WorldWideScience

Sample records for subscale injector testing

  1. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  2. A scaling method for combustion stability rating of coaxial gas liquid injectors in a subscale chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon; Kim, Young Jun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mog [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pikalov, Valery P. [Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building, Sergiev Posad (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    A scaling method to examine combustion stability characteristics of a coaxial injector is devised based on the acoustics and combustion dynamics in a chamber. The method is required for a subscale test of stability rating with a model chamber, which is cost effective compared with an actual full scale test. First, scaling and similarity rules are considered for stability rating and thereby, three conditions of acoustic, hydrodynamic, and flame condition similarities are proposed. That is, for acoustic similarity, the natural or resonant frequencies in the actual chamber should be maintained in the model chamber. And, two parameters of density ratio and velocity ratio are derived for the requirement of hydrodynamic and flame condition similarities between the actual and the model conditions. Next, one example of an actual combustion chamber with high performance is selected and the proposed scaling method is applied to the chamber for understanding of the method. The design operating condition for a model test is presented by mass flow rates of propellants. Stability boundaries can be identified on the coordinate plane of chamber pressure and mixture ratio of fuel and oxidizer by applying the scaling method.

  3. Wind Turbine Blade Design for Subscale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Kelley, Christopher L.; Maniaci, David C.

    2016-09-01

    Two different inverse design approaches are proposed for developing wind turbine blades for sub-scale wake testing. In the first approach, dimensionless circulation is matched for full scale and sub-scale wind turbine blades for equal shed vorticity in the wake. In the second approach, the normalized normal and tangential force distributions are matched for large scale and small scale wind turbine blades, as these forces determine the wake dynamics and stability. The two approaches are applied for the same target full scale turbine blade, and the shape of the blades are compared. The results show that the two approaches have been successfully implemented, and the designed blades are able to produce the target circulation and target normal and tangential force distributions.

  4. Subscale Acoustic Testing: Comparison of ALAT and ASMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Janice D.; Counter, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option. This paper compares the acoustic measurements of two different subscale tests: the 2% Ares Liftoff Acoustic Test conducted at Stennis Space Center and the 5% Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Swirl Coaxial Injector Testing with LOX/RP-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Casiano, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Testing was conducted at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the fall of 2012 to evaluate the operation and performance of liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP ]1) in an existing swirl coaxial injector. While selected Russian engines use variations of swirl coaxial injectors, component level performance data has not been readily available, and all previously documented component testing at MSFC with LOX/RP ]1 had been performed using a variety of impinging injector designs. Impinging injectors have been adequate for specific LOX/RP ]1 engine applications, yet swirl coaxial injectors offer easier fabrication efforts, providing cost and schedule savings for hardware development. Swirl coaxial elements also offer more flexibility for design changes. Furthermore, testing with LOX and liquid methane propellants at MSFC showed that a swirl coaxial injector offered improved performance compared to an impinging injector. So, technical interest was generated to see if similar performance gains could be achieved with LOX/RP ]1 using a swirl coaxial injector. Results would allow such injectors to be considered for future engine concepts that require LOX/RP ]1 propellants. Existing injector and chamber hardware was used in the test assemblies. The injector had been tested in previous programs at MSFC using LOX/methane and LOX/hydrogen propellants. Minor modifications were made to the injector to accommodate the required LOX/RP ]1 flows. Mainstage tests were performed over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. Additional testing included detonated gbombs h for stability data. Test results suggested characteristic velocity, C*, efficiencies for the injector were 95 ]97%. The injector also appeared dynamically stable with quick recovery from the pressure perturbations generated in the bomb tests.

  6. Subscale Test Program for the Orion Conical Ribbon Drogue Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Stuart, Phil; Machin, Ricardo; Bourland, Gary; Schwing, Allen; Longmire, Ellen; Henning, Elsa; Sinclair, Rob

    2011-01-01

    A subscale wind tunnel test program for Orion's conical ribbon drogue parachute is under development. The desired goals of the program are to quantify aerodynamic performance of the parachute in the wake of the entry vehicle, including understanding of the coupling of the parachute and command module dynamics, and an improved understanding of the load distribution within the textile elements of the parachute. The test program is ten percent of full scale conducted in a 3x2.1 m (10x7 ft) closed loop subsonic wind tunnel. The subscale test program is uniquely suited to probing the aerodynamic and structural environment in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Non-intrusive diagnostics, including Particle Image Velocimetry for wake velocity surveys, high speed pressure transducers for canopy pressure distribution, and a high speed photogrammetric reconstruction, will be used to quantify the parachute's performance.

  7. SPE5 Sub-Scale Test Series Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, Kevin S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reeves, Robert V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeHaven, Martin R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strickland, Shawn L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-14

    A series of 2 SPE5 sub-scale tests were performed to experimentally confirm that a booster system designed and evaluated in prior tests would properly initiate the PBXN-110 case charge fill. To conduct the experiments, a canister was designed to contain the nominally 50 mm diameter booster tube with an outer fill of approximately 150 mm diameter by 150 mm in length. The canisters were filled with PBXN-110 at NAWS-China Lake and shipped back to LLNL for testing in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Piezoelectric crystal pins were placed on the outside of the booster tube before filling, and a series of piezoelectric crystal pins along with Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) probes were placed on the outer surface of the canister to measure the relative timing and magnitude of the detonation. The 2 piezoelectric crystal pins integral to the booster design were also utilized along with a series of either piezoelectric crystal pins or piezoelectric polymer pads on the top of the canister or outside case that utilized direct contact, gaps, or different thicknesses of RTV cushions to obtain time of arrival data to evaluate the response in preparation for the large-scale SPE5 test. To further quantify the margin of the booster operation, the 1st test (SPE5SS1) was functioned with both detonators and the 2nd test (SPE5SS2) was functioned with only 1 detonator. A full detonation of the material was observed in both experiments as observed by the pin timing and PDV signals. The piezoelectric pads were found to provide a greater measured signal magnitude during the testing with an RTV layer present, and the improved response is due to the larger measurement surface area of the pad. This report will detail the experiment design, canister assembly for filling, final assembly, experiment firing, presentation of the diagnostic results, and a discussion of the results.

  8. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  9. Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Seidl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development and testing of an intense lithium ion source and injector for an ion induction accelerator designed for warm, dense matter target heating experiments. The source is a 10.9-cm diameter aluminosilicate emitter on a porous tungsten substrate. For an injector voltage pulse of 120 kV, pulse duration of 1.0-μs FWHM, and an operating temperature of 1250°C, the source emits 35 mA of Li^{+} ions. The results follow experimental studies with much smaller sources. The key challenges included beam quality, source lifetime, and heat management.

  10. An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

    2007-03-14

    SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

  11. An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Roger H.

    2001-01-23

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

  12. Helium-Cooled Black Shroud for Subscale Cryogenic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James; Jackson, Michael; DiPirro, Michael; Francis, John

    2011-01-01

    This shroud provides a deep-space simulating environment for testing scaled-down models of passively cooling systems for spaceflight optics and instruments. It is used inside a liquid-nitrogen- cooled vacuum chamber, and it is cooled by liquid helium to 5 K. It has an inside geometry of approximately 1.6 m diameter by 0.45 m tall. The inside surfaces of its top and sidewalls have a thermal absorptivity greater than 0.96. The bottom wall has a large central opening that is easily customized to allow a specific test item to extend through it. This enables testing of scale models of realistic passive cooling configurations that feature a very large temperature drop between the deepspace-facing cooled side and the Sun/Earth-facing warm side. This shroud has an innovative thermal closeout of the bottom wall, so that a test sample can have a hot (room temperature) side outside of the shroud, and a cold side inside the shroud. The combination of this closeout and the very black walls keeps radiated heat from the sample s warm end from entering the shroud, reflecting off the walls and heating the sample s cold end. The shroud includes 12 vertical rectangular sheet-copper side panels that are oriented in a circular pattern. Using tabs bent off from their edges, these side panels are bolted to each other and to a steel support ring on which they rest. The removable shroud top is a large copper sheet that rests on, and is bolted to, the support ring when the shroud is closed. The support ring stands on four fiberglass tube legs, which isolate it thermally from the vacuum chamber bottom. The insides of the cooper top and side panels are completely covered with 25- mm-thick aluminum honeycomb panels. This honeycomb is painted black before it is epoxied to the copper surfaces. A spiral-shaped copper tube, clamped at many different locations to the outside of the top copper plate, serves as part of the liquid helium cooling loop. Another copper tube, plumbed in a series to the

  13. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  14. PIP-II Injector Test: Challenges and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, P. F. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Edelen, J. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Steimel, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the Injector Test warm front end, including results of the beam commissioning through the installed components, and progress with SRF cryomodules and other systems.

  15. Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

    1979-01-01

    A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

  16. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  17. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Benaroya, R.; Billquist, P.J.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Nixon, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an /sup 40/Ar/sup 12 +/ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 ..pi.. keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Digital Measuring Devices Used for Injector Hydraulic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leontiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a high specific impulse of the LRE (liquid-propellant engine chamber it is necessary to have optimally organized combustion of the fuel components. This can be ensured by choosing the optimum geometry of gas-dynamic contour of the LRE combustor, as well as by improving the sputtering processes and mixing the fuel components, for example, by selection of the optimum type, characteristics, and location of injectors on the mixing unit of the chamber.These particular reasons arise the interest in the injector characteristics in terms of science, and technological aspects determine the need for control of underlying design parameters in their manufacture.The objective of this work is to give an experimental justification on used digital measurement instrumentation and research the hydraulic characteristics of injectors.To determine injector parameters most widely were used the units with sectional collectors. A technique to control injector parameters using the sectional collectors involves spraying the liquid by injector at a given pressure drop on it for a certain time (the longer, the higher the accuracy and reliability of the results and then determining the amount of liquid in each section to calculate the required parameters of injector.In this work the liquid flow through the injector was determined by high-precision flowmeters FLONET FN2024.1 of electromagnetic type, which have very high metrological characteristics, in particular a flow rate error does not exceed 0.5% in a range of water flow from Qmin= 0.0028 l/s to Qmax Qmax = 0.28 l/s. To determine the coefficient of uneven spray were used differential pressure sensors DMD 331-ASLX of company "DB Sensors RUS", which have an error of 0.075% with a range of differential pressure 0 ... 5 kPa. Measuring complex MIC-200 of company "NPP Measure" and WinPos software for processing array information provided entry, recording, and processing of all the data of the experiment.In this

  19. Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, In-Kyung

    Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical

  20. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  1. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  2. Chracterization of the beam from the RFQ of the PIP-II Injector Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Carneiro. J.-P., Carneiro. J.-P. [Fermilab; Hanna, B. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Scarpine, V. [Fermilab; Sista, V. L.S. [Bhabha Atomic Res. Ctr.; Steimel, J. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    A 2.1 MeV, 10 mA CW RFQ has been installed and commissioned at the Fermilab’s test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test. This report describes the measure-ments of the beam properties after acceleration in the RFQ, including the energy and emittance.

  3. 'Getting checked and having the test': drug injectors' perceptions of HIV testing - findings from qualitative research conducted in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rhidian

    2002-04-01

    If HIV and AIDS policy initiatives are to be successful in tackling the spread of infection it is important to understand more about the ways in which people perceive HIV and AIDS. HIV testing is a policy initiative that will work when people take the test and make appropriate changes to their behaviour as a result. This paper is based on a study that used in-depth interviews and a vignette with drug injectors to explore drug injectors' perceptions of HIV risk outside and inside prison. HIV testing was an integral part of drug injectors' perceptions of risk. Three main themes emerged from the analysis of these data: first, reasons for not taking a test; second, reasons for taking a test; and third, the impact of testing upon subsequent behaviour. The paper ends with a summary and conclusions highlighting implications for future research and policy development. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Development of a Low-Cost, Subscale Test System to Evaluate Particle Impingement Erosion in Nozzle Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gordon, Gail H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview on the development of a low-cost, subscale test system to evaluate particle impingement erosion in nozzle ablative materials. Details are given on the need for a new test bed, solid fuel torch components, solid fuel torch test, additional uses for the solid fuel torch, the development of a supersonic blast tube (SSBT), and particle impingement material discrimination.

  5. Hot-Fire Test of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Launch Mission Injector Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Greg; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to hot-fire test an existing Space Launch Mission (SLM) injector that is applicable for all expander cycle engines being considered for the exploration upper stage. The work leverages investment made in FY 2013 that was used to additively manufacture three injectors (fig. 1) all by different vendors..

  6. [Turkish expressive and receptive language test: I. Standardization, reliability and validity study of the receptive vocabulary sub-scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak Berument, Sibel; Güven, Ayşe Gül

    2013-01-01

    A reliable, valid and original test to assess the receptive vocabulary skills of children in Turkey was not available. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop a receptive vocabulary test for Turkish children based on the Turkish language. For the Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale (TIFALDI-RT) 242 concrete and abstract words were chosen from word frequency lists and a comprehensive Turkish Dictionary. Pilot data were collected from 648 children aged 2 to 13 from Ankara, and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 3755 children. Item analysis (item difficulty, discrimination and distractor) was carried out on the pilot data and based on the results, the total item number was reduced to 157. Further, three parameter item analyses (IRT) were carried out on the norm data by using BILOG-MG (SSI, 2002), and the results indicated that the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale could be reduced to 104 items to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were calculated for the whole sample and age groups separately, and all the coefficients were high. For the validity, the relationship between the WISC-R and Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (AGTE) and Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale were investigated. Once again, the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale scores were found to be significantly related to WISC-R and AGTE scores. The TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale was developed on the basis of the Turkish Language and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample. The TIFALDI-RT also had a high reliability and validity. Thus, the TIFALDI-RT can be used to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary skills.

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  8. Injector Cavities Fabrication, Vertical Test Performance and Primary Cryomodule Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cheng, Guangfeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Clemens, William [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Davis, G [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Macha, Kurt [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Overton, Roland [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Spell, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    After the electromagnetic design and the mechanical design of a β=0.6, 2-cell elliptical SRF cavity, the cavity has been fabricated. Then both 2-cell and 7-cell cavities have been bench tuned to the target values of frequency, coupling external Q and field flatness. After buffer chemistry polishing (BCP) and high pressure rinses (HPR), Vertical 2K cavity test results have been satisfied the specifications and ready for the string assembly. We will report the cavity performance including Lorenz Force Detuning (LFD) and Higher Order Modes (HOM) damping data. Its integration with cavity tuners to the cryomodule design will be reported.

  9. Wind Tunnel Test of Subscale Ringsail and Disk-Gap-Band Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Cruz, Juan R.; Keller, Donald F.; O'Farrell, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A subsonic wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the drag and static aerodynamic coefficients, as well as to capture the dynamic motions of a new Supersonic Ringsail parachute developed by the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project. To provide a comparison against current Mars parachute technology, the Mars Science Laboratory's Disk-Gap-Band parachute was also included in the test. To account for the effect of fabric permeability, two fabrics ("low" and "standard" permeability) were used to fabricate each parachute canopy type, creating four combinations of canopy type and fabric material. A wide range of test conditions were covered during the test, spanning Mach numbers from 0.09 to 0.5, and static pressures from 103 to 2116 pounds per square inch (psf) (nominal values). The fabric permeability is shown to have a first-order effect on the aerodynamic coefficients and dynamic motions of the parachutes. For example, for a given parachute type and test condition, models fabricated from "low" permeability fabric always have a larger drag coefficient than models fabricated from "standard" permeability material. This paper describes the test setup and conditions, how the results were analyzed, and presents and discusses a sample of the results. The data collected during this test is being used to create and improve parachute aerodynamic databases for use in flight dynamics simulations for missions to Mars.

  10. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  11. Subscale Testing of Nozzle Ablative Materials in a Supersonic Particle Impingement Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, S.; Lawrence, T.

    2004-01-01

    Recent efforts to evaluate materials to replace the current NARC rayon used in the nozzle ablative of the NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (SRM), several tests were developed to look at the performance of supersonic particle impact region of the aft exit cone. It was seen in early testing that some potential candidates did not perform as well as the current NARC based material and so the 24 inch Solid Rocket Motor (SRTM) exit cone design was extended and contoured to induce particle impingement in the aft end. The SRTM testing provided a larger testbed to evaluate the results seen in the Solid Fuel Supersonic Blast Tube. Testing was performed in each test bed on two variants of the final two candidate materials. The materials were a standard prewoven Lyocell, a postwoven Lyocell, an Enka rayon, and Enka rayon processed at a higher carbonization temperature. This paper presents the results of the four materials in the SSBT and the SRTM tests as compared against the NARC baseline. Erosion, char, and plylift results are discussed in detail.

  12. Simulations of NOx Emissions from Low Emissions Discrete Jet Injector Combustor Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Breisacher, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a candidate Lean Direct Injection (LDI) combustor configuration with a mix of simplex and airblast injectors. The National Combustion Code (NCC) was used to predict the experimentally measured EINOx emissions for test conditions representing low power, medium power, and high-power engine cycle conditions. Of the six cases modeled with the NCC using a reduced-kinetics finite-rate mechanism and lagrangian spray modeling, reasonable predictions of combustor exit temperature and EINOx were obtained at two high-power cycle conditions.

  13. Accuracy of Bayes and Logistic Regression Subscale Probabilities for Educational and Certification Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Rudner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the machine learning literature, it is commonly accepted as fact that as calibration sample sizes increase, Naïve Bayes classifiers initially outperform Logistic Regression classifiers in terms of classification accuracy. Applied to subtests from an on-line final examination and from a highly regarded certification examination, this study shows that the conclusion also applies to the probabilities estimated from short subtests of mental abilities and that small samples can yield excellent accuracy. The calculated Bayes probabilities can be used to provide meaningful examinee feedback regardless of whether the test was originally designed to be unidimensional.

  14. Accuracy of Bayes and Logistic Regression Subscale Probabilities for Educational and Certification Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Rudner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the machine learning literature, it is commonly accepted as fact that as calibration sample sizes increase, Na ve Bayes classifiers initially outperform Logistic Regression classifiers in terms of classification accuracy. Applied to subtests from an on-line final examination and from a highly regarded certification examination, this study shows that the conclusion also applies to the probabilities estimated from short subtests of mental abilities and that small samples can yield excellent accuracy. The calculated Bayes probabilities can be used to provide meaningful examinee feedback regardless of whether the test was originally designed to be unidimensional.

  15. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  16. Beam tests of the 12 MHz RFQ RIB injector for ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifft, B. E.; Kaye, R. A.; Kedzie, M.; Shepard, K. W.

    1999-05-06

    Beam tests of the ANL 12 MHz Radio-Frequency Quadruple (RFQ), designed for use as the initial element of an injector system for radioactive beams into the existing ATLAS accelerators, are in progress. Recent high-voltage tests of the RFQ without beam achieved the design intervane voltage of 100 kV CW, enabling beam tests with A/q as large as 132 using beams from the ANL Physics Division 4 MV Dynamitron accelerator facility. Although the RFQ was designed for bunched beams, initial tests have been performed with unbunched beams. Experiments with stable, unbunched beams of singly-charged {sup 132}Xe and {sup 84}Kr measured the output beam energy distribution as a function of the RFQ operating voltage. The observed energies are in excellent agreement with numerical beam simulations.

  17. Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.

    2013-07-03

    High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

  18. Design of cryosorption pumps for TEST BEDS of ITER relevant Neutral Beam Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremel, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: matthias.dremel@itp.fzk.de; Day, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mack, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jensen, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Speth, E. [IPP CSU-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Falter, H.D. [IPP CSU-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Riedl, R. [IPP CSU-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cordier, J.J. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/Departement Recherche Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108, Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Gravil, B. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/Departement Recherche Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108, Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Henry, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/Departement Recherche Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108, Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Zaccaria, P. [CONSORZIO RFX Association EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents the results of the design investigations and the manufacturing of cryosorption pumps for the Neutral Beam Test Facility 'MANITU' at Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) and the cryopump design analyses performed for the development of a test facility for the first ITER Neutral Beam Injector. The two identical cryopumps for IPP are foreseen to pump a hydrogen-throughput of 3 Pa m{sup 3}/s (H{sub 2}) with a pumping speed of 350 m{sup 3}/s per pump. The pressure conditions must be maintained over 4 h pumping without regeneration of the cryopanels. For the ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility, design calculations to assess heat loads and pumping parameters of the cryopumps will be briefly described.

  19. Installation Progress at the PIP-II Injector Test at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M. [Fermilab; Andrews, R. [Fermilab; Chen, A. [Fermilab; Czajkowski, J. [Fermilab; Derwent, P. [Fermilab; Edelen, J. [Fermilab; Hanna, B. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Kendziora, K. [Fermilab; Mitchell, D. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Scarpine, V. [Fermilab; Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Steimel, J. [Fermilab; Zuchnik, T. [Fermilab; Edelen, A. [Colorado State U.

    2016-10-04

    A CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting linac “PIP-II” is being planned to upgrade Fermilab's injection complex. To validate the front-end concept, a test acceler-ator (The PIP-II Injector Test, formerly known as "PXIE") is under construction. The warm part of this accelerator comprises a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) capable of operation in Con-tinuous Wave (CW) mode, and a 10 m-long Medium En-ergy Beam Transport (MEBT). The paper will report on the installation of the RFQ and the first sections of the MEBT and related mechanical design considerations.

  20. Status of the Warm Front End of PIP-II Injector Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab; Alvarez, Matthew [Fermilab; Andrews, Richard [Fermilab; Baffes, Curtis [Fermilab; Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Fermilab; Chen, Alex [Fermilab; Derwent, Paul [Fermilab; Edelen, Jonathan [Fermilab; Frolov, Daniil [Fermilab; Hanna, Bruce [Fermilab; Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Saewert, Gregory [Fermilab; Saini, Arun [Fermilab; Scarpine, Victor [Fermilab; Sista, V. Lalitha [Fermilab; Steimel, Jim [Fermilab; Sun, Ding [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H⁻ SRF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H⁻ ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the warm front end.

  1. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  2. Isothermal Microcalorimetric Evaluation of Compatibility of Proposed Injector Materials with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    High-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) is receiving renewed interest as a monopropellant and as the oxidizer for bipropellant systems. HTP is hydrogen peroxide in concentrations ranging from 70 to 98%. All surfaces wetted by HTP must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid. In the case of tanks, lines and valves compatibility is required to preserve the HTP oxygen and energy content and to avoid overpressurization due to decomposition. With injectors and regenerative cooling passages shorter exposure time reduces these concerns. However, phase changes from fluid to gas impact heat transfer and become the dominant compatibility concern. Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) provides a convenient and reproducible means to observe the decomposition of HTP when exposed to structural materials and therefore the compatibility of those materials'. The instrument provides heat flow values in terms of watts that may be converted to a reaction rate given the heat of reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. These values are then converted to percent active oxygen loss per week (%AOL/wk) to preserve an earlier convention for quantifying HTP compatibility. Additionally, qualitative designations of compatibility have been assigned to these values. This scheme consists of four classes with Class 1 being the most compatible. While historical compatibility data is available its current applicability is in question due to subtle changes in the compositions of both HTP and structural materials. Trace levels of molecules can have significant influence on compatibility. Therefore representative samples of materials must be evaluated with current HTP formulations. In this work seven materials were selected for their strength characteristics at high temperature as expected in a HTP injector. The materials were then evaluated by IMC for HTP compatibility.

  3. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schietinger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free-Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including a transverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunches of up to 200 pC charge and up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of an FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measurements performed during the operation of the test facility, including the results of the test of an in-vacuum undulator prototype generating radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet and optical range.

  4. Fabrication, Treatment and Testing of a 1.6 Cell Photo-injector Cavity for HZB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Kneisel, T. Kamps, J. Knobloch, O. Kugeler, A. Neumann, R. Nietubyc, J.K. Sekutowicz

    2011-03-01

    As part of a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) between Forschungszentrum Dresden (FZD) and JLab we have fabricated and tested after appropriate surface treatment a 1.5 cell, 1300 MHz RRR niobium photo-injector cavity to be used in a demonstration test at BESSY*. Following a baseline test at JLab, the cavity received a lead spot coating of ~8 mm diameter deposited with a cathode arc at the Soltan Institute on the endplate made from large grain niobium. It had been demonstrated in earlier tests with a DESY built 1.5 cell cavity the original design that a lead spot of this size can be a good electron source, when irradiated with a laser light of 213 nm . In the initial test with the lead spot we could measure a peak surface electric field of ~ 29 MV/m; after a second surface treatment, carried out to improve the cavity performance, but which was not done with sufficient precaution, the lead spot was destroyed and the cavity had to be coated a second time. This contribution reports about the experiences and results obtained with this cavity.

  5. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Schietinger, T.; Aiba, M.; Arsov, V.; Bettoni, S.; Beutner, B.; Calvi, M.; Craievich, P.; Dehler, M.; Frei, F.; Ganter, R.; Hauri, C. P.; Ischebeck, R.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Janousch, M.; Kaiser, M.; Keil, B.; Löhl, F.; Orlandi, G. L.; Ozkan Loch, C.; Peier, P.; Prat, E.; Raguin, J.-Y.; Reiche, S.; Schilcher, T.; Wiegand, P.; Zimoch, E.; Anicic, D.; Armstrong, D.; Baldinger, M.; Baldinger, R.; Bertrand, A.; Bitterli, K.; Bopp, M.; Brands, H.; Braun, H. H.; Brönnimann, M.; Brunnenkant, I.; Chevtsov, P.; Chrin, J.; Citterio, A.; Csatari Divall, M.; Dach, M.; Dax, A.; Ditter, R.; Divall, E.; Falone, A.; Fitze, H.; Geiselhart, C.; Guetg, M. W.; Hämmerli, F.; Hauff, A.; Heiniger, M.; Higgs, C.; Hugentobler, W.; Hunziker, S.; Janser, G.; Kalantari, B.; Kalt, R.; Kim, Y.; Koprek, W.; Korhonen, T.; Krempaska, R.; Laznovsky, M.; Lehner, S.; Le Pimpec, F.; Lippuner, T.; Lutz, H.; Mair, S.; Marcellini, F.; Marinkovic, G.; Menzel, R.; Milas, N.; Pal, T.; Pollet, P.; Portmann, W.; Rezaeizadeh, A.; Ritt, S.; Rohrer, M.; Schär, M.; Schebacher, L.; Scherrer, St.; Schlott, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schulz, L.; Smit, B.; Stadler, M.; Steffen, Bernd; Stingelin, L.; Sturzenegger, W.; Treyer, D. M.; Trisorio, A.; Tron, W.; Vicario, C.; Zennaro, R.; Zimoch, D.

    2016-10-26

    The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including atransverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunchesof up to200 pC chargeand up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of a FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measureme...

  6. Incremental Validity of the Subscales of the Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale for Predicting Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt, Ronald; Lindley, Kyla; Louison, Rebecca; Roe, Allison; Timm, Megan; Utinkova, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale (ERT Scale) assesses strategies students use to regulate emotion related to academic testing. It has four dimensions: Cognitive Appraising Processes (CAP), Emotion-Focusing Processes (EFP), Task-Focusing Processes (TFP), and Regaining Task-Focusing Processes (RTFP). The study examined the factor…

  7. Resonant Frequency Control For the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ: Control Framework and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Edelen, J. P.; Nicklaus, D.; Steimel, J.

    2016-12-16

    For the PIP-II Injector Test (PI-Test) at Fermilab, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is designed to accelerate a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA, H- beam to 2.1 MeV under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) RF operation. The available headroom of the RF amplifiers limits the maximum allowable detuning to 3 kHz, and the detuning is controlled entirely via thermal regulation. Fine control over the detuning, minimal manual intervention, and fast trip recovery is desired. In addition, having active control over both the walls and vanes provides a wider tuning range. For this, we intend to use model predictive control (MPC). To facilitate these objectives, we developed a dedicated control framework that handles higher-level system decisions as well as executes control calculations. It is written in Python in a modular fashion for easy adjustments, readability, and portability. Here we describe the framework and present the first control results for the PI-Test RFQ under pulsed and CW operation.

  8. Subscale Testing of a Ceramic Composite Cooled Panel Led to Its Design and Fabrication for Scramjet Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2004-01-01

    In a partnership between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Pratt & Whitney, a ceramic heat exchanger panel intended for use along the hot-flow-path walls of future reusable launch vehicles was designed, fabricated, and tested. These regeneratively cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panels offer lighter weight, higher operating temperatures, and reduced coolant requirements in comparison to their more traditional metallic counterparts. A maintainable approach to the design was adopted which allowed the panel components to be assembled with high-temperature fasteners rather than by permanent bonding methods. With this approach, the CMC hot face sheet, the coolant containment system, and backside structure were all fabricated separately and could be replaced individually as the need occurred during use. This maintainable design leads to both ease of fabrication and reduced cost.

  9. Physics design of a 10 MeV injector test stand for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The 10 MeV accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS Injector I test stand at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP is a testing facility dedicated to demonstrate one of the two injector design schemes [Injector Scheme-I, which works at 325 MHz], for the ADS project in China. The injector is composed of two parts, the linac part and the beam dump line. The former is designed on the basis of 325 MHz four-vane type copper structure radio frequency quadrupole and superconducting (SC spoke cavities with β=0.12. The latter is designed to transport the beam coming out of the SC section of the linac to the beam dump, where the beam transverse profile is fairly enlarged and unformed to simplify the beam target design. The SC section consists of two cryomodules with 14 β=0.12 Spoke cavities, 14 solenoid and 14 BPMs in total. The first challenge in the physics design comes from the necessary space required for the cryomodule separation where the periodical lattice is destroyed at a relatively lower energy of ∼5  MeV. Another challenge is the beam dump line design, as it will be the first beam dump line being built by using a step field magnet for the transverse beam expansion and uniformity in the world. This paper gives an overview of the physics design study together with the design principles and machine construction considerations. The results of an optimized design, fabrication status and end to end simulations including machine errors are presented.

