    2014-11-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is one of the leading outcomes in burn care research. This study classifies subscales of common QOL measures within the International Classification of Functioning disability and health (ICF) framework to determine to which extent the measures are complementary or overlapping and to investigate whether the instruments are able to describe the full spectrum of patients' functioning. A literature search was performed to determine the most frequently used questionnaires in burn research. The subscales of the three mostly used questionnaires were classified within the ICF framework. Two generic measures, the Short Form-36 items (SF-36) and the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and a disease specific measure, the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B), were analyzed. The BSHS-B covered most domains and was the only scale that included personal factors. The SF-36 included only one domain in the activity limitations and similar to the EQ-5D no contextual factors were included. Environmental factors were not addressed in the questionnaires, even though these may have an impact on the quality of life in patients with burns. To capture the full spectrum of dysfunctioning a combination of the BSHS-B with a generic questionnaire seems obligatory. However still some domains of functioning remain uncovered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. WOMAC-pf as a measure of physical function in patients with Parkinson's disease and late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis: unidimensionality and item behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steultjens, Martijn P M; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke; Roorda, Leo D; Dallmeijer, Annet J; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Post, Bart; Dekker, Joost

    2012-01-01

    To assess psychometric properties of the Western Ontario and MacMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)-pf, an osteoarthritis (OA)-specific questionnaire used to establish the level of physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis (LOSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Unidimensionality (using principal component analyses [PCA] and Rasch analyses) was separately established for three diagnostic groups: OA (n = 288), LOSP (n = 168) and PD (n = 200). Additionally, differential item functioning (DIF) among the three diagnostic groups was assessed using ordinal regression (Polytomous Universal Model) analyses. Baseline data were used from an ongoing cohort study of these three patient populations. Unidimensionality was adequate, with all items loading on the first principal component. The Rasch analyses revealed that item fit was generally good. Uniform and non-uniform DIF were found to be present among the three diagnostic groups in three and one of the 17 physical functioning subscale (WOMAC-pf) items, respectively. The WOMAC-pf is a unidimensional measure of physical functioning in patients with LOSP and PD, in addition to its established use in OA. [ • Disability in physical functioning related to mobility(walking, stair climbing, etc.) is a common feature of many chronic diseases, including osteoarthritis, late-onset sequels of poliomyelitis and Parkinson's disease.• In this study, the Western Ontario and MacMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index-pf was shown to bea useful and adequate tool to assess physical functioning in these patient groups.• The study highlighted that, despite differences in diagnosis,history and course of the disease, patients with different conditions experience similar disabilities in their physical functioning.

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  4. Wheelchair-mounted accelerometers for measurement of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendle, Shawn C; Richardson, Mark; Leeper, James; Hardin, L Brent; Green, J Matt; Bishop, Phillip A

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of a wheelchair frame-mounted accelerometer for the assessment of physical activity of wheelchair users. Twelve collegiate wheelchair basketball players participated in this study. The study was conducted in a modern indoor gymnasium at a university in the USA. A randomized, crossover experimental design was used to investigate accelerometer output, participant heart rate, and distance travelled. Participants performed two trials of wheeling at a combination of two different effort levels (light and moderate: Prescribed using perceived exertion) and two different modes (continuous and stop-go). Accelerometer vector magnitude activity counts (VM), heart rate (HR), and distance travelled were significantly different between light and moderate effort (p wheelchair frame-mounted accelerometer differentiated between perceptually-prescribed low and moderate effort levels and may prove to be a valid instrument in the detection of a wheelchair users' physical activity. [Box: see text].

  5. Psychometric assessment of the Behavior and Attitudes Questionnaire for Healthy Habits: measuring parents' views on food and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Beverly W; Smith, Thomas J; Ahmad, Saadia

    2014-05-01

    To assess parents' perspectives of their home environments to establish the validity of scores from the Behavior and Attitudes Questionnaire for Healthy Habits (BAQ-HH). In the present descriptive study, we surveyed a cross-sectional sample of parents of pre-school children. Questionnaire items developed in an iterative process with community-based programming addressed parents' knowledge/awareness, attitudes/concerns and behaviours about healthy foods and physical activity habits with 6-point rating scales. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to psychometrically evaluate scores from the scales. English and Spanish versions of the BAQ-HH were administered at parent-teacher conferences for pre-school children at ten Head Start centres across a five-county agency in autumn 2010. From 672 families with pre-school children, 532 parents provided responses to the BAQ-HH (79 % response rate). The majority was female (83 %), Hispanic (66 %) or white (16 %), and ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (85 %). Exploratory and confirmatory analyses revealed a knowledge scale (seven items), an attitude scale (four items) and three behaviour subscales (three items each). Correlations were identified between parents' perceptions of home activities and reports of children's habits. Differences were identified by gender and ethnicity groupings. As a first step in psychometric testing, the dimensionality of each of the three scales (Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours) was identified and scale scores were related to other indicators of child behaviours and parents' demographic characteristics. This questionnaire offers a method to measure parents' views to inform planning and monitoring of obesity-prevention education programmes.

  6. Protective effect of measured physical oxidative stress load spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Galimova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization stress is accompanied by disturbances of quantitative and qualitative ejaculate characteristics, the imbalance between pro- and antioxidant systems in sperm and elevated biomarker of oxidative DNA damage-8-hydroxy-2΄-deoxyguanosine. The dosed physical load leads to normalization of semen parameters and free radical homeostasis in sperm. The greatest protective effect has pre-training, which contributes to early recovery of the studied parameters.

  7. Comparison of ultracold neutron sources for fundamental physics measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Bison, G.; Daum, M.; Kirch, K; Lauss, B; Ries, D.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G; Brenner, T.; Geltenbort, P.; Jenke, T.; Zimmer, O.; Beck, M.; Heil, W.; Kahlenberg, J.; Karch, J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) are key for precision studies of fundamental parameters of the neutron and in searches for new CP violating processes or exotic interactions beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The most prominent example is the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM). We have performed an experimental comparison of the leading UCN sources currently operating. We have used a 'standard' UCN storage bottle with a volume of 32 liters, comparable in ...

  8. The Physics of Teams: Interdependence, Measurable Entropy, and Computational Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the social sciences, including psychology, economics, and subjective social network theory, are modeled on the individual, leaving the field not only a-theoretical, but also inapplicable to a physics of hybrid teams, where hybrid refers to arbitrarily combining humans, machines, and robots into a team to perform a dedicated mission (e.g., military, business, entertainment) or to solve a targeted problem (e.g., with scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs). As a common social science prac...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  10. Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

  11. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Pedrosa Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity.

  12. The number comb for a soil physical properties dynamic measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olechko, K.; Patiño, P.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    We propose the prime numbers distribution extracted from the soil digital multiscale images and some physical properties time series as the precise indicator of the spatial and temporal dynamics under soil management changes. With this new indicator the soil dynamics can be studied as a critical phenomenon where each phase transition is estimated and modeled by the graph partitioning induced phase transition. The critical point of prime numbers distribution was correlated with the beginning of Andosols, Vertisols and saline soils physical degradation under the unsustainable soil management in Michoacan, Guanajuato and Veracruz States of Mexico. The data banks corresponding to the long time periods (between 10 and 28 years) were statistically compared by RISK 5.0 software and our own algorithms. Our approach makes us able to distill free-form natural laws of soils physical properties dynamics directly from the experimental data. The Richter (1987) and Schmidt and Lipson (2009) original approaches were very useful to design the algorithms to identify Hamiltonians, Lagrangians and other laws of geometric and momentum conservation especially for erosion case.

  13. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  14. Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in older adults: invariance of the physical activity enjoyment scale (paces across groups and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanning Jason T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to validate the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES in a sample of older adults. Participants within two different exercise groups were assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Group and longitudinal invariance was established for a novel, 8-item version of the PACES. The shortened, psychometrically sound measure provides researchers and practitioners an expedited and reliable instrument for assessing the enjoyment of physical activity.

  15. Measurement of the Effect of Physical Exercise on the Concentration of Individuals with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Alessandro P.; Prado, Sueli O. S.; Scardovelli, Terigi A.; Boschi, Silvia R. M. S.; Campos, Luiz C.; Fr?re, Annie F.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run wi...

  16. Subscales of the vestibular activities and participation questionnaire could be applied across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alshebber, Kefah; Strobl, Ralf; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-momani, Murad O; Furman, Joseph M; Grill, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the objectivity, cross-cultural validity, and convergent validity of the Vestibular Activities and Participation (VAP) questionnaire among four countries, Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in four specialized outpatient dizziness clinics in Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. A total of 453 participants were included in the study. The Rasch analysis revealed two separate subscales. Subscale 1 items included focusing attention, lying down, standing, bending, lifting and carrying objects, and sports. Subscale 2 items included walking long distances, climbing, running, moving around within buildings other than home, using transportation, and driving. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the summary score of the VAP subscale 1 was 0.66 and was 0.64 for subscale 2. Owing to its shortness and intercultural adaptability, the new two-scale version of the VAP questionnaire lends itself to clinical practice and research across countries to estimate the effect of vertigo and dizziness on activity limitation and participation restrictions. Psychometrically sound summary scores can be calculated. More extended versions of the VAP can be used for comprehensive clinical assessment where summary scores are not needed or a more detailed documentation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and validation of psychosocial determinants measures of physical activity among Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirasteh, Ashraf; Hidarnia, Alireza; Asghari, Ali; Faghihzadeh, Soghrate; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah

    2008-05-07

    The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of psychosocial determinants of physical activity-related measures in Iranian adolescent girls. Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students. The results of a series of factor analysis showed that the self-efficacy scale contained a single factor, the social support scale contained two factors: family support and friend support, the physical activity 'pros & cons' scale contained two factors: physical activity pros scale and physical activity cons scale, the change strategies scale contained a single factor, the environment scale also contained a single factor. Chronbach's alphas, mean inter-item correlations and test-retest coefficients showed that these solutions were reliable. These preliminary results provide support for using the mentioned scales to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in Iranian adolescent girls.

  18. Comparison of ultracold neutron sources for fundamental physics measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bison, G.; Daum, M.; Kirch, K.; Lauss, B.; Ries, D.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G.; Brenner, T.; Geltenbort, P.; Jenke, T.; Zimmer, O.; Beck, M.; Heil, W.; Kahlenberg, J.; Karch, J.; Ross, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Geppert, C.; Karpuk, S.; Reich, T.; Siemensen, C.; Sobolev, Y.; Trautmann, N.

    2017-04-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) are key for precision studies of fundamental parameters of the neutron and in searches for new charge-parity-violating processes or exotic interactions beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The most prominent example is the search for a permanent electric-dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM). We have performed an experimental comparison of the leading UCN sources currently operating. We have used a "standard" UCN storage bottle with a volume of 32 liters, comparable in size to nEDM experiments, which allows us to compare the UCN density available at a given beam port.

  19. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science: A Brief Report on 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Lee, Seungmin; Kostelis, Kimberly T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this annual report is to provide a summary of measurement in physical education and exercise science-related activities in 2017. A recent trend for an annual increase in manuscript submissions to measurement in physical education and exercise science continued in 2017. Twenty-nine countries were represented (i.e., corresponding…

  20. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melczer, Csaba; Melczer, László; Oláh, András; Sélleyné-Gyúró, Mónika; Welker, Zsanett; Ács, Pongrác

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients' physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be…

  1. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with two IMUs (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n=10), consisting of seven team handball specific tasks, or field assessment (n=12) conducted in twelve training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufactures software. IMA count was divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5m·s-1), medium (2.5-3.5m·s-1), high (>3.5m·s-1), medium/high (>2.5m·s-1), and total (>1.5m·s-1). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment : IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV: 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more complex tasks. Field assessment : Total IMA count (CV: 1.8%, SWD: 2.5%), PlayerLoad™ (CV: 0.9 % SWD: 2.1%), and its associated variables (CV: 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA count were good, when data was displayed as total, high or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad™ and associated variables was evident. The CV of the aforementioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye IMU and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  2. Measurement of perceived barriers to physical activities: Proposed research instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of the most-investigated subjects that Physical Education scientists are researching consists of themes related to human behavior (change of patterns, habits related to the health, lifestyle, beliefs and attitudes, motivation for physical activity, perception of barriers. The aim of the present article is to propose an objective instrument (questionnaire to be used in research into human behavior, especially related to the perception of barriers to the practice of physical activity. The study used a sample of 42 adults (22 women and 20 men and had the following methodological design: preliminary test-retest with one week interval, reformulation of the instrument, final test-retest with one week interval. The reliability of the proposed barriers was initially evaluated using the Kappa index and Pearson Product Moment correlations. Testing of the instrument demonstrated that the proposed questionnaire (a list of nineteen barriers evaluated in ordinal scale can be easily employed, due to its applicability and quite satisfactory clarity, in addition to offering a reproducibility index of adequate reliability. RESUMO Atualmente, temas relacionados a comportamento (mudança de padrões, hábitos relacionados à saúde, estilo de vida, crenças e atitudes, motivação para a prática, percepção de barreiras estão entre os assuntos mais investigados pelos cientistas da área da Educação Física. O presente trabalho tem o intuito de propor um instrumento (questionário objetivo a ser utilizado em pesquisas sobre comportamento humano, especialmente relacionado à percepção de barreiras para a prática de atividades físicas. Participaram do estudo 42 indivíduos adultos (22 mulheres e 20 homens, com o seguinte design metodológico: teste-reteste preliminar com intervalo de uma semana, reformulação do instrumento, teste-reteste final, com intervalo de uma semana. A reprodutibilidade das barreiras propostas foi avaliada inicialmente

  3. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia.

  4. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Møller, Niels Christian; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    2015-01-01

    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity...... differences in overall PA or in time-specific day parts (e.g., during after-school care). The activity levels were quite similar across after-school cares and were mutually high during time spent in the care facility....... level among participants in certified sport after-school cares vs regular after-school cares. The study was carried out in 2011 in 10 after-school cares (5 sport/5 regular) throughout Denmark, whereof 475 children aged 5-11 years participated. PA level was assessed using Actigraph GT3X and GT3X...

  5. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  6. Is directly measured physical activity related to adiposity in preschool children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J J; Stolk, Ronald P; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2011-10-01

    This review summarizes the association between directly assessed physical activity and adiposity in preschool children (age 1.5-6 years). It includes 17 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that were published between January 1999 and February 2010. The association between physical activity and obesity seems to depend on the outcome measure of adiposity. In 60% (3/5) of the studies using percentage body fat, an inverse significant relationship with physical activity was found against 18% (2/11) of the studies that used body mass index as method to assess adiposity. Physical activity is inversely related to percentage body fat in preschool children. The associations between physical activity and body mass index as a measure of adiposity in preschool children remain elusive. Further studies using directly measured physical activity and percentage body fat to define adiposity are needed to draw more firm conclusions.

  7. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD....

  8. Investigation of PVC physical ageing in field test specimens using ultrasonic and dielectric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Ravanan, M.; Visser, Roy; Loendersloot, Richard; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Physical ageing in PVC is studied using two techniques: a) non-linear ultrasonic measurements based on the non-collinear wave interaction theory and b) dielectric measurements. The ultrasonic measurement results are compared with dielectric measurement results. The comparison shows that the used

  9. The Physics of Teams: Interdependence, Measurable Entropy, and Computational Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Lawless

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the social sciences, including psychology, economics, and subjective social network theory, are modeled on the individual, leaving the field not only a-theoretical, but also inapplicable to a physics of hybrid teams, where hybrid refers to arbitrarily combining humans, machines, and robots into a team to perform a dedicated mission (e.g., military, business, entertainment or to solve a targeted problem (e.g., with scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs. As a common social science practice, the ingredient at the heart of the social interaction, interdependence, is statistically removed prior to the replication of social experiments; but, as an analogy, statistically removing social interdependence to better study the individual is like statistically removing quantum effects as a complication to the study of the atom. Further, in applications of Shannon's information theory to teams, the effects of interdependence are minimized, but even there, interdependence is how classical information is transmitted. Consequently, numerous mistakes are made when applying non-interdependent models to policies, the law and regulations, impeding social welfare by failing to exploit the power of social interdependence. For example, adding redundancy to human teams is thought by subjective social network theorists to improve the efficiency of a network, easily contradicted by our finding that redundancy is strongly associated with corruption in non-free markets. Thus, built atop the individual, most of the social sciences, economics, and social network theory have little if anything to contribute to the engineering of hybrid teams. In defense of the social sciences, the mathematical physics of interdependence is elusive, non-intuitive and non-rational. However, by replacing determinism with bistable states, interdependence at the social level mirrors entanglement at the quantum level, suggesting the applicability of quantum tools for social science. We report

  10. The physics of teams: Interdependence, measurable entropy and computational emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, William F.

    2017-08-01

    Most of the social sciences, including psychology, economics and subjective social network theory, are modeled on the individual, leaving the field not only a-theoretical, but also inapplicable to a physics of hybrid teams, where hybrid refers to arbitrarily combining humans, machines and robots into a team to perform a dedicated mission (e.g., military, business, entertainment) or to solve a targeted problem (e.g., with scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs). As a common social science practice, the ingredient at the heart of the social interaction, interdependence, is statistically removed prior to the replication of social experiments; but, as an analogy, statistically removing social interdependence to better study the individual is like statistically removing quantum effects as a complication to the study of the atom. Further, in applications of Shannon’s information theory to teams, the effects of interdependence are minimized, but even there, interdependence is how classical information is transmitted. Consequently, numerous mistakes are made when applying non-interdependent models to policies, the law and regulations, impeding social welfare by failing to exploit the power of social interdependence. For example, adding redundancy to human teams is thought by subjective social network theorists to improve the efficiency of a network, easily contradicted by our finding that redundancy is strongly associated with corruption in non-free markets. Thus, built atop the individual, most of the social sciences, economics and social network theory have little if anything to contribute to the engineering of hybrid teams. In defense of the social sciences, the mathematical physics of interdependence is elusive, non-intuitive and non-rational. However, by replacing determinism with bistable states, interdependence at the social level mirrors entanglement at the quantum level, suggesting the applicability of quantum tools for social science. We report how our quantum

  11. The Physics of Ultrabroadband Frequency Comb Generation and Optimized Combs for Measurements in Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-02

    nonlinear physics as it is a key mechanism in fiber SC generation but also because of similarities with rogue instabilities in hydrodynamics [5]. It... boat suddenly stopped – not so the mass of water in the channel which it had put in motion … a large, solitary, progressive wave” Systematic Studies...unlimited. Motivating experiments in hydrodynamics 1/70 scale DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Light & gravity

  12. Measuring Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Children: Validation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in elementary school children. The sample consisted of 564 3rd grade students (M age = 8.72 ± .54; 268 male, 296 female) surveyed at the beginning of the fall semester. Results indicated that the PACES displayed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional factor structure. Scores on the PACES were significantly correlat...

  13. Physics of quantum measurement and its interdisciplinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morikawa Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dynamics of the collective mode and individual particles on a ring is studied as the simplest model of projective quantum measurement. In this model, the collective mode measures an individual single quantum system. The heart of the model is the wide separation of time scales which yields the distinction of classical and quantum degrees of freedom beyond the standard Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In some restricted cases we derive the Born probability rule. This model is the quantum mechanics version of the effective action method in quantum field theory, which describes the origin of the primordial density fluctuation as classical variables. It turns out that the classical version of this same model successfully describes the dynamics of geomagnetic variation including the polarity flips over 160 million years. The essence of this description is again the coexistence of the wide separated time scales.

  14. Work group IV: Future directions for measures of the food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Giles-Corti, Billie; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Cummins, Steven; Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Huang, Terry T-K; Lewis, LaVonna Blair

    2009-04-01

    Much progress has been made in the past 5 to 10 years in measuring and understanding the impact of the food and physical activity environments on behavioral outcomes. Nevertheless, this research is in its infancy. A work group was convened to identify current evidence gaps and barriers in food and physical activity environments and policy research measures, and develop recommendations to guide future directions for measurement and methodologic research efforts. A nominal group process was used to determine six priority areas for food and physical activity environments and policy measures to move the field forward by 2015, including: (1) identify relevant factors in the food and physical activity environments to measure, including those most amenable to change; (2) improve understanding of mechanisms for relationships between the environment and physical activity, diet, and obesity; (3) develop simplified measures that are sensitive to change, valid for different population groups and settings, and responsive to changing trends; (4) evaluate natural experiments to improve understanding of food and physical activity environments and their impact on behaviors and weight; (5) establish surveillance systems to predict and track change over time; and (6) develop standards for adopting effective health-promoting changes to the food and physical activity environments. The recommendations emanating from the work group highlight actions required to advance policy-relevant research related to food and physical activity environments.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  17. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  18. Measurements at LHC and their relevance for cosmic ray physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many LHC measurements are already used to improve hadronic interaction models used in cosmic ray analyses. This already had a positive effect on the model dependence of crucial data analyses. Some of the data and the model tuning is reviewed. However, the LHC still has a lot more potential to provide crucial information. Since the start of Run2 the highest accelerator beam energies are reached and no further increase can be expected for a long time. First data of Run2 are published and the fundamental performance of cosmic ray hadronic interaction models can be scrutinized. The relevance of LHC data in general for cosmic ray data analyses is demonstrated.

  19. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009-2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays.

  20. Does a variation in self-reported physical activity reflect variation in objectively measured physical activity, resting heart rate, and physical fitness? Results from the Tromso study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Degerstrøm, Jorid; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and objectively measured PA, resting heart rate, and physical fitness. METHODS: During 2007-08, 5017 men and 5607 women aged 30-69 years attended the sixth survey of the Tromsø study. Self-reported PA during leisure......-time and work were assessed and resting heart rate was measured. In a sub-study, the activity study, PA (Actigraph LLC) and physical fitness (VO₂(max)) were objectively measured among 313 healthy men and women aged 40-44 years. RESULTS: Self-reported leisure PA was significantly correlated with VO₂(max) (ml....../kg/min) (women 0.40, p men 0.44 p 2000 counts/min) (women 0.28, p men 0.25, p

  1. Breast internal dose measurements in a physical thoracic phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.D.; Oliveira, M.A.; Castro, A.L.S.; Dias, H.G.; Nogueira, L.B.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: sadonatosilva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Hospital das Clinicas de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Oncologia; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Anatomia e Departamento de Imagem

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a cancer treatment intended to deposit the entire prescribed dose homogeneously into a target volume in order to eliminate the tumor and to spare the surrounding healthy tissues. This paper aimed to provide a dosimetric comparison between the treatment planning system (TPS) ECLIPSE from Varian Medical Systems and the internal dosimetric measurements in a breast phantom. The methodology consisted in performing a 3D conformal radiotherapy planning with two tangential opposite parallel fields applied to the synthetic breast in a thoracic phantom. The irradiation was reproduced in the Varian Linear accelerator, model SL - 20 Precise, 6 MV energy. EBT2 Radiochromic films, placed into the glandular equivalent tissue of the breast, were used to measure the spatial dose distribution. The absorbed dose was compared to those values predicted by the treatment planning system; besides, the dosimetric uncertainties were analyzed. The modal absorbed dose was in agreement with the prescribed value of 180 cGy, although few high dose points between 180 and 220 cGy were detected. The findings suggested a non-uniform dose distribution in the glandular tissue of the synthetic breast, similar to those found in the TPS, associated with the irregular anatomic breast shape and presence of inhomogeneities next to the thoracic wall generated by the low lung density. (author)

  2. Practical physical activity measurement in youth: a review of contemporary approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachele, Jerome N; McPhail, Steven M; Washington, Tracy L; Cuddihy, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    The accurate evaluation of physical activity levels amongst youth is critical for quantifying physical activity behaviors and evaluating the effect of physical activity interventions. The purpose of this review is to evaluate contemporary approaches to physical activity evaluation amongst youth. The literature from a range of sources was reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of contemporary approaches for measuring youth physical activity. Five broad categories are described: self-report, instrumental movement detection, biological approaches, direct observation, and combined methods. Emerging technologies and priorities for future research are also identified. There will always be a trade-off between accuracy and available resources when choosing the best approach for measuring physical activity amongst youth. Unfortunately, cost and logistical challenges may prohibit the use of "gold standard" physical activity measurement approaches such as doubly labelled water. Other objective methods such as heart rate monitoring, accelerometry, pedometry, indirect calorimetry, or a combination of measures have the potential to better capture the duration and intensity of physical activity, while self-reported measures are useful for capturing the type and context of activity.

  3. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  4. Analysis of the Subscales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Murray I.; Hoffman, Roy A.

    1984-01-01

    Factor analyzed the item responses comprising each of the five external dimensions and the three internal dimensions of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The results indicated that seven of the eight subscales are essentially single-factor scales. Implications for counseling are discussed. (Author)

  5. Physics potential of precision measurements of the LHC luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The uncertainty in the determination of the LHC luminosity is rapidly becoming a limiting factor for the analysis and interpretation of many important LHC processes. In this talk first of all we discuss the theoretical accuracy of total cross sections and examine in which cases the luminosity error is or will be dominant. We then review the impact of LHC data in PDF determinations, with enphasis on the effects of the luminosity uncertainty. We explore the requirements for the accuracy of the 2011 luminosity determination from the point of view of standard candle cross section and other important processes. Finally we discuss what we can learn from the accurate measurement of cross section ratios at different center of mass energies for processes like W, ttbar and dijet production.

  6. Basic Physics Data: Measurement of Neutron Multiplicity from Induced Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Sara [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Haight, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-04

    From October 1 to October 17 a team of researchers from UM visited the LANSCE facility for an experiment during beam-time allotted from October 4 to October 17. A total of 24 detectors were used at LANSCE including liquid organic scintillation detectors (EJ-309), NaI scintillation detectors, and Li-6 enriched glass detectors. It is a double time-offlight (TOF) measurement using spallation neutrons generated by a target bombarded with pulsed high-energy protons. The neutrons travel to an LLNL-manufactured parallel plate avalanche chamber (PPAC) loaded with thin U-235 foils in which fission events are induced. The generated fission neutrons and photons are then detected in a detector array designed and built at UM and shipped to LANSCE. Preparations were made at UM, where setup and proposed detectors were tested. The UM equipment was then shipped to LANSCE for use at the 15L beam of the weapons neutron research (WNR) facility.

  7. A Measurement Error Model for Physical Activity Level as Measured by a Questionnaire With Application to the 1999–2006 NHANES Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Tooze, Janet A.; Troiano, Richard P.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Freedman, Laurence S

    2013-01-01

    Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was adminis...

  8. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1 Parental influence on physical activity; 2 Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3 Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7 internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity

  9. Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2001-09-01

    With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

  10. Curricular Integration and Measurement of Cultural Competence Development in a Group of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Dole, Robin L.; Black, Jill D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background: The link between cultural competence and effective physical therapy encounters is established. Physical therapist educational programs face the challenge of fostering the cultural competence of students in effective and meaningful ways within the curriculum. They also face the challenge of measuring the development of…

  11. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  12. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (MPEES): Accomplishments and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanlong

    2007-01-01

    This year marks the 10th year of publication for "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" (MPEES). As we are forging into future, it would be very helpful to evaluate the role MPEES has played in the evolution of the research in physical education and exercise science. In this issue, the authors address the challenges that MPEES…

  13. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  14. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  17. Developing a measurement tool of the effectiveness of the physical education teachers' teaching and learning process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyak Amir; Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    ... their effectiveness in the teaching and learning processes. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to measure the effectiveness of the physical education teachers' teaching and learning processes as a scoring scale...

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  19. New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Perkins, K. K.; Podolefsky, N. S.; Dubson, M.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Wieman, C. E.

    2006-06-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a student’s likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their “Personal Interest” score; and that, for a majority of student populations, women’s scores in some categories, including “Personal Interest” and “Real World Connections,” are significantly different from men’s scores.

  20. Influence of Halide Solutions on Collagen Networks: Measurements of Physical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Spitzer-Sonnleitner; André Kempe; Maximilian Lackner

    2016-01-01

    The influence of aqueous halide solutions on collagen coatings was tested. The effects on resistance against indentation/penetration on adhesion forces were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the change of Young's modulus of the coating was derived. Comparative measurements over time were conducted with halide solutions of various concentrations. Physical properties of the mesh-like coating generally showed large variability. Starting with a compact set of physical properties, data...

  1. Classical Information-Theoretical View of Physical Measurements and Generalized Uncertainty Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2012-01-01

    General characterizations of physical measurements are discussed within the framework of the classical information theory. The uncertainty relation for simultaneous measurements of two physical observables is defined in this framework for generalized dynamic systems governed by a Sturm--Liouville type of equation of motion. In the first step, the reduction of Kennard--Robertson type uncertainties due to boundary conditions with a mean-square error is discussed quantitatively with reference to...

  2. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  3. The Physics of Ultrabroadband Frequency Comb Generation and Optimized Combs for Measurements in Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-02

    order phase-matched cascaded frequency gene, high harmonic generation, fine structure constant measurements, -envelope phase stabilization, ultra fast...partially) coherent seed. Figure 1: Experimental Setup used Our experiments showed control of both the spectral and noise properties of optical fibre...specifically linked to the studies funded by the grant are: D. M. Nguyen, T. Godin, S. Toenger, Y. Combes, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, et al

  4. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  5. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  6. Associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lydia; Steptoe, Andrew; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Bostock, Sophie; Mitchell, Ellen S; Hamer, Mark

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses. We recruited 40 healthy females (aged 28.7 ± 6.1 yrs) who completed a once-a-day mood rating scale for 7 days, along with a 7-day assessment of physical activity using accelerometers and psychophysiological stress testing. The findings suggest that levels of physical activity as measured using an accelerometer are associated with both depressive symptoms over the past 2 weeks (CES-D) (r = - .33, p = .038) and with daily positive emotional style (r = .49, p = .001). The relationship between physical activity and positive emotional style remained after controlling for age, body mass index, and negative emotional style (t = 3.31, p = .002). Physical activity was not related to any psychophysiological stress responses. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Using Noble Gas Measurements to Derive Air-Sea Process Information and Predict Physical Gas Saturations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamme, Roberta C.; Emerson, Steven R.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Long, Matthew C.; Yashayaev, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Dissolved gas distributions are important because they influence oceanic habitats and Earth's climate, yet competing controls by biology and physics make gas distributions challenging to predict. Bubble-mediated gas exchange, temperature change, and varying atmospheric pressure all push gases away from equilibrium. Here we use new noble gas measurements from the Labrador Sea to demonstrate a technique to quantify physical processes. Our analysis shows that water-mass formation can be represented by a quasi steady state in which bubble fluxes and cooling push gases away from equilibrium balanced by diffusive gas exchange forcing gases toward equilibrium. We quantify the rates of these physical processes from our measurements, allowing direct comparison to gas exchange parameterizations, and predict the physically driven saturation of other gases. This technique produces predictions that reasonably match N2/Ar observations and demonstrates that physical processes should force SF6 to be ˜6% more supersaturated than CFC-11 and CFC-12, impacting ventilation age calculations.

  8. Exploring associations between physical activity and perceived and objective measures of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Aileen P; Evenson, Kelly R; Herring, Amy H; Huston, Sara L; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2007-03-01

    The built environment may be responsible for making nonmotorized transportation inconvenient, resulting in declines in physical activity. However, few studies have assessed both the perceived and objectively measured environment in association with physical activity outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the associations between perceptions and objective measures of the built environment and their associations with leisure, walking, and transportation activity. Perception of the environment was assessed from responses to 1,270 telephone surveys conducted in Forsyth County, NC and Jackson, MS from January to July 2003. Participants were asked if high-speed cars, heavy traffic, and lack of crosswalks or sidewalks were problems in their neighborhood or barriers to physical activity. They were also asked if there are places to walk to instead of driving in their neighborhood. Speed, volume, and street connectivity were assessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for both study areas. Locations of crashes were measured using GIS for the NC study area as well. Objective and perceived measures of the built environment were in poor agreement as calculated by kappa coefficients. Few associations were found between any of the physical activity outcomes and perception of speed, volume, or presence of sidewalks as problems in the neighborhood or as barriers to physical activity in regression analyses. Associations between perceptions of having places to walk to and presence of crosswalks differed between study sites. Several associations were found between objective measures of traffic volume, traffic speed, and crashes with leisure, walking, and transportation activity in Forsyth County, NC; however, in Jackson, MS, only traffic volume was associated with any of the physical activity outcomes. When both objective and perceived measures of the built environment were combined into the same model, we observed independent associations with physical activity

  9. Varying the item format improved the range of measurement in patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H. Felix

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical function (PF) is a core patient-reported outcome domain in clinical trials in rheumatic diseases. Frequently used PF measures have ceiling effects, leading to large sample size requirements and low sensitivity to change. In most of these instruments, the response category...... easy, increases the range of precise measurement of self-reported PF. Methods: Three five-item PF short forms were constructed from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) wave 1 data. All forms included the same physical activities but varied in item stem and response...... precision between the short forms using different item formats. Results: Sufficient unidimensionality of all short-form items and the original PF item bank was supported. Compared to formats A and B, format C increased the range of reliable measurement by about 0.5 standard deviations on the positive side...

  10. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine M; Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Elliott, Michael B; Handy, Susan L; Brownson, Ross C

    2005-02-01

    Enhancing community environments to support walking and bicycling serves as a promising approach to increase population levels of physical activity. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors and their relative association with transportation or recreational physical activity. For this cross-sectional study, high- and low-income study areas were selected among census tracts in St. Louis MO ("low-walkable" city) and Savannah GA ("high-walkable" city). Between February and June 2002, a telephone survey of 1068 adults provided measures of the perceived environment and physical activity behavior. In this timeframe, objective measures were collected through environmental audits of all street segments (n =1158). These measures were summarized using 400-m buffers surrounding each respondent. Neighborhood characteristics included the land use environment, transportation environment, recreational facilities, aesthetics, and social environment. Associations were examined between neighborhood features and transportation- and recreation-based activity. After adjusting for age, gender, and education, transportation activity was negatively associated with objective measures of sidewalk levelness and perceived and objective neighborhood aesthetics. It was positively associated with perceived and objectively measured number of destinations and public transit, perceived access to bike lanes, and objective counts of active people in the neighborhood. Recreational activity was positively associated with perceived access to recreational facilities and objective measures of attractive features. These findings indicate that physical activities for transportation or recreational are associated with different perceived and objective environmental characteristics. Modifications to these features may change the physical activity behavior of residents exposed to them.

  11. Identifying GIS measures of the physical activity built environment through a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ebonee N; Ambs, A M H; Reedy, Jill; Bowles, Heather R

    2011-01-01

    Examining relationships between features of the built environment and physical activity is achievable with geographic information systems technology (GIS). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to identify GIS measures that can be considered for inclusion in national public health surveillance efforts. In the absence of a universally agreed upon framework that integrates physical, social, and cultural aspects of the environment, we used a multidimensional model of access to synthesize the literature. We identified 29 studies published between 2005 and 2009 with physical activity outcomes that included 1 or more built environment variables measured using GIS. We sorted built environment measures into 5 dimensions of access: accessibility, availability, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability. Geospatial land-use data, street network data, environmental audits, and commercial databases can be used to measure the availability, accessibility, and accommodation dimensions of access. Affordability and acceptability measures rely on census and self-report data. GIS measures have been included in studies investigating the built environment and physical activity, although few have examined more than 1 construct of access. Systematic identification and collection of relevant GIS measures can facilitate collaboration and accelerate the advancement of research on the built environment and physical activity.

  12. Purpose in life is associated with physical activity measured by accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stephanie A; Masters, Kevin S

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that purpose in life, the belief that one's life is meaningful and goal-directed, is associated with greater engagement in self-reported physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between purpose in life and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Community volunteers (N = 104) completed measures of purpose in life and potential confounds and wore accelerometers for three consecutive days. Purpose in life was positively associated with objectively measured movement, moderate to vigorous physical activity, and with self-reported activity. These relationships were largely unchanged after controlling for potential confounds. These results suggest that purpose in life is a reliable correlate of physical activity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Chie, W.C.; Conroy, T.; Costantini, A.; Giesinger, J.M.; Holzner, B.; King, M.T.; Singer, S.; Velikova, G.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF)

  14. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Chie, W.C.; Conroy, T.; Constantini, A.; Giesinger, J.M.; Holzner, B.; King, M.T.; Singer, S.; Velikova, G.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF)

  15. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K; Arraras, Juan I

    2013-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF) and fati...

  16. Perceived Physical Appearance: Assessing Measurement Equivalence in Black, Latino, and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Anna E; Depaoli, Sarah; Song, Anna V; Wallander, Jan L; Elliott, Marc N; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Schuster, Mark

    2017-03-01

    This aim of this study was to examine whether the construct of physical appearance perception differed among the three largest racial/ethnic groups in the United States using an adolescent sample. Black (46%), Latino (31%), and White (23%) adolescents in Grade 10 from the Healthy Passages study ( N  = 4,005) completed the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Physical Appearance Scale (SPPA-PA) as a measure of physical appearance perception. Overall, Black adolescents had a more positive self-perception of their physical appearance than Latino and White adolescents. However, further analysis using measurement invariance testing revealed that the construct of physical appearance perception, as measured by SPPA-PA, was not comparable across the three racial/ethnic groups in both males and females. These results suggest that observed differences may not reflect true differences in perceptions of physical appearance. Measures that are equivalent across racial/ethnic groups should be developed to ensure more precise measurement and understanding.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling of space-based orbit transfer vehicle cryogenic propellant resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defelice, David M.; Aydelott, John C.

    1987-01-01

    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for spacebased orbit transfer vehicles. As part of the NASA Lewis ongoing efforts in microgravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques were developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. Analytical results have shown that subscale experimental modeling of liquid resupply can be used to validate analytical models when the appropriate target temperature is selected to relate the model to its prototype system. Further analyses were used to develop a thermodynamic model of the tank chilldown process which is required prior to the no-vent fill operation. These efforts were incorporated into two FORTRAN programs which were used to present preliminary analyticl results.

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  19. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R Ness

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity.We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Total physical activity and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA were measured using the Actigraph accelerometer. Fat mass and obesity (defined as the top decile of fat mass were measured using the Lunar Prodigy dual x-ray emission absorptiometry scanner. We found strong negative associations between MVPA and fat mass that were unaltered after adjustment for total physical activity. We found a strong negative dose-response association between MVPA and obesity. The odds ratio for obesity in adjusted models between top and the bottom quintiles of minutes of MVPA was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.13, p-value for trend <0.0001 in boys and 0.36 (95% CI 0.17-0.74, p-value for trend = 0.006 in girls.We demonstrated a strong graded inverse association between physical activity and obesity that was stronger in boys. Our data suggest that higher intensity physical activity may be more important than total activity.

  20. Quantification of Outdoor Mobility by Use of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Taraldsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures in older persons are associated with both low levels of daily physical activity and loss of outdoor mobility. The aim was to investigate if accelerometer-based measures of physical behaviour can be used to determine if people undertake outdoor walking and to provide reference values for physical behaviour outcomes related to outdoor mobility. Older persons (n=245, ≥70 years, one year after hip fracture, participated. Six objective measures of physical behaviour collected by an activity monitor were compared with self-reported outdoor mobility assessed with the Nottingham Extended ADL scale. All measures of time and length in upright periods were significantly lower in participants who reported not walking outdoors (p<0.001. A set of cut-off points for the different physical behaviour variables was generated. Maximum length of upright events discriminated best between groups, with 31 minutes as a threshold to determine if a person is more likely to report that they walk outdoors (sensitivity: 0.805, specificity: 0.704, and AUC: 0.871 or 41 minutes or more to determine if a person is more likely to report outdoor walking on their own (AUC: 0.891. Physical behaviour variables from activity monitoring can provide information about patterns of physical behaviour related to outdoor activity performance.

  1. Objectively measured physical activity in Brazilians with visual impairment: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Porcellis da Silva, Rafael; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde; Reichert, Felipe Fossati

    2017-05-19

    Low level of physical activity is a serious health issue in individuals with visual impairment. Few studies have objectively measured physical activity in this population group, particularly outside high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe physical activity measured by accelerometry and its associated factors in Brazilian adults with visual impairment. In a cross-sectional design, 90 adults (18-95 years old) answered a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (including one weekend day) to measure physical activity (min/day). Sixty percent of the individuals practiced at least 30 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Individuals who were blind were less active, spent more time in sedentary activities and spent less time in moderate and vigorous activities than those with low vision. Individuals who walked mainly without any assistance were more active, spent less time in sedentary activities and spent more time in light and moderate activities than those who walked with a long cane or sighted guide. Our data highlight factors associated with lower levels of physical activity in people with visual impairment. These factors, such as being blind and walking without assistance should be tackled in interventions to increase physical activity levels among visual impairment individuals. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical inactivity worldwide is a serious health issue in people with visual impairments and specialized institutions and public policies must work to increase physical activity level of this population. Those with lower visual acuity and walking with any aid are at a higher risk of having low levels of physical activity. The association between visual response profile, living for less than 11 years with visual impairment and PA levels deserves further investigations Findings of the present study provide reliable data to support rehabilitation programs, observing the need of taking special attention to

  2. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Observational study. Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman's correlations and Bland-Altman plots were utilized for test-retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53-0.89). Bland-Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. The test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  3. Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort-Roig, Judit; Gilson, Nicholas D; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Contreras, Ruth S; Trost, Stewart G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in physical activity research, although little is known regarding their effectiveness as measurement and intervention tools. This study systematically reviewed evidence on smartphones and their viability for measuring and influencing physical activity. Research articles were identified in September 2013 by literature searches in Web of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect. The search was restricted using the terms (physical activity OR exercise OR fitness) AND (smartphone* OR mobile phone* OR cell phone*) AND (measurement OR intervention). Reviewed articles were required to be published in international academic peer-reviewed journals, or in full text from international scientific conferences, and focused on measuring physical activity through smartphone processing data and influencing people to be more active through smartphone applications. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of articles and examined titles and abstracts to exclude those out of scope. Data on study characteristics, technologies used to objectively measure physical activity, strategies applied to influence activity; and the main study findings were extracted and reported. A total of 26 articles (with the first published in 2007) met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in highly economically advantaged countries; 12 articles focused on special populations (e.g. obese patients). Studies measured physical activity using native mobile features, and/or an external device linked to an application. Measurement accuracy ranged from 52 to 100% (n = 10 studies). A total of 17 articles implemented and evaluated an intervention. Smartphone strategies to influence physical activity tended to be ad hoc, rather than theory-based approaches; physical activity profiles, goal setting, real-time feedback, social support networking, and online expert consultation were identified as the most useful

  4. Addressing Educational Reform: Exploring PE Metrics as a System to Measure Student Achievement in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira

    2015-01-01

    The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…

  5. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period.

  6. Measuring the built environment for physical activity: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Hoehner, Christine M; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F

    2009-04-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical-or built-environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health.

  7. Measuring physical traits of primates remotely: the use of parallel lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Wasserman, Michael D; Lambert, Joanna E; Goldberg, Tony L

    2008-12-01

    Physical traits, such as body size, and processes like growth can be used as indices of primate health and can add to our understanding of life history and behavior. Accurately measuring physical traits in the wild can be challenging because capture is difficult, disrupts animals, and may cause injury. To measure physical traits of arboreal primates remotely, we adapted a parallel laser technique that has been used with terrestrial and marine mammals. Two parallel lasers separated by a known distance (4 cm) and mounted onto a digital camera are projected onto an animal. When a photograph is taken, the laser projections on the target provide a scale bar. We validated the technique for measuring the physical traits of identifiable red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. First, we photographed the tails of monkeys with laser projections and compared these with measurements previously obtained when the animals were captured. Second, we manually measured the distance between two markers placed on tree branches at similar heights to those used by monkeys, and compared them with the measurements obtained through digital photographs of the markers with parallel laser projections. The mean tail length of the monkeys via manual measurements was 63.3+/-4.4 cm, and via remote measurements was 63.0+/-4.1 cm. The mean distance between the markers on tree branches via manual measurements was 13.8+/-3.59 cm, and via remote measurements was 13.9+/-3.58 cm. The mean error using parallel lasers was 1.7% in both cases. Although the needed precision will depend on the question asked, our results suggest that sufficiently precise measurements of physical traits or substrates of arboreal primates can be obtained remotely using parallel lasers.

  8. LLNL Final Design for PDV Measurements of Godiva for Validation of Multi-Physics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nuclear Criticality Safety Division; Scorby, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nuclear Criticality Safety Division; Bandong, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burch, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nuclear Criticality Safety Division; Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Halvorson, Craig [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Global Security N Program and National Security Engineering Division; Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Dosimetry Lab.; May, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). B-Division; Sinibaldi, Jose [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). B-Division; Whitworth, Tony [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Defense Technologies Engineering Division; Klingensmith, Amanda [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States). National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS)

    2014-03-18

    This document is a Final Design (CED-2) Report for IER-268, “PDV Measurements of Godiva for Validation of Multi-Physics Simulation”. These measurements will measure surface velocities in several locations, the initial α and α-t curve as a function of fission yield using existing LLNL assets including: The portable Photonic Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) detector; The “alpha box”, and; Aluminum-encapsulated 235U fission foils. These experiments will be simulated using multi-physics methods funded separately under LLNL-AM2. A supercritical benchmark specification will be developed; and, if funding permits, an ICSBEP (or classified equivalent) evaluation will be published.

  9. Measurement of pelvic floor function during physical activity: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Dagmar; Pannek, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Pelvic floor function is closely related to bladder storage or voiding dysfunctions. So far, however, pelvic floor activity has not been reliably measured during physical activity. In 14 female healthy volunteers, the activity of the pelvic floor was evaluated during a standardized horseback riding course by a biofeedback device. Pelvic floor activity could be reliably measured during horseback riding. Each pace was associated with corresponding electromyographic (EMG) activity that was similar in the overwhelming majority of participants. Different paces demonstrated distinctly different EMG activities. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that pelvic floor activity can be reliably measured during physical activity with a commercially available biofeedback device.

  10. Development and validation of psychosocial determinants measures of physical activity among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihzadeh Soghrate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of psychosocial determinants of physical activity-related measures in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students. Results The results of a series of factor analysis showed that the self-efficacy scale contained a single factor, the social support scale contained two factors: family support and friend support, the physical activity 'pros & cons' scale contained two factors: physical activity pros scale and physical activity cons scale, the change strategies scale contained a single factor, the environment scale also contained a single factor. Chronbach's alphas, mean inter-item correlations and test-retest coefficients showed that these solutions were reliable. Conclusions These preliminary results provide support for using the mentioned scales to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in Iranian adolescent girls.