  10. Optimizations of transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimjaem, S., E-mail: r.sakhorn@gmail.com [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Stephan, F.; Krasilnikov, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ackermann, W. [Technische Universtaet Darmstadt, Schossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Asova, G.; Baehr, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Gjonaj, E. [Technische Universtaet Darmstadt, Schossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Grabosch, H.J.; Hakobyan, L.; Haenel, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Khojoyan, M.; Klemz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lederer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Mahgoub, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Michelato, P.; Monaco, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate Milano (Italy); Nozdrin, M.; O' Shea, B.; Otevrel, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2012-04-11

    High brightness electron sources for linac based short-wavelength free-electron lasers are developed and optimized for small transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen (PITZ). A major part of the measurement program at PITZ is dedicated to transverse phase space optimization in order to fulfill the requirements of the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). A laser-driven RF-gun, treated with a dry-ice sublimation-impulse cleaning technique, a new photocathode laser system allowing short rise and fall times of the flat-top temporal distribution as well as several new diagnostic components have been installed at PITZ in 2008. The electrons generated via the photo-effect at a cesium telluride (Cs{sub 2}Te) cathode are accelerated by a 1.6 cell L-band RF-gun cavity with a maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode of about 60 MV/m. The transverse projected emittance is measured using a single slit scan technique. In the 2008-2009 run period, a detailed characterization of the projected transverse emittance was performed at different operating conditions. Optimizations and measurement results as well as simulation predictions of the transverse projected emittance for bunch charges of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 nC are presented and discussed in this paper. The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in both transverse directions for an electron bunch charge of 1 nC was measured to be 0.89{+-}0.01 mm mrad for a 100% rms phase-space distribution.

  11. Optimizations of transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimjaem, S.; Stephan, F.; Krasilnikov, M.; Ackermann, W.; Asova, G.; Bähr, J.; Gjonaj, E.; Grabosch, H. J.; Hakobyan, L.; Hänel, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Khojoyan, M.; Klemz, G.; Lederer, S.; Mahgoub, M.; Michelato, P.; Monaco, L.; Nozdrin, M.; O'Shea, B.; Otevrel, M.; Petrosyan, B.; Richter, D.; Rönsch-Schulenburg, J.; Sertore, D.; Schreiber, S.; Schnepp, S.; Shapovalov, A.; Spesyvtsev, R.; Staykov, L.; Vashchenko, G.; Weiland, T.; Will, I.

    2012-04-01

    High brightness electron sources for linac based short-wavelength free-electron lasers are developed and optimized for small transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen (PITZ). A major part of the measurement program at PITZ is dedicated to transverse phase space optimization in order to fulfill the requirements of the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). A laser-driven RF-gun, treated with a dry-ice sublimation-impulse cleaning technique, a new photocathode laser system allowing short rise and fall times of the flat-top temporal distribution as well as several new diagnostic components have been installed at PITZ in 2008. The electrons generated via the photo-effect at a cesium telluride (Cs2Te) cathode are accelerated by a 1.6 cell L-band RF-gun cavity with a maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode of about 60 MV/m. The transverse projected emittance is measured using a single slit scan technique. In the 2008-2009 run period, a detailed characterization of the projected transverse emittance was performed at different operating conditions. Optimizations and measurement results as well as simulation predictions of the transverse projected emittance for bunch charges of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 nC are presented and discussed in this paper. The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in both transverse directions for an electron bunch charge of 1 nC was measured to be 0.89±0.01 mm mrad for a 100% rms phase-space distribution.

  12. Characterization of the transverse phase space at the photo-injector test facility in DESY, Zeuthen site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staykov, Lazar

    2012-10-15

    High brightness electron beams with charge of 1 nC and low transverse emittance are necessary for the functioning of advanced light sources such as the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray FEL (XFEL). The photo-injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is dedicated to the optimization of such electron beams. At PITZ the electrons are produced using an RF gun cavity operated at accelerating gradients of up to 60 MV/m. The gun is equipped with a pair of solenoids for the compensation of the emittance growth due to linear space charge forces. This solenoid compensation scheme is enhanced with a properly matched TESLA type normal conducting booster cavity. The main tool for the characterization of the transverse phase space of the electron beam at PITZ is the emittance measurement system (EMSY). It employs the single slit method for the measurement of the transverse phase space distribution of the electron beam. In this thesis, the performance of the EMSY was optimized for measurement of low emittances in a wide range of photo-injector parameters including such that result in electron beams close to the XFEL specifications. First results on the characterization of the PITZ photo-injector with a gun operated at maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m are presented. This includes scans of the solenoid focusing strength, the initial beam size and the booster gradient. A comparison between results obtained at lower accelerating gradients is made with emphasize on the benefit of higher accelerating gradient.

  13. Sub-scale Waterflow Cavitation and Dynamic Transfer Function Testing of an Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Combined Inducer and Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, D. M.; Patel, S. K.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, Concepts NREC prepared for and performed a series of tests on a 52% scale of a version of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump under a Phase III SBIR with NASA MSFC. The test article was a combined inducer and impeller, tested as a unit. This paper presents an overview of the test rig and facility, instrumentation, signal conditioning, data acquisition systems, testing approach, measurement developments, and lessons learned. Results from these tests were presented in the form of two papers at the previous JANNAF joint propulsion conference, in December of 2011.

  14. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’) was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption. PMID:22935297

  15. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2012-08-30

    The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy-balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). A four-item automaticity subscale (the 'Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index'; 'SRBAI') was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  16. First Principles Modeling of RFQ Cooling System and Resonant Frequency Responses for Fermilab's PIP-II Injector Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, J. P.; Edelen, A. L.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Steimel, J.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we develop an a priori method for simulating dynamic resonant frequency and temperature responses in a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and its associated water-based cooling system respectively. Our model provides a computationally efficient means to evaluate the transient response of the RFQ over a large range of system parameters. The model was constructed prior to the delivery of the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ and was used to aid in the design of the water-based cooling system, data acquisition system, and resonance control system. Now that the model has been validated with experimental data, it can confidently be used to aid in the design of future RFQ resonance controllers and their associated water-based cooling systems. Without any empirical fitting, it has demonstrated the ability to predict absolute temperature and frequency changes to 11% accuracy on average, and relative changes to 7% accuracy.

  17. Sub-Scale Orion Parachute Test Results from the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- By 120-ft Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian P.; Greathouse, James S.; Powell, Jessica M.; Ross, James C.; Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura; Porter, Barry J.; Goulding, Patrick W., II; Zwicker, Matthew L.; Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    A two-week test campaign was conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80 x 120-ft Wind Tunnel in support of Orion parachute pendulum mitigation activities. The test gathered static aerodynamic data using an instrumented, 3-tether system attached to the parachute vent in combination with an instrumented parachute riser. Dynamic data was also gathered by releasing the tether system and measuring canopy performance using photogrammetry. Several canopy configurations were tested and compared against the current Orion parachute design to understand changes in drag performance and aerodynamic stability. These configurations included canopies with varying levels and locations of geometric porosity as well as sails with increased levels of fullness. In total, 37 runs were completed for a total of 392 data points. Immediately after the end of the testing campaign a down-select decision was made based on preliminary data to support follow-on sub-scale air drop testing. A summary of a more rigorous analysis of the test data is also presented.

  18. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.

    1979-12-01

    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  19. The Development of a Pin-on-Twin Scuffing Test to Evaluate Materials for Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Truhan, John J. [Caterpillar Inc.; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet stricter emissions requirements, advanced heavy-duty diesel fuel injection systems will be required to operate at higher pressures and temperatures and in fuels that have poorer lubricity. Scuffing, as a mode of failure, severely limits injector life, and new materials and processes are required to resist scuffing in these more stringent operating conditions. Consequently, there is a need to test the ability of candidate fuel system materials to resist scuffing in fuel-lubricated environments. This paper describes a pin-on-twin reciprocating wear test in which a cylindrical specimen slides, under load, across two fixed, parallel cylindrical specimens that are perpendicular to the axis of the upper sliding specimen. Cylinders of annealed AISI 52100 were tested dry and lubricated by Jet A fuel and on-highway no. 2 diesel fuel. The friction force was found to give a reliable real-time determination of the onset of scuffing as verified by the morphology of the wear scar. The scar width and surface roughness profiles either did not reliably detect the onset or were difficult to carry out with this geometry.

  20. DAMAGES TO INJECTORS IN DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Ignaciuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes damages to high pressure injectors used in common rail injection systems. The conducted analysis of their causes includes the diagnosis of injectors on a test bench and the results of microscopic research of damaged components. The tribological damages of high pressure injectors are local and cavitations pitting. The place of cavitations pitting are mainly check valves, where the reduction in the quantity of injected fuel is forming.

  1. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve fuel efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.

  2. Facility for the testing of the TFTR prototype neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughian, J.M.

    1977-07-01

    The design of the prototype neutral beam injection system for TFTR is nearing completion at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This paper describes some of the features of the facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where this prototype will be assembled and tested.

  3. A new biolistic intradermal injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

  4. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert; Tedder, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include 2D, planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects were tested.

  5. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  6. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  7. Redirecting by Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, a system that seeks to simplify the creation of distributed applications by injecting behavior on the communication paths between components. We touch on some of the ilities and services that can be achieved with injector technology, and then focus on the uses of redirecting injectors, injectors that take requests directed at a particular server and generate requests directed at others. We close by noting that OIF is an Aspect-Oriented Programming system, and comparing OIF to related work.

  8. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  9. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  10. The Heidelberg High Current Injector A Versatile Injector for Storage Ring Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hahn, R; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Welsch, C P

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Injector (HCI) was designed and built as a dedicated injector for the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg to deliver mainly singly charged Li- and Be-ions. After start for routine operation in 1999 the HCI delivered stable beams during the following years for about 50 % of the experiments with very high reliability. Due to the requirements from the experiment the HCI changed during that period from a machine for singly charged positive ions to an injector for a large variety of molecules as well as positively or negatively charged light ions. After successful commissioning of the custom built 18 GHz high power ECR-source at its present test location various modifications and additions were made in preparation of a possible conversion into an injector for highly charged heavy ions as a second phase. This paper gives an overview of the experience gained in the passed 5 years and presents the status of the upgrade of the HCI.

  11. Fuel injector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  12. Characterization of deposits formed on diesel injectors in field test and from thermal oxidative degradation of n-hexadecane in a laboratory reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Ramya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid deposits from commercially available high-pressure diesel injectors (HPDI were analyzed to study the solid deposition from diesel fuel during engine operation. The structural and chemical properties of injector deposits were compared to those formed from the thermal oxidative stressing of a diesel fuel range model compound, n-hexadecane at 160°C and 450 psi for 2.5 h in a flow reactor. Both deposits consist of polyaromatic compounds (PAH with oxygen moieties. The similarities in structure and composition of the injector deposits and n-hexadecane deposits suggest that laboratory experiments can simulate thermal oxidative degradation of diesel in commercial injectors. The formation of PAH from n-hexadecane showed that aromatization of straight chain alkanes and polycondensation of aromatic rings was possible at temperatures as low as 160°C in the presence of oxygen. A mechanism for an oxygen-assisted aromatization of cylcoalkanes is proposed.

  13. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  14. Energy recovery injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, V.; Petrov, V.M. [BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Atkinson, T.; Matveenko, A. [HZB, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-10-21

    This article presents a novel design for a superconducting rf electron injector that incorporates energy recovery. This concept relaxes the demands of high power input couplers, improves essential beam parameters and energy efficiency and reduces the overall cost of a compact energy recovery linac machine.

  15. The CESR injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng-Yang

    1997-11-01

    Wilson Synchrotron Laboratory is presently embarking on an ambitious project to upgrade the Cornell Electron- positron Storage Ring (CESR) for higher luminosity. In order to support this upgrade programme the CESR injector will need to be able to inject 9 x 5 bunches into the storage ring. The objective, then, of this thesis is to fully understand the injector so that we can make recommendations to achieve this goal. For the purposes of this thesis, we will define the injector to consist of all the elements from the gun to the end of linac section 1. During summer 1995, we had the opportunity to install a new flag and Faraday cup which enabled us to measure accurately the gun emission. A new beam position monitor (BPM) was also installed, and together with the flag enabled us to calibrate the BPM for transverse beam position measurements. With the BPM calibrated, we then investigated the transverse deflections of the bunches in the injector due to beam loading and wake field effects. Our investigation showed that with the beam steered into the electrical centre of the prebunchers, transverse deflections can be minimized. Our studies also looked into the present non-optimal bunching condition. Presently the bunches are injected at phase crest of prebuncher 2 rather than phase null. Our analytic calculations and computer simulations with PARMELA show that this inefficient bunching condition was adopted because both the gun voltage is and the linac field of section 1 are too low. In the final chapter of this thesis, we will discuss the recommendations needed for 7 x 5 bunch operation in the injector.

  16. Injector MD Days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2017-01-01

    The Injector Machine Development (MD) days 2017 were held on 23-24 March, 2017, at CERN with thefollowing main goals:Give a chance to the MD users to present their results and show the relevant progress made in 2016 onseveral fronts.Provide the MD users and the Operation (OP) crews with a general overview on the outcome and theimpact of all ongoing MD activities.Identify the open questions and consequently define - with priorities - a list of machine studies in theinjectors for 2017 (covering the operational beams, LHC Injectors Upgrade, High Luminosity LHC,Physics Beyond Colliders, other projects).Create the opportunity to collect and document the highlights of the 2016 MDs and define the perspectivesfor 2017.Discuss how to make best use of the MD time, in particular let the main MD user express their wishesand see whether/how OP teams can contribute to their fulfilment.

  17. Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule

    CERN Document Server

    Rathke, John; Bluem, Hans; Campisi, Isidoro E; Cole, Michael; Daly, Edward; Hogan, John; Mammosser, John; Neil, George R; Peterson, Ed; Preble, Joseph P; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Todd, Alan M M; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

  18. The KEKB injector linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, I.; Akasaka, N.; Akemoto, M.; Anami, S.; Enomoto, A. E-mail: atsushi.enomoto@kek.jp; Flanagan, J.; Fukuda, S.; Fukuma, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furukawa, K.; Hanaki, H.; Honma, H.; Iida, N.; Ikeda, M.; Kakihara, K.; Kamikubota, N.; Kamitani, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kawamoto, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Koiso, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Michizono, S.; Nakahara, K.; Nakajima, H.; Nakao, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ohsawa, S.; Oide, K.; Oogoe, T.; Otake, Y.; Sato, I.; Satoh, K.; Shidara, T.; Shirakawa, A.; Suetake, M.; Suwada, T.; Urano, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yano, Y

    2003-02-21

    An 8-GeV electron/3.5-GeV positron injector for KEKB was completed in 1998 by upgrading the existing 2.5-GeV electron/positron linac. The main goals were to upgrade its accelerating energy from 2.5 to 8 GeV and to increase the positron intensity by about 20 times. This article describes not only the composition and features of the upgraded linac, but also how these goals were achieved, by focusing on an optics design and commissioning issues concerning especially high-intensity single-bunch acceleration to produce positron beams.

  19. Injectors and Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper, we presented the Object Infrastructure Framework. The goal of that system is to simplify the creation of distributed applications. The primary claim of that work is that non-functional 'ilities' could be achieved by controlling and manipulating the communications between components, thereby simplifying the development of distributed systems. A secondary element of that paper is to argue for extending the conventional distributed objects model in two important ways: 1) The ability to insert injectors (filters, wrappers) into the communication path between components; 2) The ability to annotate communications with additional information, and to propagate these annotations through an application. Here we express the descriptions of that paper.

  20. SSME main injector 4000 Hertz phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    Several Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) have experienced very high acceleration responses measured in the main injector of the powerhead during static firings. Data from previous hot fire SSME tests relating to the 4000 hertz phenomenon were reviewed to provide a better understanding of the nature of this structural response. The objective was to technically understand the way this phenomenon works, recommend a fix and test the fix.

  1. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  2. Deterioration of the fuel injection parameters as a result of Common Rail injectors deposit formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes external and internal Common Rail injectors deposits formed in dynamometer engine simulation tests. It discussed not only the key reasons and factors influencing injector deposit formation but also the resulting way of fuel preparation and engine test approaches. The effects of external coking deposit as well as internal deposits two most common form types that is carboxylic soaps and organic amides on deterioration of the fuel injection parameters were assessed. The assessments covered both deposits impacts on quantitative and qualitative changes of the injectors diagnostic parameters and as a result on deterioration of the injector performance. Finally the comparisons between characteristic of dosage of one fuel injector before test and characteristics few injectors after engine tests of simulated deposit formation were made.

  3. Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the

  4. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  5. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  6. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  7. Experimental Results of an Electrostatic Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    injections in small engines to improve fuel-air mixing. Based on TDA Research and University of Colorado study of electrostatic injectors, this...qualitatively analyze the spray. The experiments in this project consist of baseline tests on an electrostatic in- jector designed by TDA Research Inc...Figure 2. In TDA Research’s initial study and this study, a downstream charge induction is utilized [1]. 3 Figure 2. Downstream charge induction

  8. Oxidation subscale of gamma-titanium aluminide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, R.; Verwerft, Marc; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Gronsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The subscale formed during high temperature rapid oxidation of gamma-titanium aluminum is revealed by transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis to consist of two phases: one hexagonal with unit cell dimensions a = 0.58 nm, c = 0.47 nm (+/- 0.005 nm), and a composition close to Ti6Al3O4; the

  9. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  10. Modeling Diesel Engine Injector Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heister, S

    2001-01-01

    Models have been developed to assess flow fields inside diesel injector orifice passages in order to increase our understanding of the spray formation process which governs performance and emissions in these engines...

  11. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    camera. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel injector, photo detector, JP-8, injector drive 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU...engine control unit ( ECU ) under different engine conditions for optimized engine performance and emission. Ideally, ton and toff are the times when...the fuel injection starts and stops. In reality, there is a delay time from the ECU sending command signal to the actual fuel injection called a

  12. Light-Weight Injector Technology for Cryogenic Mars Ascent Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihn, Huu Phuoc; Cramer, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary mission studies for human exploration of Mars have been performed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These studies indicate that for chemical rockets only a cryogenic propulsion system would provide high enough performance to be considered for a Mars ascent vehicle. Although the mission is possible with Earth-supplied propellants for this vehicle, utilization of in-situ propellants is highly attractive. This option would significantly reduce the overall mass of launch vehicles. Consequently, the cost of the mission would be greatly reduced because the number and size of the Earth launch vehicle(s) needed for the mission decrease. NASA/Johnson Space Center has initiated several concept studies of in-situ propellant production plants. Liquid oxygen (LOX) is the primary candidate for an in-situ oxidizer. In-situ fuel candidates include methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), and methanol (CH3OH). MSFC initiated a technology development program for a cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars human exploration mission in 1998. One part of this technology program is the effort described here: an evaluation of propellant injection concepts for a LOX/liquid methane Mars Ascent Engine (MAE) with an emphasis on light-weight, high efficiency, reliability, and thermal compatibility. In addition to the main objective, hot-fire tests of the subject injectors will be used to test other key technologies including light-weight combustion chamber materials and advanced ignition concepts. This state-of-the-art technology will then be applied to the development of a cryogenic propulsion system that will meet the requirements of the planned Mars sample return (MSR) mission. The current baseline propulsion system for the MSR mission uses a storable propellant combination [monomethyl hydrazine/mixed oxides of nitrogen-25. However, a mission option that incorporates in-situ propellant production and utilization for the ascent stage is being carefully considered as a subscale

  13. LHC Report: imaginative injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierre Freyermuth for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    A new bunch injection scheme from the PS to the SPS allowed the LHC to achieve a new peak luminosity record.   Figure 1: PSB multi-turn injection principle: to vary the parameters during injection with the aim of putting the newly injected beam in a different region of the transverse phase-space plan. The LHC relies on the injector complex to deliver beam with well-defined bunch populations and the necessary transverse and longitudinal characteristics – all of which fold directly into luminosity performance. There are several processes taking place in the PS Booster (PSB) and the Proton Synchrotron (PS) acting on the beam structure in order to obtain the LHC beam characteristics. Two processes are mainly responsible for the beam brightness: the PSB multi-turn injection and the PS radio-frequency (RF) gymnastics. The total number of protons in a bunch and the transverse emittances are mostly determined by the multi-turn Booster injection, while the number of bunches and their time spacin...

  14. CTF3 Drive Beam Injector Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082899; Doebert, S

    2015-01-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The main feasibility issues of the two-beam acceleration scheme are being demonstrated at CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). The CTF3 Drive Beam injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by the bunching system and two accelerating structures all embedded in solenoidal magnetic field and a magnetic chicane. Three sub-harmonic bunchers (SHB), a prebuncher and a travelling wave buncher constitute the bunching system. The phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system produces unwanted satellite bunches between the successive main bunches. The beam dynamics of the CTF3 Drive Beam injector is reoptimised with the goal of improving the injector performance and in particular decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and the beam emittance in transverse plane compare to the original model based on P. Ur...

  15. Analysis of the laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlhüter, Michael; Zhukov, Victor P.; Sender, Joachim; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    The laser ignition of methane/oxygen mixtures in a sub-scale rocket combustion chamber has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The ignition test case used in the present paper was generated during the In-Space Propulsion project (ISP-1), a project focused on the operation of propulsion systems in space, the handling of long idle periods between operations, and multiple reignitions under space conditions. Regarding the definition of the numerical simulation and the suitable domain for the current model, 2D and 3D simulations have been performed. Analysis shows that the usage of a 2D geometry is not suitable for this type of simulation, as the reduction of the geometry to a 2D domain significantly changes the conditions at the time of ignition and subsequently the flame development. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results shows a strong discrepancy in the pressure evolution and the combustion chamber pressure peak following the laser spark. The detailed analysis of the optical Schlieren and OH data leads to the conclusion that the pressure measurement system was not able to capture the strong pressure increase and the peak value in the combustion chamber during ignition. Although the timing in flame development following the laser spark is not captured appropriately, the 3D simulations reproduce the general ignition phenomena observed in the optical measurement systems, such as pressure evolution and injector flow characteristics.

  16. Description and Operation of the A3 Subscale Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.; Varner, D. G.; Grover, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the general design and operation of the A3 Subscale test facility. The goal is to provide the reader with a general understanding of what the major facility systems are, where they are located, and how they are used to meet the objectives supporting the design of the A3 altitude rocket test facility. This paper also provides the reader with the background information prior to reading the subsequent papers detailing the design and test results of the various systems described herein.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Characteristics of a Double-Base Swirl Injector in a Liquid Rocket Propellant Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah OMMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fundamentals of swirl injector calculation is investigated and new design procedure is proposed. The design method for double-base liquid-liquid injectors is presented based on this theory and experimental results. Then special conditions related to double-based liquid-liquid injectors are studied and the corresponding results are applied in design manipulation. The behaviour of injector in various performing conditions is studied, and the design procedure is presented based on obtained results. A computer code for designing the injector is proposed. Based on this code, four injectors are manufactured. A specialized laboratory was setup for the measurement of macroscopic spray characteristics under different pressure such as homogeneous droplet distribution, spray angle, swirl effect. Finally, through PDA cold test, the microscopic characteristics of injectors spray are also obtained and measured. The results, which will be explained in detail, are satisfactory.

  18. Ignition Delay Properties of Alternative Fuels with Navy-Relevant Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    10 Rocket lab testing apparatus ............................................................................22 Figure 11 Combustion chamber exploded...view, after [8]. ...............................................23 Figure 12 Injector flange, A) injector orifice, B) high pressure gas addition and...the fuel must “look, smell , and taste the same” [6]. Because of the Navy’s mission, it is critical that the switch to alternative fuels does not

  19. METHODS OF DIAGNOSING VEHICLE DIESEL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vrublevskyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the method, of diesel injector state estimation are presented. On the basis of the hydrodynamic accumulator of the fuel supply process, there were obtained recommendations on the selection of design and adjusting parameters of the stand for checking the injectors. The criteria for quantitative estimation of diesel engine injector estimation are determined.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food... DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a) Identification. An indicator injector is an electrically or gas-powered device designed to inject accurately an...

  1. Swirl injectors for oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle engines and hypergolic propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew R.

    Presented here are two efforts concerning the application of swirl injectors to rocket engine main chamber injectors. The first study was undertaken to develop a liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with new hypergolic propellants in conjunction with KB Sciences and China Lake. The second study focuses on gas/liquid swirl injectors typically used for main chamber elements in oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines. The design, development and testing of hypergolic liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) and non-toxic hypergolic miscible fuels (NHMF) are discussed first. Cold flow tests were conducted to measure the spray cone angle and discharge coefficient of the injector, and allow for comparison with theoretical predictions to evaluate the design model. The goal of this effort was to establish a method to design swirl injectors operating in a thrust regime of 35 lbf, characteristic lengths of 30 in, and c* efficiencies above 90%. A literature review of existing inviscid swirl models is provided. The bi-centrifugal swirler design process is described, along with the design features of the series of bicentrifugal swirl injectors that were built. Results from cold flow experiments are compared to the theoretical predictions of the models reviewed. Characteristic velocity (c*) efficiencies of 70-92% were measured. Next an introduction will be made to the transition of the study into the research regarding swirl injectors for the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The derivation of the baseline operating conditions is discussed. The liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LOX/H2) preburner and GOX/RP-1 injector design and hardware are detailed. Two alternative injector designs chosen

  2. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by

  3. Electron Beam Profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M [Fermilab; Fitzgerald, J. [Fermilab; Lundberg, C. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. [Fermilab; Blokland, W. [ORNL, Oak Ridge

    2014-01-01

    The long range plan for Fermilab calls for large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW for use in the neutrino program. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and generally relies on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and a similar device will be installed shortly in the Fermilab Main Injector. The Main Injector device is discussed in detail and some test results and simulations are shown

  4. Relating Unidimensional IRT Parameters to a Multidimensional Response Space: A Review of Two Alternative Projection IRT Models for Scoring Subscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Thompson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    A practical concern for many existing tests is that subscore test lengths are too short to provide reliable and meaningful measurement. A possible method of improving the subscale reliability and validity would be to make use of collateral information provided by items from other subscales of the same test. To this end, the purpose of this article…

  5. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... delivery systems required. Each steam locomotive must be equipped with at least two means of delivering water to the boiler, at least one of which is a live steam injector. (b) Maintenance and testing...

  6. Results of subscale MTF compression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen; Mossman, A.; Donaldson, M.; Fusion Team, General

    2016-10-01

    In magnetized target fusion (MTF) a magnetized plasma torus is compressed in a time shorter than its own energy confinement time, thereby heating to fusion conditions. Understanding plasma behavior and scaling laws is needed to advance toward a reactor-scale demonstration. General Fusion is conducting a sequence of subscale experiments of compact toroid (CT) plasmas being compressed by chemically driven implosion of an aluminum liner, providing data on several key questions. CT plasmas are formed by a coaxial Marshall gun, with magnetic fields supported by internal plasma currents and eddy currents in the wall. Configurations that have been compressed so far include decaying and sustained spheromaks and an ST that is formed into a pre-existing toroidal field. Diagnostics measure B, ne, visible and x-ray emission, Ti and Te. Before compression the CT has an energy of 10kJ magnetic, 1 kJ thermal, with Te of 100 - 200 eV, ne 5x1020 m-3. Plasma was stable during a compression factor R0/R >3 on best shots. A reactor scale demonstration would require 10x higher initial B and ne but similar Te. Liner improvements have minimized ripple, tearing and ejection of micro-debris. Plasma facing surfaces have included plasma-sprayed tungsten, bare Cu and Al, and gettering with Ti and Li.

  7. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  9. Hot-Fire Test Results of an Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged-Combustion Integrated Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. For the thrust chamber assembly of the test article, several configurations of new main injectors, using relatively conventional gas-centered swirl coaxial injector elements, were designed and fabricated. The design and fabrication of these main injectors are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF meeting. New ablative combustion chambers were fabricated based on hardware previously used at NASA for testing at similar size and pressure. An existing oxygen/RP-1 oxidizer-rich subscale preburner injector from a previous NASA-funded program, along with existing and new inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware, were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. Results from independent hot-fire tests of the preburner injector in a combustion chamber with a sonic throat are described in companion papers at this JANNAF conference. The resulting integrated test article - which includes the preburner, inter-connecting hot gas duct, main injector, and ablative combustion chamber - was assembled at Test Stand 116 at the East Test Area of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The test article was well instrumented with static and dynamic pressure, temperature, and acceleration sensors to allow the collected data to be used for

  10. Development of GOX/Hydrocarbon Multi-Element Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Muss, J.; Cheng, G. C.; Davis, R.; Cohn, R. K.