  11. Uncertainty measurement in the homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification of rice and beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieisson Pivoto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study aimed to i quantify the measurement uncertainty in the physical tests of rice and beans for a hypothetical defect, ii verify whether homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification tests of rice and beans is effective to reduce the measurement uncertainty of the process and iii determine whether the increase in size of beans sample increases accuracy and reduces measurement uncertainty in a significant way. Hypothetical defects in rice and beans with different damage levels were simulated according to the testing methodology determined by the Normative Ruling of each product. The homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification of rice and beans are not effective, transferring to the final test result a high measurement uncertainty. The sample size indicated by the Normative Ruling did not allow an appropriate homogenization and should be increased.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  13. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melczer Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients’ physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be transmitted to a central system. The research aims to elaborate the methods that help to compare of the data concerning physical activity both built-in an accelerometer in Cardiac Resychrinisation Therapy (CRT devices and data obtained from an external Actigraph GT3XE-Plus Triaxial Activity Monitor. 5 persons participated in the pilot study (n=5; mean age: 57+- 13.37; BMI: 90.6+- 7.63. The Actigraph data from CRT device were examined in a 6-day-interval, between February 28 and March 5, 2014. The investigation started conducting a 6-minute walking test and continued with the measurement of daily physical activity. For data analysis descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were used. It is clear from the data obtained from Actigraph that the MET values (mean: 1.17 ± 0.096 of the patients in the sample were extremely low due to their disease. However, some patients with higher physical activity than average (1.26; 1.28 seemed to be noteworthy, but they showed lower performance than healthy people. The physical activity of the patients during the 6-minute walking test corresponded to 1.9-2.48 MET. The physical activity of patients was found typically in the “light or moderate range” classifying the physical activity by Actigraph. Data from Actigraph are accurate and detailed making the physical activity of the patients measurable and appreciable. The results of the 6-minute walking test were in the category from moderate to very vigorous for individualized moderate physical performance based on Actigraph. It indicates the individual performance differences among patients. However, the daily

  14. Original article Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives – a new method of measuring motives for physical activity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lipowski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a conscious activity of an individual, physical activity (PA constitutes an element of the free-time dimension. The type of goal allows us to distinguish between sport and PA: sport performance vs. psychophysical health – hence the idea to develop a tool for measurement of the motivational function of an objective in physical activity and sport. Participants and procedure The normalisation sample consisted of 2141 individuals: 1163 women aged 16-64 (M = 23.90, SD = 8.30 and 978 men aged 16-66 (M = 24.50, SD = 9.40. In the process of validation, a factor analysis, and subsequently validity and reliability analysis of the tool, and normalisation of scales were performed. Results Based on the factor analysis and the degree to which each of the given items conformed to the theory of the motivational function of an objective, the following scales were distinguished: 1 motivational value (the extent to which the objective influences the actions undertaken by an individual, 2 time management (the level of focus on planning, arranging and organizing time for PA, 3 persistence in action (efficiency and persistence of action, and the ability to deal with adversities, and 4 motivational conflict (the level of conflict: PA objectives vs. other objectives. The Cronbach’s α reliability coefficient for this version reached .78. The Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO also included questions that allow one to control for variables such as the variety of forms, duration, and frequency of PA, and socio-demographic variables. Conclusions The IPAO, as a new method for measuring motives for physical activity and sport, is characterized by good psychometric properties. The IPAO can serve both scientific research and as a useful tool for personal trainers, helping diagnose the motives for engaging in PA and sports. With knowledge about the purposefulness of actions, it is possible to support and shape additional motivation experienced by

  15. Relationship between physical performance and cognitive performance measures among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won HL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Huiloo Won,1 Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh,2 Normah Che Din,3 Manal Badrasawi,4 Zahara Abdul Manaf,4 Sin Thien Tan,2 Chu Chiau Tai,2 Suzana Shahar4 1Nutrition Science Program, 2Physiotherapy Program, 3Health Psychology Program, 4Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Cognitive impairment is correlated with physical function. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent with cognitive and physical performance measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between cognitive performance and physical function among older adults. Methods: A total of 164 older adults aged ≥60 years and residing in low-cost housing areas in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia participated in this study. Cognitive performance was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test, digit symbol test, digit span test, matrix reasoning test, and block design test. Physical performance measures were assessed using the ten step test for agility, short physical performance battery test for an overall physical function, static balance test using a Pro.Balance board, and dynamic balance using the functional reach test. Results: There was a negative and significant correlation between agility and the digit symbol test (r=−0.355, clock drawing test (r=−0.441, matrix reasoning test (r=−0.315, and block design test (r=−0.045. A significant positive correlation was found between dynamic balance, digit symbol test (r=0.301, and matrix reasoning test (r=0.251. The agility test appeared as a significant (R2=0.183, R2=0.407, R2=0.299, P<0.05 predictor of some cognitive performance measures, including the digit span test, clock drawing test, and Mini Mental State Examination. Conclusion: These results suggest that a decline in most cognitive performance measures can be predicted by poor execution of a more demanding physical performance

  16. Connecting airborne Ku-band radar measurements to surface-based measurements: Integrating data from ASIRAS, VHB, and physical property measurements from Greenland and Svalbard. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. L.; Morris, E. M.; Brant, O.

    2009-12-01

    Airborne observations can extend the reach of ground-based campaigns measuring spatial variability of snow properties. We introduce the European Space Agency's Airborne Synthetic aperture Interferometric Radar Altimetry System (ASIRAS), and discuss the penetration of its 13.5 GHz energy into polar firn and snow. We compare results from ASIRAS to physical property measurements in Greenland, Very High Bandwidth (VHB) radar measurements in Svalbard, and physical propetry measurements in both locations. Operating at 1 GHz bandwidth, ASIRAS can penetrate as much as 11 m into polar firn, and has detected annually-occurring density horizons in the dry-snow zone of Greenland. On Austfonna and Kongsvagen in Svalbard, ASIRAS detects the Last Summer Surface (LSS), allowing measurements of winter accumulation. These measurements allow us to examine the nature of the subsurface reflections detected by ASIRAS.

  17. Relationship between physical performance and cognitive performance measures among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Huiloo; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Din, Normah Che; Badrasawi, Manal; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is correlated with physical function. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent with cognitive and physical performance measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between cognitive performance and physical function among older adults. A total of 164 older adults aged ≥60 years and residing in low-cost housing areas in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia participated in this study. Cognitive performance was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test, digit symbol test, digit span test, matrix reasoning test, and block design test. Physical performance measures were assessed using the ten step test for agility, short physical performance battery test for an overall physical function, static balance test using a Pro.Balance board, and dynamic balance using the functional reach test. There was a negative and significant correlation between agility and the digit symbol test (r=-0.355), clock drawing test (r=-0.441), matrix reasoning test (r=-0.315), and block design test (r=-0.045). A significant positive correlation was found between dynamic balance, digit symbol test (r=0.301), and matrix reasoning test (r=0.251). The agility test appeared as a significant (R (2)=0.183, R (2)=0.407, R (2)=0.299, Pagility. It is imperative to use a more complex and cognitively demanding physical performance measure to identify the presence of an overall cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults. It may also be beneficial to promote more complex and cognitively challenging exercises and activities among older adults for optimal physical and cognitive function.

  18. Relationship between physical performance and cognitive performance measures among community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Won HL; Singh DKA; Din NC; Badrasawi M; Manaf ZA; Tan ST; CC Tai; Shahar S

    2014-01-01

    Huiloo Won,1 Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh,2 Normah Che Din,3 Manal Badrasawi,4 Zahara Abdul Manaf,4 Sin Thien Tan,2 Chu Chiau Tai,2 Suzana Shahar4 1Nutrition Science Program, 2Physiotherapy Program, 3Health Psychology Program, 4Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Cognitive impairment is correlated with physical function. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent with cognitive and physical performance measur...

  19. Perceived Physical Appearance: Assessing Measurement Equivalence in Black, Latino, and White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Epperson, AE; Depaoli, S; Song, AV; Wallander, JL; Elliott, MN; Cuccaro, P; Emery, ST; Schuster, M

    2017-01-01

    This aim of this study was to examine whether the construct of physical appearance perception differed among the three largest racial/ethnic groups in the United States using an adolescent sample.Black (46%), Latino (31%), and White (23%) adolescents in Grade 10 from the Healthy Passages study ( N  = 4,005) completed the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Physical Appearance Scale (SPPA-PA) as a measure of physical appearance perception.Overall, Black adolescents had a more posi...

  20. A Review of Emerging Analytical Techniques for Objective Physical Activity Measurement in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cain C T; Barnes, Claire M; Stratton, Gareth; McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Summers, Huw D

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the world. A fundamental barrier to enhancing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary behavior is limited by our understanding of associated measurement and analytical techniques. The number of analytical techniques for physical activity measurement has grown significantly, and although emerging techniques may advance analyses, little consensus is presently available and further synthesis is therefore required. The objective of this review was to identify the accuracy of emerging analytical techniques used for physical activity measurement in humans. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. This review included studies written in English and published between January 2010 and December 2014 that assessed physical activity using emerging analytical techniques and reported technique accuracy. A total of 2064 papers were initially retrieved from three databases. After duplicates were removed and remaining articles screened, 50 full-text articles were reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 11 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Despite the diverse nature and the range in accuracy associated with some of the analytic techniques, the rapid development of analytics has demonstrated that more sensitive information about physical activity may be attained. However, further refinement of these techniques is needed.

  1. On Trial: the Compatibility of Measurement in the Physical and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, S. J.; Vosk, T.; Pendrill, L. R.; Stenner, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we put social measurement on trial: providing two perspectives arguing why measurement in the social and in the physical sciences are incompatible and counter with two perspectives supporting compatibility. For the case ‘against’, we first argue that there is a lack of definition in the social sciences. Thus, while measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence, calibrated instruments, and predictive theory that work together to test the quantitative nature of properties, measurement in the social sciences, in the main, rests on a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data, does not require calibrated instruments, and rarely articulates predictive theories. The second argument for the case ‘against’ introduces the problem associated with psychometrics, including different approaches, methodologies, criteria for success and failure, and considerations as to what counts as measurement. Making the first case ‘for’, we highlight practical principles for improved social measurement including units, laws, theory, and metrology. The second argument ‘for’ introduces the exemplar of the Lexile Framework for reading that exploits metrological principles and parallels the paths taken by, for example, thermometry. We conclude by proposing a way forward potentially applicable to both physical and social measurement, in which inferences are modelled in terms of a measurement system, where specifically the output of the instrument in response to probing the object (‘entity’) is a performance metric, i.e. how well the set-up performs the assessment.

  2. Quantifying the physical demands of collision sports: does microsensor technology measure what it claims to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-08-01

    The physical demands of rugby league, rugby union, and American football are significantly increased through the large number of collisions players are required to perform during match play. Because of the labor-intensive nature of coding collisions from video recordings, manufacturers of wearable microsensor (e.g., global positioning system [GPS]) units have refined the technology to automatically detect collisions, with several sport scientists attempting to use these microsensors to quantify the physical demands of collision sports. However, a question remains over the validity of these microtechnology units to quantify the contact demands of collision sports. Indeed, recent evidence has shown significant differences in the number of "impacts" recorded by microtechnology units (GPSports) and the actual number of collisions coded from video. However, a separate study investigated the validity of a different microtechnology unit (minimaxX; Catapult Sports) that included GPS and triaxial accelerometers, and also a gyroscope and magnetometer, to quantify collisions. Collisions detected by the minimaxX unit were compared with video-based coding of the actual events. No significant differences were detected in the number of mild, moderate, and heavy collisions detected via the minimaxX units and those coded from video recordings of the actual event. Furthermore, a strong correlation (r = 0.96, p wearable microtechnology unit (minimaxX) can be considered capable of offering a valid method of quantifying the contact loads that typically occur in collision sports. Until such validation research is completed, sport scientists should be circumspect of the ability of other units to perform similar functions.

  3. An application of information theory: Longitudinal measurability bounds in classical and quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonl, C.; Scanzano, P.

    1980-12-01

    We examine the problem of the existence (in classical and/or quantum physics) of longitudinal limitations of measurability, defined as limitations preventing the measurement of a given quantity with arbitrarily high accuracy. We consider a measuring device as a generalized communication system, which enables us to use methods of information theory. As a direct consequence of the Shannon theorem on channel capacity, we obtain an inequality which limits the accuracy of a measurement in terms of the average power necessary to transmit the information content of the measurement itself. This inequality holds in a classical as well as in a quantum framework.

  4. Selected KSC Applied Physics Lab Responses to Shuttle Processing Measurement Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The KSC Applied Physics Lab has been supporting Shuttle Ground Processing for over 20 years by solving problems brought to us by Shuttle personnel. Roughly half of the requests to our lab have been to find ways to make measurements, or to improve on an existing measurement process. This talk will briefly cover: 1) Centering the aft end of the External Tank between the Solid Rocket Boosters; 2) Positioning the GOX Vent Hood over the External Tank; 3) Remote Measurements of External Tank Damage; 4) Strain Measurement in the Orbiter Sling; and 5) Over-center Distance Measurement in an Over-center Mechanism.

  5. Opportunities for applied measurements using the PROSPECT antineutrino detector: reactor physics and safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Nathaniel; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Disagreement of reactor antineutrino spectrum and flux measurements with updated predictions indicates that we have much to learn about the complicated processes underlying antineutrino production in reactors, as well as hinting at new physics. A number of new efforts seek to address these questions, including the PROSPECT experiment planned at the HFIR research reactor. In addition to greatly advancing our understanding of reactor antineutrino emissions, PROSPECT can support a rich applied physics program. The detection technology developed for PROSPECT will enable precision antineutrino spectrum measurements close to essentially any reactor type. Here we describe how such measurements provide opportunities to probe fissile isotope and fission daughter distributions, and their potential use for reactor physics and safeguards applications. LLNL-ABS-673983. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents....... The purpose of this paper is to summarise recently published data on the relationship between daily physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, and [Vdot]O(2PEAK) in children and adolescents. A PubMed search was performed on 29 October 2010 to identify relevant articles. Studies were considered relevant...... if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a [Vdot]O(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most...

  7. Investigating and improving student understanding of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-03-01

    A solid grasp of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables is central to connecting the quantum formalism to measurements. However, students often struggle with the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for an observable and have difficulty expressing this concept in different representations. Here we first describe the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students have with the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics. We then discuss how student difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for physical observables. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the probability distributions for the measurement of physical observables in Dirac notation and in the position representation and be able to convert from Dirac notation to position representation and vice versa. We describe the development and evaluation of the QuILT and findings about the effectiveness of the QuILT from in-class evaluations.

  8. Measuring Pain for Patients Seeking Physical Therapy: Can Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James M; Owen, Meriel; Bishop, Mark D; Sparks, Cheryl; Tsao, Henry; Walton, David M; Weber, Kenneth A; Wideman, Timothy H

    2017-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary fields of pain medicine and rehabilitation, advancing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used to enhance our understanding of the pain experience. Given that such measures, in some circles, are expected to help us understand the brain in pain, future research in pain measurement is undeniably rich with possibility. However, pain remains intensely personal and represents a multifaceted experience, unique to each individual; no single measure in isolation, fMRI included, can prove or quantify its magnitude beyond the patient self-report. Physical therapists should be aware of cutting-edge advances in measuring the patient's pain experience, and they should work closely with professionals in other disciplines (eg, magnetic resonance physicists, biomedical engineers, radiologists, psychologists) to guide the exploration and development of multimodal pain measurement and management on a patient-by-patient basis. The primary purpose of this perspective article is to provide a brief overview of fMRI and inform physical therapist clinicians of the pros and cons when utilized as a measure of the patient's perception of pain. A secondary purpose is to describe current known factors that influence the quality of fMRI data and its analyses, as well as the potential for future clinical applications relevant to physical therapist practice. Lastly, the interested reader is introduced and referred to existing guidelines and recommendations for reporting fMRI research. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. Data-Aware Retrodiction for Asynchronous Harmonic Measurement in a Cyber-Physical Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youda Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-physical energy systems provide a networked solution for safety, reliability and efficiency problems in smart grids. On the demand side, the secure and trustworthy energy supply requires real-time supervising and online power quality assessing. Harmonics measurement is necessary in power quality evaluation. However, under the large-scale distributed metering architecture, harmonic measurement faces the out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM problem, which is the result of latencies in sensing or the communication process and brings deviations in data fusion. This paper depicts a distributed measurement network for large-scale asynchronous harmonic analysis and exploits a nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (NARX network to reorder the out-of-sequence measuring data. The NARX network gets the characteristics of the electrical harmonics from practical data rather than the kinematic equations. Thus, the data-aware network approximates the behavior of the practical electrical parameter with real-time data and improves the retrodiction accuracy. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the data-aware method maintains a reasonable consumption of computing resources. Experiments on a practical testbed of a cyber-physical system are implemented, and harmonic measurement and analysis accuracy are adopted to evaluate the measuring mechanism under a distributed metering network. Results demonstrate an improvement of the harmonics analysis precision and validate the asynchronous measuring method in cyber-physical energy systems.

  10. Objective and subjective measures of neighborhood environment (NE): relationships with transportation physical activity among older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Shuvo, Faysal Kabir; Eng, Jia Yen; Yap, Keng Bee; Scherer, Samuel; Hee, Li Min; Chan, Siew Pang; Ng, Tze Pin

    2015-09-15

    This study examined the associations of subjective and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment with the transportation physical activity of community-dwelling older persons in Singapore. A modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) measures of the built environment characteristics were related to the frequency of walking for transportation purpose in a study sample of older persons living in high-density apartment blocks within a public housing estate in Singapore. Relevant measured variables to assess the complex relationships among built environment measures and transportation physical activity were examined using structural equation modelling and multiple regression analyses. The subjective measures of residential density, street connectivity, land use mix diversity and aesthetic environment and the objective GIS measure of Accessibility Index have positively significant independent associations with transportation physical activity, after adjusting for demographics, socio-economic and health status. Subjective and objective measures are non-overlapping measures complementing each other in providing information on built environment characteristics. For elderly living in a high-density urban neighborhood, well connected street, diversity of land use mix, close proximity to amenities and facilities, and aesthetic environment were associated with higher frequency of walking for transportation purposes.

  11. Simulations and Measurements of Physics Debris Losses at the 4 Tev LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marsili, A; Cerutti, F; Redaelli, S

    2013-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), dedicated physics debris collimators protect the machine from the collision products at the high-luminosity experiments. These collimators reduce the risk of quenches by stopping physics debris losses. Several measurements have been performed at 4 TeV, with peak luminosity values up to 4•10^33 cm^2 •s^-11 to address the need of these devices and optimize their settings. In this paper, the measurement results are presented and compared with SixTrack simulations of beam losses in IR1 and IR5 for the same conditions.

  12. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2016-01-01

    responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......-squares linear regression models were developed, predicting objectively measured exposures from selected predictors in the questionnaire. RESULTS: A full prediction model based on age, gender, body mass index, job group, self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA), and self-reported occupational sedentary...

  13. Comparative Responsiveness of the PROMIS Pain Interference Short Forms, Brief Pain Inventory, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain Subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Jacob; Monahan, Patrick O; Kroenke, Kurt; Wu, Jingwei; Yu, Zhangsheng; Stump, Tim E; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity to change and the responsiveness to intervention of the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), 3-item PEG scale, and SF-36 Bodily Pain subscale in a sample of patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain of moderate severity. Standardized response means, standardized effect sizes, and receiver operating curve analyses were used to assess change between baseline and 3-month assessments in 250 participants who participated in a randomized clinical effectiveness trial of collaborative telecare management for moderate to severe and persistent musculoskeletal pain. The BPI, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain measures were more sensitive to patient-reported global change than the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, especially for the clinically improved group, for which the change detected by the PROMIS short forms was not statistically significant. The BPI was more responsive to the clinical intervention than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures. Post hoc analyses exploring these findings did not suggest that differences in content or rating scale structure (number of response options or anchoring language) adequately explained the observed differences in the detection of change. In this clinical trial, the BPI and PEG measures were better able to detect change than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures.

  14. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  15. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Changes in Life-Space Mobility Among Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantakokko, Merja; Rantanen, Taina; Viljanen, Anne; Kauppinen, Markku; Portegijs, Erja

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to study the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and subsequent changes in life-space mobility over 2 years among older people. Life-space mobility refers to the area a person moves through in daily life, taking into account frequency, and need of assistance. Life-space mobility and physical activity correlate, but whether different intensities of objectively assessed physical activity predicts decline in life-space mobility is not known. Prospective cohort study of the "Life-space Mobility in Old Age" (LISPE) project accelerometer substudy. Participants were community-dwelling older people aged 75-90 (n = 164). Life-space mobility was measured with the Life-Space Assessment at baseline face-to-face home interview and telephone follow-up interviews 1 and 2 years after baseline. Physical activity (step count and time spent in moderate activity, low activity, and sedentary behavior) was measured by a tri-axial accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days at baseline. Generalized estimating equations (GEE models) were used to compare changes in life-space mobility between participants categorized according to the baseline physical activity measures. Median age of the participants was 79.5 (IQR 6.7) and 64% were women. Over the 2 years, life-space mobility declined significantly among those with lower step counts and less time spent in moderate activity measured at baseline. Time spent in low activity and sedentary behavior did not predict changes in life-space mobility. In old age, more time spent walking outdoors and accumulation of moderate-intensity physical activity may help to maintain higher life-space mobility, a correlate of good quality of life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Using data from Multidimensional Pain Inventory subscales to assess functioning in pain rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlacher, Uwe; Persson, Ann L; Rivano-Fischer, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) subscale score changes can be used for monitoring interdisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain rehabilitation programmes, using the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index as an independent variable...... of rehabilitation outcome. Data from 434 consecutively referred patients disabled by chronic pain were analysed. The intervention was a 4-week interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation group programme (5 h/day), based on biopsychosocial and cognitive behavioural principles. Mean PGWB total scores improved after...... rehabilitation (P...

  17. Correlation between physical activity measured by accelerometry and BMI in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Stabelini Neto

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between physical activity measured by accelerometry and excess weight in schoolchildren. Three hundred and ninety one school-age adolescents (10 to 18 years old participated in the study. The cut-off points used to estimate time spent in physical activity were: moderate ≥3.0 METs and vigorous ≥6.0 METs. Student’s t-test and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient were used to verify statistical differences and correlations between physical activity and body mass index (BMI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Male schoolchildren spent more time in moderate (96.1 ± 39.6 min.day-1 and vigorous (9.7 ± 8.8 min.day-1 physical activity than their female peers (moderate: 73.7 ± 37.7 min.day-1; vigorous: 6.1 ± 6.8 min.day-1. For both sexes, younger schoolchildren (10 to 14 years old were more physically active than older ones (14 to 18 years old. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity was inversely related to BMI. These findings suggest that regular physical activity (RPA is related to body weight reduction in schoolchildren. Therefore, RPA can be used as an obesity prevention strategy in elementary school.

  18. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwakura M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masahiro Iwakura,1,2 Kazuki Okura,2 Kazuyuki Shibata,1,2 Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi,2 Keiyu Sugawara,2 Hitomi Takahashi,2 Takanobu Shioya1 1Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan Background: Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods: Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST] and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]. Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results: The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033, Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013, 4 m gait speed (P<0.001, five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002, daily steps (P=0.003, and MV-PA (P=0.022 compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001 and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014 in the COPD group after adjusting for

  19. Talking and learning physics: Predicting future grades from network measures and Force Concept Inventory pretest scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Bruun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of student interactions in learning situations is a foundation of sociocultural learning theory, and social network analysis can be used to quantify student relations. We discuss how self-reported student interactions can be viewed as processes of meaning making and use this to understand how quantitative measures that describe the position in a network, called centrality measures, can be understood in terms of interactions that happen in the context of a university physics course. We apply this discussion to an empirical data set of self-reported student interactions. In a weekly administered survey, first year university students enrolled in an introductory physics course at a Danish university indicated with whom they remembered having communicated within different interaction categories. For three categories pertaining to (1 communication about how to solve physics problems in the course (called the PS category, (2 communications about the nature of physics concepts (called the CD category, and (3 social interactions that are not strictly related to the content of the physics classes (called the ICS category in the introductory mechanics course, we use the survey data to create networks of student interaction. For each of these networks, we calculate centrality measures for each student and correlate these measures with grades from the introductory course, grades from two subsequent courses, and the pretest Force Concept Inventory (FCI scores. We find highly significant correlations (p<0.001 between network centrality measures and grades in all networks. We find the highest correlations between network centrality measures and future grades. In the network composed of interactions regarding problem solving (the PS network, the centrality measures hide and PageRank show the highest correlations (r=-0.32 and r=0.33, respectively with future grades. In the CD network, the network measure target entropy shows the highest correlation

  20. Perceived and measured physical activity and mental stress levels in obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Jastrow, Nicole; Poncet, Antoine; Le Scouezec, Iona; Irion, Olivier; Kayser, Bengt

    2013-11-01

    Obstetric work generates important subjective and objective mental stress and is perceived as a physically demanding activity by obstetricians. The aim of this study was to quantify physical and mental stress levels in obstetricians at work and during leisure activities to investigate their association with overall physical activity levels and professional experience. 18 obstetricians at the maternity unit of the University of Geneva Hospitals were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Physical activity and stress levels were measured in two different activity sectors (delivery room and outpatient clinic) and outside work. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire, visual analogue scale (VAS), and accelerometer. Mental stress levels were assessed by validated questionnaires, VAS, measurement of urine catecholamines and salivary cortisol, and night-time heart rate variability indices. Daily stress levels were higher at work compared to outside work (all, P = 0.002). Adrenalin (P = 0.002) and dopamine (P = 0.09) levels were elevated after a labour suite shift and a trend was observed for reduced heart rate variability during the night after this shift. The median average daily number of steps was 7132 (range, 5283-8649). Subjects reached a median of 32 min (range, 19-49 min) of moderate or higher intensity (≥ 1952 counts/min) daily physical activity. Contrary to perception, obstetrics work is not physically demanding. It is, however, accompanied by important subjective and objective mental stress that may have a negative impact on health when combined with a lack of regular daily physical activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    analyses indicated that the various physical activity variables explained between 2 and 8% of the variance in VO(2peak) in boys. In this population-based cohort, most daily activity variables were positively related to aerobic fitness in boys, whereas less clear relationships were observed in girls. Our...... finding that physical activity was only uniformly related to aerobic fitness in boys partly contradicts previous studies in older children and adolescents.......The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study...

  3. New measurements of energy expenditure and physical activity in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Denise; Deleaval, Patrick; Teta, Daniel; Cleaud, Christine; Perrot, Marie-Jo; Rognon, Severine; Thevenet, Muriel; Arkouche, Walid; Jolivot, Anne; Fouque, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The accurate estimation of total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in chronic kidney patients is essential to allow the provision of nutritional requirements; however, it remains a challenge to collect actual physical activity and resting energy expenditure in maintenance dialysis patients. The direct measurement of TEE by direct calorimetry or doubly labeled water cannot be used easily so that, in clinical practice, TEE is usually estimated from resting energy expenditure and physical activity. Prediction equations may also be used to estimate resting energy expenditure; however, their use has been poorly documented in dialysis patients. Recently, a new system called SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, PA) was developed to assess TEE, but so far no data have been published in chronic kidney disease patients. The aim of this review is to describe new measurements of energy expenditure and physical activity in chronic kidney disease patients.

  4. New measurements on physics of B-hadrons in ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, V.

    2017-11-01

    Recent results on B-hadron physics in ATLAS are reviewed. A new measurement of CP-violating parameters in B s → J/ψφ decay is performed on full Run 1 statistics. Branching fraction BR( B s → μ+μ-) = (0.9 -0.8 +1.1 )×10-9 is measured, below the Standard Model (SM) prediction.

  5. Summary of physics from measurements with longitudinally polarized beams and targets at ZGS energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1980-09-01

    An extensive amount of data were obtained from measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering from 1 to 12 GeV/c using longitudinally polarized beams and targets. Physics learned from these data as well as other related experimental results is summarized. The topics include structures observed in nucleon-nucleon scattering at lower energies and dinucleon resonances, pp scattering-amplitude measurements at 6 GeV/c, and lerge p/sub perpendicular/ results in pp elastic scattering.

  6. Defining Allowable Physical Property Variations for High Accurate Measurements on Polymer Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Madruga, Daniel González

    2015-01-01

    Measurement conditions and material properties have a significant impact on the dimensions of a part, especially for polymers parts. Temperature variation causes part deformations that increase the uncertainty of the measurement process. Current industrial tolerances of a few micrometres demand h....... In this paper, we investigated how big the variation in material and physical properties are allowed in order to reach the 5 μm target on the uncertainty....

  7. ATLAS Forward Proton: Measurements and Prospects for Exclusive Diffraction, BSM Physics and Pomeron Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The installation of the second arm of the Atlas Forward Proton (AFP) detector system has been completed in time for the 2017 running of LHC, opening the road for measurements of processes with two forward protons. This talk will describe the status of the project, its rich physics programme, as well as first perfomance and measurements with beams. Further ATLAS results with just one or without proton tags will be presented as well

  8. Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study. Roundtable presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona,

  9. Objectively and subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 26 February). Objectively and subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the CELSTEC plenary, Heerlen, The

  10. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  11. Using Content Maps to Measure Content Development in Physical Education: Validation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Dervent, Fatih; Lee, Yun Soo; Ko, Bomna; Kim, Insook; Tao, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports on our efforts toward extending the conceptual understanding of content development in physical education by validating content maps as a measurement tool, examining new categories of instructional tasks to describe content development and validating formulae that can be used to evaluate depth of content development.…

  12. AFP measurements and prospects for exclusive diffraction, BSM physics and Pomeron structure

    CERN Document Server

    Chytka, Ladislav; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Installation of ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector was finished in the beginning of 2017. The talk summarizes the detector status and presents physics measurements possible with the detector, including soft diffraction, single-diffractive and double pomeron exchange jet and WW/ZZ production and central exclusive production.

  13. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientzek, A.; Diaz, M.J.T.; Castano, J.M.H.; Amiano, P.; Arriola, L.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Charles, M.A.; Fagherazzi, G.; Palli, D.; Bendinelli, B.; Skeie, G.; Borch, K.B.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Hollander, de E.L.; May, A.M.; Ouden, den M.E.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Valanou, E.; Soderberg, S.; Franks, P.W.; Brage, S.; Vigl, M.; Boeing, H.; Ekelund, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits

  14. Objectively versus subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 25 May). Objectively versus subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents. Poster presentation at the ISBNPA conference 2013, Ghent,

  15. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  16. Accelerometer-measured dose-response for physical activity, sedentary time, and mortality in US adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Charles E; Keadle, S. K.; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity is recommended to maintain and improve health, but the mortality benefits of light activity and risk for sedentary time remain uncertain. Objectives: Using accelerometer-based measures, we 1) described the mortality dose-response for se...

  17. CP violation and limits on New Physics including recent B measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Francisco J.; Branco, Gustavo C.; Nebot, Miguel

    2007-04-01

    We analyse present constraints on the SM parameter space and derive, in a model independent way, various bounds on New Physics contributions to Bd0-B¯d0 and Bs0-B¯s0 mixings. Our analyses include information on a large set of asymmetries, leading to the measurement of the CKM phases γ and β¯, as well as recent data from D0 and CDF related to the Bs0-B¯s0 system such as the measurement of ΔMB_s, A and ΔΓsCP. We examine in detail several observables such as the asymmetries Asld, A, the width differences ΔΓ and ΔΓsCP and discuss the rôle they play in establishing the limits on New Physics. The present data clearly favour the SM, with the New Physics favoured region placed around the SM solution. A New Physics solution significantly different from the SM is still allowed, albeit quite disfavoured (2.6% probability). We analyse the presently available indirect knowledge on the phase χ¯ entering in Bs0-B¯s0 mixing and study the impact of a future measurement of χ¯ to be achieved at LHC, through the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B→J/ΨΦ decays.

  18. Developing a Psychometric Instrument to Measure Physical Education Teachers' Job Demands and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang

    2017-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources model, the study developed and validated an instrument that measures physical education teachers' job demands-resources perception. Expert review established content validity with the average item rating of 3.6/5.0. Construct validity and reliability were determined with a teacher sample (n = 397). Exploratory…

  19. Comparison of summer and winter objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Oskarsdottir, Nina Dora; Brychta, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours...

  20. Measuring physical activity in South African grade 2 and 3 learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in South Africa and can be linked to decreased physical activity (PA). It is important to be able to accurately measure children's PA levels as part of a holistic strategy for maintaining healthy body weight. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether children in ...

  1. Why Can’t Anything Be Done? Measuring Physical Readiness of Women for Military Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    develop physical standards for its jobs and standards for measuring strength, stamina , and other job requirements.5 Two years later an Army study...Military Academy.” The Journal of American Sports Medicine 7 no.3 (1979): 191-194. Reinker, Kent A. and Susan Ozburne, “A Comparison of Male and Female

  2. Measuring Radon in Air, Soil and Water: An Introduction to Nuclear Physics for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Wachtmeister, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the radon measurement activities at Stockholm House of Science, nuclear and experimental physics is introduced in a way that attracts the attention and interest of the students. These projects give the students the opportunity to use mobile detectors, either in their school, in the House of Science or in their homes. During 2006, 34 radon…

  3. Measuring Physical Activity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis : Activity Diary Versus Accelerometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbrust, Wineke; Bos, G J F Joyce; Geertzen, Jan H B; Sauer, Pieter J J; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Lelieveld, Otto T H M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine convergent validity of an activity diary (AD) and accelerometer (Actical brand/Phillips-Respironics) in measuring physical activity (PA) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). (2) To determine how many days give reliable results. (3) To analyze effects of

  4. Suggested Courseware for the Non-Calculus Physics Student: Measurement, Vectors, and One-Dimensional Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joyce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates 16 commercially available courseware packages covering topics for introductory physics. Discusses the price, sub-topics, program type, interaction, time, calculus required, graphics, and comments of each program. Recommends two packages in measurement and vectors, and one-dimensional motion respectively. (YP)

  5. What goes well with physics? Measuring and altering the image of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Rau, Melanie; Hannover, Bettina

    2006-12-01

    In view of the shortage of students majoring in science, we examined the image of physics in terms of students' implicit, automatic associations with physics. To describe the specific image of physics that might alienate students (difficulty, masculinity, heteronomy) and test an intervention for altering the image. In Study 1 the sample consisted of 63 school students (11th grade) and in Study 2 the sample consisted of 71 undergraduates. Study 1 measured participants' implicit associations between physics (relative to English) and the image dimensions of difficulty, masculinity and heteronomy, implicit attitudes towards and identification with physics using latency data (Implicit Association Test; IAT) and explicit attitudes using a questionnaire. Study 2 was an experimental treatment that required reading a text (treatment group) that emphasized the importance of discourse and creativity for science versus a school textbook for physics (control group). implicit attitudes (IAT). Students in Study 1 associated physics (relative to English) more easily with words referring to difficulty (than to ease), to males (than to females), to heteronomy (than to self-realization), to unpleasantness (relative to pleasant words) and to others (relative to words referring to self). The three image aspects of difficulty, masculinity and heteronomy predicted explicit attitudes. Participants in the treatment group in Study 2 showed a significant reduction of the IAT effects compared to the control group. The findings indicate that students' negative explicit attitudes towards physics coincide with negative implicit associations about physics. An intervention addressing the alteration of implicit associations proved to be fruitful. Implications for science education are discussed.

  6. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 7. Additive Error Correction for Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since during design it is impossible to use the uncertainty approach because the measurement results are still absent and as noted the error approach that can be successfully applied taking as true the nominal value of instruments transformation function. Limiting possibilities of additive error correction of measuring instruments for Cyber-Physical Systems are studied basing on general and special methods of measurement. Principles of measuring circuit maximal symmetry and its minimal reconfiguration are proposed for measurement or/and calibration. It is theoretically justified for the variety of correction methods that minimum additive error of measuring instruments exists under considering the real equivalent parameters of input electronic switches. Terms of self-calibrating and verification the measuring instruments in place are studied.

  7. The Physical Appearance Perfectionism Scale: Development and preliminary validation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongfei; Stoeber, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Eight studies with data from 2316 students are presented describing the development and preliminary validation of the Physical Appearance Perfectionism Scale (PAPS), a brief measure with two subscales: Worry About Imperfection and Hope For Perfection. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the measure’s two-dimensional structure. Moreover, correlation analyses provided first evidence for the two subscales’ differential validity: Worry About Imperfection showed neg...

  8. Measuring Overall Physical Activity for Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Muaddi; Bauman, Adrian; Neubeck, Lis; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of physical activity (PA) for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participants is critical to monitor changes. However, the validity and reliability of PA measures to assess PA throughout the day, not only during exercise training, is poorly investigated. To establish a reliable and valid measure to assess overall PA in CR participants. A narrative literature review was performed based on a systematic search of Embase, CINAHL, MEDLINE and PubMed databases. Eight studies comparing two or more PA measures with at least one direct measure met the inclusion criteria. Methodological designs were heterogeneous. Correlations and levels of agreement between self-reported measures and direct measures were weak to moderate, while the correlations between direct measures were high. Of the direct measures, the SenseWear armband (BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) had the highest validity, and the PA diary and MobilePAL questionnaires performed better than other self-reported PA measures. Direct measures were more valid and reliable than self-reported measures. No recommendation for a definitive PA measure was made due to lack of strong evidentiary support for one PA measure over another. There is a need for accurate measures of overall PA in evaluating current and changing PA levels following CR. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/ Fluid Sciences & Engineering Dept.; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.; Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  10. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  11. Topographic effect of Sub-scale Mountains around the main Tibetan Plateau on Asian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yingying; Shi, Zhengguo

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most important tectonic events in Cenozoic, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is considered to have profound influences on the evolution of Asian climate.However, the potential influence from the sub-scale mountains around the main TP is largely neglected. In actual, these sub-scale mountains may affect some climate systems, which facilitates from their sensitive locations. Taking the Mongolian Plateau (MP) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP, SW China) as examples, they are located at the core paths of mid-latitude winter westerly and Indian summer southwesterly monsoon, respectively, and seem to significantly block the eastward propagation of these systems from modern climatological data. In this study, general circulation model experiments with and without mountains are employed to evaluate the topographic effect of MP and YGP on the Asian climate. The results show that, the MP, despite its smaller size, exerts a great influence on the strengthened winter climate over East Asia, including the East Asian trough, the subtropical westerly jet and the winter monsoon. The YGP, however, plays an opposite role in the Indian monsoon change, compared to the main TP. It weakens the Indian summer monsoon circulation and associated precipitation. Thus, the response of Asian climate to the mountain uplift depends closely on the actual distributions of topography rather than a simplified bulk of main TP.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  13. Numerical simulation and analysis for low-frequency rock physics measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhui; Tang, Genyang; Wang, Shangxu; He, Yanxiao

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, several experimental methods have been introduced to measure the elastic parameters of rocks in the relatively low-frequency range, such as differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) and stress-strain measurement. It is necessary to verify the validity and feasibility of the applied measurement method and to quantify the sources and levels of measurement error. Relying solely on the laboratory measurements, however, we cannot evaluate the complete wavefield variation in the apparatus. Numerical simulations of elastic wave propagation, on the other hand, are used to model the wavefield distribution and physical processes in the measurement systems, and to verify the measurement theory and analyze the measurement results. In this paper we provide a numerical simulation method to investigate the acoustic waveform response of the DARS system and the quasi-static responses of the stress-strain system, both of which use axisymmetric apparatus. We applied this method to parameterize the properties of the rock samples, the sample locations and the sensor (hydrophone and strain gauges) locations and simulate the measurement results, i.e. resonance frequencies and axial and radial strains on the sample surface, from the modeled wavefield following the physical experiments. Rock physical parameters were estimated by inversion or direct processing of these data, and showed a perfect match with the true values, thus verifying the validity of the experimental measurements. Error analysis was also conducted for the DARS system with 18 numerical samples, and the sources and levels of error are discussed. In particular, we propose an inversion method for estimating both density and compressibility of these samples. The modeled results also showed fairly good agreement with the real experiment results, justifying the effectiveness and feasibility of our modeling method.

  14. Objectively measured physical activity and cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinac, Catherine R; Godbole, Suneeta; Kerr, Jacqueline; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth E; Hartman, Sheri J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors. Participants were 136 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive computerized neuropsychological test. Seven-day physical activity was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Linear regression models examined associations of minutes per day of physical activity at various intensities on individual cognitive functioning domains. The partially adjusted model controlled for primary confounders (model 1), and subsequent adjustments were made for chemotherapy history (model 2) and body mass index (BMI) (model 3). Interaction and stratified models examined BMI as an effect modifier. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with information processing speed. Specifically, 10 min of MVPA was associated with a 1.35-point higher score (out of 100) on the information processing speed domain in the partially adjusted model and a 1.29-point higher score when chemotherapy was added to the model (both p activity was not significantly associated with any of the measured domains of cognitive function. MVPA may have favorable effects on information processing speed in breast cancer survivors, particularly among overweight or obese women. Interventions targeting increased physical activity may enhance aspects of cognitive function among breast cancer survivors.

  15. The Effects of Daily Weather on Accelerometer-measured Physical Activity among Adults with Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinglass, Joe; Lee, Julia; Dunlop, Dorothy; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pam; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study analyzes Chicago-area weather effects on objectively measured physical activity over a three year period among a cohort of 241 participants in an on-going arthritis physical activity trial. Methods Uniaxial accelerometer counts and interview data were analyzed for up to six weekly study waves involving 4823 days of wear. The effects of temperature, rainfall, snowfall and daylight hours were analyzed after controlling for participant characteristics, day of the week, and daily accelerometer wear hours in a mixed effects linear regression model. Results Daylight hours, mean daily temperature snowfall) were all significantly associated with lower physical activity after controlling for the significant effects of weekends, accelerometer wear hours, age, sex, type of arthritis, employment, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and SF36 physical and mental health scores. Conclusions The cumulative effects of weather are reflected in a 38.3% mean monthly difference in daily counts between November and June, reflecting over three additional hours of sedentary time. Physical activity promotion programs for older persons with chronic conditions need lifestyle physical activity plans adapted to weather extremes. PMID:21885884

  16. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed at developing and evaluating statistical models predicting objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity from self-reported information available in large epidemiological studies and surveys. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fourteen blue-collar workers...... responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......, of the variance of the objectively measured exposures. Internal validation using bootstrapping suggested that the full and single-predictor models would show almost the same performance in new datasets as in that used for modelling. CONCLUSIONS: Both full and single-predictor models based on self...

  17. Associations between active commuting to school and objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børrestad L, Anita Bjørkelund; Ostergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    . Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire. Results: Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33......Background: To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer......, b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling. Methods: A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study...

  18. PREFACE: 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Across Physical and Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco; Belotti, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-C7-TC13 was organised by the University of Genova - DIME/MEC, Measurement Laboratory, Italy, on 4-6 September 2013. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: TC1 Education and Training in Measurement and Instrumentation TC7 Measurement Science TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine This is in keeping with the tradition set by the previous events of this well established series. There has been a special focus on measurement across physical and behavioural sciences, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and of promoting constructive interactions with scientists in other disciplines. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in psychophysics, psychometrics and quantum physics. The symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Australia and Japan, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume, organised according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Genova, which was the European Capital of Culture in 2004, and took place in Palazzo Ducale, an important historical building whose construction started in the 13th century, and that has been the house of the Duke of Genova from the 14th century. Genova, whose name comes from the Latin word 'Janua' (meaning 'door', as January is the door month of the year), has been regarded over the centuries as a door connecting Europe with the different countries and cultures of the Mediterranean basin and thus was an appropriate site for an international symposium involving different and new scientific visions and approaches to

  19. Observed Agreement Problems between Sub-Scales and Summary Components of the SF-36 Version 2 - An Alternative Scoring Method Can Correct the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Graeme; Adams, Robert; Wilson, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A number of previous studies have shown inconsistencies between sub-scale scores and component summary scores using traditional scoring methods of the SF-36 version 1. This study addresses the issue in Version 2 and asks if the previous problems of disagreement between the eight SF-36 Version 1 sub-scale scores and the Physical and Mental Component Summary persist in version 2. A second study objective is to review the recommended scoring methods for the creation of factor scoring weights and the effect on producing summary scale scores Methods The 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey dataset was used for the production of coefficients. There were 3,014 observations with full data for the SF-36. Data were analysed in LISREL V8.71. Confirmatory factor analysis models were fit to the data producing diagonally weighted least squares estimates. Scoring coefficients were validated on an independent dataset, the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Problems of agreement were observed with the recommended orthogonal scoring methods which were corrected using confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusions Confirmatory factor analysis is the preferred method to analyse SF-36 data, allowing for the correlation between physical and mental health. PMID:23593428

  20. Objectively measured physical activity levels of young children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicola; Obeid, Joyce; Dillenburg, Rejane; Milenkovic, Jovana; MacDonald, Maureen J; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity tends to be lower in school-age children with congenital heart disease than in healthy controls. To the best of our knowledge, objectively measured physical activity levels of preschool-age children with congenital heart disease have not been studied. A total of 10 children with either coarctation of the aorta (n=6; age 3.8±0.9) or tetralogy of Fallot (n=4, age 4.3±0.9) were recruited from the cardiology unit of McMaster Children's Hospital. Height (103.7±8.2 cm) and weight (17.3±2.7 kg) measurements were recorded, and physical activity was determined using accelerometry over 7 consecutive days. Patients were compared with age-, sex-, and season of data acquisition-matched controls. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding the child's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Patients spent on average 219.4±39.9 minutes engaged in total physical activity per day at the following intensities: light, 147.5±22.3; moderate, 44.0±11.8; moderate-to-vigorous, 71.9±22.6; and vigorous, 27.9±11.7. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls for total physical activity (p=0.80) or any of the intensities (p=0.71, 0.46, 0.43, and 0.45, respectively). Only 40% of patients and controls met the new Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years of at least 180 minutes of physical activity at any intensity every day. Of the patients' parents, 90% believed that their child was as active, if not more active, than his/her siblings, and 80% of parents reported their child spending 1-3 hours in screen time activities daily. Children aged 3-5 years old with congenital heart disease have comparable physical activity levels to age-, sex-, and season-matched controls, and many do not meet Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines.