    2002-11-01

    In developing the advanced liquid rocket engine, injector design is critical to obtaining the dual goals of long engine life as well as providing high-energy release efficiency in the main combustion chamber. Introducing a swirl component in the injector flow can enhance the propellant mixing and thus improve engine performance. Therefore, swirl coaxial injectors, which swirl liquid fuel around a gaseous oxygen core, show promise for the next generation of high performance staged combustion rocket engines utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Understanding the mixing and combustion characteristics of the swirl coaxial flow provides the insight of optimizing the injector design. A joint effort of Sierra Engineering (Sierra) and the Propulsion Directorate of the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) was conducted to develop a design methodology, utilizing both high-pressure cold-flow testing and uni-element hot-fire testing, to create a high performing, long life swirl coaxial injector for multi-element combustor use. Several swirl coax injector configurations designed and fabricated by Sierra have been tested at AFRL. The cold-flow tests and numerical simulations have been conducted. The cold flow result provided valuable information of flow characteristics of swirl coaxial injectors. However, there are two important flow features of liquid rocket engines missed from the cold flow test: (1) the effect of combustion on the propellant mixing, and (2) the interaction of multiple injectors. The present work studies the hot flow environment specifically the multiple element swirl coaxial injector. Numerical simulations were performed with a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, FDNS. CFD results produced loading environments for an ANSYS finite element thermal/structural model. Since the fuels are injected at temperature below its critical temperature, the effect of phase change and chemical reactions needs to be accounted for in the CFD model.

  11. A new injector for the Rehovot Pelletron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollos, George; Kaim, Robert; Shachar, Yigal; Yurman, Yuval

    1988-05-01

    A 150 kV injector platform has been recently commissioned, which includes a switching magnet for three ion sources. The sources share common power supplies, and the wiring has been arranged to provide easy and quick switching between the sources. A new beam line, containing an electrostatic quadrupole triplet lens, connects the platform to the injector magnet. A short description of the injector is given and its benefits for accelerator operation are illustrated.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Twin Nozzle Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Milak, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fuel injectors for marine applications have traditionally utilized nozzles with symmetric equispaced orifice configuration. But in light of the new marine emission legislations the twin nozzle concept has arisen. The twin nozzle differs from the conventional configuration by utilizing two closely spaced orifices to substitute each orifice in the conventional nozzle. Injector manufacturers regard twin nozzle injectors as a promising approach to facilitate stable spray patterns independent of t...

  13. A medical risk attitude subscale for DOSPERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Butler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT is a widely used instrument that measures perceived risk and benefit and attitude toward risk for activities in several domains, but does not include medical risks. Objective: To develop a medical risk domain subscale for DOSPERT. Methods: Sixteen candidate risk items were developed through expert discussion. We conducted cognitive telephone interviews, an online survey, and a random-digit dialing (RDD telephone survey to reduce and refine the scale, explore its factor structure, and obtain estimates of reliability. Participants: Eight patients recruited from UIC medical center waiting rooms participated in 45-60 minute cognitive interviews. Thirty Amazon Mechanical Turk workers completed the online survey. One hundred Chicago-area residents completed the RDD telephone survey. Results: On the basis of cognitive interviews, we eliminated five items due to poor variance or participant misunderstanding. The online survey suggested that two additional items were negatively correlated with the scale, and we considered them candidates for removal. Factor analysis of the responses in the RDD telephone survey and non-statistical factors led us to recommend a final set of 6 items to represent the medical risk domain. The final set of items included blood donation, kidney donation, daily medication use for allergies, knee replacement surgery, general anesthesia in dentistry, and clinical trial participation. The interitem reliability (Cronbach's alpha of the final set of 6 items ranged from 0.57-0.59 depending on the response task. Older respondents gave lower overall ratings of expected benefit from the activities. Conclusion: We refined a set of items to measure risk and benefit perceptions for medical activities. Our next step will be to add these items to the complete DOSPERT scale, confirm the scale's psychometric properties, determine whether medical risks constitute a psychologically

  14. Review of Combustion Stability Characteristics of Swirl Coaxial Element Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine injectors using coaxial elements where the center liquid is swirled have become more common in the United States over the past several decades, although primarily for technology or advanced development programs. Currently, only one flight engine operates with this element type in the United States (the RL10 engine), while the element type is very common in Russian (and ex-Soviet) liquid propellant rocket engines. In the United States, the understanding of combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors is still very limited, despite the influx of experimental and theoretical information from Russia. The empirical and theoretical understanding is much less advanced than for the other prevalent liquid propellant rocket injector element types, the shear coaxial and like-on-like paired doublet. This paper compiles, compares and explores the combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors tested in the United States, dating back to J-2 and RL-10 development, and extending to very recent programs at the NASA MSFC using liquid oxygen and liquid methane and kerosene propellants. Included in this study are several other relatively recent design and test programs, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), COBRA, J-2X, and the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE). A presentation of the basic data characteristics is included, followed by an evaluation by several analysis techniques, including those included in Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis Computer Program (ROCCID), and methodologies described by Hewitt and Bazarov.

  15. "Moved by the spirit": does spirituality moderate the interrelationships between subjective well-being subscales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans-Stekhoven, James

    2010-07-01

    Despite the recent escalation of research into the spirituality and well-being link, past efforts have been plagued by methodological problems. However, the potential for measurement error within psychometric instruments remains largely unexplored. After reviewing theory and evidence suggesting spirituality might represent an affective misattribution, moderation modeling-with each subjective well-being (SWB) subscale as a dependent variable as predicted by the remaining SWB subscales-is utilized to test the assumption of scale invariance. These interrelationships were shown to vary in conjunction with spirituality; that is the analysis revealed significant spirituality x subscale interactions. Importantly, in all models the spirituality main effect was either nonsignificant or accounted for by other predictors. In combination, the findings suggest the interrelationship between the subscales rather than the level of SWB varies systematically with spirituality and casts considerable doubt on the previously reported "belief-as-benefit" effect.

  16. LHCb: Hardware Data Injector

    CERN Multimedia

    Delord, V; Neufeld, N

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger and Data Acquisition system selects about 2 kHz of events out of the 1 MHz of events, which have been selected previously by the first-level hardware trigger. The selected events are consolidated into files and then sent to permanent storage for subsequent analysis on the Grid. The goal of the upgrade of the LHCb readout is to lift the limitation to 1 MHz. This means speeding up the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or technologies and might also need new networking protocols: a customized TCP or proprietary solutions. A test module is being presented, which integrates in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a 10-Gigabit traffic generator, flexible enough to generate LHCb's raw data packets using dummy data or simulated data. These data are seen as real data coming from sub-detectors by the DAQ. The implementation is based on an FPGA using 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface. This module is integrated in the experiment control system. The architecture, ...

  17. Self purging dual fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savkar, S.D.; Leonard, G.L.

    1988-04-12

    A dual fuel injector is described comprising: a housing defining an interior bore having one end extending through the housing to the housing exterior, a pilot fuel inlet port, a first outlet situated in the bore, a first passageway coupling the pilot fuel inlet port to the first outlet, a slurry inlet port, a second outlet situated in the bore and a second passageway coupling the slurry inlet port to the second outlet, the first outlet being situated further from the end of the bore extending to the housing exterior than the second outlet; bias means; and a plunger slidably mounted in the bore.

  18. Hot-Fire Test Results of Liquid Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Preburners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.; Hulka, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. To supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the main injector of the integrated test article, existing subscale preburner injectors from a previous NASA-funded oxidizer-rich staged combustion engine development program were utilized. For the integrated test article, existing and newly designed and fabricated inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. However, before one of the preburners was used in the integrated test article, it was first hot-fire tested at length to prove it could provide the hot exhaust gas mean temperature, thermal uniformity and combustion stability necessary to perform in the integrated test article experiment. This paper presents results from hot-fire testing of several preburner injectors in a representative combustion chamber with a sonic throat. Hydraulic, combustion performance, exhaust gas thermal uniformity, and combustion stability data are presented. Results from combustion stability modeling of these test results are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF conference, while hot-fire test results of the preburner injector in the integrated test article are described in another companion paper.

  19. The Correlation of SCL-90-R Anxiety, Depression, Somatization Subscale Scores with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilay, Utku; Guclu, Bulent; Goksel, Murat; Keskil, Semih

    2017-02-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores with chronic low back pain. In this study, 75 patients admitted with the complaint of chronic low back pain (patient group) and 75 healthy persons (control group) were evaluated. SCL-90-R anxiety, depression, and somatization subscale scores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons were measured. The mean values were paired and using two tailed t test they were statistically evaluated. The difference between SCL-90-R anxiety subscale subscores of patients having choronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05).The difference betweenSCL-90-R depression subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically non significant (p 0.05). The difference between SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores of patients having chronic low back pain and healthy persons was statistically significant (p 0.05). Our data show that SCL-90-R somatization subscale subscores were higher in patients with low back pain. The treatment of low back pain can be more successful when combined with the treatment of somatization.

  20. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the ...

  1. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher ...

  2. Candela photo-injector experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Travier, C; Cayla, J N; Leblond, B; Georges, P; Thomas, P; Travier, C; Boy, L; Cayla, J N; Leblond, B; Georges, P; Thomas, P

    1995-01-01

    The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 500 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents energy spectrum measurements of the dark current and intense electron emission that occurs when the laser power density is very high.

  3. Injector machine development days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H

    2017-01-01

    Following the important progress made in 2016 in the Machine Development (MD) activities that took place in all the accelerators of the LHC injector chain, the days 23-24 March, 2017, have been devoted to summarise the main out- come from the MDs and lay out the plans for the next steps. The event was also triggered by the following motivations and goals: Give a chance to the MD users to present their results; Provide a platform in which MD users, MD coordinators and operations crews meet and discuss openly the optimisation of the MD time and procedures, taking into account of the different perspectives; Provide an overview of all the ongoing activities to better frame their impact in the broader picture of the CERN short and long term projects; Identify the open questions, define and prioritise ma- chine studies in the injectors for 2017; Create the opportunity to obtain and document written reports from MD users. Within this contribution, we just summarise the context and the main points discussed at the ev...

  4. The Mechanical Performance of Subscale Candidate Elastomer Docking Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for future exploration missions. The mechanism is a new state-of-the-art device for in-space assembly of structures and rendezvous of vehicles. At the interface between two pressurized modules, each with a version of the LIDS attached, a composite elastomer-metal seal assembly prevents the breathable air from escaping into the vacuum of space. Attached to the active LIDS, this seal mates against the passive LIDS during docking operation. The main interface seal assembly must exhibit low leak and outgas values, must be able to withstand various harsh space environments, must remain operational over a range of temperatures from -50 C to 75 C, and perform after numerous docking cycles. This paper presents results from a comprehensive study of the mechanical performance of four candidate subscale seal assembly designs at -50, 23, 50, and 75 C test temperatures. In particular, the force required to fully compress the seal during docking, and that which is required for separation during the undocking operation were measured. The height of subscale main interface seal bulbs, as well as the test temperature, were shown to have a significant effect on the forces the main interface seal of the LIDS may experience during docking and undocking operations. The average force values required to fully compress each of the seal assemblies were shown to increase with test temperature by approximately 50% from -50 to 75 C. Also, the required compression forces were shown to increase as the height of the seal bulb was increased. The seal design with the tallest elastomer seal bulb, which was 31% taller than that with the shortest bulb, required force values approximately 45% higher than those for the shortest bulb, independent of the test temperature. The force required to separate the seal was shown to increase with decreasing temperature after 15 hours of simulated docking. No adhesion

  5. Simulation of a GOX-kerosene subscale rocket combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglauer, Christoph; Kniesner, Björn; Knab, Oliver; Kirchberger, Christoph; Schlieben, Gregor; Kau, Hans-Peter

    2011-12-01

    In view of future film cooling tests at the Institute for Flight Propulsion (LFA) at Technische Universität München, the Astrium in-house spray combustion CFD tool Rocflam-II was validated against first test data gained from this rocket test bench without film cooling. The subscale rocket combustion chamber uses GOX and kerosene as propellants which are injected through a single double swirl element. Especially the modeling of the double swirl element and the measured wall roughness were adapted on the LFA hardware. Additionally, new liquid kerosene fluid properties were implemented and verified in Rocflam-II. Also the influences of soot deposition and hot gas radiation on the wall heat flux were analytically and numerically estimated. In context of reviewing the implemented evaporation model in Rocflam-II, the binary diffusion coefficient and its pressure dependency were analyzed. Finally simulations have been performed for different load points with Rocflam-II showing a good agreement compared to test data.

  6. Orbit and dispersion tool at European XFEL injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, N. G.; Castro, E.; Decking, W.

    2017-07-01

    Trajectory and electron beam size play an essential role in Free Electron Laser (FEL) obtainment. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion and orbit must constantly be controlled and corrected along the whole lattice. In this paper the principles underlying the orbit and dispersion correction tool, developed at DESY, are described. The results of its testing on European XFEL injector are presented.

  7. The patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis subscale of the KOOS (KOOS-PF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crossley, Kay M; Macri, Erin M; Cowan, Sallie M

    2017-01-01

    for patellofemoral pain have methodological limitations. This study aimed to develop a new subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis (KOOS-PF), and evaluate its measurement properties. METHODS: Items were generated using input from 50 patients...... and interpretability of the final version of KOOS-PF and other KOOS subscales. RESULTS: From an initial 80 generated items, the final subscale included 11 items. KOOS-PF items loaded predominantly on one factor, pain during activities that load the patellofemoral joint. KOOS-PF had good internal consistency (Cronbach......'s α 0.86) and adequate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.86). Hypothesis testing supported convergent, divergent and known-groups validity. Responsiveness was confirmed, with KOOS-PF demonstrating a moderate correlation with Global Rating of Change scores (r 0.52) and large...

  8. Investigation of gaseous propellant combustion and associated injector/chamber design guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, D. F.; Ito, J. I.; Kors, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Injector design criteria are provided for gaseous hydrogen-gaseous oxygen propellants. Design equations and procedures are presented which will allow an injector-chamber designer to a priori estimate of the performance, compatibility and stability characteristics of prototype injectors. The effects of chamber length, element geometry, thrust per element, mixture ratio, impingement angle, and element spacing were evaluated for four element concepts and their derivatives. The data from this series of tests were reduced to a single valued mixing function that describes the mixing potential of the various elements. Performance, heat transfer and stability data were generated for various mixture ratios, propellant temperatures, chamber pressures, contraction ratios, and chamber lengths. Applications of the models resulted in the design of procedures, whereby the performance and chamber heat flux can be calculated directly, and the injector stability estimated in conjunction with existing models.

  9. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  10. Ground tests confirm the promise of hypersonic propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Griffin Y.; Bencze, Daniel P.; Sanders, Bobby W.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a hypersonic hydrogen-fueled airbreathing vehicle capable of Mach 8 is examined. A modular dual-mode scramjet concept integrated with the airframe has been proposed. The research involved in the formation of this design is discussed. Particular attention is given to studies concerned with airframe integration; the evaluation of hypersonic inlets; and the analysis of viscous phenomena. The injector and combustor configurations of the modular engine, which is designed to operate as a ramjet and scramjet, are analyzed. The engine thrust performance of subscale engine modules was tested, and positive results were obtained. Simulation testing of a full-size model is being planned.

  11. Low-emittance thermionic-gun-based injector for a compact free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Takao; Ego, Hiroyasu; Hanaki, Hirohumi; Hara, Toru; Hasegawa, Taichi; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Inagaki, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Kondo, Chikara; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Matsui, Sakuo; Ohshima, Takashi; Otake, Yuji; Sakurai, Tatsuyuki; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Tajiri, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    A low-emittance thermionic-gun-based injector was developed for the x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility known as the SPring-8 angstrom compact free-electron laser (SACLA). The thermionic-gun-based system has the advantages of maintainability, reliability, and stability over a photocathode radio-frequency (rf) gun because of its robust thermionic cathode. The basic performance of the injector prototype was confirmed at the SPring-8 compact self-amplified spontaneous emission source (SCSS) test accelerator, where stable FEL generation in an extreme ultraviolet wavelength range was demonstrated. The essential XFEL innovation is the achievement of a constant beam peak current of 3-4 kA, which is 10 times higher than that generated by the SCSS test accelerator, while maintaining a normalized-slice emittance below 1 mm mrad. Thus, the following five modifications were applied to the SACLA injector: (i) a nonlinear energy chirp correction; (ii) the optimization of the rf acceleration frequency; (iii) rf system stabilization; (iv) nondestructive beam monitoring; and (v) a geomagnetic field correction. The SACLA injector successfully achieved the target beam performance, which shows that a thermionic-gun-based injector is applicable to an XFEL accelerator system. This paper gives an overview of the SACLA injector and describes the physical and technical details, together with the electron beam performance obtained in the beam commissioning.

  12. Low-emittance thermionic-gun-based injector for a compact free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Asaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A low-emittance thermionic-gun-based injector was developed for the x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL facility known as the SPring-8 angstrom compact free-electron laser (SACLA. The thermionic-gun-based system has the advantages of maintainability, reliability, and stability over a photocathode radio-frequency (rf gun because of its robust thermionic cathode. The basic performance of the injector prototype was confirmed at the SPring-8 compact self-amplified spontaneous emission source (SCSS test accelerator, where stable FEL generation in an extreme ultraviolet wavelength range was demonstrated. The essential XFEL innovation is the achievement of a constant beam peak current of 3–4 kA, which is 10 times higher than that generated by the SCSS test accelerator, while maintaining a normalized-slice emittance below 1 mm mrad. Thus, the following five modifications were applied to the SACLA injector: (i a nonlinear energy chirp correction; (ii the optimization of the rf acceleration frequency; (iii rf system stabilization; (iv nondestructive beam monitoring; and (v a geomagnetic field correction. The SACLA injector successfully achieved the target beam performance, which shows that a thermionic-gun-based injector is applicable to an XFEL accelerator system. This paper gives an overview of the SACLA injector and describes the physical and technical details, together with the electron beam performance obtained in the beam commissioning.

  13. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  14. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Randolph; Diamond, Bill; Fugitt, Jock; Bork, Rolf

    1989-09-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture was chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system was tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system was obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. The use is described of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun.

  15. Optimization of RF Compressor in the SPARX Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ferrario, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Spataro, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The SPARX photoinjector consists in a rf gun injecting into three SLAC accelerating sections, the first one operating in the RF compressor configuration in order to achieve higher peak current. A systematic study based on PARMELA simulations has been done in order to optimize the parameters that influence the compression also in view of the application of this system as injector of the so called SPARXINO 3-5 nm FEL test facility. The results of computations show that peak currents at the injector exit up to kA level are achievable with a good control of the transverse and longitudinal emittance by means of a short SW section operating at 11424 MHz placed before the first accelerating section. Some working points in different compression regimes suitable for FEL experiments have been selected. The stability of these points and the sensitivity to various types of random errors are discussed.

  16. Triaxial Swirler Liquid Injector Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sierra Engineering Inc. (Sierra) believes that the subject triaxial liquid propellant swirl injector has the potential to meet many of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO)...

  17. Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...

  18. Functional autonomy measurement system: development of a social subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsonnault, E; Desrosiers, J; Dubuc, N; Kalfat, H; Colvez, A; Delli-Colli, N

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subscale assessing social functioning for the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF). The development of this new dimension was based on consultations (focus groups and nominal groups) of experts from different health care disciplines in Quebec, Canada, and France. Two interrater reliability studies were carried out with older people presenting a loss of functional autonomy and living either in an institution or at home. With the focus groups, the experts clarified the definition of social functioning and identified the factors involved. The nominal groups were used to construct a subscale composed of six items. The results of the first interrater reliability study showed a mean agreement percentage of 60% for the subscale and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.70 (CI: 0.57-0.80). The results of the second interrater reliability study showed higher coefficients with an agreement percentage of 74% for the subscale and an ICC of 0.83 (CI: 0.61-0.93). These preliminary results demonstrate that the new social functioning subscale has good reliability, but more studies are needed to show its validity. The new SMAF, including the social functioning subscale, should help clinicians and researchers to obtain a comprehensive profile of functional autonomy. It could also contribute to the improvement of health care for older people.

  19. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, T. L.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Vanecek, D. L.; Westenskow, G. A.; Yu, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    We are constructing a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5″-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150 ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 π-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4 kA, 3 MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepperpot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  20. When should we perform a repeat training on adrenaline auto-injector use for physician trainees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, E; Bakirtas, A; Yilmaz, O; Karagol, I H E; Arga, M; Demirsoy, M S; Turktas, I

    2014-01-01

    Studies demonstrate that both doctors and patients may use adrenaline auto-injector improperly and the usage skills are improved by training. In this study, we aimed to determine the appropriate frequency of training to maintain skills for adrenaline auto-injector use. We invited all interns of 2011-2012 training period. At baseline, all participants were given theoretical and practical training on adrenaline auto-injector use. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups. We asked those in group 1 to demonstrate the use of adrenaline auto-injector trainer in the third month and those in group 2 in the sixth month. One hundred and sixty interns were enrolled. Compared with the beginning score, demonstration of skills at all the steps and total scores did not change for the group tested in the third month (p=0.265 and p=0.888, respectively). However; for the group examined in the sixth month; the demonstration of skills for proper use of the auto-injector at all steps and the mean time to administer adrenaline decreased (p=0.018 and padrenaline (p<0.001) and presumptive self-injection into thumb (p=0.029). Auto-injector usage skills of physician trainees decrease after the sixth month and are better in those who had skill reinforcement at 3 months, suggesting continued education and skill reinforcement may be useful. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Mixing Characteristics of Coaxial Injectors at High Gas to Liquid Momentum Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Hutt, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the spray of a swirl coaxial gas-liquid injector operating at high gas to liquid momentum ratios is reported. Mixing and droplet size characteristics of the swirl injector are also compared to a shear coaxial injector, currently being used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner. The injectors were tested at elevated chamber pressures using water as a LOX simulant and nitrogen and helium as gaseous hydrogen simulants. The elevated chamber pressure allowed for matching of several of the preburner injector conditions including; gas to liquid momentum ratio, density ratio and Mach number. Diagnostic techniques used to characterize the spray included; strobe back-light imaging, laser sheet spray imaging, mechanical patternation, and a phase Doppler interferometry. Results thus far indicate that the radial spreading of the swirl coaxial spray is much less than was reported in previous studies of swirl injectors operating at atmospheric back-pressure. The swirl coaxial spray does, however, exhibit a smaller overall droplet size which may be interpreted as an increase in local mixing.

  2. The LHC Lead Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

    2004-01-01

    A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7×107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

  3. Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucco, G., E-mail: gianluca.mazzucco@dicea.unipd.it [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Muraro, D.; Salomoni, V.; Majorana, C. [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rigato, W.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Inoue, T.; Takemoto, J.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ► Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ► Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization.

  4. An aerodynamic study of scramjet fuel injectors. [effect of injector thickness ratio on aerodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag and fuel distribution patterns of injectors designed for a supersonic combustion ramjet were measured at Mach numbers of 2, 2.5, and 3. The most significant parameter effecting the drag was found to be the injector thickness ratio. A two-fold reduction in the thickness ratio caused a 65 percent decrease in drag. Changing the injector sweep angle a factor of 2 resulted in only a small change in drag. A reversal of injector sweep, from sweepback to sweepforward, did not change the measured drag. Helium gas was injected through the struts to simulate the penetration and spreading patterns of hydrogen. Sampling measurements were made at approximately 2 duct heights downstream of the combustor. The spacing required between fuel injectors was found to be about 10 jet diameters. The effect of gas injection on the measured drag was found to be minor.

  5. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy-antiangiogenesis subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.92). Test-retest reliability was also good (0.72-0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Numerical Simulations of the Flame of a Single Coaxial Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor P. Zhukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of mixing and combustion in the jet of a shear-coaxial injector are investigated. Two test cases (nonreacting and reacting are simulated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX. The first test case is an experiment on the mixing in a nonreacting coaxial jet carried out with the use of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF. The second test case is an experiment on the visualization of hydrogen-oxygen flame using PLIF of OH in a single injector combustion chamber at pressure of 53 bar. In the first test case, the two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations are performed using the shear-stress turbulence (SST model. Due to the dominant flow unsteadiness in the second test case, the turbulence is modeled using transient SAS (Scale-Adaptive Simulation model. The combustion is modeled using the burning velocity model (BVM while both two- and three-dimensional simulations are carried out. The numerical model agrees with the experimental data very well in the first test case and adequately in the second test case.

  7. Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

    1981-02-01

    An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures.

  8. The Fermilab Main Injector Technical Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1994-08-01

    This report contains a description of the design, cost estimate, and construction schedule of the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) Project. The technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the FMI Project have already been established and may be found in the Fermilab Main Injector Title I Design Report, issued in August 1992. This report updates and expands upon the design and schedule for construction of all subsystem components and associated civil construction described in the Title I Design Report. The facilities described have been designed in conformance with DOE 6430.1A, "United States Department of Energy General Design Criteria."

  9. The transverse and longitudinal beam characteristics of the PHIN photo-injector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, Ö; Dabrowski, A; Divall, M; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Elsener, K; Fedosseev, V; Lefèvre, T; Petrarca, M

    2010-01-01

    A new photo-injector, capable to deliver a long pulse train with a high charge per bunch for CTF3, has been designed and installed by a collaboration between LAL, CCLRC and CERN within the framework of the second Joint Research Activity PHIN of the European CARE program. The demonstration of the high charge and the stability along the pulse train are the important goals for CTF3 and the CLIC drive beam. The nominal beam for CTF3 has an average current of 3.5 A, a 1.5 GHz bunch repetation frequency and a pulse length of 1.27 μs (1908 bunches). The existing CTF3 injector consists of a thermionic gun and a subharmonic bunching system. The PHIN photo-injector is being tested in a dedicated test-stand at CERN to replace the existing CTF3 injector that is producing unwanted satellite bunches during the bunching process. A phase-coding scheme is planned to be implemented to the PHIN laser system providing the required beam temporal structure by CTF3. RF photo-injectors are high-brightness, low-emittance electron so...

  10. Development and validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy–antiangiogenesis subscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Webster, Kimberly; Yount, Susan E; Wagner, Lynne I; Kuzel, Timothy M; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)–Antiangiogenesis (AntiA) Subscale was developed and validated to enhance treatment decision-making and side effect management for patients receiving anti-angiogenesis therapies. Side effects related to anti-angiogenesis therapies were identified from the literature, clinician input, and patient input. Fifty-nine possible patient expressions of side effects were generated. Patient and clinician ratings of the importance of these expressions led us to develop a 24-item questionnaire with clinical and research potential. To assess the scale's reliability and validity, 167 patients completed the AntiA Subscale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-general (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI), the FACIT-Fatigue Subscale, the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRC), and the PROMIS Global Health Scale. Patient responses to the AntiA were analyzed for internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change in clinical status. All tested scales were found to have good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.70–0.92). Test–retest reliability was also good (0.72–0.88) for total and subscale scores and lower for individual items. The total score, subscale scores, and all single items (except nosebleeds) significantly differentiated between groups defined by level of side effect bother. Evaluation of responsiveness to change in this study was not conclusive, suggesting an area for further research. The AntiA is a reliable and valid measure of side effects from anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:25619758

  11. Injector-Wall Interactions in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    Dec 2011. 14. ABSTRACT Tailored injectors near the wall of a combustion chamber are often an integral part of a rocket engine’s thermal...University Corvallis, OR 97331 ABSTRACT Tailored injectors near the wall of a combustion chamber are often an integral part of a rocket engine’s thermal...jets has already been well established. The effect of a wall on a multiphase flow, a spray, has not been established. Reported here is the impact a

  12. Needle lift profile influence on the vapor phase penetration for a prototype diesel direct acting piezoelectric injector

    OpenAIRE

    Payri, Raul; Gimeno, Jaime; Viera, Juan P.; PLAZAS TORRES, ALEJANDRO HERNÁN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Schlieren visualization tests have been performed for a prototype diesel common rail direct-acting piezoelectric injector, to understand the influence of fuel injection rate shaping on the vapor spray development under evaporative and non-reacting conditions. This state of the art injector presents a particular feature that permits full needle lift control through a parameter referred to as piezo stack charge level, enabling various fuel injection rate typologies. A fast camera...

  13. High current injector for heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 micro-s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (less than 5k Omega) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (approximately 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 micro-s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.

  14. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  15. Stability of beam in the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, C.S.; Harfoush, F.A.

    1993-08-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV protron synchrotron, designed to remove the limitations of the Main Ring in the delivery of high intensity protron and antiproton beams to the Tevatron. Extensive studies have been made to understand the performance of the Main Injector. In this paper, we present a study of the Main Injector lattice, which includes magnetic and misalignment errors. These calculations shows the Main Injector`s dynamical aperture is larger than its design value of 40{pi} mm mradian at injection.

  16. LIPAc personnel protection system for realizing radiation licensing conditions on injector commissioning with deuteron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroki, E-mail: takahashi.hiroki@jaea.go.jp [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kojima, Toshiyuki [Gitec Co. Ltd., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Marqueta, Alvaro; Nishiyama, Koichi [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sakaki, Hironao [Quantum Beam Science Center, JAEA, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan); Gobin, Raphael [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif/Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Personnel Protection System (PPS) is developed to adapt the radiation licensing. • PPS achieves the target performance to secure the personnel safety. • Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) is developed to manage the beam-operation-time. • Satisfying performance of PDMS is confirmed by injector operation with H+ beam. • By the result of PPS and PDMS tests, the radiation license was successfully obtained. - Abstract: The performance validation of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), up to the energy of 9 MeV deuteron beam with 125 mA continuous wave (CW), is planned in Rokkasho, Japan. There are three main phases of LIPAc performance validation: Injector commissioning, RFQ commissioning and LIPAc commissioning. Injector commissioning was started by H{sup +} and D{sup +} beam. To apply the radiation licensing for the Injector commissioning, the entering/leaving to/from accelerator vault should be under control, and access to the accelerator vault has to be prohibited for any person during the beam operation. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was developed to adapt the radiation licensing conditions. The licensing requests that PPS must manage the accumulated D{sup +} current. So, to manage the overall D{sup +} beam time during injector operation, Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) was developed as a configurable subsystem as part of the PPS. The PDMS was tested during H{sup +} beam (as simulated D{sup +}) operation, to confirm that it can handle the beam inhibit from Injector before the beam accumulation is above the threshold value specified in the radiation licensing condition. In this paper, the design and configuration of these systems and the result of the tests are presented.

  17. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  18. General design of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility deuteron injector: Source and beam linea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, R.; Blideanu, V.; Bogard, D.; Bourdelle, G.; Chauvin, N.; Delferrière, O.; Girardot, P.; Jannin, J. L.; Langlois, S.; Loiseau, D.; Pottin, B.; Rousse, J.-Y.; Senée, F.

    2010-02-01

    In the framework of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF-EVEDA) project, CEA/IRFU is in charge of the design and realization of the 140 mA cw deuteron Injector. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source operates at 2.45 GHz and a 4 electrode extraction system has been chosen. A 2 solenoid beam line, together with a high space charge compensation have been optimized for a proper beam injection in the 175 MHz radio frequency quadrupole. The injector will be tested with proton and deuteron beam production either in pulsed mode or in cw mode on the CEA-Saclay site before to be shipped to Japan. Special attention was paid to neutron emission due to (d,D) reaction. In this paper, the general IFMIF Injector design is reported, pointing out beam dynamics, radioprotection, diagnostics, and mechanical aspects.

  19. Experimental study of cleaning aircraft GTE fuel injectors using a vortex ejector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimov, O. A.; Piralishvili, Sh A.; Veretennikov, S. V.; Elkes, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The main ways of cleaning the fuel injectors and the circuits of jet and vortex ejectors used for pumping gas, liquid and two-phase media, as well as for evacuation of enclosed spaces are analyzed. The possibility of organizing the process of pumping the liquid out of the fuel injection manifold secondary circuit using a vortex ejector is shown experimentally. The regimes of manifold evacuation at various inlet liquid pressure values are studied. The technology of carbon cleaning fuel injectors using a washing liquid at various working process parameters is tested.

  20. Installation Status of the Electron Beam Profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Alvarez, M.; Fitzgerald, J.; Lundberg, C.; Prieto, P.; Roberts, M.; Zagel, J.; Blokland, W.

    2015-11-06

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and the installation of a similar device is underway in the Main Injector at Fermilab. The present installation status of the electron beam profiler for the Main Injector will be discussed together with some simulations and test stand results.

  1. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  2. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling of space-based orbit transfer vehicle cryogenic propellant resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defelice, David M.; Aydelott, John C.

    1987-01-01

    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for spacebased orbit transfer vehicles. As part of the NASA Lewis ongoing efforts in microgravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques were developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. Analytical results have shown that subscale experimental modeling of liquid resupply can be used to validate analytical models when the appropriate target temperature is selected to relate the model to its prototype system. Further analyses were used to develop a thermodynamic model of the tank chilldown process which is required prior to the no-vent fill operation. These efforts were incorporated into two FORTRAN programs which were used to present preliminary analyticl results.

  4. HELIOS, the Linac Injector of SOLEIL Installation and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Pottin, Bruno; Jousse, Dominique; Pastre, Jean-Luc; Pollina, Jean-Pierre; Setty, Andrew; Tordeux, Marie-Agnès

    2005-01-01

    HELIOS is the Hundred MeV Electron Linac Injector Of SOLEIL the new French SR facility. The Linac is constructed by THALES as a “turn key” equipment on the basis of SOLEIL's APD design. The Linac injector is composed of a triode gun (90 kV, 500 mA), a prebuncher (10 kV, 200 W), a buncher (SW, 15 MeV, 5 MW) focalised by a solenoid and two accelerating sections (TW, 2pi/3, 45 MeV, 12 MW) feeded by 2 klystrons (35 MW). The major Linac components have been previously tested at THALES factory and the installation on the site has begun from October 2004. After a brief description of the building construction, the tests of the Linac components and operating modes will be detailed. The commissioning with beam is planned on March; the results on beam qualities will be presented: energy spread, emittance, and beam dynamics along the Linac.

  5. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  6. The Design and Performance of a Twenty Barrel Hydrogen Pellet Injector for Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahn, John A.

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have led to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in-situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extensively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius. Line averaged density increases of up to 300 percent were recorded with peak densities of just under 1 times 10^ {21} / m^3, the highest achieved on C-Mod to date. A comparison is made between the ablation source function derived from tracker data with that predicted by four different variations of the neutral shield model

  7. LS1 Report: injectors 2.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

  8. Flash X-Ray Injector Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C

    2004-03-26

    The study described in this report1 models the FXR injector from the cathode to the exit of the injector. The calculations are compared to actual experimental measurements, table 1. In these measurements the anode voltage was varied by changing the Marks-Bank charging voltage. The anode-cathode spacing was varied by adjusting the location of the cathode in hopes of finding an island of minimum emittance (none found). The bucking coil current was set for zero field on the cathode. In these measurements, a pepper-pot mask was inserted into FXR at beam bug 135 and viewed downstream via a wiggle probe diagnostic at cell gap J21, figure 1. The observed expansion of the beamlets passing through the mask of known geometric layout and hole size allow a calculation of the phase space beam properties.

  9. Wakefield Computations for the Injector (Part I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.

    2010-12-13

    In this document, we report on basic wakefield computations used to establish the impedance budget for the LCLS injector. Systematic comparisons between analytic formulae and results from ABCI are done. Finally, a comparison between 2D and 3D wakefield calculations are given for a cross. The three parts of the document are presented as follows: (1) ABCI computations for a few structures (Flange, Bellows...); (2) Comparison analytic with ABCI runs; and (3) Comparison Cross and Cavity using MAFIA.

  10. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  11. Electron Gun and Injector Designs for State-of-the-Art FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Blüm, H P; Christina, V; Cole, M D; Falletta, M; Holmes, D; Peterson, E; Rathke, J; Schultheiss, T; Todd, A M M; Wong, R

    2005-01-01

    Reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation is a critical technology issue for energy recovery linac drivers of high-power free electron lasers (FEL). Advanced Energy Systems is involved in three ongoing injector programs that target up to 0.5 Ampere current levels at emittance values consistent with the requirements of the FEL. One is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. A 748.5 MHz injector of this type is being assembled and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) beginning in 2007. The second approach being explored is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun, presently under fabrication, will undergo thermal test in 2006 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Finally, a half-cell 703.75 MHz SRF gun is presently being designed and will be tested to 0.5 Ampere at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The status and projected performance for each of these injector projects is pr...

  12. STATE-OF-THE-ART ELECTRON GUNS AND INJECTOR DESIGNS FOR ENERGY RECOVERY LINACS (ERL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TODD, A.M.M.; AMBROSIO, A.; BLUEM, H.; CHRISTINA, V.; COLE, M.D.; FALLETTA, M.; HOLMES, D.; PETERSON, E.; RATHKE, J.; SCHULTHEISS, T.; WONG, R.; BENSON, S.; DALY, E.; DOUGLAS,D.; DYLLA, F.; FUNK, W.; HERNANDEZ-GARCIA, C.; HOGAN, J.; KNEISEL, P.; MAMMOSSER, J.; NEIL, G.R.; PHILLIPS, L.; PREBLE, J.; RIMMER, R.; RODE, C.; SIGGINS, T.; WHITLACH, T.; WISEMAN, M.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; CALAGA, R.; CAMERON,P.; CHANG, X.; HAHN, H.; KAYRAN, D.; KEW...

    2005-05-16

    A key technology issue of energy recovery linac (ERL) devices for high-power free-electron laser (FEL) and fourth generation light sources is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. Three ongoing programs that target up to 0.5 Ampere photocathode injector performance with required EFU brightness, are described. The first is a DC gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. Such a 748.5 MHz device is being assembled and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) beginning in 2006. The second approach is a high-current normal-conducting RF (NCRF) injector. A 700 MHz gun will undergo thermal test in late 2005 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which when equipped with a suitable cathode, would be capable of exceeding 0.5 Ampere operation. Finally, a half-cell 703.75 MHz SRF gun with a diamond amplifier and other cathodes, will be tested to 0.5 Ampere at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The status and projected performance for each of these injector projects is presented.

  13. Spray cone angle and air core diameter of hollow cone swirl rocket injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hussein Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Fuel injector for liquid rocket is a very critical component since that small difference in its design can dramatically affect the combustion efficiency. The primary function of the injector is to break the fuel up into very small droplets. The smaller droplets are necessary for fast quiet ignition and to establish a flame front close to the injector head, thus shorter combustion chamber is possible to be utilized. This paper presents an experimetal investigation of a mono-propellant hollow cone swirl injector. Several injectors with different configuration were investigated under cold flow test, where water is used as simulation fluid. This investigation reveals that higher injection pressure leads to higher spray cone angle. The effect of injection pressure on spray cone angle is more prominent for injector with least number of tangential ports. Furthermore, it was found that injector with the most number of tangential ports and with the smallest tangential port diameter produces the widest resulting spray. Experimental data also tells that the diameter of an air core that forms inside the swirl chamber is largest for the injector with smallest tangential port diameter and least number of tangential ports.ABSTRAK : Injektor bahan api bagi roket cecair merupakan satu komponen yang amat kritikal memandangkan perbezaan kecil dalam reka bentuknya akan secara langsung mempengaruhi kecekapan pembakaran. Fungsi utama injektor adalah untuk memecahkan bahan api kepada titisan yang amat kecil. Titisan kecil penting untuk pembakaran pantas secara senyap dan untuk mewujudkan satu nyalaan di hadapan, berhampiran dengan kepala injektor, maka kebuk pembakaran yang lebih pendek berkemungkinan dapat digunakan. Kertas kerja ini mebentangkan satu penyelidikan eksperimental sebuah injektor ekabahan dorong geronggang kon pusar. Beberapa injektor dengan konfigurasi berbeza telah dikaji di bawah ujian aliran sejuk, di mana air digunakan sebagai bendalir

  14. 3-D CFD Simulation and Validation of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion in a Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector using a Flamelet-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brian; Kenny, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Injector design is a critical part of the development of a rocket Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). Proper detailed injector design can maximize propulsion efficiency while minimizing the potential for failures in the combustion chamber. Traditional design and analysis methods for hydrocarbon-fuel injector elements are based heavily on empirical data and models developed from heritage hardware tests. Using this limited set of data produces challenges when trying to design a new propulsion system where the operating conditions may greatly differ from heritage applications. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional (3-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of combusting flows inside of injectors has long been a goal of the fluid analysis group at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the larger CFD modeling community. CFD simulation can provide insight into the design and function of an injector that cannot be obtained easily through testing or empirical comparisons to existing hardware. However, the traditional finite-rate chemistry modeling approach utilized to simulate combusting flows for complex fuels, such as Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2), is prohibitively expensive and time consuming even with a large amount of computational resources. MSFC has been working, in partnership with Streamline Numerics, Inc., to develop a computationally efficient, flamelet-based approach for modeling complex combusting flow applications. In this work, a flamelet modeling approach is used to simulate time-accurate, 3-D, combusting flow inside a single Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injector using the flow solver, Loci-STREAM. CFD simulations were performed for several different injector geometries. Results of the CFD analysis helped guide the design of the injector from an initial concept to a tested prototype. The results of the CFD analysis are compared to data gathered from several hot-fire, single element injector tests performed in the Air Force Research Lab EC-1 test facility

  15. Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

    1993-03-03

    An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is {minus}1.88 {plus_minus} 0.05 mm.

  16. Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

    1993-03-03

    An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 [plus minus] 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is [minus]1.88 [plus minus] 0.05 mm.

  17. Childhood depression subscales using repeated sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale - revised (CDRS-R) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Ameena; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-08-01

    Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65-0.91). As a result, the clinicians' assessments of the various symptoms became

  18. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  19. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CTF3 Injector Profile Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Burger, S; Lefèvre, T; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    The electron gun of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) produces 15.6µs long pulses with an energy of 140keV and a current that can be as high as 9A. For the nominal beam operation a 5.4A beam current is generated and sent downstream into the bunching system and the rest of the accelerator. The corresponding beam charge will induce a thermal load that most of the materials, considered as radiators, would not withstand. With this problem in mind, we have built a beam imaging system, installed just after the gun and equipped with two screens. The first one is a phosphorescent screen which yields a high signal and can be for low beam currents. The second screen, a thin graphite foil, is used as a forward OTR radiator and can stand the full beam intensity. Moreover, the time resolution of OTR is very good, in the femtosecond range. This allows the observation of the evolution in time of the beam size during the pulse by using a gated camera. We present in this paper the first results obtained using this system.

  1. Experimental characterization of CANDELA photo-injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travier, C.; Devanz, G.; Leblond, B.; Mouton, B.

    1997-02-01

    CANDELA photo-injector is made of a 2-cell S-band RF gun, using a dispenser cathode illuminated by a Ti : sapphire laser. This electron source provides a single bunch (at 12.5 Hz), with a charge of 1 nC and an energy of 2 MeV. After recalling the experimental set-up, this paper presents some results concerning mainly energy and bunch length measurements, and also comparisons with simulations done with the PARMELA code. Measured pulse durations of less than 10 ps show for the first time that dispenser photocathodes are "fast response" cathodes.

  2. Study of Cavitation/Vaporization in Liquid Rocket Thruster Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    is shaped like a tulip (concave) with the spray boundary turning inward to the axis of the injector. This spray angle oscillation is due to changes...the conical sheet boundary: a) Trumpet-shape and b) tulip conical sheet shapes at Pullage ~ 70 psia for short injector. Dynamic Measurement of Air

  3. Modeling of gaseous reacting flow and thermal environment of liquid rocket injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozer, Emre

    Reacting flow and thermal fields around the injector critically affect the performance and life of liquid rocket engines. The performance gain by enhanced mixing is often countered by increased heat flux to the chamber wall, which can result in material failure. A CFD based design approach can aid in optimization of competing objectives by providing detailed flow field data and an ability to feasibly evaluate a large number of design configurations. To address issues related to the CFD analysis of such flows, various turbulence and combustion modeling aspects are assessed. Laminar finite-rate chemistry and steady laminar flamelet combustion models are adopted to facilitate individual assessments of turbulence-chemistry interactions (TCI) and chemical non-equilibrium. Besides the experimental wall heat transfer information, assessments are aided by evaluations of time scales, grid sensitivity, wall treatments and kinetic schemes. Several multi-element injector configurations are considered to study element-to-element interactions. Under the conditions considered, chemical non-equilibrium effect is found to be unimportant. TCI is found to noticeably alter the flow and thermal fields near the injector and the flame surface. In the multi-element injector case, due to proximity of the outer row injector elements to the wall, wall heat flux distribution is also significantly affected by TCI. The near wall treatment is found to critically affect wall heat flux predictions. A zonal treatment, blending the low-Reynolds number model and the law-of-the-wall approach is shown to improve the accuracy significantly. Porous materials such as Rigimesh are often used as the injector face plate of liquid rocket engines. A multi-scale model which eliminates the empirical dependence of conventional analysis methods, is developed. The resulting model is tested using experimental information showing excellent agreement. The model development and assessment presented for both injector

  4. Geometrical characterization and performance optimization of monopropellant thruster injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Nada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of the injector in a monopropellant thruster is to atomize the liquid hydrazine and to distribute it over the catalyst bed as uniformly as possible. A second objective is to place the maximum amount of catalyst in contact with the propellant in as short time as possible to minimize the starting transient time. Coverage by the spray is controlled mainly by cone angle and diameter of the catalyst bed, while atomization quality is measured by the Sauter Mean Diameter, SMD. These parameters are evaluated using empirical formulae. In this paper, two main types of injectors are investigated; plain orifice and full cone pressure swirl injectors. The performance of these two types is examined for use with blow down monopropellant propulsion system. A comprehensive characterization is given and design charts are introduced to facilitate optimizing the performance of the injector. Full-cone injector is a more suitable choice for monopropellant thruster and it might be available commercially.

  5. Scenarios for upgrading the LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2007-01-01

    The presence of a powerful accelerator complex that could serve as injector has been instrumental in the decision to build the LHC at CERN. This existing complex has now confirmed its capability, having demonstrated that it is able to deliver beam with the nominal characteristics as well as numerous other types of beams which will be essential for tuning-in, commissioning and operating the future collider for physics in its first years. However it is also clear that the existing LHC injectors will not be able to deliver beam with the ultimate characteristics and that they suffer from reliability problems due to their age. An analysis has therefore been done by the working group in charge of "Proton Accelerators of the Future" (PAF) to determine a logical evolution of the accelerator complex, considering the needs of LHC and of the other potential future physics experiments at CERN. As a result, scenarios for a staged upgrade have been proposed, involving the progressive replacement of all the low energy accel...

  6. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab?s Main Injector Vacuum Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K.L.; Zwaska, R.M.; /Fermilab; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Palmer, M.A.; /Cornell U.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

  7. Krokodile Injectors in Ukraine: Fueling the HIV Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Robert E; Davis, Jonathan M; Brewster, John T; Lisovska, Oksana; Dvoryak, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the characteristics of krokodile injectors, a recent phenomenon in Ukraine, and HIV-related risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID). In three Ukraine cities, Odessa, Donetsk and Nikolayev, 550 PWID were recruited between December 2012 and October 2013 using modified targeted sampling methods. The sample averaged 31 years of age and they had been injecting for over 12 years. Overall, 39 % tested positive for HIV, including 45 % of krokodile injectors. In the past 30 days, 25 % reported injecting krokodile. Those who injected krokodile injected more frequently (p < 0.001) and they injected more often with others (p = 0.005). Despite knowing their HIV status to be positive, krokodile users did not reduce their injection frequency, indeed, they injected as much as 85 % (p = 0.016) more frequently than those who did not know their HIV status or thought they were negative. This behavior was not seen in non-krokodile using PWID. Although only a small sample of knowledgeable HIV positive krokodile users was available (N = 12), this suggests that krokodile users may disregard their HIV status more so than nonkrokodile users. In spite of widespread knowledge of its harmful physical consequences, a growing number of PWID are turning to injecting krokodile in Ukraine. Given the recency of krokodile use the country, the associated higher frequency of injecting, a propensity to inject more often with others, and what could be a unique level of disregard of HIV among krokodile users, HIV incidence could increase in future years.

  8. Vortex flow and cavitation in diesel injector nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, A.; Gavaises, M.; Arcoumanis, C.

    Flow visualization as well as three-dimensional cavitating flow simulations have been employed for characterizing the formation of cavitation inside transparent replicas of fuel injector valves used in low-speed two-stroke diesel engines. The designs tested have incorporated five-hole nozzles with cylindrical as well as tapered holes operating at different fixed needle lift positions. High-speed images have revealed the formation of an unsteady vapour structure upstream of the injection holes inside the nozzle volume, which is referred to as . Computation of the flow distribution and combination with three-dimensional reconstruction of the location of the strings inside the nozzle volume has revealed that strings are found at the core of recirculation zones; they originate either from pre-existing cavitation sites forming at sharp corners inside the nozzle where the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, or even from suction of outside air downstream of the hole exit. Processing of the acquired images has allowed estimation of the mean location and probability of appearance of the cavitating strings in the three-dimensional space as a function of needle lift, cavitation and Reynolds number. The frequency of appearance of the strings has been correlated with the Strouhal number of the vortices developing inside the sac volume; the latter has been found to be a function of needle lift and hole shape. The presence of strings has significantly affected the flow conditions at the nozzle exit, influencing the injected spray. The cavitation structures formed inside the injection holes are significantly altered by the presence of cavitation strings and are jointly responsible for up to 10% variation in the instantaneous fuel injection quantity. Extrapolation using model predictions for real-size injectors operating at realistic injection pressures indicates that cavitation strings are expected to appear within the time scales of typical injection

  9. Design and Fabrication of Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion Thrust Chamber Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. P.; Medina, C. R.; Protz, C. S.; Kenny, R. J.; Kelly, G. W.; Casiano, M. J.; Hulka, J. R.; Richardson, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. On the current project, several configurations of new main injectors were considered for the thrust chamber assembly of the integrated test article. All the injector elements were of the gas-centered swirl coaxial type, similar to those used on the Russian oxidizer-rich staged-combustion rocket engines. In such elements, oxidizer-rich combustion products from the preburner/turbine exhaust flow through a straight tube, and fuel exiting from the combustion chamber and nozzle regenerative cooling circuits is injected near the exit of the oxidizer tube through tangentially oriented orifices that impart a swirl motion such that the fuel flows along the wall of the oxidizer tube in a thin film. In some elements there is an orifice at the inlet to the oxidizer tube, and in some elements there is a sleeve or "shield" inside the oxidizer tube where the fuel enters. In the current project, several variations of element geometries were created, including element size (i.e., number of elements or pattern density), the distance from the exit of the sleeve to the injector face, the width of the gap between the oxidizer tube inner wall and the outer wall of the sleeve, and excluding the sleeve entirely. This paper discusses the design rationale for each of these element variations, including hydraulic, structural

  10. Accuracy and Repeatability of Automated Injector Versus Manual Administration of an MRI Contrast Agent-Results of a Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, Jan; Barbati, Ron; Scarpa, Marcella; Jost, Gregor; Ned Uber, Arthur E

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare flow rates over time and the deviations from the target flow rate of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent achieved by an automated injector versus manual injection. In this laboratory study, the magnetic resonance contrast agent gadobutrol was repeatedly injected by an injector and by 10 experienced technologists. Six scenarios with 2 different target flow rates (1 and 5 mL/s), 2 different contrast volumes (10 and 20 mL), and 2 different intravenous (IV) catheters (22 gauge and 20 gauge) were tested. The flow rates over time were recorded. The target variable was the average absolute deviation and average absolute percentage deviation from the target flow rate. The flow rates over time achieved by an injector were almost identical. Slight deviations from the target flow rate occurred during ramp-up and ramp-down only. Those of manual injection showed high variability over the whole course of the injection. In the 1 mL/s scenarios, the injector deviated from the target flow rate by 0.06 mL/s or less (≤6%) and in the 5 mL/s scenarios by 1.02 mL/s or less (magnetic resonance contrast agent minimally deviated from the target flow rate, whereas manual injection varied widely. Injector administration is more accurate and repeatable.

  11. Combustion and Performance Analyses of Coaxial Element Injectors with Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Jones, G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid rocket engines using oxygen and methane propellants are being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for in-space vehicles. This propellant combination has not been previously used in a flight-qualified engine system, so limited test data and analysis results are available at this stage of early development. NASA has funded several hardware-oriented activities with oxygen and methane propellants over the past several years with the Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program. As part of this effort, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted combustion, performance, and combustion stability analyses of several of the configurations. This paper summarizes the analyses of combustion and performance as a follow-up to a paper published in the 2008 JANNAF/LPS meeting. Combustion stability analyses are presented in a separate paper. The current paper includes test and analysis results of coaxial element injectors using liquid oxygen and liquid methane or gaseous methane propellants. Several thrust chamber configurations have been modeled, including thrust chambers with multi-element swirl coax element injectors tested at the NASA MSFC, and a uni-element chamber with shear and swirl coax injectors tested at The Pennsylvania State University. Configurations were modeled with two one-dimensional liquid rocket combustion analysis codes, the Rocket Combustor Interaction Design and Analysis (ROCCID), and the Coaxial Injector Combustion Model (CICM). Significant effort was applied to show how these codes can be used to model combustion and performance with oxygen/methane propellants a priori, and what anchoring or calibrating features need to be applied or developed in the future. This paper describes the test hardware configurations, presents the results of all the analyses, and compares the results from the two analytical methods

  12. Pharmacist Prescriptive Authority for Epinephrine Auto-Injectors in Idaho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Adams, PharmD, MPH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe recent legislation in Idaho that granted pharmacists autonomous prescriptive authority for epinephrine auto-injectors. Practice Innovation: States have taken action to increase access to epinephrine auto-injectors by allowing them to be stocked and prepositioned at locations where individuals may encounter allergens. All 50 states have allowed schools to maintain stock supplies of epinephrine auto-injectors and 26 states have allowed other entities, such as summer camps, daycare centers, gymnasiums, and restaurants to begin stocking product as well. In 2016, legislation in Idaho pursued entity stocking while simultaneously granting pharmacists autonomous prescriptive authority for epinephrine auto-injectors. Results: Idaho legislation granted prescriptive authority for pharmacists for epinephrine auto-injectors not just for individual patients, but also for authorized entities. No collaborative practice agreement is necessary. To receive an epinephrine auto-injector, an agent or employee of an authorized entity must present proof that they have completed an appropriate training program. Pharmacists are provided liability protections when prescribing in good faith to an authorized entity. Conclusion: Idaho’s legislation provides a potential model for pharmacist prescriptive authority for epinephrine auto-injectors that other states may consider pursuing in the years ahead.   Type: Commentary

  13. The development of the items-easy (Ie) and items-difficult (Id) subscales for the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, S Y; Archer, R P; Gordon, R A

    1993-06-01

    This research involves the development, validation, and cross-validation of the Items-Easy (Ie) and Items-Difficult (Id) subscales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992). These subscales were designed to assess the degree to which reading comprehension deficits may be responsible for significant elevations of validity Scale F and the standard clinical scales on adolescents' MMPI-A profiles. A difference score, bared on the two 13-item subscales, was created in order to compare subjects' responses to subsets of the more comprehensible (Ie) and less comprehensible (Id) items within the test. Hit rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power were calculated on the basis of simple (Id - Ie) and weighted (3Id - 1Ie) difference scores for the validation (N = 495) and cross-validation (N = 264) samples, and for specific high-F profile subsamples. Although some of the indices reflected classification accuracy as high as 95%, none of the indices yielded consistently high results across the various samples and subsamples. It has been concluded that the Ie and Id subscales should be used only for research purposes at this time.

  14. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  15. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  16. Comparison of the robustness and functionality of three adrenaline auto-injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Schwirtz, Andreas; Seeger, H

    2012-01-01

    Andreas Schwirtz, Harald SeegerPharma Consult GmbH, Vienna, AustriaBackground: Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires the intramuscular injection of adrenaline using an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI). This study compared the robustness and performance characteristics of three AAIs available in Europe.Methods: Three AAIs (Jext®, EpiPen®, and Anapen®) were tested in terms of the force needed to activate the AAIs, exposed needle length, injection volume, and inj...

  17. An Integrated Aerodynamic-Ramp-Injector/ Plasma-Torch-Igniter for Supersonic Combustion Applications with Hydrocarbon Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Lance Steven

    2001-01-01

    The first integrated, flush-wall, aero-ramp-fuel-injector/plasma-torch igniter and flame propagation system for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels was developed and tested. The main goal of this project was to develop a device which could be used to demonstrate that the correct placement of a plasma-torch-igniter/flame-holder in the wake of the fuel jets of an aero-ramp injector array could make sustained, efficient supersonic combustion with low losses and thermal loa...

  18. Computation of Cavitating Flows in a Diesel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.

    2010-11-01

    The flow inside Diesel injectors is important because of its effect on the spray and the atomization process in the combustion chamber. Due to huge stress at the orifice entrance, cavitation occurs in high-pressure Diesel injectors. In this study, we investigate numerically the cavitating steady flow in a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid and the standard k-e turbulence model are used to simulate the multiphase turbulent flow. The effects of some geometrical parameters on both the discharge coefficient and the vapor fraction are presented.

  19. Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniar, I. [Saint-Petersburg State Technical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sudo, S.

    1997-07-01

    New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

  20. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  1. A Nonlinear Dynamic Subscale Model for Partially Resolved Numerical Simulation (PRNS)/Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) of Internal Non-Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.

  2. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Automatic tuning of the LBL SuperHILAC third-injector transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pines, H.

    1983-03-01

    Testing of a new automatic tuning procedure in an LBL SuperHILAC beam transport line has been conducted with the third injector microcomputer control system. This technique is an advance over the sequential station-by-station automatic tuning method developed for the Bevalac transfer line. The computer now performs steering/focusing adjustments simultaneously on a number of quadrupole and dipole magnets comprising multiple-station sections of the injection line. New magnet currents are computed from equations governing beam optics in a real-time simulation of the beam line. The key to this emittance utilizing the same control magnets and beam profile monitors used for manual tuning of the line. This emittance calculation requires high resolution beam profile measurements using multi-wire profile monitors recently installed in the third injector line.

  4. Overview of the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B., E-mail: email@none.edu; Boilson, D.; Chareyre, J.; Choi, C.-H.; Decamps, H.; El-Ouazzani, A.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R.; Kushwah, M.; Roux, K.; Shah, D.; Singh, M.; Svensson, L.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-02-15

    The ITER baseline foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beams (HNB’s) based on 1 MeV 40 A D{sup −} negative ion accelerators, each capable of delivering 16.7 MW of deuterium atoms to the DT plasma, with an optional 3rd HNB injector foreseen as a possible upgrade. In addition, a dedicated diagnostic neutral beam will be injecting ≈22 A of H{sup 0} at 100 keV as the probe beam for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The integration of the injectors into the ITER plant is nearly finished necessitating only refinements. A large number of components have passed the final design stage, manufacturing has started, and the essential test beds—for the prototype route chosen—will soon be ready to start.