  1. Moving through Life-Space Areas and Objectively Measured Physical Activity of Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegijs, Erja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity-an important determinant of health and function in old age-may vary according to the life-space area reached. Our aim was to study how moving through greater life-space areas is associated with greater physical activity of community-dwelling older people. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space area reached on different days by the same individual was studied using one-week longitudinal data, to provide insight in causal relationships. One-week surveillance of objectively assessed physical activity of community-dwelling 70-90-year-old people in central Finland from the "Life-space mobility in old age" cohort substudy (N = 174). In spring 2012, participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary including the largest life-space area reached (inside home, outside home, neighborhood, town, and beyond town). The daily step count, and the time in moderate (incl. walking) and low activity and sedentary behavior were assessed. Differences in physical activity between days on which different life-space areas were reached were tested using Generalized Estimation Equation models (within-group comparison). Participants' mean age was 80.4±4.2 years and 63.5% were female. Participants had higher average step counts (p activity time (p life-space areas were reached, from the home to the town area. Only low activity time continued to increase when moving beyond the town. Community-dwelling older people were more physically active on days when they moved through greater life-space areas. While it is unknown whether physical activity was a motivator to leave the home, intervention studies are needed to determine whether facilitation of daily outdoor mobility, regardless of the purpose, may be beneficial in terms of promoting physical activity.

  2. Classical world arising out of quantum physics under the restriction of coarse-grained measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johannes; Brukner, Caslav

    2007-11-02

    Conceptually different from the decoherence program, we present a novel theoretical approach to macroscopic realism and classical physics within quantum theory. It focuses on the limits of observability of quantum effects of macroscopic objects, i.e., on the required precision of our measurement apparatuses such that quantum phenomena can still be observed. First, we demonstrate that for unrestricted measurement accuracy, no classical description is possible for arbitrarily large systems. Then we show for a certain time evolution that under coarse-grained measurements, not only macrorealism but even classical Newtonian laws emerge out of the Schrödinger equation and the projection postulate.

  3. Psychometric properties of the existence subscale of the purpose in life questionnaire for Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M F

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to test the psychometric properties of the Existence Subscale of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire (EPIL) for early adolescence. The Purpose in Life Questionnaire (PIL), originally created by Craumbaugh and Maholick, is a 20-item scale measuring different dimensions of life purposes. The current study selected seven items representative of the existence dimension to form another scale, the EPIL. The analysis was based on 2842 early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 14 years old. Principal axis factoring found one factor, with 60% variance being explained. Cronbach's alpha for the EPIL was 0.89, which was high. The factor structure was stable across genders. Criterion-related validity was determined when the scale was used to differentiate volunteers and nonvolunteers. Construct validity was found when the scale was associated with life satisfaction. The results give support to the fact that the EPIL could be used alone to measure the psychological well-being of early adolescents and the appropriateness of the EPIL in adolescent research.

  4. Analysis of the laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlhüter, Michael; Zhukov, Victor P.; Sender, Joachim; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    The laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The ignition test case used in the present paper was generated during the In-Space Propulsion project (ISP-1), a project focused on the operation of propulsion systems in space, the handling of long idle periods between operations, and multiple reignitions under space conditions. Regarding the definition of the numerical simulation and the suitable domain for the current model, 2D and 3D simulations have been performed. Analysis shows that the usage of a 2D geometry is not suitable for this type of simulation, as the reduction of the geometry to a 2D domain significantly changes the conditions at the time of ignition and subsequently the flame development. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results shows a strong discrepancy in the pressure evolution and the combustion chamber pressure peak following the laser spark. The detailed analysis of the optical Schlieren and OH data leads to the conclusion that the pressure measurement system was not able to capture the strong pressure increase and the peak value in the combustion chamber during ignition. Although the timing in flame development following the laser spark is not captured appropriately, the 3D simulations reproduce the general ignition phenomena observed in the optical measurement systems, such as pressure evolution and injector flow characteristics.

  5. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  6. Objectively Measured Physical Activity During Physical Education and School Recess and Their Associations With Academic Performance in Youth: The UP&DOWN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Martinez-Gomez, David; Garcia-Cervantes, Laura; Ortega, Francisco B; Delgado-Alfonso, Alvaro; Castro-Piñero, José; Veiga, Oscar L

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the associations of objectively measured physical activity in Physical Education and recess with academic performance in youth. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,780 participants aged 6 to 18 years (863 girls). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry and was also classified according to sex- and agespecific quartiles of physical activity intensities. Academic performance was assessed through school records. Physical activity in physical education (PE) and recess was not associated with academic performance (β ranging from -0.038 to -0.003; all P > .05). Youth in the lowest quartile of physical activity in PE engaged in an average of 1.40 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and those in the highest quartile engaged in 21.60 min (for recess: lowest quartile, 2.20 min; highest quartile, 11.15 min). There were no differences in academic performance between quartiles of physical activity in Physical Education and recess. Time spent at different physical activity intensities during PE and recess does not impair academic performance in youth.

  7. Perceptions and measurements of physical activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C A; Perna, M; Sargent, A B; Salmon, J E

    2011-03-01

    Promoting physical activity should be a priority for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) because a sedentary lifestyle compounds patients' already disproportionately high risk for cardiovascular events and other adverse health outcomes. The objectives of this pilot study were to assess physical activity in 50 patients with SLE and to compare activity levels with clinical and psychosocial variables, such as fatigue, depressive symptoms, and social support and stress. Patients were asked open-ended questions about physical activity, and responses were coded according to Grounded Theory. Patients then completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index, a survey of lifestyle energy expenditure reported in kilocalories/week, performed a 2-minute walk test according to a standard protocol, and completed questionnaires measuring fatigue, depressive symptoms and social support and stress. Most patients (92%) were women, had a mean age of 45 years, and did not have extensive SLE. In response to open-ended questions, patients reported they avoided physical activity because they did not want to exacerbate SLE in the short term. However, if they could overcome initial hurdles, 46 patients (92%) thought physical activity ultimately would improve SLE symptoms. Walking was the preferred activity and 45 (90%) thought they could walk more. According to the Paffenbarger Index, mean energy expenditure was 1466 ± 1366 kilocalories/week and mean time spent in moderate-intensity activity was 132 ± 222 min/week. In total, 18 patients (36%) and 14 patients (28%) met physical activity goals for these values, respectively. Mean distance walked during the 2-minute test was 149 ± 28 m, equivalent to two blocks, which is similar to reports for stable patients with other chronic diseases. Patients with more social stress and more fatigue reported less physical activity. We conclude that the proportion of patients meeting physical activity goals was

  8. ON MEASURING AMPLITUDES AND PERIODS OF PHYSICAL PENDULUM MICRO-SWINGS WITH ROLLING-CONTACT BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Riznookaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a method and an instrument for measuring amplitudes and  periods of physical pendulum oscillations with rolling-contact bearing in the regime of micro-swings when the oscillation amplitude is significantly less of an elastic contact angle. It has been established that the main factors limiting a measuring accuracy are noises of the measuring circuit, base vibration and analog-digital conversion. A new measuring methodology based on original algorithms of data processing and application of the well-known methods for statistic processing of a measuring signal is  proposed in the paper. The paper contains error estimations for measuring oscillation amplitudes justified by discreteness of a signal conversion in a photoelectric receptor and also by the influence of measuring circuit noise. The paper reveals that the applied methodologies make it possible to ensure measuring of amplitudes with an error of 0.2 second of arc and measuring of a period with an error of 10–4 s. The original measuring instrument including mechanical and optical devices and also an electric circuit of optical-to-electrical measuring signal conversion is described in the paper. 

  9. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  10. Two experiments for the measurement of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Mascheretti, Paolo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this article we describe two experiments, performed with instrumentation commonly available in undergraduate laboratories, to measure the position of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum. The first one makes use of a constant external force provided by a common spring dynamometer, and allows for a straightforward analysis founded on basic concepts of rigid body dynamics. The second one is, more properly, an experiment based on a percussion, i.e. a collision involving an almost impulsive force, and displays the typical difficulties, but also the physical richness, of this type of phenomena. We provide an historical overview of the problem of the centre of percussion, starting from its first formulation given by Bernardino Baldi at the end of the 16th century, and we show how the mathematical model built for analysing the impact between a physical pendulum and a localised object is helpful in understanding that such a problem, in its original formulation, does not have a unique answer.

  11. Loneliness and objectively measured physical capability in middle-aged adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Laban, J; Petersen, GL

    2017-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is associated with poor functional ability in older people. Little is known about this association in the middle-aged. The aim is to investigate if perceived loneliness is associated with lower physical capability among middle-aged men and women and if the associations...... of loneliness with physical capability interact with socioeconomic position and cohabitation status. Methods: 5224 participants from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) aged 49–62 years (mean age 54) were included. Handgrip strength (measured by a dynamometer) and maximal number of chair rises in 30 s...... was recorded. Multivariate linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, occupational social class, cohabitation status, morbidity and personality traits. Results: No association was found between loneliness and physical capability. For example estimates for handgrip strength in ‘often’ lonely men...

  12. Influence of Halide Solutions on Collagen Networks: Measurements of Physical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Spitzer-Sonnleitner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aqueous halide solutions on collagen coatings was tested. The effects on resistance against indentation/penetration on adhesion forces were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM and the change of Young’s modulus of the coating was derived. Comparative measurements over time were conducted with halide solutions of various concentrations. Physical properties of the mesh-like coating generally showed large variability. Starting with a compact set of physical properties, data disperse after minutes. A trend of increase in elasticity and permeability was found for all halide solutions. These changes were largest in NaI, displaying a logical trend with ion size. However a correlation with concentration was not measured. Adhesion properties were found to be independent of mechanical properties. The paper also presents practical experience for AFM measurements of soft tissue under liquids, particularly related to data evaluation. The weakening in physical strength found after exposure to halide solutions may be interpreted as widening of the network structure or change in the chemical properties in part of the collagen fibres (swelling. In order to design customized surface coatings at optimized conditions also for medical applications, halide solutions might be used as agents with little impact on the safety of patients.

  13. Influence of Halide Solutions on Collagen Networks: Measurements of Physical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer-Sonnleitner, Birgit; Kempe, André; Lackner, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    The influence of aqueous halide solutions on collagen coatings was tested. The effects on resistance against indentation/penetration on adhesion forces were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the change of Young's modulus of the coating was derived. Comparative measurements over time were conducted with halide solutions of various concentrations. Physical properties of the mesh-like coating generally showed large variability. Starting with a compact set of physical properties, data disperse after minutes. A trend of increase in elasticity and permeability was found for all halide solutions. These changes were largest in NaI, displaying a logical trend with ion size. However a correlation with concentration was not measured. Adhesion properties were found to be independent of mechanical properties. The paper also presents practical experience for AFM measurements of soft tissue under liquids, particularly related to data evaluation. The weakening in physical strength found after exposure to halide solutions may be interpreted as widening of the network structure or change in the chemical properties in part of the collagen fibres (swelling). In order to design customized surface coatings at optimized conditions also for medical applications, halide solutions might be used as agents with little impact on the safety of patients.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  16. Stability of memories of parental rearing among psychiatric inpatients: a replication based on EMBU subscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Eisemann, M

    2001-01-01

    With regard to information about parental rearing, retrospective data are exclusively available among adults. These data are vulnerable due to various biases. This study was performed in order to replicate the findings of overall stability of three perceived parental rearing factors of the EMBU (Swedish acronym for 'own memories of childhood upbringing') based on 14 rather detailed subscales. A consecutive sample of 220 depressive inpatients were investigated on admission and at discharge by means of the EMBU, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Perceived parental rearing scores showed high stability despite clinically significant changes in the severity of depression, except for 'tolerance', 'guilt engendering', 'performance orientation' and 'shaming' parenting with probable gender-specific effects which were found to covary with dysfunctional attitudes. Recall of parenting should be taken as a subjective truth when it is assessed by standardised behaviour-oriented questionnaires like the EMBU. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  18. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults With Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Waring, Molly E; Eaton, Charles B; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome among adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Using cross-sectional data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 566 adults with OA with available accelerometer data assessed using Actigraph AM-7164 and measurements necessary to determine metabolic syndrome by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Analysis of variance was conducted to examine the association between continuous variables in each activity level and metabolic syndrome components. Logistic models estimated the relationship of quartile of daily minutes of different physical activity levels to odds of metabolic syndrome adjusted for socioeconomic and health factors. Among persons with OA, most were women average age of 62.1 years and average disease duration of 12.9 years. Half of adults with OA had metabolic syndrome (51.0%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 44.2%-57.8%), and only 9.6% engaged in the recommended 150 minutes per week of moderate/vigorous physical activity. Total sedentary time was associated with higher rates of metabolic syndrome and its components, while light and objectively measured moderate/vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Higher levels of light activity were associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84, P for linear trend physical activity, especially in light intensity, is more likely to be associated with decreasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among persons with OA. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Function in Phenylketonuria: Psychometric Properties of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Inattention Subscale in Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash

    2015-06-01

    Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales

  20. The Impact of a Developed Measurement and Evaluation Development Program on Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions Related to Measurement and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yunus; Erturan Ilker, Gokce; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the Measurement and Evaluation Development Program on pre-service physical education teachers' general perceptions and competency perceptions related to alternative assessment in physical education, and their competency perceptions related to educational measurement and evaluation. The…

  1. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fullerton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n=2026 were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children’s video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  2. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. The relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectively measured green space accessibility and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between objectively measured access to green space, frequency of green space use, physical activity, and the probability of being overweight or obese in the city of Bristol, England. Data from the Bristol Quality of Life in your Neighbourhood survey for 6,821 adults were combined with a comprehensive GIS database of neighbourhood and green space characteristics.. A range of green space accessibility measures were computed. Associations between accessibility and the odds of respondents achieving a recommended 30 minutes or more of moderate activity five times a week, or being overweight or obese, were examined using logistic regression. Results showed that the reported frequency of green space use declined with increasing distance. The study also found that respondents living closest to the type of green space classified as a Formal park were more likely to achieve the physical activity recommendation and less likely to be overweight or obese. The association with physical activity, but not with overweight or obesity, remained after adjustment for respondent characteristics, area deprivation, and a range of characteristics of the neighbourhood environment. The findings suggest that the provision of good access to green spaces in urban areas may help promote population physical activity. PMID:20060635

  4. Towards measuring the semantic capacity of a physical medium demonstrated with elementary cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The organic code concept and its operationalization by molecular codes have been introduced to study the semiotic nature of living systems. This contribution develops further the idea that the semantic capacity of a physical medium can be measured by assessing its ability to implement a code as a contingent mapping. For demonstration and evaluation, the approach is applied to a formal medium: elementary cellular automata (ECA). The semantic capacity is measured by counting the number of ways codes can be implemented. Additionally, a link to information theory is established by taking multivariate mutual information for quantifying contingency. It is shown how ECAs differ in their semantic capacities, how this is related to various ECA classifications, and how this depends on how a meaning is defined. Interestingly, if the meaning should persist for a certain while, the highest semantic capacity is found in CAs with apparently simple behavior, i.e., the fixed-point and two-cycle class. Synergy as a predictor for a CA's ability to implement codes can only be used if context implementing codes are common. For large context spaces with sparse coding contexts synergy is a weak predictor. Concluding, the approach presented here can distinguish CA-like systems with respect to their ability to implement contingent mappings. Applying this to physical systems appears straight forward and might lead to a novel physical property indicating how suitable a physical medium is to implement a semiotic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical processes and real-time chemical measurement of the insect olfactory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffell, Jeffrey A; Abrell, Leif; Hildebrand, John G

    2008-07-01

    Odor-mediated insect navigation in airborne chemical plumes is vital to many ecological interactions, including mate finding, flower nectaring, and host locating (where disease transmission or herbivory may begin). After emission, volatile chemicals become rapidly mixed and diluted through physical processes that create a dynamic olfactory environment. This review examines those physical processes and some of the analytical technologies available to characterize those behavior-inducing chemical signals at temporal scales equivalent to the olfactory processing in insects. In particular, we focus on two areas of research that together may further our understanding of olfactory signal dynamics and its processing and perception by insects. First, measurement of physical atmospheric processes in the field can provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of the odor signal available to insects. Field measurements in turn permit aspects of the physical environment to be simulated in the laboratory, thereby allowing careful investigation into the links between odor signal dynamics and insect behavior. Second, emerging analytical technologies with high recording frequencies and field-friendly inlet systems may offer new opportunities to characterize natural odors at spatiotemporal scales relevant to insect perception and behavior. Characterization of the chemical signal environment allows the determination of when and where olfactory-mediated behaviors may control ecological interactions. Finally, we argue that coupling of these two research areas will foster increased understanding of the physicochemical environment and enable researchers to determine how olfactory environments shape insect behaviors and sensory systems.

  6. Measuring stages of change, perceived barriers and self efficacy for physical activity in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Hala Hazam

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established and recognized to prevent adults from many chronic diseases and particularly some forms of cancers. The present study was conducted to investigate the present status of physical activity among Saudi adults in Al-Ahsa, and to examine the association between the stages of change for physical activity and perceived barriers, and self efficacy. A cross- sectional study of 242 subjects (118 males and 124 females) attending health centers aged between 20-56 years, were personally interviewed for demographic data, anthropometric measurement, physical activity level, stages of change for physical activity, self efficacy and perceived barriers. Forty eight percent of the females were overweight and 16.9% of the males were obese with no significant difference between the genders for BMI categories. More than half of the females were inactive and 39% of the males were physically active with a significant difference (P=0.007). Twenty percent of the males were in maintenance stage, while similar percentage of the females were in contemplation stage. However the majority of the subjects were in pre-contemplation stage with a significant difference across the stages. Males had a higher mean score of self efficacy and less external barriers of physical activity. The major barrier among the females was lack of time (7.2±1.4) and in the males, lack of motivation (7.7±1.4). The females had less internal (21.2±3.8) barriers comparable to the males (23.08±4.7). Both genders had a significant relationship between stages of changes of physical activity and perceived barriers (internal and external), but in the females no significant difference across the stages was observed for self efficacy unlike the males who had a significant difference for self efficacy and self efficacy categories. The present study provided useful data on stages of change for physical activity and some psychosocial factors (self efficacy and perceived

  7. Correlates of Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among Norwegian Older Adults: The Generation 100 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viken, Hallgeir; Aspvik, Nils Petter; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Zisko, Nina; Wisløff, Ulrik; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify how demographics, physical activity (PA) history, and environmental and biological correlates are associated with objectively measured PA among older adults. PA was assessed objectively in 850 older adults (70-77 years, 48% females) using the ActiGraph GT3X+ activity monitor. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify important PA correlates. The included correlates explained 27.0% of the variance in older adult's PA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), gender, and season were the most important correlates, explaining 10.1%, 3.9%, and 2.7% of the variance, respectively. PA was positively associated with CRF, females were more physically active than males, and PA increased in warmer months compared with colder months. This is, to our knowledge, the largest study of PA correlates in older adults that has combined objectively measured PA and CRF. Our findings provide new knowledge about how different correlates are associated with PA.

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  9. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Physical Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and describe the amount and pattern of physical activity in patients within the first week after acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack using accelerometers. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with acute is...... ischemic stroke. The method offers a low cost and noninvasive tool for future clinical interventional physiotherapeutic and early mobilization studies. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01560520....

  11. Three measures of physical rehabilitation effectiveness in elderly patients: a prospective, longitudinal, comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S?nchez-Rodr?guez, Dolores; Miralles, Ramon; Muniesa, Josep M.; Mojal, Sergio; Abad?a-Escart?n, Anna; V?zquez-Ibar, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation success is measured by instruments that assess performance of activities of daily living. Guidelines on the use and choice of these instruments are lacking. The present study aimed to analyse prognostic indicators of physical rehabilitation effectiveness in elderly patients according to three rehabilitation impact indices. Methods Prospective, longitudinal study in a post-acute care unit. The study included rehabilitation-eligible deconditioned elderly in-patients pr...

  12. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  13. Systematic review of measurement properties of questionnaires measuring somatization in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Kate; Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M A; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Terluin, Berend; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this review is to critically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of self-report questionnaires measuring somatization in adult primary care patients and to provide recommendations about which questionnaires are most useful for this purpose. We assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. To draw overall conclusions about the quality of the questionnaires, we conducted an evidence synthesis using predefined criteria for judging the measurement properties. We found 24 articles on 9 questionnaires. Studies on the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) somatization subscale prevailed and covered the broadest range of measurement properties. These questionnaires had the best internal consistency, test-retest reliability, structural validity, and construct validity. The PHQ-15 also had good criterion validity, whereas the 4DSQ somatization subscale was validated in several languages. The Bodily Distress Syndrome (BDS) checklist had good internal consistency and structural validity. Some evidence was found for good construct validity and criterion validity of the Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC-51) and good construct validity of the Symptom Check-List (SCL-90-R) somatization subscale. However, these three questionnaires were only studied in a small number of primary care studies. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of either the PHQ-15 or 4DSQ somatization subscale for somatization in primary care. Other questionnaires, such as the BDS checklist, PSC-51 and the SCL-90-R somatization subscale show promising results but have not been studied extensively in primary care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and psychometric properties of the Y-PASS questionnaire to assess correlates of lunchtime and after-school physical activity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To frame interventions, it is useful to understand context- and time-specific correlates of children’s physical activity. To do this, we need accurate assessment of these correlates. There are currently no measures that assess correlates at all levels of the social ecological model, contain items that are specifically worded for the lunchtime and/or after-school time periods, and assess correlates that have been conceptualised and defined by children. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the lunchtime and after-school Youth Physical Activity Survey for Specific Settings (Y-PASS) questionnaires. Methods The Y-PASS questionnaire was administered to 264 South Australian children (146 boys, 118 girls; mean age = 11.7 ± 0.93 years). Factorial structure and internal consistency of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy lunchtime and after-school subscales were examined through an exploratory factor analysis. The test-retest reliability of the Y-PASS subscales was assessed over a one-week period on a subsample of children (lunchtime Y-PASS: n = 12 boys, 12 girls, mean age of 11.6 ± 0.8 years; after-school Y-PASS: n = 9 boys, 13 girls; mean age = 11.4 ± 0.9 years). Results For the lunchtime Y-PASS, three factors were identified under each of the intrapersonal, sociocultural and physical environmental/policy subscales. For the after-school Y-PASS, six factors were identified in the intrapersonal subscale, four factors in the sociocultural subscale and seven factors in the physical environmental/policy subscale. Following item reduction, all subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.78 – 0.85), except for the lunchtime sociocultural subscale (Cronbach alpha = 0.55). The factors and items demonstrated fair to very high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.26 – 0.93). Conclusion The preliminary reliability and

  15. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  16. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  17. Self-report measures and scoring protocols affect prevalence estimates of meeting physical activity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkin, J A; Nichols, J F; Sallis, J F; Calfas, K J

    2000-01-01

    Prevalence estimates of meeting the guidelines for physical activity based on various self-report measures were compared, and the effects of various scoring protocols on the estimates were evaluated. A sample of 575 university students aged 24.5 +/- 1.9 yr (56% women, 54% Euro-American) completed the Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall interview (PAR), Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and National Health Interview Survey 1991 (NHIS). To determine the prevalence of meeting the ACSM (1990) fitness and the CDC/ACSM (1995) health-related guidelines, various scoring protocols were employed that closely approximated the recommendations. Protocols varied by whether frequency and duration or duration only were considered. For the health-related guidelines, scoring protocols also varied depending on the intensity of activities considered. Depending on the scoring protocol and instrument used, the proportion meeting the fitness guidelines ranged from 32 to 59%. The NHIS, YRBS, and PAR resulted in significantly different proportions of those meeting the health-related guideline, ranging from 4 to 70%. The type of measure as well as the scoring protocol affected prevalence estimates of meeting the physical activity guidelines. This study indicates the difficulty of comparing prevalence rates across studies using different measures.