  5. Multi-phase simulations of coaxial injector combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, P. Y.; Ungewitter, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A multiphase computational fluid dynamics code (ARICC-3D) is presented and results of two simulations are discussed. The numerical framework of the CFD code is reviewed as well as some of the two-phase physical submodels. The simulations performed include a single coaxial element injector and a multielement injector using LOX/Hydrogen reactants. The single element injector simulation verified the interaction among the code's submodels. The multielement injector simulation transient results include the chamber response to a transverse pressure wave with and without a chamber baffle. The results of these simulations demonstrate the current capabilities and their limitations to model complex two-phase combustion phenomena. Possible ways to exceed these limitations are suggested.

  6. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  7. Swirl Coaxial Injector Development. Part II: CFD Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, G

    2002-01-01

    .... Therefore, swirl coaxial injectors, which swirl liquid fuel around a gaseous oxygen core, show promise for the next generation of high performance staged combustion rocket engines utilizing hydrocarbon fuels...

  8. Radiation Environments and their Impact at the CERN's Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    De Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    Mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its Injector Chain are responsible for failures on electronic devices located in the vicinity of the accelerator beam lines. These radiation effects on electronics and, more generally, the overall radiation damage issues have a direct impact on component and system lifetimes, as well as on maintenance requirements and radiation exposure to personnel who have to intervene and fix the faults. This note describes the different radiation environments present along the CERN’s Injector Chain and the expected evolution over the next years with the ongoing LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. The available dosimetry and beam monitoring systems used to assess radiation levels are presented, outlining their respective pros and cons. The interplay between Monte Carlo simulations and the available radiation monitoring in the Injectors is also presented.

  9. Applying posttraumatic stress disorder MMPI subscale to World War II POW veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Query, W T; Megran, J; McDonald, G

    1986-03-01

    In order to determine whether the MMPI-PTSD subscale has application for assessing DSM-III diagnosed PTSD among populations other than Vietnam veterans, a group of WWII POWs (N = 69) were given the subscale. Results indicated that the use of the PTSD subscale can be generalized to older veterans; in a small sample of Pacific POWs, PTSD is more common among those from the Pacific theater than those from Europe. However, the subscale fails to distinguish between Pacific and European POW veterans. Difficulties in sampling and confounding stressors are discussed, as well as implications for treatment of WWII veterans.

  10. Studies on Plasmoid Merging using Compact Toroid Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allfrey, Ian; Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Roche, Thomas; Gota, Hiroshi; Edo, Takahiro; Asai, Tomohiko; Sheftman, Daniel; Osin Team; Dima Team

    2017-10-01

    C-2 and C-2U experiments have used magnetized coaxial plasma guns (MCPG) to inject compact toroids (CTs) for refueling the long-lived advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. This refueling method will also be used for the C-2W experiment. To minimize momentum transfer from the CT to the FRC two CTs are injected radially, diametrically opposed and coincident in time. To improve understanding of the CT characteristics TAE has a dedicated test bed for the development of CT injectors (CTI), where plasmoid merging experiments are performed. The test bed has two CTIs on axis with both axial and transverse magnetic fields. The 1 kG magnetic fields, intended to approximate the magnetic field strength and injection angle on C-2W, allow studies of cross-field transport and merging. Both CTIs are capable of injecting multiple CTs at up to 1 kHz. The resulting merged CT lives >100 μs with a radius of 25 cm. More detailed results of CT parameters will be presented.

  11. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A., E-mail: alberto.valero@cern.c [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Hernandez, Y.; Higon, E. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Solans, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Torres, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Valls, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-11

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  12. Performance of the LHC Pre-Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Chanel, M; Garoby, R; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, S; Martini, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Schindl, Karlheinz; Vallet, J L

    2001-01-01

    The LHC pre-injector complex, comprising Linac 2, the PS Booster (PSB) and the PS, has undergone a major upgrade in order to meet the very stringent requirements of the LHC. Whereas bunches with the nominal spacing and transverse beam brightness were already available from the PS in 1999 [1], their length proved to be outside tolerance due to a debunching procedure plagued by microwave instabilities. An alternative scenario was then proposed, based on a series of bunch-splitting steps in the PS. The entire process has recently been implemented successfully, and beams whose longitudinal characteristics are safely inside LHC specifications are now routinely available. Variants of the method also enable bunch trains with gaps of different lengths to be generated. These are of interest for the study and possible cure of electron cloud effects in both the SPS and LHC. The paper summarizes the beam dynamics issues that had to be addressed to produce beams with all the requisite qualities for the LHC.

  13. LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Funken, Anne; Gilardoni, Simone; Goddard, Brennan; Hanke, Klaus; Kobzeva, Lelyzaveta; Lombardi, Alessandra; Manglunki, Django; Mataguez, Simon; Meddahi, Malika; Mikulec, Bettina; Rumolo, Giovanni; Scrivens, Richard; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A massive improvement program of the LHC injector chain is presently being conducted under the LIU project. For the proton chain, this includes the replacement of Linac2 with Linac4 as well as all necessary upgrades to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), aimed at producing beams with the challenging High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) parameters. Regarding the heavy ions, plans to improve the performance of Linac3 and the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are also pursued under the general LIU program. The full LHC injection chain returned to operation after Long Shutdown 1, with extended beam studies taking place in Run 2. A general project Cost and Schedule Review also took place in March 2015, and several dedicated LIU project reviews were held to address issues awaiting pending decisions. In view of these developments, 2014 and 2015 have been key years to define a number of important aspects of the final LIU path. This paper will describe the reviewed LI...

  14. Commissioning of helium injector for coupled radio frequency quadrupole and separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shixiang, E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu [SKLNPT and IHIP, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Ailing; Chen, Jia' er [SKLNPT and IHIP, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.

  15. Increasing the Precision of Subscale Scores by Using Out-of-Scale Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Kamata, Akihito

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the precision of subscale score estimates was evaluated when out-of-scale information was incorporated. Procedures that incorporated out-of-scale information and only information within a subscale were compared through a series of simulations. It was revealed that more information (i.e., more precision) was always provided for…

  16. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  17. Combustion Stability Analyses of Coaxial Element Injectors with Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid rocket engines using oxygen and methane propellants are being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for in-space vehicles. This propellant combination has not been previously used in a flight-qualified engine system, so limited test data and analysis results are available at this stage of early development. NASA has funded several hardware-oriented activities with oxygen and methane propellants over the past several years with the Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program. As part of this effort, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted combustion stability analyses of several of the configurations. This paper presents test data and analyses of combustion stability from the recent PCAD-funded test programs at the NASA MSFC. These test programs used swirl coaxial element injectors with liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants. Oxygen was injected conventionally in the center of the coaxial element, and swirl was provided by tangential entry slots. Injectors with 28-element and 40-element patterns were tested with several configurations of combustion chambers, including ablative and calorimeter spool sections, and several configurations of fuel injection design. Low frequency combustion instability (chug) occurred with both injectors, and high-frequency combustion instability occurred at the first tangential (1T) transverse mode with the 40-element injector. In most tests, a transition between high-amplitude chug with gaseous methane flow and low-amplitude chug with liquid methane flow was readily observed. Chug analyses of both conditions were conducted using techniques from Wenzel and Szuch and from the Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis (ROCCID) code. The 1T mode instability occurred in several tests and was apparent by high-frequency pressure measurements as well as dramatic increases in calorimeter-measured heat flux

  18. Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

    2011-12-31

    This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or

  19. Performance of the Time Resolved Spectrometer for the 5 MeV Photo-Injector PHIN

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegaard, M; Mete, O; Csatari, M; Dabrowski, A; Dobert, S; Lefevre, T; Petrarca, M

    2011-01-01

    The PHIN photo-injector test facility is being commissioned at CERN to demonstrate the capability to produce the required beam for the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3), which includes the production of a 3.5A stable beam, bunched at 1.5 GHz with a relative energy spread of less than 1%. A 90◦ spectrometer is instrumented with an OTR screen coupled to a gated intensified camera, followed by a segmented beam dump for time resolved energy measurements. The following paper describes the transverse and temporal resolution of the instrumentation with an outlook towards single-bunch energy measurements.

  20. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  1. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Papaphilippou, Y

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 will be presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LIU project. 2012 MDs will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided.

  2. Parametric Design of Injectors for LDI-3 Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Mongia, Hukam; Lee, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Application of a partially calibrated National Combustion Code (NCC) for providing guidance in the design of the 3rd generation of the Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) multi-element combustion configuration (LDI-3) is summarized. NCC was used to perform non-reacting and two-phase reacting flow computations on several LDI-3 injector configurations in a single-element and a five-element injector array. All computations were performed with a consistent approach for mesh-generation, turbulence, spray simulations, ignition and chemical kinetics-modeling. Both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the computed flowfield characteristics of the several design options led to selection of an optimal injector LDI- 3 design that met all the requirements including effective area, aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing criteria. Computed LDI-3 emissions (namely, NOx, CO and UHC) will be compared with the prior generation LDI- 2 combustor experimental data at relevant engine cycle conditions.

  3. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  4. Simulations of space charge in the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-03-01

    The Fermilab Project X plan for future high intensity operation relies on the Main Injector as the engine for delivering protons in the 60-120 GeV energy range. Project X plans call for increasing the number of protons per Main Injector bunch from the current value of 1.0 x 10{sup 11} to 3.0 x 10{sup 11}. Space charge effects at the injection energy of 8 GeV have the potential to seriously disrupt operations. We report on ongoing simulation efforts with Synergia, MARYLIE/Impact, and IMPACT, which provide comprehensive capabilities for parallel, multi-physics modeling of beam dynamics in the Main Injector including 3D space-charge effects.

  5. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  6. Highly charged ion injector in the terminal of tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M; Asozu, T; Nakanoya, T; Kutsukake, K; Hanashima, S; Takeuchi, S, E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Nuclear Science Research Institute, Tandem Accelerator Section 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    A highly charged heavy ion injector using an all permanent magnet type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed in the high voltage terminal of the vertical and folded type 20UR Pelletron tandem accelerator at Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Tokai. The new in-terminal injector made it possible to accelerate highly charged heavy ions which have not been obtained from the tandem accelerator. Beam energy and beam intensity have been remarkably increased and the noble gas ion beams have become available.

  7. Continuous multiple injections at the Fermilab Main Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Ng

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of slip stacking, an alternate method of doubling the linear intensity of the Fermilab Main Injector is discussed. This method makes use of rf barriers to transfer 12 booster batches from the Fermilab Booster to the Main Injector in 12 consecutive booster cycles, totaling 800 ms. After that, adiabatic capture of the beam into 53 MHz buckets can be accomplished in about 10 ms. Because the beam is debunched during the injection process and no rf voltage is required, the beam loading voltages in the rf cavities are small and can be eliminated by a combination of counterphasing and mechanical shorts.

  8. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  9. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M; Wu, Xiuyun; Hopman, Wilma; Mayo, Nancy; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Liu, Juxin; Prior, Jerilynn C; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Josse, Robert G; Towheed, Tanveer E; Davison, K Shawn; Sawatzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF), which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent) level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF) and mental health (MH) sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample. Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health) produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects. The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size. SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression of the Neck Disability Index: Assessment If Subscales Are Equally Relevant in Whiplash and Nonspecific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Milam, Bryce; Meylor, Jade; Manning, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Because of previously published recommendations to modify the Neck Disability Index (NDI), we evaluated the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. Subjects who had sustained whiplash injuries of grade 2 or higher completed an NDI questionnaire. There were 123 subjects (55% female, of which 36% had recovered and 64% had chronic symptoms. NDI subscales were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, considering only the subscales and, secondly, using sex as an 11th variable. The subscales were also tested with multiple linear regression modeling using the total score as a target variable. When considering only the 10 NDI subscales, only a single factor emerged, with an eigenvalue of 5.4, explaining 53.7% of the total variance. Strong correlation (> .55) (P Multiple linear regression modeling revealed high internal consistency with all coefficients reaching significance (P < .0001). The 4 NDI subscales exerting the greatest effect were, in decreasing order, Sleeping, Lifting, Headaches, and Pain Intensity. A 2-factor model of the NDI is not justified based on our results, and in this population of whiplash subjects, the NDI was unidimensional, demonstrating high internal consistency and supporting the original validation study of Vernon and Mior.

  11. Design and Analysis of Subscale and Full-Scale Buckling-Critical Cylinders for Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Rankin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project has the goal of developing new analysis-based shell buckling design factors (knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale levels. This paper describes the design and analysis of three different orthogrid-stiffeNed metallic cylindrical-shell test articles. Two of the test articles are 8-ft-diameter, 6-ft-long test articles, and one test article is a 27.5-ft-diameter, 20-ft-long Space Shuttle External Tank-derived test article.

  12. The Subjective Index for Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO in Stroke: investigation of its subscale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steve

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and valid measures of the impact of a stroke on integration are required in health and social settings. The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO is one such measure. However, there are questions whether scores can be summed into a total score or whether subscale scores should be calculated. This paper aims to provide clarity on the internal construct validity of the subscales and the total scale. Methods SIPSO data were collected as part of two parallel surveys of the met and unmet needs of 445 younger people (aged 18-65 with non-recent stroke (at least one year and living at home. Factor, Mokken and Rasch analysis were used. Results Factor analysis supported a two factor structure (explaining 68% of the variance as did the Mokken analysis (overall Loevinger coefficient 0.77 for the Physical Integration subscale; 0.51 for the Social Integration subscale. Both subscales fitted the Rasch model (P > 0.01 after adjusting for some observed differential item functioning. The 10-items together did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions The SIPSO subscales are valid for use with stroke patients of working age but the total SIPSO is not. The conversion table can be used by clinicians and researchers to convert ordinal data to interval level prior to mathematical operations and other parametric procedures. Further work is required to explore the occurrence of bias by gender for some of the items.

  13. Development of Advanced Low Emission Injectors and High-Bandwidth Fuel Flow Modulation Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Parker Hannifin Corporation developed the 3-Zone fuel nozzle for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program to meet NASAs target of 75 LTO NOx reduction from CAEP6 regulation. The nozzle concept was envisioned as a drop-in replacement for currently used fuel nozzle stem, and is built up from laminates to provide energetic mixing suitable for lean direct injection mode at high combustor pressure. A high frequency fuel valve was also developed to provide fuel modulation for the pilot injector. Final testing result shows the LTO NOx level falling just shy of NASAs goal at 31.

  14. Scaling study of the combustion performance of gas—gas rocket injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Cai, Guo-Biao; Jin, Ping

    2011-10-01

    To obtain the key subelements that may influence the scaling of gas—gas injector combustor performance, the combustion performance subelements in a liquid propellant rocket engine combustor are initially analysed based on the results of a previous study on the scaling of a gas—gas combustion flowfield. Analysis indicates that inner wall friction loss and heat-flux loss are two key issues in gaining the scaling criterion of the combustion performance. The similarity conditions of the inner wall friction loss and heat-flux loss in a gas—gas combustion chamber are obtained by theoretical analyses. Then the theoretical scaling criterion was obtained for the combustion performance, but it proved to be impractical. The criterion conditions, the wall friction and the heat flux are further analysed in detail to obtain the specific engineering scaling criterion of the combustion performance. The results indicate that when the inner flowfields in the combustors are similar, the combustor wall shear stress will have similar distributions qualitatively and will be directly proportional to pc0.8dt-0.2 quantitatively. In addition, the combustion peformance will remain unchanged. Furthermore, multi-element injector chambers with different geometric sizes and at different pressures are numerically simulated and the wall shear stress and combustion efficiencies are solved and compared with each other. A multielement injector chamber is designed and hot-fire tested at several chamber pressures and the combustion performances are measured in a total of nine hot-fire tests. The numerical and experimental results verified the similarities among combustor wall shear stress and combustion performances at different chamber pressures and geometries, with the criterion applied.

  15. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  16. Magnesium Film Photocathodes for High Brilliance Electron Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tazzioli, Franco; Cialdi, Simone; Cultrera, Luca; Gatti, Giancarlo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Perrone, Alessio; Rossi, Marco; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Vicario, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Advanced high brilliance electron injectors require photocathodes having low thermal emittance, high quantum efficiency (QE) and prompt response. They should be easy to handle and capable of working in the very high electric fileds of a RF gun. Magnesium films deposited by laser ablation and sputtering techniques are discussed and QE measurements are presented.

  17. The Effect of Resistance on Rocket Injector Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability, where unsteady heat release couples with acoustic modes, has long been an area of concern in liquid rocket engines. Accurate modeling of the acoustic normal modes of the combustion chamber is important to understanding and preventing combustion instability. The injector resistance can have a significant influence on the chamber normal mode shape, and hence on the system stability.

  18. Construction of a thermodesorption injector for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    A detailed description for the do-it-yourself construction of a high-performance thermodesorption GC injector (HPTI) is presented. The injector consists of a heated desorption chamber, a cooled loop for focusing the desorbed volatiles as well as a heating control for sample injection into the separation column. The gas flow is controlled by valve switching during the steps of the operation. Two versions of the injector function either for the injection of highly volatile compounds or for compounds with extremely low volatility, e.g. lubricants. The sophisticated gas flow management allows injection of highly concentrated samples without memory effects in a sample gas split mode, while traces may be injected with virtually 1:1 sample transfer. A wide range of adsorbents appropriate for the compounds can be chosen due to homemade adsorbent tubes and the achievability of high desorption temperature. Solutions may be injected from a carrier material after solvent evaporation. The HPTI fulfills all multipurpose GC injector requirements and with the support of downloadable instruction files can be built by anyone working with conventional GC devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain - POSTPONED!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB The lectures are postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  20. Commissioning of the 123 MeV injector for 12 GeV CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Hofler, Alicia S. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Kazimi, Reza [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The upgrade of CEBAF to 12GeV included modifications to the injector portion of the accelerator. These changes included the doubling of the injection energy and relocation of the final transport elements to accommodate changes in the CEBAF recirculation arcs. This paper will describe the design changes and the modelling of the new 12GeV CEBAF injector. Stray magnetic fields have been a known issue for the 6 GeV CEBAF injector, the results of modelling the new 12GeV injector and the resulting changes implemented to mitigate this issue are described in this paper. The results of beam commissioning of the injector are also presented.

  1. Characterization of a swept-strut hydrogen fuel-injector for scramjet applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.; Trexler, C. A.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of a swept-strut hydrogen fuel-injector simulating the center strut of a three strut scramjet module at Mach 6 flight conditions are presented. Detailed wall pressure distributions from over 100 separate tests with overall fuel flow from 0.1 to 1.3 times stoichiometric and test gas stagnation temperature from 1100 to 2400 K were recorded. The distance for pressure rise from the point of injection was found to increase with increasing test stagnation temperature. This trend indicates that chemical kinetics in the immediate region of perpendicular injection are not likely to be the mechanism controlling the onset of pressure rise. A fluid dynamic mechanism is suggested involving separation of the boundary layer downstream of injection which is forced upstream from the trailing edge by pressure rise due to combustion occurring in the base region of the strut. The results obtained indicate that the swept-strut fuel-injector concept can be adapted to a wide range of flight conditions by varying the amount of perpendicular fuel injection.

  2. Comparison of JP-8 Sprays from a Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector and a Common Rail Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    investigated are found on a Caterpillar C7 engine and they are installed at an angle in the cylinder head . To direct the fuel toward the piston , the nozzle...the oil from the engine to pressurize the fuel for injection. The engine oil passes to an intensifier piston and plunger inside the injector which

  3. CryoModule Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CMTFis able to test complete SRF cryomodules at cryogenic operating temperatures and with RF Power. CMTF will house the PIP-II Injector Experiment allowing test of...

  4. Subscales of the vestibular activities and participation questionnaire could be applied across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alshebber, Kefah; Strobl, Ralf; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-momani, Murad O; Furman, Joseph M; Grill, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the objectivity, cross-cultural validity, and convergent validity of the Vestibular Activities and Participation (VAP) questionnaire among four countries, Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in four specialized outpatient dizziness clinics in Germany, United States, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. A total of 453 participants were included in the study. The Rasch analysis revealed two separate subscales. Subscale 1 items included focusing attention, lying down, standing, bending, lifting and carrying objects, and sports. Subscale 2 items included walking long distances, climbing, running, moving around within buildings other than home, using transportation, and driving. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the summary score of the VAP subscale 1 was 0.66 and was 0.64 for subscale 2. Owing to its shortness and intercultural adaptability, the new two-scale version of the VAP questionnaire lends itself to clinical practice and research across countries to estimate the effect of vertigo and dizziness on activity limitation and participation restrictions. Psychometrically sound summary scores can be calculated. More extended versions of the VAP can be used for comprehensive clinical assessment where summary scores are not needed or a more detailed documentation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Neuroticism in Nepali: Reliability and Validity of the Neuroticism Subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Risal, A; Linde, M; Koju, R; Steiner, T J; Holen, A

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroticism subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Short Form (12 items) (EPQRS-N) has proven to be a reliable and valid measure in multiple languages. To develop a single-factor Nepali-language version of the EPQRS-N for use in the adult population of Nepal. The original English version of EPQRS-N was translated into Nepali using a forward-backward translation protocol. The first set of translated items was modified after testing by factor analysis with principal component extraction in an outpatient sample. Items with low factor correlations or poor semantic consistencies were reworded to fit the gist of the original items in a Nepali cultural context; the revised version was then tested in a representative random sample from the general population. Again, the same statistical procedures were applied. The first trial gave three factors. Based on the factor distribution of the items or their semantic quality, five were reworded. In the second trial, a two-factor solution emerged; the second factor had only one item with high correlation, which also had modest correlation with the first factor. Accordingly, a forced one-factor solution was chosen. This gave an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.80, with item-to-factor correlations from 0.40 to 0.73, and item-to-sum correlations from 0.31 to 0.61. The final Nepali version of EPQRS-N achieved satisfactory internal consistency. The item distribution coincided with the original English version, providing acceptable construct validity. It is psychometrically adequate for use in capturing the personality trait of neuroticism, and has broad applicability to the adult population of Nepal because of the diversity of the participant samples in which it was developed.

  6. High power acceleration of an HSC type injector for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Zhao, Huan-Yu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Sun, Lie-Peng; Jin, Qian-Yu; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Sun, Liang-Ting; He, Yuan; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-07-01

    A hybrid single cavity (HSC) linac, which is formed by combining a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube (DT) structure into one interdigital-H (IH) cavity, is fabricated and assembled as a proof of principle injector for cancer therapy synchrotron, based on the culmination of several years of research. The HSC linac adopts a direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which can inject a high intensity heavy ion beam produced by a laser ion source (LIS). The input beam current of the HSC is designed to be 20 mA C6+ ions. According to numerical simulations, the HSC linac can accelerate a 6-mA C6+beam, which meets the requirement of the needed particle number for cancer therapy (108-9 ions/pulse). The HSC injector with the DPIS method makes the existing multi-turn injection system and stripping system unnecessary, and can also bring down the size of the beam pipe in existing synchrotron magnets, which could reduce the whole cost of synchrotron. The radio frequency (rf) measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured Q equal to 91% of the simulated value. A C6+ ion beam extracted from the LIS was used for the HSC commissioning. In beam testing, we found the measured beam parameters agreed with simulations. More details of the measurements and the results of the high power test are reported in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China and One Hundred Person Project of CAS

  7. State-of-the-Art Electron Guns and Injector Designs for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL)

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Alan; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Benson, Stephen V; Blüm, Hans; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Campisi, Isidoro E; Chang, Xiangyun; Christina, Vincent; Cole, Michael; Colestock, Patrick L; Daly, Edward; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred H; Falletta, Michael; Hahn, Harald; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Hogan, John; Holmes, Douglas; Janssen, Dietmar; Kayran, Dmitry; Kelley, John P; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Kurennoy, Sergey; Lewellen, John W; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Mammosser, John; McIntyre, Gary; Neil, George R; Nguyen, Dinh C; Nicoletti, Tony; Peterson, Ed; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Reass, William; Rees, Daniel; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Russell, Steven; Scaduto, Joseph; Schrage, Dale L; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Siggins, Tim; Warren Funk, L; Whitlach, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark; Wong, Robert; Wood, Richard L; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Young, Lloyd M; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    A key technology issue of ERL devices for high-power free-electron laser (FEL) and 4th generation light sources is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. Ongoing programs that target up to 1 Ampere injector performance at emittance values consistent with the requirements of these applications are described. We consider that there are three possible approaches that could deliver the required performance. The first is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. Such a 750 MHz device is being integrated and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility beginning in 2007. The second approach is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun will undergo thermal test in 2006 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which, if successful, when equipped with a suitable cathode, would be capable of 1 Ampere operation. The last option is an SRF gun. A half-cell 703 MHz SRF gun capable of delivering 1.0...

  8. Compensation-rematch for the major components of C-ADS injector-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Biao; Yan, Fang; Pei, Shi-Lun; Meng, Cai; Tang, Jing-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The China-ADS project is a strategic plan launched by the Chinese Academy of Sciences to solve the nuclear waste problem and the resource problem for nuclear power in China. Under its long-term plan, it will last until about 2040. In order to achieve the extremely high reliability and availability required for the C-ADS accelerator, a fault tolerant strategy has been implanted. The failure effects of key elements such as the RF cavities and focusing elements in different locations of the injector-I part have been studied and schemes of compensation based on the local compensation-rematch method have been proposed. In addition, error analysis has been carried out to check the reliability of this method compared with the uncompensated situation, and it is found to be very effective. As the injector-I testing facility is coming into operation, it is possible to check and improve the compensation-rematch method with the beam testing experiment before the main linac operation. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Projects 11235012, 11475201) and the China ADS Project (XDA03020000)

  9. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia.

  10. Validation of the 4DSQ somatization subscale in the occupational health care setting as a screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vroege, Lars; Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Hoedeman, Rob; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2015-03-01

    Somatoform disorders (physical symptoms without medical explanation that cause dysfunction) are prevalent in the occupational health (OH) care setting and are associated with functional impairment and absenteeism. Availability of psychometric instruments aimed at assessing somatoform disorders is limited. In the OH setting, so far only the Patient-Health-Questionnaire 15 has been validated as screener for somatoform disorder, and has been shown to have moderate validity. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is frequently used in the OH setting but the Somatization subscale is not validated yet. The aim of this study is to validate the 4DSQ Somatization subscale as screener for DSM-IV somatoform disorder in the OH setting by using the MINI interview as gold standard. Employees absent from work due to physical symptoms, for a period longer than 6 weeks and shorter than 2 years, were asked to participate in this study. They filled out the 4DSQ and underwent a MINI interview by telephone for DSM-IV classification. Specificity and sensitivity scores were calculated for all possible cut-off scores and a receiver operator curve was computed for the Somatization subscale. 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for sensitivity and specificity. The Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ has an optimal cut point of 9, with specificity and sensitivity equal to 64.3 % [95 % CI (53.6; 73.7 %)] and 60.9 % [95 % CI (40.8; 77.8 %)], respectively. Receiver operator curves showed an area under the curve equal to 0.61 [SE = 0.07; 95 % CI (0.48; 0.75)] for the Somatization subscale of the 4DSQ. The 4DSQ Somatization subscale is a questionnaire of moderate sensitivity and specificity.

  11. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  12. Accuracy of Bayes and Logistic Regression Subscale Probabilities for Educational and Certification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In the machine learning literature, it is commonly accepted as fact that as calibration sample sizes increase, Naïve Bayes classifiers initially outperform Logistic Regression classifiers in terms of classification accuracy. Applied to subtests from an on-line final examination and from a highly regarded certification examination, this study shows…

  13. Application of human factors engineering (HFE) to the design of a naloxone auto-injector for the treatment of opioid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Edwards, Eric S; Edwards, Evan T

    2017-02-01

    The increased use of opioids for chronic treatment of pain and the resulting epidemic of opioid overdoses have created a major public health challenge. Parenteral naloxone has been used since the 1970's to treat opioid overdose. Recently, a novel naloxone auto-injector device (EVZIO, kaleo, Inc., Richmond, VA) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In this article, we review the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) process used in the development and testing of this novel naloxone auto-injector currently used in nonmedical settings for the emergency treatment of known or suspected opioid overdose. HFE methods were employed throughout the product development process for the naloxone auto-injector including formative and summative studies in order to optimize the auto-injector's user interface, mitigate use-related hazards and increase reliability during an opioid emergency use scenario. HFE was also used to optimize the product's design and user interface in order to reduce or prevent user confusion and misuse. The naloxone auto-injector went through a rigorous HFE process that included perceptual, cognitive, and physical action analysis; formative usability evaluations; use error analysis and summative design validation studies. Applying HFE resulted in the development of a product that is safe, fast, easy and predictably reliable to deliver a potentially life-saving dose of naloxone during an opioid overdose emergency. The naloxone auto-injector may be considered as a universal precaution option for at-risk patients prescribed opioids or those who are at increased risk for an opioid overdose emergency.