  18. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  19. Cirrus Susceptibility to Changes in Ice Nuclei: Physical Processes, Model Uncertainties, and Measurement Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, I will begin by discussing the physical processes that govern the competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous ice nucleation in upper tropospheric cirrus clouds. Next, I will review the current knowledge of low-temperature ice nucleation from laboratory experiments and field measurements. I will then discuss the uncertainties and deficiencies in representations of cirrus processes in global models used to estimate the climate impacts of changes in cirrus clouds. Lastly, I will review the critical field measurements needed to advance our understanding of cirrus and their susceptibility to changes in aerosol properties.

  20. CP violation and limits on New Physics including recent Bs measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Botella, Francisco J.; Branco, Gustavo C; Nebot Gómez, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    We analyse present constraints on the SM parameter space and derive, in a model independent way, various bounds on New Physics contributions to $B_d^0$--$\\bar B_d^0$ and $B_s^0$--$\\bar B_s^0$ mixings. Our analyses include information on a large set of asymmetries, leading to the measurement of the CKM phases $\\gamma$ and $\\bar\\beta$, as well as recent data from D0 and CDF related to the $B_s^0$--$\\bar B_s^0$ system such as the measurement of $\\Delta M_{B_s}$, $A_{SL}$ and $\\Delta\\Gamma_{s}^{C...

  1. Physical Aggression and Mindfulness among College Students: Evidence from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu; Smith, Kelly C; Kingree, Jeffery B; Thompson, Martie

    2016-05-10

    The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression (verbal, anger and hostility) has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness (measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS)) and each of the four subscales of aggression. Among the Clemson sample (N = 286), the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = -0.62, p mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = -0.57, p mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = -0.62, p mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults.

  2. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach Anne F; French Simone A; Shimotsu Scott T; Hannan Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management...

  3. Measurement characteristics for two health-related quality of life measures in older adults: The SF-36 and the CDC Healthy Days items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P; Horner-Johnson, Willi; Krahn, Gloria; Zack, Matthew; Miranda, David; DeMichele, Kimberly; Ford, Derek; Thompson, William W

    2016-10-01

    The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Days items are well known measures of health-related quality of life. The validity of the SF-36 for older adults and those with disabilities has been questioned. Assess the extent to which the SF-36 and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Days items measure the same aspects of health; whether the SF-36 and the CDC unhealthy days items are invariant across gender, functional status, or the presence of chronic health conditions of older adults; and whether each of the SF-36's eight subscales is independently associated with the CDC Healthy Days items. We analyzed data from 66,269 adult Medicare advantage members age 65 and older. We used confirmatory factor analyses and regression modeling to test associations between the CDC Healthy Days items and subscales of the SF-36. The CDC Healthy Days items were associated with the SF-36 global measures of physical and mental health. The CDC physically unhealthy days item was associated with the SF-36 subscales for bodily pain, physical role limitations, and general health, while the CDC mentally unhealthy days item was associated with the SF-36 subscales for mental health, emotional role limitations, vitality and social functioning. The SF-36 physical functioning subscale was not independently associated with either of the CDC Healthy Days items. The CDC Healthy Days items measure similar domains as the SF-36 but appear to assess HRQOL without regard to limitations in functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring the Standard Model and Searching for New Physics Using the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)671949

    Collisions at the Large Hadron Collider have offered an unprecedented window into some of the high- est energy scales ever observed in experiments. Understanding these collisions, especially those that produce particles charged under quantum chromodynamics (QCD), requires a deep understanding of jets: the collimated sprays of particles produced by the parton shower and hadronization pro- cesses which emerge from the asymptotic freedom of QCD. Recent theoretical advances and the unprecedented capabilities of the ATLAS detector have enabled a new class of jet physics measure- ments based on the internal structure of jets, referred to as jet substructure. Three new types of measurements relying on jet substructure are presented. The first is a set of measurements sensitive which can discriminate between jets initiated by quarks and gluons. Separation is possible by studying variables sensitive to the magnitude of the color charge. Several such variables are measured, and a data-driven technique is used to constr...

  5. A Review on Atherosclerotic Biology, Wall Stiffness, Physics of Elasticity, and Its Ultrasound-Based Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anoop K; Suri, Harman S; Singh, Jaskaran; Kumar, Dinesh; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Jain, Sanjay K; Saba, Luca; Gupta, Ajay; Laird, John R; Giannopoulos, Argiris; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-12-01

    Functional and structural changes in the common carotid artery are biomarkers for cardiovascular risk. Current methods for measuring functional changes include pulse wave velocity, compliance, distensibility, strain, stress, stiffness, and elasticity derived from arterial waveforms. The review is focused on the ultrasound-based carotid artery elasticity and stiffness measurements covering the physics of elasticity and linking it to biological evolution of arterial stiffness. The paper also presents evolution of plaque with a focus on the pathophysiologic cascade leading to arterial hardening. Using the concept of strain, and image-based elasticity, the paper then reviews the lumen diameter and carotid intima-media thickness measurements in combined temporal and spatial domains. Finally, the review presents the factors which influence the understanding of atherosclerotic disease formation and cardiovascular risk including arterial stiffness, tissue morphological characteristics, and image-based elasticity measurement.

  6. Developing measures on the perceptions of the built environment for physical activity: a confirmatory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal validity evidence exists for scales assessing the built environment for physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and invariance of a three-factor model (Neighborhood Characteristics, Safety/Crime, and Access to Physical Activity Facilities across gender, race, geographic location, and level of physical activity. Methods To assess measurement invariance, a random sample of 1,534 adults living in North Carolina or Mississippi completed a computer assisted telephone interview that included items examining perceptions of the neighborhood for physical activity. Construct level test-retest reliability data were collected from a purposeful sample of 106 participants who were administered the questionnaire twice, approximately two weeks apart. Fit indices, Cronbach's alpha, Mokken H and Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC were used to evaluate configural and co/variance invarianc,e and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were used to assess reliability. Results Construct test-retest reliability was strong (ICC 0.90 to 0.93. SCC for Neighborhood Characteristics and Crime/Safety were weak with Access (0.21 and 0.25, but strong between Crime/Safety and Neighborhood Characteristics (0.62. Acceptable fit and evidence of measurement invariance was found for gender, race (African American and White, geographic location, and level of physical activity. Fit indices consistently approached or were greater than 0.90 for goodness of fit index, normed fit index, and comparative fit index which is evidence of configural invariance. There was weak support of variance and covariance invariance for all groups that was indicative of factorial validity. Conclusions Support of the validity and reliability of the three-factor model across groups expands the possibilities for analysis to include latent variable modeling, and suggests these built environment constructs may be used in other

  7. Match-to-match variation in physical activity and technical skill measures in professional Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the match-to-match variability in physical activity and technical performance measures in Australian Football, and examine the influence of playing position, time of season, and different seasons on these measures of variability. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system, accelerometer and technical performance measures (total kicks, handballs, possessions and Champion Data rank) were collected from 33 players competing in the Australian Football League over 31 matches during 2011-2012 (N=511 observations). The global positioning system data were categorised into total distance, mean speed (mmin(-1)), high-speed running (>14.4 kmh(-1)), very high-speed running (>19.9 kmh(-1)), and sprint (>23.0 kmh(-1)) distance while player load was collected from the accelerometer. The data were log transformed to provide coefficient of variation and the between subject standard deviation (expressed as percentages). Match-to-match variability was increased for higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance, coefficient of variation %: 13.3-28.6%) compared to global measures (speed, total distance, player load, coefficient of variation %: 5.3-9.2%). The between-match variability was relativity stable for all measures between and within AFL seasons, with only few differences between positions. Higher speed activities (high-speed running, very high-speed running, sprint distance), but excluding mean speed, total distance and player load, were all higher in the final third phase of the season compared to the start of the season. While global measures of physical performance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities and technical measures exhibit a large degree of between-match variability in Australian Football. However, these measures remain relatively stable between positions, and within and between Australian Football League seasons. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  8. A physics-enabled flow restoration algorithm for sparse PIV and PTV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, Andrey; Steele, Edward C. C.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.

    2015-06-01

    The gaps and noise present in particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) measurements affect the accuracy of the data collected. Existing algorithms developed for the restoration of such data are only applicable to experimental measurements collected under well-prepared laboratory conditions (i.e. where the pattern of the velocity flow field is known), and the distribution, size and type of gaps and noise may be controlled by the laboratory set-up. However, in many cases, such as PIV and PTV measurements of arbitrarily turbid coastal waters, the arrangement of such conditions is not possible. When the size of gaps or the level of noise in these experimental measurements become too large, their successful restoration with existing algorithms becomes questionable. Here, we outline a new physics-enabled flow restoration algorithm (PEFRA), specially designed for the restoration of such velocity data. Implemented as a ‘black box’ algorithm, where no user-background in fluid dynamics is necessary, the physical structure of the flow in gappy or noisy data is able to be restored in accordance with its hydrodynamical basis. The use of this is not dependent on types of flow, types of gaps or noise in measurements. The algorithm will operate on any data time-series containing a sequence of velocity flow fields recorded by PIV or PTV. Tests with numerical flow fields established that this method is able to successfully restore corrupted PIV and PTV measurements with different levels of sparsity and noise. This assessment of the algorithm performance is extended with an example application to in situ submersible 3D-PTV measurements collected in the bottom boundary layer of the coastal ocean, where the naturally-occurring plankton and suspended sediments used as tracers causes an increase in the noise level that, without such denoising, will contaminate the measurements.

  9. Active Video Games for Improving Physical Performance Measures in Older People: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne M; Kerse, Ngaire; Frakking, Tara; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-03-11

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with better physical function in older people (>65 years); however, older people are the least active of all age groups. Exercise-based active video games (AVGs) offer an alternative to traditional exercise programs aimed at maintaining or enhancing physical performance measures in older people. This review systematically evaluated whether AVGs could improve measures of physical performance in older people. Secondary measures of safety, game appeal, and usability were also considered. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published up to April 2015. Included were trials with 2 or more arms that evaluated the effect of AVGs on outcome measures of physical performance in older people. Eighteen randomized controlled trials (n = 765) were included. Most trials limited inclusion to healthy community-dwelling older people. With the exception of 1 trial, all AVG programs were supervised. Using meta-analyses, AVGs were found to be more effective than conventional exercise (mean difference [MD], 4.33; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 2.93-5.73) or no intervention (MD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.17-1.29) for improving Berg Balance scores in community-dwelling older people. Active video games were also more effective than control for improving 30-second sit-to-stand scores (MD, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.92-6.05). No significant differences in Timed Up and Go scores were found when AVGs were compared with no intervention or with conventional exercise. Active video games can improve measures of mobility and balance in older people when used either on their own or as part of an exercise program. It is not yet clear whether AVGs are equally suitable for older people with significant cognitive impairments or balance or mobility limitations. Given the positive findings to date, consideration could be given to further development of age-appropriate AVGs for use by older people with balance or mobility limitations

  10. Domain-Specific Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Sprengeler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities. School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively, whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval: −0.03–0.20 and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32, while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53, LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67 and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67. Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children.

  11. Posturography measures and efficacy of different physical treatments in somatic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda, Bonaconsa; Manuela, Mazzoli; Antonia, Magnano; Claudio, Milanesi; Gregorio, Babighian

    2010-01-01

    Somatic modulation in tinnitus has been demonstrated by several studies although few investigations have been published on the efficacy of physical treatments in tinnitus subjects. In the present study the prevalence of somatic components to tinnitus were evaluated and the efficacy of two different physical treatments were compared: InterX® transcutaneous dynamic electrical stimulation and manual osteopathic therapy. Furthermore, posturographic measurements were analysed to verify the postural control in tinnitus subjects. 40 consecutive tinnitus patients, aged 18-65, were randomly selected for treatment (once a week for 2 months): 20 tinnitus subjects were treated with osteopathic manipulations, 20 with InterX®. They were evaluated pre and post therapy with audiogram up to 16 kHz, tinnitus pitch and loudness match, MML, THI questionnaire, posturography, structured interview with special attention on postural and movement influence on tinnitus, physical evaluation and osteopathic evaluation. 40 controls with no tinnitus, underwent audiological tests, postural and osteopathic evaluation for comparison. In our population, tinnitus sufferers presented more frequently musculoscheletal strains assessed with osteopathic visit and postural problems assessed with posturography measures in comparison with controls. Posturographic test, showed an average oscillating areas significantly greater in tinnitus participants (p ≤ 0.05), compared with control subjects. On the average in the treated groups, the enveloped areas were not significantly affected by either of the treatments. Tinnitus improved subjectively in most patients: loudness decreased, % time of awareness, % time of annoyance and quality of life was overall perceived as improved. This was mostly evident in subjects with muscular strain and tensions. This study indicates the benefit of physical, manipulation therapy for those patients with somatic modulation of their tinnitus, further studies are needed to

  12. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchau Henrik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°.

  13. Physical activity among children: objective measurements using Fitbit One®and ActiGraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamari, Lotta; Kullberg, Tiina; Ruohonen, Jukka; Heinonen, Olli J; Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Lilius, Johan; Pakarinen, Anni; Myllymäki, Annukka; Leppänen, Ville; Salanterä, Sanna

    2017-04-20

    Self-quantification of health parameters is becoming more popular; thus, the validity of the devices requires assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of Fitbit One step counts (Fitbit Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA) against Actigraph wActisleep-BT step counts (ActiGraph, LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA) for measuring habitual physical activity among children. The study was implemented as a cross-sectional experimental design in which participants carried two waist-worn activity monitors for five consecutive days. The participants were chosen with a purposive sampling from three fourth grade classes (9-10 year olds) in two comprehensive schools. Altogether, there were 34 participants in the study. From these, eight participants were excluded from the analysis due to erroneous data. Primary outcome measures for step counts were Fitbit One and Actigraph wActisleep-BT. The supporting outcome measures were based on activity diaries and initial information sheets. Classical Bland-Altman plots were used for reporting the results. The average per-participant daily difference between the step counts from the two devices was 1937. The range was [116, 5052]. Fitbit One gave higher step counts for all but the least active participant. According to a Bland-Altman plot, the hourly step counts had a relative large mean bias across participants (161 step counts). The differences were partially explained by activity intensity: higher intensity denoted higher differences, and light intensity denoted lower differences. Fitbit One step counts are comparable to Actigraph step counts in a sample of 9-10-year-old children engaged in habitual physical activity in sedentary and light physical activity intensities. However, in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, Fitbit One gives higher step counts when compared to Actigraph.

  14. Measurement of general and specific approaches to physical activity parenting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; McDonald, Samantha; Cohen, Alysia

    2013-08-01

    Parents play a significant role in shaping youth physical activity (PA). However, interventions targeting PA parenting have been ineffective. Methodological inconsistencies related to the measurement of parental influences may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this article is to review the extant peer-reviewed literature related to the measurement of general and specific parental influences on youth PA. A systematic review of studies measuring constructs of PA parenting was conducted. Computerized searches were completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Reference lists of the identified articles were manually reviewed as well as the authors' personal collections. Articles were selected on the basis of strict inclusion criteria and details regarding the measurement protocols were extracted. A total of 117 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Methodological articles that evaluated the validity and reliability of PA parenting measures (n=10) were reviewed separately from parental influence articles (n=107). A significant percentage of studies used measures with indeterminate validity and reliability. A significant percentage of articles did not provide sample items, describe the response format, or report the possible range of scores. No studies were located that evaluated sensitivity to change. The reporting of measurement properties and the use of valid and reliable measurement scales need to be improved considerably.

  15. Measurement of General and Specific Approaches to Physical Activity Parenting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Samantha; Cohen, Alysia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents play a significant role in shaping youth physical activity (PA). However, interventions targeting PA parenting have been ineffective. Methodological inconsistencies related to the measurement of parental influences may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this article is to review the extant peer-reviewed literature related to the measurement of general and specific parental influences on youth PA. Methods A systematic review of studies measuring constructs of PA parenting was conducted. Computerized searches were completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Reference lists of the identified articles were manually reviewed as well as the authors' personal collections. Articles were selected on the basis of strict inclusion criteria and details regarding the measurement protocols were extracted. A total of 117 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Methodological articles that evaluated the validity and reliability of PA parenting measures (n=10) were reviewed separately from parental influence articles (n=107). Results A significant percentage of studies used measures with indeterminate validity and reliability. A significant percentage of articles did not provide sample items, describe the response format, or report the possible range of scores. No studies were located that evaluated sensitivity to change. Conclusion The reporting of measurement properties and the use of valid and reliable measurement scales need to be improved considerably. PMID:23944923

  16. Adverse learning strategy: the Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory and its subscale replicability in a medical student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G; Pearce, K; Lewis, M; Mellsop, G

    1990-03-01

    The Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory (ADLIMS) is a measure of learning styles and learning pathologies that was designed to investigate the impact of traditional approaches to learning versus problem-based learning and to identify students whose approach to learning tasks predicted poor academic performance. In this study, some important psychometric properties of the ADLIMS were examined, including its factor structure. In this study, factor replicability across samples was argued to provide a more robust and psychologically meaningful factor solution than that which can be obtained using traditional mathematical criteria. The results of the factor analysis did not confirm the presence of the four factor solution earlier reported for the ADLIMS, but did identify three clear factors that had very high replicability. An inspection of the items comprising these three factors showed that factor 1 tapped subjective distress related to poor study habits, lack of motivation to study, and distraction from social activities. Factor 2 tapped distress arising from high achievement expectations that were hampered by superficial or disorganized study habits that did not enable the student to grasp the relationships between concepts and ideas. Factor 3 tapped positive feelings and a sense of satisfaction associated with a problem-based approach to the learning of new study material. Although the internal reliability of the ADLIMS subscales met the requirements of a measure to be used in general research such as in the investigation of correlates among groups of medical students, they did not meet the higher requirements of a measure to be used to identify or predict individuals with pathological learning styles.

  17. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet, and Obesity Measures Change during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne H. Maier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity in youth is highly prevalent. Physical activity and diet are influential in obesity development. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding links between activity and diet quality and their combined influence on obesity during adolescence. Objectives. We used five years of data from 2379 adolescent girls in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study to evaluate the association between physical activity and diet quality during adolescence and to assess both as correlates of obesity. Design. Diet, activity, and body composition measures were evaluated pairwise for correlation. A canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate relationships within and between variable groups. All statistics were examined for trends over time. Results. We found positive correlations between physical activity and diet quality that became stronger with age. Additionally we discovered an age-related decrease in association between obesity correlates and body composition. Conclusion. These results suggest that while health behaviors, like diet and activity, become more closely linked during growth, obesity becomes less influenced by health behaviors and other factors. This should motivate focus on juvenile obesity prevention capitalizing on the pliable framework for establishing healthy diet and physical activity patterns while impact on body composition is greatest.

  18. Fatigue and physical function after hysterectomy measured by SF-36, ergometer, and dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Kallfa, Ervin; Madsen, Mogens R

    2016-07-01

    Information is limited on the early postoperative rehabilitation following hysterectomy. Our purpose was to evaluate the different perioperative modalities of fatigue, pain, quality of life, and physical performance and their time-related. A prospective, follow-up study of a cohort of women undergoing abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy at the Gynecology Department at Herning Hospital, Denmark. Data from 108 women with elective hysterectomy were compared pre- and postoperatively. The fatigue level was scored on a visual analogue scale and SF-36. Objective measurements were performed by dynamometer of hand grip, knee extension strength, and postural stability; further, by ergometer cycle work capacity and by impedance lean body mass. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were examined preoperatively and twice postoperatively. Women lost lean body mass 13 and 30 days after their hysterectomy (p SF-36 revealed that the modality of 'physical functioning' and 'role limitations due to physical problems' remained significantly decreased at the end of the study (p SF-36 30 days after surgery. No impairment of performance was found in physical tests at days 13 and 30 postoperatively.

  19. Constructing indices representing supportiveness of the physical environment for walking using the Rasch measurement model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikora Terri J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to use the Rasch model to 1 assess the psychometric properties of a physical environmental audit instrument and 2 to develop indices of interrelated environmental attributes that summarize environmental supportiveness for walking. Methods A set of items were derived representing two conceptual physical environmental constructs: 1 functional/safety, and; 2 aesthetics. Ad hoc criteria based on point-biserial and Rasch-based fit statistics were used to examine the construct validity and internal reliability of the two constructs. Results The Rasch-based fit statistics assisted in identifying 12 items that belonged to the functional/safety construct and 4 items that belonged to the aesthetic construct. The reliability of the two constructs were low to moderate (functional/safety rβ = 0.19 and aesthetics rβ = 0.35. Conclusion Given the vast number of built environmental attributes, a means of developing summary indices is essential. Future studies should assess the reliability and validity of indices that summarize physical environmental characteristics conducive to walking before testing them in predictive models of physical activity. More research examining procedures for measuring the built environment and techniques for analyzing environmental data are needed to guide future research in this area.

  20. Utility of Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Children Attending an Obesity Treatment Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the use of accelerometers to monitor change in physical activity in a childhood obesity treatment intervention. Methods. 28 children aged 7–13 taking part in “Families for Health” were asked to wear an accelerometer (Actigraph for 7-days, and complete an accompanying activity diary, at baseline, 3-months and 9-months. Interviews with 12 parents asked about research measurements. Results. Over 90% of children provided 4 days of accelerometer data, and around half of children provided 7 days. Adequately completed diaries were collected from 60% of children. Children partake in a wide range of physical activity which uniaxial monitors may undermonitor (cycling, nonmotorised scootering or overmonitor (trampolining. Two different cutoffs (4 METS or 3200 counts⋅min-1 for minutes spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA yielded very different results, although reached the same conclusion regarding a lack of change in MVPA after the intervention. Some children were unwilling to wear accelerometers at school and during sport because they felt they put them at risk of stigma and bullying. Conclusion. Accelerometers are acceptable to a majority of children, although their use at school is problematic for some, but they may underestimate children's physical activity.

  1. Instruments to assess physical activity in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review of measurement properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C.B.; Bouwmeester, W.; van Elsland, S.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Dekker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is no consensus on the best approach for measuring physical activity in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. The aims of this study were (1) to identify all physical activity measures that have been validated in patients with OA of the hip or knee and to

  2. Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Møller, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media......-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total...... thickness (cIMT) and stiffness in adolescence. Second, we included a clustered cardiovascular disease risk score as outcome. METHODS: This was a prospective study of a sample of 254 children (baseline age 8-10 years) with a 6-year follow-up. The mean exposure and the change in minutes of moderate...

  3. Current use and barriers and facilitators for implementation of standardised measures in physical therapy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Raymond A H M; van Peppen, Roland P S; Wittink, Harriet; Custers, Jan W H; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2011-05-22

    In many countries, the need for physical therapists to use standardised measures has been recognised and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Research has shown a lack of clinimetric knowledge and clinical application of measurement instruments in daily practice may hamper implementation of these guidelines. The aims of our study were a) to investigate the current use of measurement instruments by Dutch physical therapists; b) to investigate the facilitators and barriers in using measurement instruments. To get a complete and valid overview of relevant barriers and facilitators, different methods of data collection were used. We conducted a literature search, semi-structured interviews with 20 physical therapists and an online survey. Facilitators are the fact that most therapists indicated a positive attitude and were convinced of the advantages of the use of measurement instruments. The most important barriers to the use of measurement instruments included physical therapists' competence and problems in changing behaviour, practice organisation (no room; no time) and the unavailability and feasibility of measurement instruments. Furthermore, physical therapists indicated the need to have a core set of measurement instruments with a short user's instruction on application, scoring and interpretation. The main barriers are on the level of the physical therapist (lack of knowledge; not focusing on the use of outcome measures) and organisation (lack of time; availability; lack of management support).There seems to be a disparity between what physical therapists say and what they do. The majority of participating physical therapists indicated a positive attitude and were convinced of the advantages of the use of measurement instruments. However, the main problem for physical therapists is when to use which instrument for what patient (lack of knowledge). Furthermore, physical therapists indicated a need to compile a core set of measurement instruments with

  4. Current use and barriers and facilitators for implementation of standardised measures in physical therapy in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittink Harriet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, the need for physical therapists to use standardised measures has been recognised and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Research has shown a lack of clinimetric knowledge and clinical application of measurement instruments in daily practice may hamper implementation of these guidelines. Objectives The aims of our study were a to investigate the current use of measurement instruments by Dutch physical therapists; b to investigate the facilitators and barriers in using measurement instruments. Methods To get a complete and valid overview of relevant barriers and facilitators, different methods of data collection were used. We conducted a literature search, semi-structured interviews with 20 physical therapists and an online survey. Results Facilitators are the fact that most therapists indicated a positive attitude and were convinced of the advantages of the use of measurement instruments. The most important barriers to the use of measurement instruments included physical therapists' competence and problems in changing behaviour, practice organisation (no room; no time and the unavailability and feasibility of measurement instruments. Furthermore, physical therapists indicated the need to have a core set of measurement instruments with a short user's instruction on application, scoring and interpretation. Conclusions The main barriers are on the level of the physical therapist (lack of knowledge; not focusing on the use of outcome measures and organisation (lack of time; availability; lack of management support. There seems to be a disparity between what physical therapists say and what they do. The majority of participating physical therapists indicated a positive attitude and were convinced of the advantages of the use of measurement instruments. However, the main problem for physical therapists is when to use which instrument for what patient (lack of knowledge. Furthermore, physical

  5. Determinants of objectively measured physical functional performance in early to mid-stage Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Benzi M; Brown, R Preston; Aerts, Shanae; Schenkman, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) may lead to functional limitations through both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although patients with advanced disease have well-documented and profound functional limitations, less is known about the determinants of function in early to mid-stage disease where interventions may be more likely to benefit and preserve function. The objective of the current study was to identify motor, cognitive, and gait determinants of physical functional performance in patients with early to mid-stage PD. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a randomized clinical trial of exercise. The study was performed at a tertiary academic medical center. The study included 121 patients with early to mid-stage PD. Our functional performance outcomes included the following: the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP; primary outcome); the Timed Up and Go test (TUG); and Section 2 (Activities of Daily Living) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Explanatory variables included measures of disease severity, motor function, cognitive function, balance, and gait. Stepwise linear regression models were used to determine correlations between explanatory variables and outcome measures. In our regression models, the CS-PFP significantly correlated with walking endurance (Six-Minute Walk Test; r(2) = 0.12, P activity outcomes may underestimate the impact of both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure basic psychological needs in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-determination theory is a psychological approach to motivation that focuses on causes and consequences of human behavior regulation. According several authors, this theoretical framework could provide important information about the student’s motivational process to physical education class, however, in Portugal does not exists any instrument to measure the basic psychological needs in this domain. So, the main propose of this study is the preliminary adaptation to physical education contexts of Basic Psychological Needs Exercise Scale (Portuguese version: BPNESp, and determine their initial psychometrics properties through an exploratory factor analysis. This propose was accomplished with a sample of 150 students (n=150 from de 2nd and 3rd CEB, aged from 11 to 16 years (M = 13.39, SD = 1.44 with different levels of sports practice. Results revealed a factorial structure just like the original model (12 items grouped in 3 factors, with 4 items hitch factor and presents acceptable values of validity and reliability. Those findings allow us to conclude, that questionnaire can be used in future investigations to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education.

  7. Quality of Jet Measurements and Impact on a Search for New Physics at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The search for new physics beyond the Standard Model is one of the primary enterprises inparticle physics today. Many models predict the production of new, coloured particles atthe LHC. These particles would eventually decay into quarks and gluons, which manifestas particle jets in the detector. Hence, a precise understanding of the properties of jets isessential to study the underlying hard interaction process of hadronic final-states in orderto probe the Standard Model and enter the territory beyond.In this thesis, a measurement of the jet transverse-momentum (pT ) response function atthe CMS experiment at the CERN LHC is presented, and its impact on a QCD-backgroundestimation method in a search for new physics is described.The jet-pT response function is determined in two steps from dijet data collected inproton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.90 fb−1 . The jets are clustered with the anti-kT algorithm fromindividually measur...

  8. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Systematic Evaluation of the Relationship between Physical and Psychoacoustical Measurements of Hearing Protectors' Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nélisse, Hugues; Le Cocq, Cécile; Boutin, Jérôme; Laville, Frédéric; Voix, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used methods to measure hearing protectors attenuation can be divided into two categories: psychoacoustical (subjective) and physical (objective) methods. In order to better understand the relationship between these methods, this article presents various factors relating attenuation values obtained with these methods through a series of tests. Experiments on human subjects were carried out where the subjects were instrumented on both ears with miniature microphones outside and underneath the protector. The subjects were then asked to go through a series of hearing threshold measurements (psychoacoustical method) followed by microphone sound recordings using high-level diffuse field broadband noises (physical method). The proposed test protocol allowed obtaining various factors relating the test methods as well as attenuation values and ratings for different protection conditions (open ear, earmuffs, earplugs, and dual protection). Results are presented for three models of passive earmuffs, three models of earplugs and all their combinations as dual hearing protectors. The validity and the relative importance of various terms used to correct the physical attenuation values when comparing with psychoacoustical attenuation values are examined.

  10. Validity of Accelerometry to Measure Physical Activity Intensity in Children With an Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Emmah; Sakzewski, Leanne; Trost, Stewart G; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the validity of the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG) to differentiate between standardized, physical activity tasks using oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2) as the criterion measure in children and adolescents with an acquired brain injury; to determine vector magnitude activity intensity cut-points; to compare performance of cut-points to previously published cut-points. Twenty-seven children performed standardized walking and stepping activities wearing a portable indirect calorimeter, AG, and heart rate monitor. Differences in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 and AG vector magnitude activity counts were measured during activities. Receiver operating characteristic curves were determined for intensity cut-points. (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 and AG activity counts significantly increased as walking speed increased. Discrimination of the newly derived cut-points was excellent and demonstrated greater agreement compared with the previously published cut-points. Output from accelerometers can differentiate physical activity intensity in children with an acquired brain injury. Future studies can apply these cut-points to evaluate physical activity performance.

  11. Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, In-Kyung

    Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical

  12. DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING SCHOOL RECESS COMBINING MEASUREMENTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CHILDREN’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álvarez Bogantes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine physical activity levels of children during school recess, taking into account children’s perceptions as well as observations during recess. A mixed method was used, including the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY and focus groups. Participants included students from 3 public schools with regular and alternating schedules, who were observed during their school breaks. In addition, focus groups were held and descriptive statistics were used.  A factorial variance test (2x2 was also used to determine if there were differences between levels of moderate-vigorous physical activity among school types. Results of focus groups were organized into categories. Students exhibited 47.98 sedentary activity and 52.02 moderate-vigorous physical activity during school recess, with girls being more sedentary than boys. Students with an alternating schedule are more active than those with a regular schedule. Participants perceived reduced space to play and little support from teachers as barriers to do physical activity. In conclusion, this study showed that a little over 50% of students perform physical activity during school recess, with children in alternating schedules being more active than those with a regular schedule. Participants perceive that school environment does not favor physical activity, due to environmental barriers. Based on the results of this study, physical activity should be promoted during school recess, taking into consideration barriers in natural, social, physical, and organizational environments.

  13. Suitability of Optical, Physical and Chemical Measurements for Detection of Changes in Bacterial Drinking Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated distribution network. We found significant correlations between the tested measurements and the bacterial water quality. As the bacterial contamination of water often co-occurs with the intrusion of matrixes containing mainly non-bacterial components, the tested measurement tools can be considered to have the potential to rapidly detect any major changes in drinking water quality. PMID:24284353

  14. Suitability of optical, physical and chemical measurements for detection of changes in bacterial drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-10-25

    In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated distribution network. We found significant correlations between the tested measurements and the bacterial water quality. As the bacterial contamination of water often co-occurs with the intrusion of matrixes containing mainly non-bacterial components, the tested measurement tools can be considered to have the potential to rapidly detect any major changes in drinking water quality.

  15. A Measurement Error Model for Physical Activity Level as Measured by a Questionnaire With Application to the 1999–2006 NHANES Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A.; Troiano, Richard P.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Freedman, Laurence S.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was administered to 433 participants aged 40–69 years in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study (Maryland, 1999–2000). Valid estimates of participants’ total energy expenditure were also available from doubly labeled water, and basal energy expenditure was estimated from an equation; the ratio of those measures estimated true physical activity level (“truth”). We present a measurement error model that accommodates the mixture of errors that arise from assuming a classical measurement error model for doubly labeled water and a Berkson error model for the equation used to estimate basal energy expenditure. The method was then applied to the OPEN Study. Correlations between the questionnaire-based physical activity level and truth were modest (r = 0.32–0.41); attenuation factors (0.43–0.73) indicate that the use of questionnaire-based physical activity level would lead to attenuated estimates of effect size. Results suggest that sample sizes for estimating relationships between physical activity level and disease should be inflated, and that regression calibration can be used to provide measurement error–adjusted estimates of relationships between physical activity and disease. PMID:23595007

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  17. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  18. Accelerometer-measured dose-response for physical activity, sedentary time, and mortality in US adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Charles E; Keadle, S. K.; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    behavior-mortality relation. Isotemporal models estimated replacement associations for sedentary time, and separate models were fit for low-(,5.8 h total activity/d) and high-active participants to account for nonlinear associations. Results: Over a mean of 6.6 y, 700 deaths occurred. Compared with less-sedentary......Background: Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity is recommended to maintain and improve health, but the mortality benefits of light activity and risk for sedentary time remain uncertain. Objectives: Using accelerometer-based measures, we 1) described the mortality dose......-response for sedentary time and light-and moderateto-vigorous-intensity activity using restricted cubic splines, and 2) estimated the mortality benefits associated with replacing sedentary time with physical activity, accounting for total activity. Design: US adults (n = 4840) from NHANES (2003-2006) wore...

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S

    2015-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the built environment is a determinant for PA, especially for females. The found gender differences might suggest the need to develop gender specific environmental indices in future studies. The validity of the measures can be further improved by creating domain specific......BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating....... RESULTS: Results showed a positive cross-sectional association between MI and PA. PA decreased from baseline to follow-up. MI increased, primarily due to participants relocating to larger cities. An increase in MI from baseline to follow-up was associated with a reduced decrease in PA for females...

  20. Some physical and thermodynamic properties of rocket exhaust clouds measured with infrared scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Kantsios, A. G.; Rosensteel, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements using infrared scanners were made of the radiation from exhaust clouds from liquid- and solid-propellant rocket boosters. Field measurements from four launches were discussed. These measurements were intended to explore the physical and thermodynamic properties of these exhaust clouds during their formation and subsequent dispersion. Information was obtained concerning the initial cloud's buoyancy, the stabilized cloud's shape and trajectory, the cloud volume as a function of time, and it's initial and stabilized temperatures. Differences in radiation intensities at various wavelengths from ambient and stabilized exhaust clouds were investigated as a method of distinguishing between the two types of clouds. The infrared remote sensing method used can be used at night when visible range cameras are inadequate. Infrared scanning techniques developed in this project can be applied directly to natural clouds, clouds containing certain radionuclides, or clouds of industrial pollution.

  1. Feasibility and Inter-Rater Reliability of Physical Performance Measures in Acutely Admitted Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    -rater reliability of four simple measures of physical performance in acutely admitted older medical patients. DESIGN: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, the following were assessed twice by different raters in 52 (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for acute medical illness: isometric hand grip strength, 4...... chair stand. Absolute reliability was expressed as the standard error of measurement and the smallest real difference as a percentage of their respective means (SEM% and SRD%). RESULTS: The primary reasons for admission of the 52 included patients were infectious disease and cardiovascular illness......, and 30-s chair stand were 8%, 7%, and 18%, and the SRD95% values were 22%, 17%, and 49%. CONCLUSION: In acutely admitted older medical patients, grip strength, gait speed, and the Cumulated Ambulation Score measurements were feasible and showed high inter-rater reliability when administered by different...

  2. Preservation of the D0 W mass measurement to incorporate future PDF and physics models

    CERN Document Server

    Cúth, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider provided in recent years one of the most accurate measurements of the W boson mass. The precise knowledge of the W boson mass, to- gether with the mass of the Higgs Boson and the top quark, provides one of the most crucial tests of the Standard Model of particle physics. The uncertainties of this measurement are currently dominated by the limited knowledge of the parton density functions, which will improve in future years. Therefore, a dedicated effort is being made by the D0 Collaboration to preserve the W boson mass analysis for a future reevaluation with improved proton descriptions and other im- provements in the modeling of W boson production and decay. We give an overview of this effort and discuss the underlying technical infrastructure. In addition, we also present a reevaluation of the W boson mass measurement based on R Ldt = 4 : 3 fb...

  3. Number and measure: Hermann von Helmholtz at the crossroads of mathematics, physics, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2003-09-01

    In 1887 Helmholtz discussed the foundations of measurement in science as a last contribution to his philosophy of knowledge. This essay borrowed from earlier debates on the foundations of mathematics (Grassmann/Du Bois), on the possibility of quantitative psychology (Fechner/Kries, Wundt/Zeller), and on the meaning of temperature measurement (Maxwell,Mach.). Late nineteenth-century scrutinisers of the foundations of mathematics (Dedekind, Cantor, Frege, Russell) made little of Helmholtz's essay. Yet it inspired two mathematicians with an eye on physics (Poincaré and Hölder), and a few philosopher-physicists (Mach, Duhem,Campbell). The aim of the present paper is to situate Helmholtz's contribution in this complex array of nineteenth-century philosophies of number, quantity, and measurement. 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Measurement of the Effect of Physical Exercise on the Concentration of Individuals with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandro P.; Prado, Sueli O. S.; Scardovelli, Terigi A.; Boschi, Silvia R. M. S.; Campos, Luiz C.; Frère, Annie F.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance. PMID:25803290

  5. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance.

  6. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro P Silva

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF. After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE and 14 without these symptoms (GC. The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE. The (GE-EF group showed similar performance (2.5% difference with the volunteers in the (GC group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance.

  7. Development of a smartphone application to measure physical activity using sensor-assisted self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Dzubur, Eldin; Kawabata, Keito; Yanez, Brenda; Bo, Bin; Intille, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known advantages of objective physical activity monitors (e.g., accelerometers), these devices have high rates of non-wear, which leads to missing data. Objective activity monitors are also unable to capture valuable contextual information about behavior. Adolescents recruited into physical activity surveillance and intervention studies will increasingly have smartphones, which are miniature computers with built-in motion sensors. This paper describes the design and development of a smartphone application ("app") called Mobile Teen that combines objective and self-report assessment strategies through (1) sensor-informed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment (CS-EMA) and (2) sensor-assisted end-of-day recall. The Mobile Teen app uses the mobile phone's built-in motion sensor to automatically detect likely bouts of phone non-wear, sedentary behavior, and physical activity. The app then uses transitions between these inferred states to trigger CS-EMA self-report surveys measuring the type, purpose, and context of activity in real-time. The end of the day recall component of the Mobile Teen app allows users to interactively review and label their own physical activity data each evening using visual cues from automatically detected major activity transitions from the phone's built-in motion sensors. Major activity transitions are identified by the app, which cues the user to label that "chunk," or period, of time using activity categories. Sensor-driven CS-EMA and end-of-day recall smartphone apps can be used to augment physical activity data collected by objective activity monitors, filling in gaps during non-wear bouts and providing additional real-time data on environmental, social, and emotional correlates of behavior. Smartphone apps such as these have potential for affordable deployment in large-scale epidemiological and intervention studies.

  8. Development of a Smartphone Application to Measure Physical Activity Using Sensor-Assisted Self-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fridlund Dunton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the known advantages of objective physical activity monitors (e.g., accelerometers, these devices have high rates of non-wear, which leads to missing data. Objective activity monitors are also unable to capture valuable contextual information about behavior. Adolescents recruited into physical activity surveillance and intervention studies will increasingly have smartphones, which are miniature computers with built-in motion sensors. Methods: This paper describes the design and development of a smartphone application (app called Mobile Teen that combines objective and self-report assessment strategies through (1 sensor-informed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment (CS-EMA and (2 sensor-assisted end-of-day recall.Results: The Mobile Teen app uses the mobile phone’s built-in motion sensor to automatically detect likely bouts of phone non-wear, sedentary behavior, and physical activity. The app then uses transitions between these inferred states to trigger CS-EMA self-report surveys measuring the type, purpose, and context of activity in real time. The end of the day recall component of the Mobile Teen app allows users to interactively review and label their own physical activity data each evening using visual cues from automatically-detected major activity transitions from the phone’s built-in motions sensors. Major activity transitions are identified by the app, which cues the user to label that chunk, or period, of time using activity categories.Conclusions: Sensor-driven CS-EMA and end-of-day recall smartphone apps can be used to augment physical activity data collected by objective activity monitors, filling in gaps during non-wear bouts and providing additional real-time data on environmental, social, and emotional correlates of behavior. Smartphone apps such as these have potential for affordable deployment in large scale epidemiological and intervention studies.

  9. Differences in physical aging measured by walking speed: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Physical functioning and mobility of older populations are of increasing interest when populations are aging. Lower body functioning such as walking is a fundamental part of many actions in daily life. Limitations in mobility threaten independent living as well as quality of life in old age. In this study we examine differences in physical aging and convert those differences into the everyday measure of single years of age. We use the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which was collected biennially between 2002 and 2012. Data on physical performance, health as well as information on economics and demographics of participants were collected. Lower body performance was assessed with two timed walks at normal pace each of 8 ft (2.4 m) of survey participants aged at least 60 years. We employed growth curve models to study differences in physical aging and followed the characteristic-based age approach to illustrate those differences in single years of age. First, we examined walking speed of about 11,700 English individuals, and identified differences in aging trajectories by sex and other characteristics (e.g. education, occupation, regional wealth). Interestingly, higher educated and non-manual workers outperformed their counterparts for both men and women. Moreover, we transformed the differences between subpopulations into single years of age to demonstrate the magnitude of those gaps, which appear particularly high at early older ages. This paper expands research on aging and physical performance. In conclusion, higher education provides an advantage in walking of up to 15 years for men and 10 years for women. Thus, enhancements in higher education have the potential to ensure better mobility and independent living in old age for a longer period.

  10. Monitoring changes in physical performance with heart rate measures in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Simpson, M B; Al Haddad, H; Bourdon, P C; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the validity of using exercise heart rate (HRex), HR recovery (HRR) and post-exercise HR variability (HRV) during and after a submaximal running test to predict changes in physical performance over an entire competitive season in highly trained young soccer players. Sixty-five complete data sets were analyzed comparing two consecutive testing sessions (3-4 months apart) collected on 46 players (age 15.1 ± 1.5 years). Physical performance tests included a 5-min run at 9 km h(-1) followed by a seated 5-min recovery period to measure HRex, HRR and HRV, a counter movement jump, acceleration and maximal sprinting speed obtained during a 40-m sprint with 10-m splits, repeated-sprint performance and an incremental running test to estimate maximal cardiorespiratory function (end test velocity V (Vam-Eval)). Possible changes in physical performance were examined for the players presenting a substantial change in HR measures over two consecutive testing sessions (greater than 3, 13 and 10% for HRex, HRR and HRV, respectively). A decrease in HRex or increase in HRV was associated with likely improvements in V (Vam-Eval); opposite changes led to unclear changes in V (Vam-Eval). Moderate relationships were also found between individual changes in HRR and sprint [r = 0.39, 90% CL (0.07;0.64)] and repeated-sprint performance [r = -0.38 (-0.05;-0.64)]. To conclude, while monitoring HRex and HRV was effective in tracking improvements in V (Vam-Eval), changes in HRR were moderately associated with changes in (repeated-)sprint performance. The present data also question the use of HRex and HRV as systematic markers of physical performance decrements in youth soccer players.