  14. The CLIC Positron Capture and Acceleration in the Injector Linac.

    CERN Document Server

    Vivoli, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Rinolfi, Louis; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The baseline of the CLIC study considers non-polarized e+ for the 3 TeV centre of mass energy. The e+ source is based on the hybrid targets scheme, where a crystal-radiator target is followed by an amorphous-converter target. Simulations have been performed from the exit of the amorphous target up to the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring. Downstream the amorphous target, there is an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by a Pre-Injector Linac accelerating the e+ beam up to around 200 MeV. Then a common Injector Linac (for both e+ and e-) accelerates the beams up to 2.86 GeV before being injected into the Pre-Damping Ring. In this note, the characteristics of the AMD and the other sections are described and the beam parameters at the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring are given.

  15. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  16. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  17. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  18. Ions for LHC: performance of the injector chain

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, D; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Blas, A; Bohl, T; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Cettour Cave, S; Chanel, M; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Findlay, A; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Jowett, JM; Küchler, D; Maury, S; Métral, E; Pasinelli, S; Schokker, M; Tranquille, G; Vandorpe, B; Wenninger, J; Wehrle, U

    2011-01-01

    The first LHC Pb ion run took place at 1.38 A TeV/c per beam in autumn 2010. After a short period of runningin, the injector chain was able to fill the collider with up to 137 bunches per ring, with an intensity of 108 Pb82+ ions/bunch, about 50% higher than the design value. This yielded a luminosity of 3×1025 Hz/cm2, allowing the experiments to accumulate just under 10 b-1 each during the four week run. We review the performance of the individual links of the injector chain, and address the main issues limiting the LHC luminosity, in view of reaching 1026 Hz/cm2 in 2011, and substantially beyond when the LHC energy increases after the long shutdown in 2013-14.

  19. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching significantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the first part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  20. Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevany Paulino de Pinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

  1. Beam collimation and control in the LHC high energy injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N

    2006-01-01

    The design and construction of new injectors will allow to boost the luminosity of the LHC. Two consecutive machines capable to inject into the LHC ring at 1 TeV are being considered. Based only on the expected performance of the injectors, the beam loss handling in these high intensity machines will be a challenge and the introduction of collimation systems seems necessary. The need to reduce the beam losses and allow an efficient collimation system has to be implemented from the beginning of the design. The energy ramping in stages requires different approaches for removing the proton halo. Some studies are still necessary to define the hardware. The study performed in this paper as well as the conclusions will only slightly differ when applied to another scenario.

  2. A transitionless lattice for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Lee, S.Y. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-05-01

    Medium energy (1 to 30 GeV) accelerators are often confronted with transition crossing during acceleration. A lattice without transition is presented, which is a design for the Fermilab Main Injector. The main properties of this lattice are that the {gamma}{sub t} is an imaginary number, the maxima of the dispersion function are small, and two long-straight section with zero dispersion. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. CKM--Charged Kaons at the Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.S.

    2001-01-16

    The CKM experiment is a proposal to measure the branching ratio of the rare decay K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} at the Main Injector at Fermilab using a decay in flight technique. The goal is to observe {approx}100 events, for a Standard Model branching ratio of 1 x 10{sup {minus}10} with a background of less than 10 events.

  4. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  5. Study of Electron Cloud Instability in Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Ohmi, K. [KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-05-01

    Electron cloud has been observed in Fermilab main injector. Electron signal is enhanced near the transition. The slippage factor which suppress instabilities approach to zero at the transition. Instabilities must be most serious near the trans ition. The instability caused by the electron cloud is an important issue for high intensity operation and the future toward Project-X. Simulations of electron cloud instability near the transition is presented.

  6. Space-Charge Compensation Options for the LHC Injector Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Dorda, U; Franchetti, G; Garoby, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martini, M; Métral, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Scandale, Walter; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    Space-charge effects have been identified as the most serious intensity limitation in the CERN PS and PS Booster, on the way towards ultimate LHC performance and beyond. We here explore the application of several previously proposed space-charge compensation methods to the two LHC pre-injector rings, and the challenges which need to be overcome. The methods considered include the reduction of tune shift and resonance strengths via octupoles, pole-face windings, electron lenses, or neutralisation.

  7. Preliminary results of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility deuteron injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobin, R.; Adroit, G.; Bogard, D.; Bourdelle, G.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Gauthier, Y.; Girardot, P.; Guiho, P.; Harrault, F.; Jannin, J. L.; Loiseau, D.; Mattei, P.; Roger, A.; Sauce, Y.; Senee, F.; Vacher, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energie Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    In the framework of the IFMIF-EVEDA project (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities), CEA/IRFU is in charge of the design, construction, and characterization of the 140 mA continuous deuteron injector, including the source and the low energy beam line. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source which operates at 2.45 GHz is associated with a 4-electrode extraction system in order to minimize beam divergence at the source exit. Krypton gas injection is foreseen in the 2-solenoid low energy beam line. Such Kr injection will allow reaching a high level of space charge compensation in order to improve the beam matching at the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) entrance. The injector construction is now completed on the Saclay site and the first plasma and beam production has been produced in May 2011. This installation will be tested with proton and deuteron beams either in pulsed or continuous mode at Saclay before shipping to Japan. In this paper, after a brief description of the installation, the preliminary results obtained with hydrogen gas injection into the plasma chamber will be reported.

  8. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. SPINS-IND: Pellet injector for fuelling of magnetically confined fusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangradey, R.; Mishra, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Panchal, P.; Nayak, P.; Agarwal, J.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2017-06-01

    Using a Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocooler based refrigeration system, a single barrel hydrogen pellet injection (SPINS-IND) system is indigenously developed at Institute for Plasma Research, India. The injector is based on a pipe gun concept, where a pellet formed in situ in the gun barrel is accelerated to high speed using high pressure light propellant gas. The pellet size is decided by considering the Greenwald density limit and its speed is decided by considering a neutral gas shielding model based scaling law. The pellet shape is cylindrical of dimension (1.6 mm ℓ × 1.8 mm φ). For pellet ejection and acceleration, a fast opening valve of short opening duration is installed at the breech of the barrel. A three-stage differential pumping system is used to restrict the flow of the propellant gas into the plasma vacuum vessel. Diagnostic systems such as light gate and fast imaging camera (240 000 frames/s) are employed to measure the pellet speed and size, respectively. A trigger circuit and a programmable logic controller based integrated control system developed on LabVIEW enables to control the pellet injector remotely. Using helium as a propellant gas, the pellet speed is varied in the range 650 m/s-800 m/s. The reliability of pellet formation and ejection is found to be more than 95%. This paper describes the details of SPINS-IND and its test results.

  10. High Brightness Hadron Injectors for TeV Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Schindl, Karlheinz

    1998-01-01

    The ambitious performance goals of present and future hadron colliders call for a chain of injectors that are specially designed to provide high quality beams. However, for many reasons, not the least of which is cost, all these colliders make use of existing accelerator complexes that were not built for this new task and have therefore to be upgraded. A key issue such hadron injectors have to deal with is the preservation of transverse normalised emittance. Small transverse emittances are important because (i) the collider luminosity is proportional to N(N/e) and becomes larger for smaller emit tance; (ii) particle losses at injection into the collider are reduced, thus reducing the risk of quenching a superconducting magnet. Sources of emittance blow-up, such as mis-steering and mismatch be tween machines, space charge, instabilities and intra-beam scattering, are covered along with corrective measures. Problems common to the Tevatron, HERA-p, RHIC, LHC injector chains (the latter two in cluding heavy ion p...

  11. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  12. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

  13. First boundary electrical feedthroughs for the heating neutral beams injectors of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, Etienne, E-mail: Etienne.delmas@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Boilson, Deirdre; Choi, Chang-Hwan [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Palma, Mauro Dalla [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Decamps, Hans; Graceffa, Joseph; Iseli, Markus [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Masiello, Antonio; Micó-Montava, Gonzalo [Fusion For Energy, C/ Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Muraro, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Roux, Kevin [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sartori, Emanuele [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Shah, Darshan; Svensson, Lennart [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Valente, Matteo [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The first boundary feedthroughs of the ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) injectors are key components of the neutral beam system. They allow the penetration of signals and power from/to the beam line components (BLC) and front end components (FEC), through the confinement boundary of ITER. The design status of the two types of feedthroughs is presented in the first part. This includes the design requirements, cabling strategy, the analysis done and the maintenance strategies. The second part deals with the qualification of the feedthroughs. Being made of brittle material and not covered by mechanical standard a qualification by testing strategy is proposed based on existing rules and norms. The design of the feedthroughs is almost finished and satisfies all the requirements. The next step is the procurement for their integration in the MITICA [1] test bed and the detailed definition of the qualification tests to be carried out for the HNB feedthroughs.

  14. Combustion of hydrogen in a two-dimensional duct with step fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, J. M.; Reagon, P. G.; Gooderum, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of hydrogen perpendicularly injected from step fuel injectors into a Mach 2.72, 2100 K vitiated test gas was conducted. The model simulated the flow between the center and side struts of an integrated scramjet module at Mach 7 flight and an altitude of 29 km. Parametric variation included equivalence ratio, fuel dynamic pressure ratio, and area distribution of the model. The overall area ratio of the model was held constant at 2.87. The data analysis indicated that no measurable improvement in mixing or combustion efficiency was obtained by varying the fuel dynamic pressure ratio from 0.79 to 2.45. Computations indicated approximately 80 percent of the fuel was mixed so that it could react; however, only approximately 50 percent of the mixed fuel actually reacted in two test configurations, and 74 percent in later tests where less area expansion of the flow occurred.

  15. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  16. Analysis of the Subscales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Murray I.; Hoffman, Roy A.

    1984-01-01

    Factor analyzed the item responses comprising each of the five external dimensions and the three internal dimensions of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The results indicated that seven of the eight subscales are essentially single-factor scales. Implications for counseling are discussed. (Author)

  17. Evaluation of the Construction of the Subscales for the Piers-Harris and Tennessee Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julia Anne

    A sample of 234 fifth- and 259 sixth-grade students scaled the items of the Piers-Harris, Tennessee, Coopersmith, and Lipsett self-concept measures. The scaling of the Piers-Harris and the Tennessee inventories was examined in reference to their subscales. The present technique placed items on a bivariate plane of two orthogonal dimensions…

  18. Emittance Measurements from a Laser Driven Electron Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, David A

    2003-07-28

    The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was constructed to develop an appropriate electron beam suitable for driving a short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) such as the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). For operation at a wavelength of 1.5 {angstrom}, the LCLS requires an electron injector that can produce an electron beam with approximately 1 {pi} mm-mrad normalized rms emittance with at least 1 nC of charge in a 10 ps or shorter bunch. The GTF consists of a photocathode rf gun, emittance-compensation solenoid, 3 m linear accelerator (linac), drive laser, and diagnostics to measure the beam. The rf gun is a symmetrized 1.6 cell, s-band high gradient, room temperature, photocathode structure. Simulations show that this gun when driven by a temporally and spatially shaped drive laser, appropriately focused with the solenoid, and further accelerated in linac can produce a beam that meets the LCLS requirements. This thesis describes the initial characterization of the laser and electron beam at the GTF. A convolved measurement of the relative timing between the laser and the rf phase in the gun shows that the jitter is less than 2.5 ps rms. Emittance measurements of the electron beam at 35 MeV are reported as a function of the (Gaussian) pulse length and transverse profile of the laser as well as the charge of the electron beam at constant phase and gradient in both the gun and linac. At 1 nC the emittance was found to be {approx} 13 {pi} mm-mrad for 5 ps and 8 ps long laser pulses. At 0.5 nC the measured emittance decreased approximately 20% in the 5 ps case and 40% in the 8 ps case. These measurements are between 40-80% higher than simulations for similar experimental conditions. In addition, the thermal emittance of the electron beam was measured to be 0.5 {pi} mm-mrad.

  19. On the prediction of spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Qinglian; Xu, Shun; Kang, Zhongtao

    2017-09-01

    The pintle injector is famous for its capability of deep throttling and low cost. However, the pintle injector has been seldom investigated. To get a good prediction of the spray angle of liquid-liquid pintle injectors, theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments were conducted. Under the hypothesis of incompressible and inviscid flow, a spray angle formula was deduced from the continuity and momentum equations based on a control volume analysis. The formula was then validated by numerical and experimental data. The results indicates that both geometric and injection parameters affect the total momentum ratio (TMR) and then influence the spray angle formed by liquid-liquid pintle injectors. TMR is the pivotal non-dimensional number that dominates the spray angle. Compared with gas-gas pintle injectors, spray angle formed by liquid-liquid injectors is larger, which benefits from the local high pressure zone near the pintle wall caused by the impingement of radial and axial sheets.

  20. Study on biodiesel heat transfer through self-temperature limit injector during vehicle cold start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of Self-Temperature Limit-Injector (STL- injector is proposed to reduce the biodiesel consumption and emission in vehicle cold start process. The STL-injector is capable of fast raising fuel temperature, which helps improve the quality of diesel spray and its combustion efficiency. A STL-injector model is established with consideration of electro-mechanic coupling and fluid-structure interaction. A transient simulation is conducted using dynamic grid technology. The results show that STL-injector can effectively raise biodiesel temperature to 350K from 300K in 32 seconds. That is to say, adding STL-injector to existing biodiesel combustion system is an environment-friendly solution due to improving atomization and spray quality quickly.

  1. Shielding and radiation protection at the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipe, N.E.; Liu, J.C.

    1991-12-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) Injector is comprised of a linear accelerator (linac) capable of energies {le} 150 MeV, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and a beam line to transport the electrons into the storage ring SPEAR. The injector is shielded so that under normal operating conditions, the annual dose equivalent at the shield surface does not exceed 10 mSv. This paper describes the shielding and radiation protection at the injector.

  2. High speed diagnostics for characterization of oxygen / hydrogen rocket injector flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Justin M.

    location. The time-averaged results are consistent with previous spatially-resolved Raman spectroscopy measurements made in a similar rocket combustor under similar flow conditions. The primary atomization and combustion characteristics of a liquid oxygen (LOX) / gaseous hydrogen (GH2) shear coaxial injector element were also experimentally investigated. High speed movies using a shadowgraph imaging technique to visualize the LOX core were recorded for both hot-fire (LOX/GH 2) and cold-flow (LOX/gaseous oxygen (GO2)) conditions with the same injector and chamber. Flow conditions were set to approximate realistic rocket conditions. For the hot-fire tests (LOX/GH2), chamber pressures were 600, 730, and 920 psia, with momentum flux ratios (annulus flow/post flow) of 2.7, 2.0 and 1.6 respectively. The rocket assembly utilized a preburner to provide a background flow (M≈0.1) of hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2 )/GH2/water (H2O) gas with 25% volumetric concentration of hydrogen. For the cold-flow tests (LOX/GO2 with GO2 background flow), chamber pressures were 650 and 830 psia, thus above and below the critical pressure of oxygen (731.6 psia), with momentum flux ratios (annulus flow/post flow) of 2.2 and 1.8 respectively. The high speed visualizations under hot-fire conditions show a long sinuous LOX core region that breaks into large dense-oxygen structures, which are then quickly consumed. These results do not agree with the classical phenomenological breakup model that suggests a liquid core that is rapidly sheared into a drop cloud. Rather, a large-scale fragmentation model may be better suited to describe the primary atomization behavior in combusting flow from a LOX/GH2 shear coaxial injector element at realistic rocket conditions. Unlike the hot-fire case, cold-flow LOX visualization movies show a clear difference between the two chamber pressures, with the higher pressure (supercritical) case resembling behavior indicative of gaseous mixing compared to the typically two phase

  3. Injector Design Tool Improvements: User's manual for FDNS V.4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Wei, Hong; Liu, Jiwen

    1998-01-01

    The major emphasis of the current effort is in the development and validation of an efficient parallel machine computational model, based on the FDNS code, to analyze the fluid dynamics of a wide variety of liquid jet configurations for general liquid rocket engine injection system applications. This model includes physical models for droplet atomization, breakup/coalescence, evaporation, turbulence mixing and gas-phase combustion. Benchmark validation cases for liquid rocket engine chamber combustion conditions will be performed for model validation purpose. Test cases may include shear coaxial, swirl coaxial and impinging injection systems with combinations LOXIH2 or LOXISP-1 propellant injector elements used in rocket engine designs. As a final goal of this project, a well tested parallel CFD performance methodology together with a user's operation description in a final technical report will be reported at the end of the proposed research effort.

  4. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Lix

    Full Text Available Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF, which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF and mental health (MH sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample.Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos, which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects.The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size.SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  5. Scramjet Operability Range Studies of an Integrated Aerodynamic-Ramp-Injector/Plasma-Torch Igniter with Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanos, Aristides Michael

    2005-01-01

    An integrated aerodynamic-ramp-injector/plasma-torch-igniter of original design was tested in a Mâ = 2, unvitiated, heated flow facility arranged as a diverging duct scramjet combustor. The facility operated at a total temperature of 1000 K and total pressure of 330 kPa. Hydrogen (H2), ethylene (C2H4) and methane (CH4) were used as fuels, and a wide range of global equivalence ratios were tested. The main data obtained were wall static pressure measurements, and the presence of combustion w...

  6. Unintentional Epinephrine Auto-injector Injuries: A National Poison Center Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshien, Marco; Rose, S Rutherfoord; Wills, Brandon K

    2016-11-24

    Epinephrine is the only first-line therapeutic agent used to treat life-threatening anaphylaxis. Epinephrine auto-injectors are commonly carried by patients at risk for anaphylaxis, and reported cases of unintentional auto-injector injury have increased over the last decade. Modifications of existing designs and release of a new style of auto-injector are intended to reduce epinephrine auto-injector misuse. The aim of the study was to characterize reported cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures from 2013 to 2014 and compare demographics, auto-injector model, and anatomical site of such exposures. The American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System was searched from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, for cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures. Anatomical site data were obtained from all cases reported to the Virginia Poison Center and participating regional poison center for Auvi-Q cases. A total of 6806 cases of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector exposures were reported to US Poison Centers in 2013 and 2014. Of these cases, 3933 occurred with EpiPen, 2829 with EpiPen Jr, 44 with Auvi-Q, and no case reported of Adrenaclick. The most common site of unintentional injection for traditional epinephrine auto-injectors was the digit or thumb, with 58% of cases for EpiPen and 39% of cases with EpiPen Jr. With Auvi-Q, the most common site was the leg (78% of cases). The number of unintentional epinephrine auto-injector cases reported to American Poison Centers in 2013-2014 has increased compared with previous data. Most EpiPen exposures were in the digits, whereas Auvi-Q was most frequently in the leg. Because of the limitations of Poison Center data, more research is needed to identify incidence of unintentional exposures and the effectiveness of epinephrine auto-injector redesign.

  7. Smart drug delivery injector microsystem based on pyrotechnical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez, Jaime; Miribel, Pere; Samitier-Marti, Josep; Rossi, Carole; Berthold, Axel

    2003-04-01

    A smart drug delivery injector microsystem is presented based on small pyrotechnics to impulse drugs to be injected to a human being. The proposal refers to a feasibility demonstration of the technology for pharmaceutical chips. These chips would be around some cm2 in section and will be able to inject a drug into de subject skin responding to an electrical signal. The product derived from this activity will be useful for astronaut's health, being able to administrate emergency doses of products (for instance cardio-tonic or hypoallegic drugs) enough to survive an emergency situation (as it can be a heart attack during EVA). The system can also be used for easy administration of drugs needed for physiological research. The usefulness of the device in terrestrial applications has no doubt, allowing remote administration of drugs to patients whose biomedical parameters are remotely monitored. The concept proposed here is new in combining the idea of pharmaceutical chip with the ultrasonic droplet technology and the use of pyrotechnics to provide energy to the drug to be injected. The proposed Drug Injector Microsystem is based on 2 main blocks:- Micropyrotechnic system: defines the ignition part based on pyrotechnic.- Microfluidic system: defines the drug injection part. This part is also divided in different critical parts: Expansion chamber, membrane or piston, drug reservoir and a needle. Different sensors are placed on the expansion chamber of microfluidic system and on the micropyrotechnic system. A complete electronic module is implemented with a PC interface to define flexible and user friendly experiences showing the smart drug delivery injector microsystem principle.

  8. Laser ignition of an experimental combustion chamber with a multi-injector configuration at low pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Michael; Manfletti, Chiara; Kroupa, Gerhard; Oschwald, Michael

    2017-09-01

    In search of reliable and light-weight ignition systems for re-ignitable upper stage engines, a laser ignition system was adapted and tested on an experimental combustion chamber for propellant injection into low combustion chamber pressures at 50-80 mbar. The injector head pattern consisted of five coaxial injector elements. Both, laser-ablation-driven ignition and laser-plasma-driven ignition were tested for the propellant combination liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen. The 122 test runs demonstrated the reliability of the ignition system for different ignition configurations and negligible degradation due to testing. For the laser-plasma-driven scheme, minimum laser pulse energies needed for 100% ignition probability were found to decrease when increasing the distance of the ignition location from the injector faceplate with a minimum of 2.6 mJ. For laser-ablation-driven ignition, the minimum pulse energy was found to be independent of the ablation material tested and was about 1.7 mJ. The ignition process was characterized using both high-speed Schlieren and OH* emission diagnostics. Based on these findings and on the increased fiber-based pulse transport capabilities recently published, new ignition system configurations for space propulsion systems relying on fiber-based pulse delivery are formulated. If the laser ignition system delivers enough pulse energy, the laser-plasma-driven configuration represents the more versatile configuration. If the laser ignition pulse power is limited, the application of laser-ablation-driven ignition is an option to realize ignition, but implies restrictions concerning the location of ignition.

  9. Exploring measurement invariance by gender in the profile of mood states depression subscale among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Smith, Tenbroeck

    2017-01-01

    The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) is a well-validated tool commonly used in medical/clinical research. Less attention has been paid to the measurement invariance of the POMS-the degree to which the structure and items behave similarly for different groups (e.g., women and men). This study investigated the measurement invariance of the POMS Depression subscale across gender groups in a sample of cancer survivors. The POMS Depression subscale has 8 items (Unhappy, Sad, Blue, Hopeless, Discouraged, Miserable, Helpless, and Worthless). Invariance was measured using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. This study used data from American Cancer Society Studies of Cancer Survivors-II, a population-based survey of adult cancer survivors (n = 9170). We found factor structures and factor loadings were invariant for gender groups, but moderate differential item functioning (DIF) in the question containing the word blue. With regard to cancer survivors' gender, we found the Depression subscale of the POMS-SF had configural invariance, and partial metric and scalar invariance. This suggests that results should be interpreted with caution, especially when gender is considered important. More broadly, our finding suggests that questions with the word blue may introduce DIF into other measures of depressive mood. More research is needed to replicate these findings in other samples and with other instruments.

  10. PICs in the injector complex - what are we talking about?

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, K

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will identify PIC activities for the LHC injector chain, and point out borderline cases to pure consolidation and upgrade. The most important PIC items will be listed for each LIU project (PSB, PS, SPS) and categorized by a) the risk if not performed and b) the implications of doing them. This will in particular address the consequences on performance, schedule, reliability, commissioning time, operational complexity etc. The additional cost of PICs with regard to pure consolidation will be estimated and possible time lines for the implementation of the PICs will be discussed. In this context, it will be evaluated if the PICs can be implemented over several machine stops.

  11. Status of Resistive Magnets in the LHC Injectors Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Bauche, J; Zickler, T; Newborough, A; Sgobba, S; Lopez, R

    2010-01-01

    About 4650 normal conducting magnets are presently installed in the CERN accelerators complex, more than 3000 of them belonging to the LHC injector chain and 163 installed in the LHC. The oldest magnets have been in operation for 50 years, and some of them are submitted to aggressive conditions, either in terms of radiation, extreme water cooling conditions or temperature. The smallest magnets in the linacs weigh a few kilograms, whilst each of the main magnets of the Proton Synchrotron weighs 33 tons. The paper reviews the status of these magnets and gives some examples of findings and relevant recent actions undertaken to ensure their reliable operation in the coming years.

  12. IONS FOR LHC STATUS OF THE INJECTOR CHAIN

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Dumas, L; Fowler, T; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Jowett, John M; Küchler, D; Mahner, E; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pasinelli, S; Raich, U; Rey, A; Royer, J-P; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Tranquille, G; Vallet, J L; Vandorpe, B

    2007-01-01

    The LHC will, in addition to proton runs, be operated with Pb ions and provide collisions at energies of 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair, i.e. more than 1.1 PeV per event, to experiments. The transformation of CERN's ion injector complex (Linac3-LEIR-PS-SPS) to allow collision of ions in LHC in 2008 is well under way. The status of these modifications and the latest results of commissioning will be presented. The remaining challenges are reviewed.

  13. Flame holding downstream from a co-flow injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Colette; Haldenwang, Pierre; Denet, Bruno

    2006-07-01

    We present numerical results on the flame attachment in the downstream vicinity of the co-flow injector lip that separates the reactive fluids at injection. Two stability diagrams show the domains where the flame is anchored, blown off, or extinguished, in terms of separating plate thickness and injection velocities of both fluids. Different anchoring modes—stagnation point counter-flow holding or edge flame anchorage—are described, depending particularly on the plate rim thickness. To cite this article: C. Nicoli et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  14. Microwave generation by spin Hall nanooscillators with nanopatterned spin injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholud, A., E-mail: azholud@emory.edu; Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We experimentally study spin Hall nano-oscillators based on Pt/ferromagnet bilayers with nanopatterned Pt spin injection layer. We demonstrate that both the spectral characteristics and the electrical current requirements can be simultaneously improved by reducing the spin injection area. Moreover, devices with nanopatterned Pt spin injector exhibit microwave generation over a wide temperature range that extends to room temperature. Studies of devices with additional Pt spacers under the device electrodes show that the oscillation characteristics are affected not only by the spin injection geometry but also by the effects of Pt/ferromagnet interface on the dynamical properties of the ferromagnet.

  15. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  16. Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R

    1985-07-01

    This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.

  17. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC’s Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J A

    2014-01-01

    During the long shutdown 1 (LS1), several maintenance, consolidation and upgrade activities have been carried out in LHC’s injector chain. Each machine has specific vacuum requirements and different history, which determine the present status of the vacuum components, their maintenance and consolidation needs. The present work presents the priorities agreed at the beginning of the LS1 period and their implementation. Of particular relevance are the interventions in radioactive controlled areas where several leaks due to stress corrosions stopped the operations in the past years. The strategy to reduce the collective dose is presented, in particular the use of remote controlled robots. An important part of the work performed during this period involves supporting other teams (acceptance tests, new equipment installation, etc.). Finally, as a result of the LS1 experience, a medium to long term strategy is depicted, focusing on the preparation of the next shutdown (LS2) and the integration of LINAC4 in the in...

  18. The new Denso common rail diesel solenoid injector; Der neue Diesel-Magnetventil-Injektor von Denso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shuichi; Date, Kenji; Taguchi, Tooru [Denso Corporation, Kariya (Japan). Diesel Injection Engineering Div.; Herrmann, Olaf Erik [Denso International Europe, Wegberg (Germany). Team Advanced Diesel Engine Management System

    2013-02-01

    The new G4S injector from Denso with a three-way valve function improves hydraulic efficiency, thus cutting fuel consumption by around 1 %. A 75 % reduction in moving masses results in significantly improved hydraulics. Due to its minimised leakage, the injector has considerably lower fuel cooling requirements and is significantly more robust in dealing with variations in diesel fuel qualities. (orig.)

  19. Technological study and characterization of injectors with micro-orifices for bi-liquid rockets engines; Etude technologique et caracterisation d'injecteurs a micro-orifices pour propulseurs biliquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA-DMAE/LP), 31 - Mauzac (France); Lecourt, R.; Foucaud, R.; D' Herbigny, F.X. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA-DMAE/MH), Centre du Fauga-Mauzac, 31 - Mauzac (France); Hervat, P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA-DMTE/BET), Centre de Chatillon, 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2001-10-01

    Injectors for space rockets engines have been realised an tested at ONERA. Thanks to an original manufacturing technique, they allow one to get pulverization characteristics superior than those obtained with classic injectors. This improvement increases performances, allows a reduction of the size and mass of combustion chambers, while reducing manufacturing costs in the case of small series. These injectors are constituted by very thin plates fabricated by standard or chemical means. Individual plates are then assembled together by diffusion bond or brazing. This mode of fabrication allows one to conceive hydraulic circuits which would be impossible to realize with conventional metal machining. This technique, developed since the 70's in the United States by the AEROJET Company for the fabrication of platelets, complete combustion chambers and heat exchangers, has been adopted at ONERA for developing injectors at the request of CNES. An injector of this type, used at ONERA as a test tool on a very hot air generator, has given complete satisfaction. The industrial development of this technique will necessitate to achieve a technological step at the design level and to improve French capabilities in the diffusion bond process for materials others that titanium, such as stainless steel. (authors)

  20. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-08-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  1. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  2. Item-level and subscale-level factoring of Biggs' Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) in a mainland Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, J; Gao, L

    2000-09-01

    The learning process questionnaire (LPQ) has been the source of intensive cross-cultural study. However, an item-level factor analysis of all the LPQ items simultaneously has never been reported. Rather, items within each subscale have been factor analysed to establish subscale unidimensionality and justify the use of composite subscale scores. It was of major interest to see if the six logically constructed items groups of the LPQ would be supported by empirical evidence. Additionally, it was of interest to compare the consistency of the reliability and correlational structure of the LPQ subscales in our study with those of previous cross-cultural studies. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the six-factor item level model and to fit five representative subscale level factor models. A total of 1070 students between the ages of 15 to 18 years was drawn from a representative selection of 29 classes from within 15 secondary schools in Guangzhou, China. Males and females were almost equally represented. The six-factor item level model of the LPQ seemed to fit reasonably well, thus supporting the six dimensional structure of the LPQ and justifying the use of composite subscale scores for each LPQ dimension. However, the reliability of many of these subscales was low. Furthermore, only two subscale-level factor models showed marginally acceptable fit. Substantive considerations supported an oblique three-factor model. Because the LPQ subscales often show low internal consistency reliability, experimental and correlational studies that have used these subscales as dependent measures have been disappointing. It is suggested that some LPQ items should be revised and other items added to improve the inventory's overall psychometric properties.