  11. Objectively measured physical activity and cardiac biomarkers: A cross sectional population based study in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2018-03-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT) are markers of cardiac injury used in diagnosis of heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since physical activity is protective against cardiovascular disease and heart failure, we investigated whether higher levels of physical activity, and less sedentary behaviour were associated with lower NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Cross sectional study of 1130 men, age 70-91years, from the British Regional Heart Study, measured in 2010-2012. Fasting blood samples were analysed for NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured using ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. Relationships between activity and NT-proBNP or hsTnT were non-linear; biomarker levels were lower with higher total activity, steps, moderate/vigorous activity and light activity only at low to moderate levels of activity. For example, for each additional 10min of moderate/vigorous activity, NT-proBNP was lower by 35.7% (95% CI -47.9, -23.6) and hsTnT by 8.4% (95% CI -11.1, -5.6), in men who undertook <25 or 50min of moderate/vigorous activity per day respectively. Biomarker levels increased linearly with increasing sedentary behaviour, but not independently of moderate/vigorous activity. Associations between biomarkers and moderate/vigorous activity (and between hsTnT and light activity) were independent of sedentary behaviour, suggesting activity is driving the relationships. In these older men with concomitantly low levels of physical activity, activity may be more important in protecting against cardiac health deterioration in less active individuals, although reverse causality might be operating. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Training Effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee on Several Neuromuscular Parameters of Physical Performance Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; Pomares-Noguera, Carlos; Robles-Palazón, Francisco Javier; Del Pilar García-Vaquero, Maria; Ruiz-Pérez, Ignacio; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyse the training effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee on several parameters of physical performance measures in youth amateur football players. 41 adolescent players were randomised within each team into 2 groups (team 1: control vs. FIFA 11+; team 2: control vs. Harmoknee). The FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee groups performed the program 3 times a week for 4 weeks; the control groups completed their usual warm-up routines. 13 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, dynamic postural control, single legged hop limb symmetry, sprint time, jumping height and agility) were assessed. All physical performance parameters were compared via a magnitude-based inference analysis. Significant between-group differences (in favour of the FIFA 11+ players) were found for dynamic postural control (anterior [2.5%] and posteromedial [7.2%] distances), single legged hop limb symmetry (side-to-side symmetry during a triple hop test [8.3%]), 10 (8.4%) and 20 (1.8%) m sprint times and jumping height (9.1%) neuromuscular outcomes. For the Harmoknee, significant differences (in comparison to its paired control group) were found only for 10 (2.7%) and 20 (2.9%) m sprint times and jumping height (9.7%). Therefore, the main findings of this study suggest exchanging traditional warm-up programmes for the FIFA 11+ in male youth soccer players based on its superior effects on some neuromuscular parameters (sprinting, jumping and stability) of physical performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds. Methods Forty-seven toddlers (25 boys; 20 ± 4 months wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and parental perceptions of the acceptability of wearing the monitor were assessed to examine feasibility. To investigate the validity of the ActiGraph and the predictive validity of three ActiGraph cut points, accelerometer measurements of 31 toddlers (17 boys; 20 ± 4 months during free play at child care were compared to directly observed PA, using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P. Validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlations and predictive validity using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC-AUC. Results The feasibility examination indicated that accelerometer measurements of 30 toddlers (63.8% could be included with a mean registration time of 564 ± 62 min during weekdays and 595 ± 83 min during weekend days. According to the parental reports, 83% perceived wearing the accelerometer as 'not unpleasant and not pleasant' and none as 'unpleasant'. The validity evaluation showed that mean ActiGraph activity counts were significantly and positively associated with mean OSRAC-P activity intensity (r = 0.66; p Conclusions The present findings suggest that ActiGraph accelerometer measurements are feasible and valid for quantifying PA in toddlers. However, further research is needed to accurately identify PA intensities in toddlers using accelerometry.

  14. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  15. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all Pactivity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program in older adults with schizophrenia on subjectively and objectively measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eLeutwyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  17. Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molanorouzi, Keyvan; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2014-09-03

    Although there is abundant evidence to recommend a physically active lifestyle, adult physical activity (PA) levels have declined over the past two decades. In order to understand why this happens, numerous studies have been conducted to uncover the reasons for people's participation in PA. Often, the measures used were not broad enough to reflect all the reasons for participation in PA. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) was created to be a comprehensive tool measuring motives for participating in PA. This 40-item scale related to participation in sport and PA is designed for adolescents and adults. Five items constitute each of the eight sub-scales (mastery, enjoyment, psychological condition, physical condition, appearance, other's expectations, affiliation, competition/ego) reflecting motives for participation in PA that can be categorized as features of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation based on self-determination theory. The aim of the current study was to validate the PALMS in the cultural context of Malaysia, including to assess how well the PALMS captures the same information as the Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure (REMM). To do so, 502 Malaysian volunteer participants, aged 18 to 67 years (mean ± SD; 31.55 ± 11.87 years), from a variety of PA categories, including individual sports, team sports, martial arts and exercise, completed the study. The hypothesized 8-factor model demonstrated a good fit with the data (CMIN/DF = 2.820, NFI = 0.90, CFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = 0.79) indicated good internal consistency for the overall measure. Internal consistency for the PALMS subscales was sound, ranging from 0.78 to 0.82. The correlations between each PALMS sub-scale and the corresponding sub-scale on the validated REMM (the 73-item questionnaire from which the PALMS was developed) were also high and varied from 0.79 to 0.95. Also, test-retest reliability for the questionnaire sub-scales was

  18. A comparison of plastic cable ties based on physical, chemical and stable isotopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Lisa M; Cresswell, Sarah L; Carter, James F; Peter, Tony

    2018-01-01

    Plastic cable ties can be utilised in a range of serious criminal activities and a comparison of cable ties, or fragments, may form part of the physical evidence presented to a Court of law. This research assessed the potential value of evidence based on the analysis of plastic cable ties. Twenty packets of black coloured plastic cable ties (nominally 200mm×4.8mm) were purchased in pack sizes ranging from 25 to 100 individual cable ties (Brisbane, Australia, March 2015). Representative samples from each packet were visually examined, compared and tested to determine their physical dimensions, chemical compositions and stable isotopic compositions (δ2H, δ13C and δ15N). All of the individual cable ties from a given packet were found to be indistinguishable with respect to appearance, physical, chemical and isotopic measurements (within-batch variability). Individual cable ties were also found to be isotopically homogeneous with respect to hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. All of the cable ties analysed were found to have very similar chemical compositions and to be manufactured predominantly from nylon 6,6. The elemental compositions of composite samples, prepared from each packet, were found to be highly variable and, as such, were of very limited value. Cable ties from ten of the twenty packets were uniquely characterised by physical appearance (between-batch variability). Physical measurements such as the width, thickness and tooth-count of the grip section did not provide additional discrimination. Cable ties from nineteen of the twenty packets were uniquely characterised by isotopic composition, based on δ2H and δ15N measurements. Samples from two packets of Crescent brand cable ties were found to be indistinguishable with respect to all of the tests applied in this study. These two packets were inadvertently purchased from the same retailer and had the same barcode and batch number. It was considered a reasonable assumption that these two packets originated

  19. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  20. A scaling method for combustion stability rating of coaxial gas liquid injectors in a subscale chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon; Kim, Young Jun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mog [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pikalov, Valery P. [Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    A scaling method to examine combustion stability characteristics of a coaxial injector is devised based on the acoustics and combustion dynamics in a chamber. The method is required for a subscale test of stability rating with a model chamber, which is cost effective compared with an actual full scale test. First, scaling and similarity rules are considered for stability rating and thereby, three conditions of acoustic, hydrodynamic, and flame condition similarities are proposed. That is, for acoustic similarity, the natural or resonant frequencies in the actual chamber should be maintained in the model chamber. And, two parameters of density ratio and velocity ratio are derived for the requirement of hydrodynamic and flame condition similarities between the actual and the model conditions. Next, one example of an actual combustion chamber with high performance is selected and the proposed scaling method is applied to the chamber for understanding of the method. The design operating condition for a model test is presented by mass flow rates of propellants. Stability boundaries can be identified on the coordinate plane of chamber pressure and mixture ratio of fuel and oxidizer by applying the scaling method.

  1. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  2. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Bhardwaj, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Ankur; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2013-11-07

    Previous studies have separately reported the effects of physical exercise and yoga in children, showing physical, cognitive and emotional benefits. The present randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of yoga or physical exercise on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem, and teacher-rated behavior and performance, in school children. 98 school children between 8 to 13 years were randomized as yoga and physical exercise groups {n = 49 each; (yoga: 15 girls, group mean age 10.4 ± 1.2 years), (physical exercise: 23 girls, group mean age 10.5 ± 1.3 years)}. Both groups were blind assessed after allocation, using: (i) the Eurofit physical fitness test battery, (ii) Stroop color-word task for children, (iii) Battle's self-esteem inventory and (iv) the teachers' rating of the children's obedience, academic performance, attention, punctuality, and behavior with friends and teachers. After assessments the yoga group practiced yoga (breathing techniques, postures, guided relaxation and chanting), 45 minutes each day, 5 days a week. During this time the physical exercise group had jogging-in-place, rapid repetitive movements and relay races or games. Both groups were assessed at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with RM ANOVA and post-hoc tests were Bonferroni adjusted. There was one significant difference between groups. This was in social self-esteem which was higher after physical exercise compared to yoga (p self-esteem improved in the yoga group (p self-esteem. The study was registered in the Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2012/11/003112).

  3. Missing transverse energy measurement in ATLAS detector: first LHC data results and importance for physics study

    CERN Document Server

    Pizio, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN started its operation at the end of November 2009, first at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV, then, since March 2010, at 7 TeV. During this period the ATLAS experiment has collected a large number of proton-proton collision events, resulting up to now in an integrated luminosity of about 45 pb-1. A very good measurement of the missing transverse energy, ETmiss, is essential for many physics studies in ATLAS both for Standard Model channels, as W, Z bosons decaying to tau leptons or top quark decays, and for discovering channels. Events with large ETmiss are expected to be the key signature for new physics such as supersymmetry and extra dimensions. A good ETmiss measurement in terms of linearity and resolution is crucial for the efficient and accurate reconstruction of the Higgs boson mass when the Higgs boson decays to a pair of tau leptons. This thesis describes the first measurement of ETmiss in ATLAS with real data. The performance of the algorithm for ETmiss reco...

  4. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer.

  5. Wall Shear Rate Measurement: Validation of a New Method through Multi-Physics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Stefano; Swillens, Abigail; Ramalli, Alessandro; Segers, Patrick; Tortoli, Piero

    2016-09-12

    Wall shear stress is known to affect the vessel endothelial function and to be related to important pathologies like the development of atherosclerosis. It is defined as the product of the blood viscosity by the blood velocity gradient at the wall position, i.e. the Wall Shear Rate (WSR). The WSR measurement is particularly challenging in important cardiovascular sites like the carotid bifurcation, because of the related complex flow configurations characterized by high spatial and temporal gradients, wall movement and clutter noise. Moreover, the accuracy of any method for WSR measurement can be effectively tested only if reliable gold standard WSR values, considering all of the aforementioned disturbing effects, are available. Unfortunately, these requirements are difficult to achieve in a physical phantom, so that the accuracy test of novel WSR measurement methods was so far limited to straight pipes and/or similar idealistic configurations. In this work, we propose a new method for WSR measurement and its validation based on a mathematical model of the carotid bifurcation, which, exploiting fluid-structure simulations, is capable of reproducing realistic flow configuration, wall movement, and clutter noise. In particular, the profile near the wall, not directly measurable because affected by clutter, is estimated through a power-law fitting and compared to the gold standard provided by the model. In this condition, the WSR measurements featured an accuracy of ±20%. A preliminary test on a volunteer confirmed the WSR method's feasibility for in-vivo application.

  6. Adolescent perspectives on wearing accelerometers to measure physical activity in population-based trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Bell, Sarah; Hughes, Rachael; Campbell, Rona

    2013-06-01

    Accelerometers are increasingly used in health research to measure physical activity, but few published studies document participants' views and experiences of wearing accelerometers, preferring to focus on measurement decisions and outcomes, and fewer still have reported the views and experiences of adolescent participants. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of accelerometers with young people including recruitment, retention and adherence to protocol. The AHEAD (Activity and Healthy Eating in Adolescence) feasibility study, involving over 1000 students aged 12/13 years, took place in south-west England between 2007 and 2009. Piloting work was followed by an exploratory trial, incorporating a process evaluation, in six schools. Students were asked to wear accelerometers for 7 days at baseline and follow-up. Eighty-nine percent of students provided some accelerometer data at baseline and 87% at follow-up. However, adherence (recording ≥ 600 minutes per day for ≥ 3 days) fell from 75% at baseline to 56% at follow-up. Factors affecting adherence included the following: the use and type of incentives, appearance, discomfort and unforeseen changes to the school timetable. If worn properly, accelerometers can provide an important objective measure of physical activity in population-based studies promoting physical activity. But to achieve generalizable results, it is important to maximize recruitment, retention and adherence to protocol across the study population. For adolescents, adherence may be improved by the following: a 'two-part' reward (part one for returns, part two for adherence), personal activity graphs, and less obtrusive belts and monitors.

  7. Neutral and charged current cross section measurements and searches for new physics at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Malden, N; Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bodmann, B; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Kataoka, Y; Yamazaki, M; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Luzniak, P; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Riveline, U; Karshon, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rosin, M; Rurua, L; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stoesslein, U; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J; Malden, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    HERA is the only high energy electron-proton collider in the world today and hence has unique opportunities both to probe the structure of the proton and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Results are presented for measurements of both neutral and charged current cross sections, and for searches for exotic processes involving direct electron-quark interactions (leptoquarks and R-parity violating SUSY), generic coupling models (contact interactions) and exclusive final states (isolated leptons and missing PT, single top production and pentaquarks). Exclusion limits on proposed models are set where no deviation from Standard Model predictions are found.

  8. Validity of a measure to assess the child-care nutrition and physical activity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn E; Grode, Gabrielle M; Middleton, Ann E; Kenney, Erica L; Falbe, Jennifer; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-09-01

    Licensed child-care centers represent an opportunity to positively influence children's health behaviors. Valid and easy-to-use measures of the child-care environment are needed to assess the influence of environmental change on health. To develop and validate a self-administered survey to assess the nutrition and physical activity environment of child-care centers, and to identify domains that may be evaluated adequately through self-report. A survey was developed to assess four areas related to nutrition and physical activity: center policies, practices related to the social environment, physical environment, and nutrition quality. Development involved review of the literature, existing measures, and regulations/standards as well as collaboration with a working group. The survey was pilot tested and feedback was sought from expert consultants. It was administered statewide and validated against a menu rating tool, interviews with a center director, and a direct observation tool that was developed for this study. Participating sites were drawn from Child and Adult Care Food Program-participating licensed Connecticut child-care centers serving 13 or more children aged 3 to 5 years. Survey responses from 146 center directors were included, as were 62 center menus, and director interviews and observational data from 33 sites. PRIMARY OUTCOMES/STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Criterion validity of the survey was assessed through percent agreement with mirroring items in the additional measures. Healthy and unhealthy food scores were calculated for menu and survey tools, and Pearson correlations were computed. Percent agreement with criterion outcomes ranged from 39% to 97%, with 61% of items achieving agreement ≥80%. Agreement was highest for nutrition and policy domains, and lowest for physical activity and barriers to promoting health. Correlations between food scores across measures were moderate. The self-report survey demonstrated adequate criterion validity. We make

  9. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  10. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  11. When physics is not "just physics": complexity science invites new measurement frames for exploring the physics of cognitive and biological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Dixon, James A

    2012-01-01

    The neurobiological sciences have struggled to resolve the physical foundations for biological and cognitive phenomena with a suspicion that biological and cognitive systems, capable of exhibiting and contributing to structure within themselves and through their contexts, are fundamentally distinct or autonomous from purely physical systems. Complexity science offers new physics-based approaches to explaining biological and cognitive phenomena. In response to controversy over whether complexity science might seek to "explain away" biology and cognition as "just physics," we propose that complexity science serves as an application of recent advances in physics to phenomena in biology and cognition without reducing or undermining the integrity of the phenomena to be explained. We highlight that physics is, like the neurobiological sciences, an evolving field and that the threat of reduction is overstated. We propose that distinctions between biological and cognitive systems from physical systems are pretheoretical and thus optional. We review our own work applying insights from post-classical physics regarding turbulence and fractal fluctuations to the problems of developing cognitive structure. Far from hoping to reduce biology and cognition to "nothing but" physics, we present our view that complexity science offers new explanatory frameworks for considering physical foundations of biological and cognitive phenomena.

  12. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jill

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals

  13. Comparison of physical parameter measurements between peripheral and portal blood samples in patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Sun, Longci; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Hong; Gu, Lei; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Chihao; Zhu, Yiming; Lin, Jiayun; Luo, Meng

    2017-09-15

    Measuring portal venous pressure is necessary to examine, diagnose, and treat portal hypertension, but current methods are invasive. This study aimed to determine whether a noninvasive peripheral blood measurement could be used to estimate portal venous pressure by investigating correlations between certain physical parameter measurements in the peripheral blood with those obtained in portal blood samples. A total of 128 peripheral and portal blood samples from patients (n= 128) were analyzed for blood rheology and routine blood parameters. The mean peripheral and portal whole blood viscosities under the shear rates of 200 s-1 (BV 200 s-1) were 2.97 ± 0.50 mPa.s and 3.06 ± 0.39 mPa.s. The mean peripheral and portal BV 30 s-1 values were 3.96 ± 0.79 mPa.s and 4.16 ± 0.64 mPa.s. We observed strong correlations between peripheral and portal blood measurements of BV 200 s-1 (r2= 0.9649), BV 30 s-1 (r2= 0.9622), BV 5 s-1 (r2= 0.9610), and BV 1 s-1 (r2= 0.9623). Our results indicate that peripheral blood can be used to evaluate certain parameters in portal blood for use in biofluid mechanics studies, and to provide noninvasive measurement of portal venous pressure.

  14. Review of measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity and healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Reeds, Dominic N; van Bakergem, Margaret A; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Pamulapati, Surya C; Hoehner, Christine M

    2015-05-07

    Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development.

  15. Measures of physical activity using cell phones: validation using criterion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, Christin; Löf, Marie; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Forsum, Elisabet; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2010-01-29

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of many chronic diseases. Data collected on physical activity in large epidemiological studies is often based on paper questionnaires. The validity of these questionnaires is debated, and more effective methods are needed. This study evaluates repeated measures of physical activity level (PAL) and the feasibility of using a Java-based questionnaire downloaded onto cell phones for collection of such data. The data obtained were compared with reference estimates based on the doubly labeled water method and indirect calorimetry (PAL(ref)). Using a Java-based cell phone application, 22 women reported their physical activity based on two short questions answered daily over a 14-day period (PAL(cell)). Results were compared with reference data obtained from the doubly labeled water method and indirect calorimetry (PAL(ref)). Results were also compared against physical activity levels assessed by two regular paper questionnaires completed by women at the end of the 14-day period (PAL(quest1) and PAL(quest2)). PAL(cell), PAL(quest1), and PAL(quest2) were compared with PAL(ref) using the Bland and Altman procedure. The mean difference between PAL(cell) and PAL(ref) was small (0.014) with narrow limits of agreement (2SD = 0.30). Compared with PAL(ref), the mean difference was also small for PAL(quest1) and PAL(quest2) (0.004 and 0.07, respectively); however, the limits of agreement were wider (PAL(quest1), 2SD = 0.50 and PAL(quest2), 2SD = 0.90). The test for trend was statistically significant for PAL(quest1) (slope of regression line = 0.79, P = .04) as well as for PAL(quest2) (slope of regression line = 1.58, P cell phones produced PAL estimates that agreed well with PAL reference values. Furthermore, the limits of agreement between PAL obtained using cell phones, and reference values were narrower than for corresponding estimates obtained using paper questionnaires. Java-based questionnaires downloaded onto cell phones

  16. Passive and Active Radiation Measurements Capability at the INL Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Neibert; John Zabriskie; Collin Knight; James L. Jones

    2010-12-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility is a Department of Energy facility located in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex. It contains various nuclear and non-nuclear materials that are available to support many radiation measurement assessments. User-selected, single material, nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be readily utilized with ZPPR clamshell containers with almost no criticality concerns. If custom, multi-material configurations are desired, the ZPPR clamshell or an approved aluminum Inspection Object (IO) Box container may be utilized, yet each specific material configuration will require a criticality assessment. As an example of the specialized material configurations possible, the National Nuclear Security Agency’s Office of Nuclear Verification (NNSA/NA 243) has sponsored the assembly of six material configurations. These are shown in the Appendixes and have been designated for semi-permanent storage that can be available to support various radiation measurement applications.

  17. Long term indoor radon measurements in the pelletron laboratory at the UNAM physics institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Lopez, K.; Rickards, J., E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.m [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The results of six months of continuous measurement of the indoor radon concentration levels in the building where the Physics Institute 3 MV Pelletron particle accelerator is located are presented. This study has three major objectives: a) to know the actual values of the levels of indoor radon in this installation, where personnel spend many hours and sometimes days; b) assess the radiological risk from radon inhalation for personnel working permanently in the laboratory, as well as incidental users; and c) establish, if necessary, time limits for continuous permanence on the location for indoor radon exposure. Passive nuclear track detectors and dynamic systems were employed, covering six months (August, 2009 to January, 2010). For the calculation of internal dose the Radon Individual Dose Calculator was used. The results indicate that the indoor radon levels are below the US EPA recommended levels (400 Bq/m{sup 3}) in workplaces. The measurements help to establish levels for workplaces in Mexico. (Author)

  18. Aeroelastic-aeroacoustic measurements in a self-oscillating physical model of the human vocal folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Michael; Cates, Zachary

    2009-11-01

    Measurements are presented characterizing the relationship between the structure of physical models of the human vocal folds and the sound produced by their vibration by airflow from the lungs. The model vocal folds are fabricated by molding two layers of silicone rubber of specified stiffness, approximating the body/cover structure. These are mounted in a model vocal tract, where the prephonatory gap adjusted using micropositioners. Measurements conducted in an anechoic chamber include radiated sound pressure, and high-speed video of the vibrating model vocal folds, using prephonatory separation, body stiffness, and subglottal pressure as input parameters.. Essential behavior of the vocal fold models is presented. Vibration fundamental frequency and radiated sound pressure level outside the model vocal tract as a function of subglottal pressure and prephonatory gap are presented for the cases of two identical vocal folds and one vocal fold with lower stiffness, approximating vocal fold paralysis.

  19. Cyber Physical Systems for User Reliability Measurements in a Sharing Economy Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Aria; Jeong, Junho; Kim, Yeichang

    2017-08-13

    As the sharing economic market grows, the number of users is also increasing but many problems arise in terms of reliability between providers and users in the processing of services. The existing methods provide shared economic systems that judge the reliability of the provider from the viewpoint of the user. In this paper, we have developed a system for establishing mutual trust between providers and users in a shared economic environment to solve existing problems. In order to implement a system that can measure and control users' situation in a shared economic environment, we analyzed the necessary factors in a cyber physical system (CPS). In addition, a user measurement system based on a CPS structure in a sharing economic environment is implemented through analysis of the factors to consider when constructing a CPS.

  20. Measuring enjoyment of ballroom dancing in Filipino Americans using the physical activity enjoyment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Dalusung-Angosta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To advance knowledge about ways to promote physical activity in Filipino Americans, this feasibility study evaluated whether they enjoyed ballroom dancing and at the same time tested the validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES for assessing enjoyment in this population. This study consisted of a single group of healthy Filipino Americans (N = 41 aged between 35 and 65 years residing in southern Nevada. Participants danced 45 min per week for 12 weeks and completed the PACES questionnaire to measure enjoyment at two time points (Week 4 and Week 12. Four participants dropped out during Weeks 2 to 5. Thirty-seven participants completed the 12 consecutive dance sessions. Descriptive statistics, paired- sample t test, Pearson correlation, and a mixed-model ANCOVA were used for data analysis. Principal components analysis assessed the construct validity of the PACES. The mean age of the sample was 50.7 years. On average, the participants’ PACES score significantly improved from Week 4 to Week 12. Age was negatively correlated with perceived enjoyment of dancing. In terms of the validity and reliability of the PACES, high construct validity and internal consistency of the PACES were noted. This study described the effectiveness of ballroom dance as a form of physical activity among first-generation Filipino Americans and confirmed the appropriateness of the PACES for assessing enjoyment in this population. Ballroom dance has the potential to promote physical activity and improve the cardiovascular outcomes of Filipino Americans and other populations who are at risk of heart disease.