  3. RF Design for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Dowell, D H; Boyce, Richard F; Hodgson, J A; Li, Zenghai; Limborg-Deprey, C; Xiao, Liling; Yu, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world’s first free electron laser, and the successful operation of this very short-wavelength FEL will require excellent beam quality from its electron source. Therefore a critical component is the RF photocathode injector. This paper describes the design issues of the LCLS RF gun and accelerator structures. The injector consists of a 1.6 cell s-band gun followed by two 3-meter SLAC sections. The gun and the first RF section will have dual RF feeds both to eliminate transverse RF kicks and to reduce the pulsed heating of the coupling ports. In addition, the input coupler cavity of the first accelerator section will be specially shaped to greatly reduce the RF quadrupole fields. The design for the accelerator section is now complete, and the RF design of the gun’s dual coupler and the full cell shape is in progress. These and other aspects of the gun and structure designs will be discussed.

  4. Energy-Spread-Feedback System for the KEKB Injector Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    New energy-spread feedback system using nondestructive energy-spread monitors have been developed in order to control and stabilize the energy spreads of single-bunch electron and positron beams in the KEKB injector linac. The well-controlled feedback systems of the injector linac are successfully working in dairy operation not only for keeping the injection rate higher along with the beam-orbit and energy feedback systems but also for reducing a background level to the high-energy B-factory experiment. The energy spreads of the injection beams are well stabilized within 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.3% for the electron beam, the positron beam, and the high-current primary electron beam for positron production, respectively, through the energy-spread feedback system under the nominal operation condition. In this paper, we will report in detail the energy-spread feedback system using the nondestructive energy-spread monitors with multi-strip-line electrodes and their performance in the KEKB operation.

  5. Collective effects in the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Assmann, R; Bartosik, H; Baudrenghien, P; Bohl, T; Bruning, O; Buffat, X; Damerau, H; Fartoukh, S; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Herr, W; Hofle, W; Mounet, N; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E; Zimmermann, F; Burov, A

    2012-01-01

    Operation during 4-8 hours at a constant luminosity of five times the nominal one (with “leveling”) is required for the CERN HL-(High Luminosity)-LHC project* to be able to reach integrated luminosities of ~ 250 fb-1 per year and ~ 3 ab-1 twelve years after the upgrade. This means that the potential peak luminosity should be at least two times larger than the leveled one, i.e. a factor more than ten compared to the nominal case is contemplated. Even though the LHC had a bold beginning, reaching one third of the nominal peak luminosity at the end of the 2011 run, a factor more than thirty remains to be gained, which will be achieved only if all the collective effects are deeply understood and mastered both in the LHC and its injectors. The observations made during the 2010-2011 runs are first reviewed and compared to predictions to try and identify possible bottlenecks. The lessons learned and the possible solutions and/or mitigation measures to implement in the HL-LHC and the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) p...

  6. Performance potential of the injectors after LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Mikulec, B; Raginel, V; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Vretenar, M

    2012-01-01

    The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons in the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB to PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than no...

  7. NSLS-II injector commissioning and initial operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, B.; Blum, E.; Bassi, B.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Buda, S.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Cuppolo, J.; D Alsace, R.; Davidsaver, M.; DeLong, J.; Doom, L.; Durfee, d.; fliller, R.; Fulkerson, M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gardner, C.; Guo, W.; Heese, R.; Hidaka, Y.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kosciuk, B.; Kowalski, S.; Dramer, S.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Louie, W.; Maggipinto, M.; Marino, P.; Mead, J.; Oliva, G.; Padrazo, D.; Pedersen, K.; Podobedov, B.; Rainer, R.; Rose, J.; Santana, M.; Seletskiy, S.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Singh, P.; Smalyuk, V.; Smith, R.; Summers, T.; Tagger, J.; Tian, Y.; Wahl, W.; Wang, G.; Weiner, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.; Yang, X.; Zeitler, E.; Zitvogel, E.; Zuhoski, P.

    2015-05-03

    The injector for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) storage ring consists of a 3 GeV booster synchrotron and a 200 MeV S-band linac. The linac was designed to produce either a single bunch with a charge of 0.5 nC of electrons or a train of bunches up to 300 ns long containing a total charge of 15 nC. The booster was designed to accelerate up to 15 nC each cycle in a train of bunches up to 300 ns long. Linac commissioning was completed in April 2012. Booster commissioning was started in November 2013 and completed in March 2014. All of the significant design goals were satisfied including beam emittance, energy spread, and transport efficiency. While the maximum booster charge accelerated was only 10 nC, this has proven to be more than sufficient for storage ring commissioning and operation. The injector has operated reliably during storage ring operation since then. Results will be presented showing measurements of linac and booster operating parameters achieved during commissioning and initial operation. Operating experience and reliability during the first year of NSLS-II operation will be discussed.

  8. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  9. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korematsu, Seigo; Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. "Guardians" at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was "hesitation about the timing of administration." If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis.

  10. Subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale differentially relate to the Big Five factors of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Wagner, Adina; Müller, Astrid; Eggert, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113). Selective positive correlations emerged between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion and between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism. This pattern of results was replicated in Study 2 (N = 132) using a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory. In Study 3, we analyzed BIS and NEO-FFI data obtained from a sample of patients with pathological buying (N = 68). In these patients, the relationship between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion was significantly weakened when compared to the non-clinical samples. At the same time, the relationship between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism was substantially stronger in the clinical sample. Our studies highlight the utility of the BIS subscales for clarifying the relationship between impulsiveness and the Big Five personality factors. We conclude that impulsiveness might occupy multiple places in multidimensional personality frameworks, which need to be specified to improve the interpretability of impulsiveness scales. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Examining the Role of Predictor Variables of Mental Health and Personality Subscales in Internet Addiction of Students in Medical and non-Medical Universities of Sanandaj in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Salahian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: According to the high and increasing prevalence of internet addiction, and the fact that little research has been done on the predictors of internet addiction in Iran, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of predictor variables of mental health and personality subscales in internet addiction of students in medical and non-medical universities of Sanandaj in 2014. Methods: The Method of this research was correlation and the statistical population were all of medical and non-medical students of Sanandaj Universities in 2014. In this study, 250 students (125 female and 125 male, were randomly selected, and completed the checklist of mental health symptoms, NEO personality questionnaire, and internet addiction questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation, stepwise regression, and T test by SPSS software version 20. Results: The results indicated that obsession-compulsion, openness, consciousness, aggression and somatization subscales had predictor roles in internet addiction, and totally 51 percent of variances predicted the internet addiction (F=29.97; P=0.001. Conclusion: The internet addiction of university students is dependent upon their mental health and personality, and one can predict the internet addiction of students via subscales of mental health and personality.

  12. Using data from Multidimensional Pain Inventory subscales to assess functioning in pain rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlacher, Uwe; Persson, Ann L; Rivano-Fischer, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) subscale score changes can be used for monitoring interdisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain rehabilitation programmes, using the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index as an independent variable...... of rehabilitation outcome. Data from 434 consecutively referred patients disabled by chronic pain were analysed. The intervention was a 4-week interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation group programme (5 h/day), based on biopsychosocial and cognitive behavioural principles. Mean PGWB total scores improved after...... rehabilitation (P...

  13. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/ Fluid Sciences & Engineering Dept.; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.; Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  14. Changes to the subscales of two vision-related quality of life questionnaires are proposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Michiel R; de Vet, Henrica C W; Terwee, Caroline B; Moll, Annette C; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J M; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2005-12-01

    Psychometrically sound questionnaires for the assessment of vision-related quality of life (QOL) are scarce. Therefore, the objective was to further validate two vision-related QOL questionnaires in a Dutch population of visually impaired elderly. A total of 329 visually impaired older persons referred to low vision services completed the low vision QOL (LVQOL) and Vision-Related Quality of Life Core Measure (VCM1) questionnaires at baseline, after 1-4 weeks (retest), and after 5 months. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed on baseline data. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was assessed, based on the standard error of measurement (SEM). Change scores between the baseline and 5 months follow-up data were related to a general transition question to assess the minimal important change (MIC). Furthermore, the MIC was related to the SDC, to examine whether the MICs were detectable beyond measurement error. The original factor structures could not be confirmed. After omitting items and remodeling, adequate fits were obtained. SDCs comprised at least one quarter of the scale for all scales and subscales on the individual level and exceeded the MICs on every occasion. We propose MICs of 5-10 points for the scales and subscales of the LVQOL and VCM1. The questionnaires are not useful in the follow-up of individual patients.

  15. The use of Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly - to develop a trait anxiety profile of subaquatic specialists; 2ndly - to investigate the predictive value of trait anxiety measures upon entering an occupational field; and 3rdly - to establish the reliability of these scores over time. Archival trait-anxiety data from 322 subjects were analyzed statistically. Analysis of the available scores revealed a highly homogenous as well as a very low trait anxiety profile for the investigated occupational group. Additionally, low trait anxiety was somewhat associated with success during specialist training: fewer candidates with high trait anxiety scores completed their qualification. Moreover, measurement of trait anxiety was stable over time, which suggests that when scores for this occupational group are screened, deviations from previous scores could signify a potential need for referral to an intervention from health professionals. Using the trait anxiety subscale as part of occupational health surveillance of subaquatic specialists could support prevention of accidents by identifying high-risk candidates during their annual health assessments, and referral for timeous intervention.

  16. Topographic effect of Sub-scale Mountains around the main Tibetan Plateau on Asian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yingying; Shi, Zhengguo

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most important tectonic events in Cenozoic, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is considered to have profound influences on the evolution of Asian climate.However, the potential influence from the sub-scale mountains around the main TP is largely neglected. In actual, these sub-scale mountains may affect some climate systems, which facilitates from their sensitive locations. Taking the Mongolian Plateau (MP) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP, SW China) as examples, they are located at the core paths of mid-latitude winter westerly and Indian summer southwesterly monsoon, respectively, and seem to significantly block the eastward propagation of these systems from modern climatological data. In this study, general circulation model experiments with and without mountains are employed to evaluate the topographic effect of MP and YGP on the Asian climate. The results show that, the MP, despite its smaller size, exerts a great influence on the strengthened winter climate over East Asia, including the East Asian trough, the subtropical westerly jet and the winter monsoon. The YGP, however, plays an opposite role in the Indian monsoon change, compared to the main TP. It weakens the Indian summer monsoon circulation and associated precipitation. Thus, the response of Asian climate to the mountain uplift depends closely on the actual distributions of topography rather than a simplified bulk of main TP.

  17. Experimental spray atomization studies of uni-element shear coaxial injector plate geometry for LOX/CH4 combustion and propulsion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Vanessa

    The Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) has developed a set of shear coaxial injectors as part of a system-level approach to study LOX/CH4 combustion. This thesis describes the experimental studies involved in the characterization of the effects produced by two design injection face plate variables: post thickness and recession length. A testing program was developed to study the injectors' atomization process using LN2 as a substitute for LOX in cold flow and the flame anchoring mechanisms in hot firings. The cold flow testing stage was conducted to obtain liquid core measurements and compare its behavior between the different geometric configurations. Shadowgraph technique was used during this testing stage to obtain these measurements and compare them to previously published data and core length mathematical models. The inlet conditions were selected to obtain mixture ratios in the 2-4 range and a wide range of high momentum flux ratios (30-150). Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also used in the testing of the three injectors to assess their atomization performance and their fragmentation behaviors. Results show that changes in central post thickness and co-annular orifice recession length with respect to the injection plate have quantifiable effects in the generated spray flow field, despite not being accounted for in traditional break up calculations. The observations and results of this investigation lead to a proof of concept demonstration in a combustion setting to support the study of flame anchoring mechanisms, also discussed in this work.

  18. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macadam Clare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  19. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macadam, Clare; Barnett, Julie; Roberts, Graham; Stiefel, Gary; King, Rosemary; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Holloway, Judith A; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-02-02

    Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  20. NOx Emissions Performance and Correlation Equations for a Multipoint LDI Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.; Chang, Clarence T.; Follen, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    Lean Direct Injection (LDI) is a combustor concept that reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This paper looks at a 3-zone multipoint LDI concept developed by Parker Hannifin Corporation. The concept was tested in a flame-tube test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. Due to test facility limitations, such as inlet air temperature and pressure, the flame-tube test was not able to cover the full set of engine operation conditions. Three NOx correlation equations were developed based on assessing NOx emissions dependencies on inlet air pressure (P3), inlet air temperature (T3), and fuel air equivalence ratio (?) to estimate the NOx emissions at the unreachable high engine power conditions. As the results, the NOx emissions are found to be a strong function of combustion inlet air temperature and fuel air equivalence ratio but a weaker function of inlet air pressure. With these three equations, the NOx emissions performance of this injector concept is calculated as a 66% reduction relative to the ICAO CAEP-6 standard using a 55:1 pressure-ratio engine cycle. Uncertainty in the NOx emissions estimation increases as the extrapolation range departs from the experimental conditions. Since maximum inlet air pressure tested was less than 50% of the full power engine inlet air pressure, a future experiment at higher inlet air pressure conditions is needed to confirm the NOx emissions dependency on inlet air pressure.

  1. Controllable injector for local flux entry into superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, D.; Colauto, F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Oliveira, A. A. M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-07-21

    A superconducting flux injector (SFI) has been designed to allow for controlled injections of magnetic flux into a superconducting film from a predefined location along the edge. The SFI is activated by an external current pulse, here chosen to be 200 ms long, and it is demonstrated on films of Nb that the amount of injected flux is controlled by the pulse height. Examples of injections at two different temperatures where the flux enters by stimulated flux-flow and by triggered thermomagnetic avalanches are presented. The boundary between the two types of injection is determined and discussed. The SFI opens up for active use of phenomena which up to now have been considered hazardous for a safe operation of superconducting devices.

  2. Thermal Calculations Of Input Coupler For Erl Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Sobenin, N P; Bogdanovich, B Yu; Kaminsky, V I; Krasnov, A A; Lalayan, M V; Veshcherevich, V G; Zavadtsev, A A; Zavadtsev, D A

    2004-01-01

    The thermal calculation results of input coupler for ERL injector cavities are presented [1]. A twin coaxial coupler of TTF-3 type was chosen for 2×75 kW RF power transfer. TTF-3 coupler was intended for high pulse and not high average power transmission, so there were revisings proposed in its design. New coupler configuration provides thermal leakage not more than 0.2 W at temperature 2.0K, 2 W at the temperature 4,0K and 50 W at temperature 80K. Construction revising was made at "cold" and "warm" bellows. In particularly, bellows separating was proposed to install additional heat sink. Coupler configuration with "warm" window of choke type was examined. It provides mechanical uncoupling of input waveguide and ceramic insulator. Electrodynamics simulations were carried out by MicroWaveStudio and HFSS codes, thermal analysis was maid using ANSYS.

  3. Scleral fixation of one piece intraocular lens by injector implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Can

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: With an ab-interno technique of transscleral suturing of current one-piece posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs by injector implantation in the absence of capsular support, we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of the implantation of one-piece acrylic PC IOLs that might be produced in the future for only scleral fixation through small clear corneal incision. Materials and Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: This procedure has been performed in eight aphakic eyes with four different types of IOLs. Good centration was achieved with minimal technical effort. All patients had well-centered and stable lenses postoperatively during 9-18 months follow-up. Conclusion: We managed to decrease the risks of surgical trauma and intricate surgical maneuvers requirement. With this technique, excessive fluid leakage and consecutive hypotony can be minimized.

  4. Transition Crossing in the Main Injector for PIP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Chaurize, S. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) [1] is Fermilab’s plan for providing powerful, high-intensity proton beams to the laboratory’s experiments. PIP II will include upgrades to the Booster, Recycler and Main Injector which will be required to accelerate 50% more beam as well as increasing the Booster repetition rate from 15 to 20 Hz. To accommodate the faster rate, the momentum separation of the slip stacking beams in the Recycler must increase which will result in in larger longitudinal emittance bunches in MI. In order to cross transition without losses, it is expected a gamma-t jump will be needed. Gamma-t jump schemes for the MI are investigated.

  5. Descemet′s tear due to injector cartridge tip deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foldable intraocular lens (IOL implantation using an injector system through 2.8-mm clear corneal incision following phacoemulsification provides excellent speedy postoperative recovery. In our reported case, a Sensar AR40e IOL (Abbott Medical Optics, USA was loaded into Emerald C cartridge, outside the view of the operating microscope, by the first assistant. The surgeon proceeded with the IOL injection through a 2.8-mm clear corneal incision after uneventful phacoemulsification, immediately following which he noted a Descemet′s tear with a rolled out flap of about 2 mm near the incision site. Gross downward beaking of the bevelled anterior end of the cartridge was subsequently noticed upon examination under the microscope. We suggest careful preoperative microscopic inspection of all instruments and devices entering the patient′s eyes to ensure maximum safety to the patient.

  6. Comments on Injector Proton Beam Study in Run 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-09-15

    During the entire period of injector proton study in run 2014, it seems that the beam transverse emittance out of Booster is larger than that in run 2013. The emittance measured at the BtA transfer line and also the transmission from Booster late to AGS late are presented for this argument. In addition to this problem, it seems that the multiturn Booster injection, which defines the transverse emittance, needs more attention. Moreover, for high intensity operations, the space charge effect may be already relevant in RHIC polarized proton runs. With the RHIC proton intensity improvement in the next several years, higher Booster input intensity is needed, therefore, the space charge effect at the Booster injection and early ramp may become a new limiting factor.

  7. RF Design Optimization for New Injector Cryounit at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Hannon, Fay E.; Hofler, Alicia S.; Kazimi, Reza; Preble, Joe; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    A new injector superconducting RF (SRF) cryounit with one new 2-cell, B=0.6 cavity plus one refurbished 7-cell, B=0.97, C100 style cavity has been re-designed and optimized for the engineering compatibility of existing module for CEBAF operation. The optimization of 2-cell cavity shape for longitudinal beam dynamic of acceleration from 200keV to 533keV and the minimization of transverse kick due to the waveguide couplers to less than 1 mrad have been considered. Operating at 1497MHz, two cavities has been designed into a same footprint of CEBAF original quarter cryomodule to deliver an injection beam energy of 5MeV in less than 0.27{degree} rms bunch length and a maximum energy spread of 5keV.

  8. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  9. Proposal for a new proton injector for LINAC2

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, B

    1997-01-01

    The CERN proton Drift Tube LINAC (LINAC2) has been serving as proton injector to the PS Booster for over 20 years. In 1992 the pre-accelerator (composed of a 750 keV column and a double buncher system) has been replaced by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ2) able to be accelerated excess of 200 mA of protons. 160 mA-proton beam are delivered to the booster during normal operation, 180mA during high intensity operation. Although this value is satisfying for the future LHC operation, a larger margin would be welcome ( 180mA for production beam, 200 mA for high intensity operation). In this note we propose a solution to improve the overall performance of the CERN proton LINAC (LINAC2).

  10. The Pre-Injector Linac for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, C

    2004-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is a new medium-energy high brightness synchrotron light facility which is under construction on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory site in the U.K. The accelerator facility can be divided into three major components; a 3 GeV 561 m circumference storage ring, a full-energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV pre-injector linac. This paper describes the linac design and plans for operation. The linac is supplied by ACCEL Instruments GmbH under a turn-key contract, with Diamond Light Source Ltd. providing linac beam diagnostics, control system hardware and standard vacuum components. Commissioning of the linac will take place in early 2005 and user operation of the facility will commence in 2007.

  11. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  12. The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly over a dry lakebed runway during a captive-carry test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-40 is attached to a sling which is suspended from the CH-47 by a 110-foot-long cable during the tests, while a small parachute trails behind to provide stability. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  13. Design and experiment of insulation support of 2 MeV injector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Meng; Dai Guang Sen; Wang Jing Sheng; Xia Lian Sheng; Huang Hai Bo

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the technical request of high power injector, the authors designed two Nylon radial graded insulation supports on the heads of cathode and anode of the existing 2 MeV injector. The experiment results showed that, on the basis of credible insulation, the supports improved the quality of coaxiality between the cathode and the anode, ameliorated the identity of the three axes of beams, magnetic field and mechanism, and settled the groundwork for advancing each technical performances of the 2 MeV injector

  14. [Cost of tetanus toxoid injection using a jet-injector (Imule) in collective immunization in Senegal: comparison with injection using a syringe and resterilizable needle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, M; Châtelet, I P; Lafarge, H; Genêt, A; Gaye, A B; Monnereau, A; Sanou, C; Diawara, L; Gueye, Y; Lang, J

    1999-01-01

    Needle-less jet injectors were developed by the US army after World War II. Their principal use, however, has been in the administration of lyophilized vaccines from multidose vials to at-risk populations in developing countries. In 1983, a hepatitis B epidemic occurred among customers of a beauty clinic in California (USA) following the use of jet-injectors, demonstrating a clear risk of cross-contamination associated with this technique. As a result, the WHO and Unicef stopped recommending jet-injectors for collective immunizations in developing countries. To eliminate the risk of contamination, Pasteur Mérieux Sérums et Vaccins (now Aventis Pasteur) developed, in 1990, jet-injectors for use with single-use vaccine cartridges. These injectors were tested for tetanus toxoid, DTP, influenza, hepatitis A and typhoid Vi vaccination. The immunogenic reaction was as strong and the injection as well tolerated as for injections using a standard needle and syringe. The additional cost of the Imule technique was evaluated in a district-wide (127,000 inhabitants) tetanus toxoid immunization program at Velingara, Senegal in 1993. The total cost was estimated to be 1.51 FF (76 F CSA, 0.32 US dollars) for one dose of tetanus vaccine given by needle and syringe and 2.41 FF (121 F CSA, 0.56 US dollars) for one dose given by Imule. Thus, the additional cost of injection by ImuleTM was 0.90 FF (45 F CSA, 0.21 US dollars). The cost of cross infection in sub-Saharan Africa has been estimated to be 2.37 FF (118 F CSA, 0.55 US dollars) per injection if injection practices are not supervised. Therefore, the Imule technique may be considered to be cost-effective. However, the technique is still not completely reliable, as shown by the total breakdown of four jet injectors during this vaccination session. Lyophilized vaccines have also not been tested in the field. Vaccinators prefer Imule, training is easy and immunization can be carried out on a day-to-day basis with no vaccine

  15. Two key improvements to enhance the thermo-mechanic performances of accelerator grids for neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinetti, P., E-mail: piero.agostinetti@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); University of Padova, Department of Engineering and Management, strad. S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Gambetta, G.; Marcuzzi, D. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The grids of MITICA and ITER NBIs are subjected to huge heat loads. • With a standard design, fatigue life of the grids was below the ITER requirements. • Thanks to NICE and SRS improvements, ITER requirements are now satisfied. - Abstract: The MITICA experiment (Megavolt ITER Injector & Concept Advancement) is the prototype and the test bed of the Heating and Current Drive Neutral Beam Injectors, which will be necessary for the full-performance exploitation of ITER. MITICA injector experiments shall demonstrate the reliable and accurate emission of a 17 MW beam of neutral particles for duration up to 1 hour, fulfilling ITER specific requirements. The accelerator grids are among the most critical parts of this experiment, because they must fulfill several operational requirements and at the same time satisfy the fatigue verifications according to the ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). After about two years of continuous development, two design improvements were found to effectively increase the fatigue life of the grids up to the requested values. The first method was to adopt a novel shape of the cooling channels inside the grids, called Nozzle Island Cooling Enhancement (NICE) and able to provide a high performance cooling without exceeding the limits on the pressure drop through the grids. The second, called Stress Relieving Slits (SRS), was to introduce suitable slits in the grids, whose design was iteratively optimized until they were able to significantly reduce the stress/strain peaks due to thermal gradients. The NICE and SRS design solutions, here described in detail, were found to be key improvements in order to obtain a design of the grids able to satisfy all the operating requirements and all the structural verifications according to the ITER criteria.

  16. Concept for the real-time control and data acquisition of the W7X diagnostic injector (RudiX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, H. [Institute for Energy Research - Plasma Physics, Julich (Germany); Richert, T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This document is composed of a poster and its abstract. The Russian diagnostics injector for Wendelstein 7-X (RudiX) is built within the scope of an international cooperation by 3 associations (FZJ-IEF-4 1, IPP-HGW 2, BINP 3). With respect to the large distance between the partner institutes and the huge number of interfaces at the injector side a modular, decentralized concept became necessary. It has to fulfill the requirements regarding the operation modes as well as local boundary conditions (limited access to the experiment). The control system based on S7 300/400 series by Siemens and for programming and visualisation environment the Step 7 and WinCC software packages are used. Connection to other systems and sub-systems of the diagnostics injector are realised by standardised interfaces, using the following protocols: professional bus DP and Ethernet TCP-IP. The concept is separated in two parts: a) an interfaces to the W7-X main control and b) an internal subsystem interfaces. For the internal set-up several independent PLC 4 or decentralized peripheral modules with separate Cpu are used according to the safety requirements (fault-tolerant Cpu and peripheral). The data acquisition modules allowing connections to XDV 5 and to the PLC at the same. Following this modular and decentralized set-up it is possible to develop and apply standardised and re-usable software components allowing the operation of sub-systems independently from the complete system. For the connection to the central W7-X main control an interface simulator will be developed to test the functionality during the project phase independently. (authors)

  17. Comparisons Between NO PLIF Imaging and CFD Simulations of Mixing Flowfields for High-Speed Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz, G.; Cabell, Karen F.; Ziltz, Austin R.; Hass, Neil E.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Burns, Ross A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Abul-Huda, Yasin M.; Gamba, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    The current work compares experimentally and computationally obtained nitric oxide (NO) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the mixing flowfields for three types of high-speed fuel injectors: a strut, a ramp, and a rectangular flush-wall. These injection devices, which exhibited promising mixing performance at lower flight Mach numbers, are currently being studied as a part of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate scramjet fuel injection and mixing physics, and improve the understanding of underlying physical processes relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than eight. In the experiments, conducted in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF), the injectors are placed downstream of a Mach 6 facility nozzle, which simulates the high Mach number air flow at the entrance of a scramjet combustor. Helium is used as an inert substitute for hydrogen fuel. The PLIF is obtained by using a tunable laser to excite the NO, which is present in the AHSTF air as a direct result of arc-heating. Consequently, the absence of signal is an indication of pure helium (fuel). The PLIF images computed from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are obtained by combining a fluorescence model for NO with the Reynolds-Averaged Simulation results carried out using the VULCAN-CFD solver to obtain a computational equivalent of the experimentally measured PLIF signal. The measured NO PLIF signal is mainly a function of NO concentration allowing for semi-quantitative comparisons between the CFD and the experiments. The PLIF signal intensity is also sensitive to pressure and temperature variations in the flow, allowing additional flow features to be identified and compared with the CFD. Good agreement between the PLIF and the CFD results provides increased confidence in the CFD simulations for investigations of injector performance.

  18. Use, Assessment, and Improvement of the Loci-CHEM CFD Code for Simulation of Combustion in a Single Element GO2/GH2 Injector and Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; Lin, Jeff; West, Jeff; Tucker, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation of a paper that documents a continuing effort at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to use, assess, and continually improve CFD codes to the point of material utility in the design of rocket engine combustion devices. This paper describes how the code is presently being used to simulate combustion in a single element combustion chamber with shear coaxial injectors using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. The ultimate purpose of the efforts documented is to assess and further improve the Loci-CHEM code and the implementation of it. Single element shear coaxial injectors were tested as part of the Staged Combustion Injector Technology (SCIT) program, where detailed chamber wall heat fluxes were measured. Data was taken over a range of chamber pressures for propellants injected at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Several test cases are simulated as part of the effort to demonstrate use of the Loci-CHEM CFD code and to enable us to make improvements in the code as needed. The simulations presented also include a grid independence study on hybrid grids. Several two-equation eddy viscosity low Reynolds number turbulence models are also evaluated as part of the study. All calculations are presented with a comparison to the experimental data. Weaknesses of the code relative to test data are discussed and continuing efforts to improve the code are presented.

  19. Upgrade and experimental results of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yahong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Chundong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jiang, Caichao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Gu, Yuming; Xu, Yongjian; Chen, Shiyong; Liang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yuanlai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The RF ion source was developed in ASIPP for the first time. • The gas control was employed for the initial plasma production successfully. • The RF power was controlled for the stable plasma generation with high power. • Long pulse operation was tested and analyzed with 400 s. - Abstract: A radio frequency (RF) ion source was designed and developed for neutral beam injector in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Recently, the RF ion source was upgraded with new RF power generator (50 kW with frequency of 1 MHz), a new matching unit and the faraday shield with water cooling. Two new methods were used for the ion source tests on the test bed. The high pressure was used for the ignition of plasma and change to low pressure of 0.3 Pa to maintain the plasma. The RF plasma can be generated without the start filament successfully. In order to avoid the plasma oscillation with high power, the RF power was set to increase with two stages without change the matching unit. High power of 46 kW with pulse length of 22 s was achieved on the test bed and the plasma duration can be extended too.

  20. Stability of memories of parental rearing among psychiatric inpatients: a replication based on EMBU subscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Eisemann, M

    2001-01-01

    With regard to information about parental rearing, retrospective data are exclusively available among adults. These data are vulnerable due to various biases. This study was performed in order to replicate the findings of overall stability of three perceived parental rearing factors of the EMBU (Swedish acronym for 'own memories of childhood upbringing') based on 14 rather detailed subscales. A consecutive sample of 220 depressive inpatients were investigated on admission and at discharge by means of the EMBU, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Perceived parental rearing scores showed high stability despite clinically significant changes in the severity of depression, except for 'tolerance', 'guilt engendering', 'performance orientation' and 'shaming' parenting with probable gender-specific effects which were found to covary with dysfunctional attitudes. Recall of parenting should be taken as a subjective truth when it is assessed by standardised behaviour-oriented questionnaires like the EMBU. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3) subscales predict unique variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has been implicated in the development and maintenance of a range of mental health problems. The development of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index - 3, a psychometrically sound index of AS, has provided the opportunity to better understand how the lower-order factors of AS - physical, psychological, and social concerns - are associated with unique forms of psychopathology. The present study investigated these associations among 85 treatment-seeking adults with high AS. Participants completed measures of AS, anxiety, and depression. Multiple regression analyses controlling for other emotional disorder symptoms revealed unique associations between AS subscales and certain types of psychopathology. Only physical concerns predicted unique variance in panic, only cognitive concerns predicted unique variance in depressive symptoms, and social anxiety was predicted by only social concerns. Findings emphasize the importance of considering the multidimensional nature of AS in understanding its role in anxiety and depression and their treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The technology - activities of daily living questionnaire: a version with a technology-related subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L; Riveros, Rodrigo; Núñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled the Technology version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30 years). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = -0.70; FAB: r = -0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = -0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p questions to the ADLQ, our experience suggested that this has to be done cautiously, since the sensitivity of these additional items could vary in different populations. The T-ADLQ needs to be validated in a different population of dementia subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Study on atomization characteristic of dual-orifice pressure-swirl injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Li, Xianfeng; Ren, Zebin; Shi, Yu; Yang, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Fuel atomization greatly affects the combustion efficiency and uniformity of gas generator, therefore investigation on spray characteristics of injector is significative. In the present study, dual-orifice pressure-swirl injectors were designed and manufactured to meet the practical needs of mass flow rate and combustion performance of gas generator; water was used as the simulant medium for fuel, and Malvern optical instrument and SLA camera were applied to investigate the atomization characteristics of injectors. The results show that the mass flow rate, spray cone angle and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) all satisfy the design index request; the Sauter Mean Diameter decreases with the increase of injection pressure drop, but the decreasing tend becomes slow; when the spray develops to a certain position of injector exit, the Sauter Mean Diameter of axial sections keeps constantly.

  5. Development of GOX/Hydrocarbon Multi-Element Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, C

    2002-01-01

    In developing the advanced liquid rocket engine, injector design is critical to obtaining the dual goals of long engine life as well as providing high-energy release efficiency in the main combustion chamber...

  6. Chilean experimental version of the State-Trait Depression Questionnaire (ST-DEP: Trait sub-scale (T-DEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vera-Villarroel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This instrumental study presents the first validity and reliability data for the Trait subscale (T-DEP of the Chilean experimental version of the State and Trait Depression Inventory (ST-DEP: Euthymia and Dysthymia. The data were obtained from a sample of 300 university students. The internal consistency values for the TDEP were high (.90. The test-retest values from eight weeks time interval (fifty six days were elevated (.78. A factorial analysis of the principal components revealed a principal factor for all of the constructed items in this experimental version of the TDEP. The last, promax rotation showed two clear main factors similar in size: negative affectivity (Dysthymia and positive affectivity (Euthymia. The convergent validity indexes for the Beck Depression Inventory and the Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, were also high, with indexes ranging from .64 to .71. The correlation between State- Trait Anxiety Inventory and the depression scales used in this study was high (between .63 and .78, once again indicating the usual overlapping between anxiety and depression seen in most depression inventories.

  7. Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfield T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

  8. Psychometric properties of the existence subscale of the purpose in life questionnaire for Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M F

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to test the psychometric properties of the Existence Subscale of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire (EPIL) for early adolescence. The Purpose in Life Questionnaire (PIL), originally created by Craumbaugh and Maholick, is a 20-item scale measuring different dimensions of life purposes. The current study selected seven items representative of the existence dimension to form another scale, the EPIL. The analysis was based on 2842 early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 14 years old. Principal axis factoring found one factor, with 60% variance being explained. Cronbach's alpha for the EPIL was 0.89, which was high. The factor structure was stable across genders. Criterion-related validity was determined when the scale was used to differentiate volunteers and nonvolunteers. Construct validity was found when the scale was associated with life satisfaction. The results give support to the fact that the EPIL could be used alone to measure the psychological well-being of early adolescents and the appropriateness of the EPIL in adolescent research.

  9. Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Alan K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Canfield, Thomas R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [SNLA

    2010-10-14

    We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD) closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT) approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

  10. Concentric-flow electrokinetic injector enables serial crystallography of ribosome and photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Gati, Cornelius; Laksmono, Hartawan; Dao, E. Han; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin; Kern, Jan; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Brewster, Aaron S.; Young, Iris D.; Michels-Clark, Tara; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Boutet, Sébastien; Junco, Elia A.; Hayes, Brandon; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Puglisi, Elisabetta V.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Stan, Claudiu A.; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Soltis, S. Michael; Puglisi, Joseph D.; DeMirci, Hasan

    2015-11-30

    We describe a concentric-flow electrokinetic injector for efficiently delivering microcrystals for serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography analysis that enables studies of challenging biological systems in their unadulterated mother liquor. We used the injector to analyze microcrystals of Geobacillus stearothermophilus thermolysin (2.2-Å structure), Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem II (<3-Å diffraction) and Thermus thermophilus small ribosomal subunit bound to the antibiotic paromomycin at ambient temperature (3.4-Å structure).

  11. Predictions for Non-Solenoidal Startup in Pegasus with Lower Divertor Helicity Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.

    2014-10-01

    Non-solenoidal startup in Pegasus has focused on using arrays of local helicity injectors situated on the outboard midplane to leverage PF induction. In contrast, injector assemblies located in the lower divertor region can provide improved performance. Higher toroidal field at the injector increases the helicity injection rate, providing a higher effective loop voltage. Poloidal flux expansion in the divertor region will increase the Taylor relaxation current limit. Radial position control requirements are lessened, as plasma expansion naturally couples to injectors in the divertor region. Advances in cathode design and plasma-facing guard rings allow operation at bias voltages over 1.5 kV, three times higher than previously available. This results in increased effective loop voltage and reduced impurity generation. Operation of helicity injectors in the high field side elevates the current requirements for relaxation to a tokamak-like state, but these are met through the improved injector design and increased control over the poloidal field structure via the addition of new coil sets. These advances, combined with the relocation of the injectors to the divertor region, will allow access to the operational regime where helicity injection current drive, rather the poloidal induction, dominates the discharge--a prerequisite for scaling to larger devices. Initial estimates indicate that plasma currents of 0.25-0.30 MA are attainable at full toroidal field with 4 injectors of 2 cm2 each and 8 kA total injected current. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  12. Use of individual auto-injector kits ?IZAS-05? on the contemporary battlefield

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemba, Rados?aw

    2012-01-01

    Summary In crisis situations, such as transportation catastrophes, terrorist attacks or contamination with chemical warfare agents, it is crucial to properly organize and sensibly conduct rescue operations. Among chemical warfare agents, the most toxic ones are the derivatives of organophosphorus compounds. An individual auto-injector kit ?IZAS-05? contains auto-injectors, which are devices designed for intramuscular administration of drugs in self-aid or buddy-aid on the battlefield. This pa...

  13. Status report on the positive ion injector (PII) for ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkann, G.P.; Added, N.; Billquist, P.; Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.; Markovich, P.; Phillips, D.; Strickhorn, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Positive Ion Injector (PII) is part of the Uranuim upgrade for ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper will include a technical discussion of the Positive Ion Injector (PII) accelerator with its superconducting, niobium, very low-velocity accelerating structures. It will also discuss the current construction schedule of PII, and review an upgrade of the fast- tuning system. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  15. 40 CFR 80.166 - Carburetor deposit control performance test and test fuel guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Code of Regulations. (2) “A Vehicle Test Technique for Studying Port Fuel Injector Deposits—A...-1981”, Coordinating Research Council, CRC Report No. 529, Coordinating Research Council Inc. (CRC), 219...

  16. Examining unidimensionality and improving reliability for the eight subscales of the SF-36 in opioid-dependent patients using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yu, Wan-Hui; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsi; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most commonly used questionnaires for monitoring the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of opioid-dependent patients. However, the unidimensionality and reliability of the SF-36 have not been verified in opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study was to examine the unidimensionality and to improve the test reliability of the SF-36 for use in opioid-dependent patients. A total of 583 opioid-dependent patients were recruited in the study. Unidimensionality was examined by conducting unidimensional Rasch analysis. Item fit statistics and principle component analysis were used to check the item-model fit in each of the eight subscales of the SF-36. Reliability was evaluated by applying both unidimensional and multidimensional Rasch analyses. After three misfitting items were excluded, the remaining items of each subscale in the SF-36 represented a single construct. The test reliabilities (0.80-0.87) yielded by the multidimensional approach were much higher than those (0.68-0.82) produced by the unidimensional approach. The remaining 32 items of the SF-36 are appropriate for evaluating the HRQOL in opioid-dependent patients in terms of unidimensionality. Additionally, the test scores produced by the multidimensional approach were more accurate than those obtained by the unidimensional approach.

  17. What are the required maintenance and consolidation activities to run at design performance levels (injectors and LHC) until 2035?

    CERN Document Server

    Baird, S

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that Linac4 is connected to the PSB in LS2, we will outline the maintenance and basic consolidation works that will be needed to maintain design performance of the LHC and its Injector chain until 2035, with an overall reliability as good as that achieved in the first LHC operation period 2009 to 2013. Using these data we will estimate the shutdown schedule needed throughout this period to complete these maintenance and consolidation works. These estimates will also include the required radiation cool-down periods, time for system re-commissioning and testing as well as the time needed to restart the accelerator chain for LHC colliding beam operation. As some of the consolidation activities needed for the PS and SPS machines are related to the radia tion dose taken by the machine equipment (e.g., irradiated cable replacement and magnet renovation) the variation of these time estimates as a function of beam losses in the Injector chain will also be covered.

  18. End-point energy measurements of field emission current in a continuous-wave normal-conducting rf injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. C.; Moody, N. A.; Andrews, H. L.; Bolme, G.; Castellano, L. J.; Heath, C. E.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Kwon, S. I.; McCrady, R.; Martinez, F. A.; Marroquin, P.; Prokop, M.; Renneke, R. M.; Roybal, P.; Roybal, W. T.; Tomei, T. L.; Torrez, P. A.; Tuzel, W. M.; Zaugg, T.

    2011-03-01

    The LANL/AES normal-conducting radio-frequency injector has been tested at cw cathode gradients up to 10MV/m. Field-emission electrons from a roughened copper cathode are accelerated to beam energy as high as 2.5 MeV and impinge on a stainless steel target. The energies of the resulting bremsstrahlung photons are measured at varying levels of injector cavity rf power corresponding to different accelerating gradients. At low cavity power, the bremsstrahlung spectra exhibit well-defined end-point energies at the positions where the number of single-photon events decreases to one (S/Nratio=1). Increasing the cavity power raises the probability of two-photon events in which two photons simultaneously arrive at the detector and register counts at twice the photon energy. The end-point energies at high cavity power are recorded at positions where the single-photon events transition to two-photon events. The measured end-point energies using this method are in excellent agreement with PARMELA calculations based on the cavity gradients deduced from the cavity rf power measurements.

  19. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners’ Oppositional Subscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Beijsterveldt, Van; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) which may differentially predict outcome, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of mother’s report on the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S). METHOD Data were obtained from mother’s report for Dutch twins (7 year-old [n = 7,597], 10 year-old [n = 6,548], and 12 year-old [n = 5,717]) from the Netherlands Twin Registry. Samples partially overlapped at ages 7 and 10 (19% overlapping) and at ages 10 and 12 (30% overlapping), but not at ages 7 and 12. Oppositional defiant behavior was measured using the 6-item Oppositional subscale of the CPRS-R:S. Multilevel LCA with robust standard error estimates was performed using Latent Gold to control for twin-twin dependence in the data. Class assignment across ages was determined and an estimate of heritability for each class was calculated. Comparisons to maternal report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores were examined using linear mixed models at each age, corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The LCA identified an optimal solution of 4-classes across age groups: Class 1 was associated with no or low symptom endorsement (69–75% of the children), class 2 was characterized by defiance (11–12%), class 3 was characterized by irritability (9–11%), and class 4 was associated with elevated scores on all symptoms (5–8%). Odds ratios for twins being in the same class at each successive age point were higher within classes across ages than between classes. Heritability within the two “intermediate” classes was nearly as high as for the class with all symptoms, except for boys at age 12. Children in the Irritable Class were more likely to have mood symptoms

  20. HOM characterization for beam diagnostics at the european XFEL injector

    CERN Document Server

    Baboi, Nicoletta; Shi, Liangliang; Wamsat, Thomas, DESY; Jones, Roger M; Joshi, Nirav

    2017-01-01

    Higher Order Modes (HOM) excited by bunched electron beams in accelerating cavities carry information about the beam position and phase. This principle is used at the FLASH facility, at DESY, for beam position monitoring in 1.3 and 3.9 GHz cavities. Dipole modes, which depend on the beam offset, are used. Similar monitors are now under design for the European XFEL. In addition to beam position, the beam phase with respect to the accelerating RF will be monitored using monopole modes from the first higher order monopole band. The HOM signals are available from two couplers installed on each cavity. Their monitoring will allow the on-line tracking of the phase stability over time, and we anticipate that it will improve the stability of the facility. As part of the monitor designing, the HOM spectra in the cavities of the 1.3 and 3.9 GHz cryo-modules installed in the European XFEL injector have been measured. This paper will present their dependence on the beam position. The variation in the modal distribution f...

  1. The Timing System of the Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Chundong; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Cui, Qinglong; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun; Zhang, Rui; Lin, Yulian

    2015-05-01

    In order to synchronize the elements of the EAST Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) spatially located in several places, a distributed Timing System (TS) is developed in this paper. The timing system provides a clock reference for synchronization and an interlock protection of the EAST NBI system. It sends timing signals to field devices, controls the pulse widths of the timing sequences, and provides a sampling clock for the Data Acquisition System (DAS). The timing system also generates analog waveforms to control power supplies and gas supplies according to the operator's configuration. The timing system is developed on a PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation) platform consisting of a LabVIEW workstation and a timing control terminal. The timing control terminal consists of a timing node and several control interface crates. Two timing nodes are configured in one beam line. Each node is responsible for the timing sequence, analog generation and feedback control for one ion source. The architecture and implementation of the timing system are presented in this paper.

  2. Deformation mechanism of the Cryostat in the CADS Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Bai, Feng; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Thermal contraction and expansion of the Cryostat will affect its reliability and stability. To optimize and upgrade the Cryostat, we analyzed the heat transfer in a cryo-vacuum environment from the theoretical point first. The simulation of cryo-vacuum deformation based on a finite element method was implemented respectively. The completed measurement based on a Laser Tracker and a Micro Alignment Telescope was conducted to verify its correctness. The monitored deformations were consistent with the simulated ones. After the predictable deformations in vertical direction have been compensated, the superconducting solenoids and Half Wave Resonator cavities approached the ideal "zero" position under liquid helium conditions. These guaranteed the success of 25 MeV@170 uA continuous wave protons of Chinese accelerator driven subcritical system Injector II. By correlating the vacuum and cryo-deformation, we have demonstrated that the complete deformation was the superposition effect of the atmospheric pressure, gravity and thermal stress during both the process of cooling down and warming up. The results will benefit to an optimization for future Cryostat's design.

  3. An Item Response Analysis of the Motor and Behavioral Subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale in Huntington Disease Gene Expansion Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269

  4. Spray Formation from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Injectors for DISI Engines with Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, M.; Aleiferis, P; OudeNijeweme, D; Freeland, P

    2014-01-01

    Copyright ? 2014 SAE International.One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ?direct replacement? Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with...

  5. AN ALGORITHM OF ADAPTIVE TORQUE CONTROL IN INJECTOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Gerasimov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Internal combustion engine as a plant is a highly nonlinear complex system that works mostly in dynamic regimes in the presence of noise and disturbances. A number of engine characteristics and parameters is not known or known approximately due to the complex structure and multimode operating of the engine. In this regard the problem of torque control is not trivial and motivates the use of modern techniques of control theory that give the possibility to overcome the mentioned problems. As a consequence, a relatively simple algorithm of adaptive torque control of injector engine is proposed in the paper. Method. Proposed method is based on nonlinear dynamic model with parametric and functional uncertainties (static characteristics which are suppressed by means of adaptive control algorithm with single adjustable parameter. The algorithm is presented by proportional control law with adjustable feedback gain and provides the exponential convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium. It is shown that the radius of the neighborhood can be arbitrary reduced by the change of controller design parameters. Main Results. A dynamical nonlinear model of the engine has been designed for the purpose of control synthesis and simulation of the closed-loop system. The parameters and static functions of the model are identified with the use of data aquired during Federal Test Procedure (USA of Chevrolet Tahoe vehicle with eight cylinders 5,7L engine. The algorithm of adaptive torque control is designed, and the properties of the closed-loop system are analyzed with the use of Lyapunov functions approach. The closed-loop system operating is verified by means of simulation in the MatLab/Simulink environment. Simulation results show that the controller provides the boundedness of all signals and convergence of the control error to the neighborhood of zero equilibrium despite significant variations of engine speed. The

  6. A study on mechanism of wear on body seat in nozzle of diesel fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeonggee, Son; Yamashita, Toru; Sato, Susumu; Kosaka, Hidenori; Masuko, Masabumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Wear of nozzle's body seat of diesel fuel injector, which is caused by the collision of needle on the body seat in a nozzle, affects fuel spray behaviors and injection characteristics. Recently, to reduce the wear of body seat, DLC nozzles are widely used. The DLC on the needle which is called diamond-like carbon has a certain effect in reducing wear of body seat. However, disallowable wear is reported at limited engine operating conditions. Moreover, the wear mechanism of body seat with DLC coated needle has not been made clear yet. In this study, the influence of temperature of the body seat and fuel property on the wear of DLC nozzle was investigated with a newly developed wear testing device which was constructed based on common-rail injection system. Worn surfaces of body seat were observed by FE-SEM, laser scanning microscope and EPMA. The obtained results from the measurements show that DLC nozzle has much less wear amount than non-DLC nozzle on the body seat and the corrosive wear effect is suppressed with DLC nozzle. (orig.)

  7. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Iwaki, Chikako; Asanuma, Yutaka; Goto, Shoji

    A Steam Injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "High-Efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and Emergency Core Cooling System of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a Severe Accident-Free Concept). This paper describes the results of the endurance and performance tests of low-pressure SIs for feed-water heaters with Jet-deaerator and core injection system.

  8. Studies of Cs3Sb cathodes for the CLIC drive beam photo injector option

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Irene; Doebert, Steffen; Fedosseev, Valentine; Hessler, Christoph; Martyanov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Within the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project, feasibility studies of a photo injector option for the drive beam as an alternative to its baseline design using a thermionic electron gun are on-going. This R&D program covers both the laser and the photocathode side. Whereas the available laser pulse energy in ultra-violet (UV) is currently limited by the optical defects in the 4thharmonics frequency conversion crystal induced by the0.14 ms long pulse trains, recent measurements of Cs3Sbphotocathodes sensitive to green light showed their potential to overcome this limitation. Moreover, using visible laser beams leads to better stability of produced electron bunches and one can take advantages of the availability of higher quality optics. The studied Cs3Sbphotocathodes have been produced in the CERN photo emission laboratory using the co-deposition technique and tested in a DC gun set-up. The analysis of data acquired during the cathode production process will be presented in this paper, as well as the r...

  9. Cryopump development of the 5 MW neutral beam injector system on HL-2M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianfu; Cao, Jianyong; Liu, He; Wei, Huiling; Liu, Weicheng; Ma, Hong

    2017-07-01

    In order to carry out the long pulse and high power neutral beam injector (NBI) heating experiment on the HL-2M tokamak and satisfy its high vacuum pumping speed in the NBI, two built-in cryopumps with large area and based on a three-stage adsorption structure have been developed. The design idea and size of the three stage structure, the manufacturing technique, and the test experiment for cryopumps have been described in this paper. The experimental result shows that the cooldown time of liquid nitrogen pipes and liquid helium pipes are 1.5 h and 10 min, respectively. With activated charcoal bonded on the condensation plates, the pumping speed reaches 1.13 × 106 l/s, and the consumption of liquid helium is 2.53 g/s and 3.11 g/s for the 4-component pump and the 5-component pump, respectively. The conductance probability of the pump inlet is 0.25 for hydrogen.

  10. Clinical meaningfulness of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale change in relation to goal attainment in patients on cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Kenneth; Howlett, Susan E; Hoffman, Deborah; Schindler, Rachel; Mitnitski, Arnold

    2017-10-01

    The clinical meaningfulness of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) subscale change is disputed. We compared 2- to 4-point ADAS-Cog changes with changes in Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) and everyday function across initial ADAS-Cog scores and treatment responses. This exploratory analysis evaluated mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease patients treated with donepezil (12 months) or galantamine (8 months). Clinical meaningfulness was defined as concomitant ADAS-Cog and GAS changes of ±3 points and/or functional improvement. Patients with ≥3-point ADAS-Cog improvement significantly improved on GAS but not on standard tests of everyday function. ADAS-Cog "no change" (≤±3 points) was seen with mean GAS improvement. Initial ADAS-Cog improvement made endpoint improvement (ADAS-Cog 3 points and GAS 1 point) more likely (odds ratio = 6.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.5-19.5). In contrast, initial deterioration made endpoint improvement unlikely (0.33; 0.14-0.64). ADAS-Cog improvement and no change were each associated with GAS improvement. Initial ADAS-Cog worsening was unlikely to result in later improvement. ISRCTN26167328. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler memory scale – third edition (WMS-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Nicole Lamb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC, respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III. COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e. met carriers relative to val homozygotes was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  12. Numerical investigation of injector geometry effects on fuel stratification in a GCI engine

    KAUST Repository

    Atef, Nour

    2017-11-24

    Injectors play an important role in direct injection (DI) gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines by affecting the in-cylinder mixture formation and stratification, which in turn impacts combustion and emissions. In this work, the effects of two different injector geometries, a 7-hole solid-cone injector and an outwardly opening hollow-cone injector, on fuel mixture stratification in a GCI engine were investigated by computational simulations. Three fuels with similar autoignition kinetics, but with different physical properties, were studied to isolate the effect of the combustion chemistry on combustion phasing. In addition, start of injection (SOI) sweeps relevant to low-load engine operating conditions were performed. The results show that physical properties of the fuel do not have significant influence when using a hollow-cone injector. Richer mixtures were observed at all the studied SOI (−40 to −14 CAD aTDC) cases, which can be attributed to the nature of the hollow cone spray. At later SOIs (−18 and −14 CAD aTDC), the richer mixtures are accompanied by lower mean in-cylinder temperature due to the charge cooling effect, which surpasses the equivalence ratio effect. The effect of fuel physical properties on combustion phasing was evident in multi-hole injection cases, which can be attributed to the differences in mixture stratification and equivalence ratio distribution at the time of ignition.

  13. A high resolution AMS-injector for the Pelletron in Lund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, R.; Bazhal, S.; Faarinen, M.; Håkansson, K.; Magnusson, C.-E.; Persson, P.; Skog, G.; Stenström, K.

    2002-12-01

    A high resolution injector system has recently been installed at the Lund 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The new injector, designed mainly for (26) Al ions, will increase the experimental potential of the Lund AMS facility considerably. High quality energy- and mass-resolution is obtained by using a 90(°) spherical electrostatic analyzer followed by a 90(°) magnetic analyzer. The injector is equipped with a high intensity sputtering source with a spherical ionizer. A new analytical technique for acceptance calculations as well as PC-based computational methods have been used in the design of the ion optical system of the new injector. Compared to our old injector system which has a magnetic analyzer with a bending angle of only 15(°) , the new system has a more than ten times better resolution. The beam optics of the new system is also better designed to match the accelerator acceptance. In this way the ion transmission from the ion source to the detector, for different ions of interest in our AMS programme, has been increased.

  14. Epinephrine auto-injector needle length: what is the ideal length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, T Ted; Lieberman, Phil

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature on the clinical effects of the needle length of epinephrine (adrenaline) auto-injectors. Epinephrine has maximal pharmacodynamic effect within 10 min of intramuscular administration into the thigh. Prefilled epinephrine auto-injectors are designed for simplicity of use and safety. Auto-injectors are primarily used by patients in an unsupervised setting in cases of anaphylaxis. There are weight-appropriate doses of epinephrine available with auto-injectors that are prefilled, to prevent dosing errors, with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.50 mg amounts. In addition, needle lengths vary from 1.17 to 2.50 cm. The recommended needle lengths differ between adults and pediatric patients. In addition, the needle lengths differ between devices as well. There are concerns that the needle length may be too short in select obese patients. Yet, there are also concerns that the needle length may be too long in some patients. Factors that affect the depth of the injection, and therefore the pharmacokinetics of the drug, include not only the needle length but also the BMI, obesity, compression of soft tissue, and propulsion. Epinephrine auto-injectors have different needle lengths. Using the right device with appropriate needle length based on BMI, obesity, and employing the proper technique can improve the outcome in an anaphylactic event.

  15. An Experimental Study of Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine with Fuel Injector Malfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the results of the laboratory study on the relation between chosen malfunctions of a fuel injector and composition of exhaust gas from the marine engine. The object of research is a marine 3-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine with an intercooler system. The engine was loaded with a generator and supercharged. The generator was electrically connected to the water resistance. The engine operated with a load between 50 kW and 250 kW at a constant speed. The engine load and speed, parameters of the turbocharger, systems of cooling, fuelling, lubricating and air exchange, were measured. Fuel injection and combustion pressures in all cylinders of the engine were also recorded. Exhaust gas composition was recorded by using a electrochemical gas analyzer. Air pressure, temperature and humidity were also recorded. Emission characteristics of the engine were calculated according to ISO 8178 standard regulations. During the study the engine operated at the technical condition recognized as „working properly” and with simulated fuel injector malfunctions. Simulation of malfunctions consisted in the increasing and decreasing of fuel injector static opening pressure, decalibration of fuel injector holes and clogging 2 neighboring of 9 fuel injector holes on one of 3 engine cylinders.

  16. Modular injector integrated linear apparatus with motion profile optimization for spatial atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Yun; Lin, Jilong; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2017-11-01

    A spatial atomic layer deposition apparatus integrated with a modular injector and a linear motor has been designed. It consists of four parts: a precursor delivery manifold, a modular injector, a reaction zone, and a driving unit. An injector with multi-layer structured channels is designed to help improve precursor distribution homogeneity. During the back and forth movement of the substrate at high speed, the inertial impact caused by jerk and sudden changes of acceleration will degrade the film deposition quality. Such residual vibration caused by inertial impact will aggravate the fluctuation of the gap distance between the injector and the substrate in the deposition process. Thus, an S-curve motion profile is implemented to reduce the large inertial impact, and the maximum position error could be reduced by 84%. The microstructure of the film under the S-curve motion profile shows smaller root-mean-square and scanning voltage amplitude under an atomic force microscope, which verifies the effectiveness of the S-curve motion profile in reducing the residual vibration and stabilizing the gap distance between the injector and the substrate. The film deposition rate could reach 100 nm/min while maintaining good uniformity without obvious periodic patterns on the surface.

  17. Neutron production and dose rate in the IFMIF/EVEDA LIPAc injector beam commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Keitaro, E-mail: kondo.keitaro@jaea.go.jp [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Usami, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan); Okumura, Yoshikazu [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A dedicated neutron production yield monitoring system for LIPAc has been developed. • The biological dose rate during operation of the LIPAc injector was analyzed. • The neutron streaming effect due to penetrations in the shielding wall was investigated. - Abstract: The construction of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) is in progress in Rokkasho, Japan, and the deuteron beam commissioning of the injector began in July 2015. Due to the huge beam current of 125 mA, a large amount of d-D neutrons are produced in the commissioning. The neutron streaming effect through pipe penetrations and underground pits may dominate the radiation dose at the outside of the accelerator vault during the injector operation. In the present study the effective dose rate expected during the injector commissioning was analyzed by a Monte Carlo calculation and compared with the measured value. For the comparison it is necessary to know the total neutron production yield in the accelerator vault, thus a dedicated neutron production yield monitoring system was developed. The yield obtained was smaller than that previously reported in a literature by a factor of a few and seems to depend on some beam conditions. From the comparison it was proved that the calculation always provides a conservative estimate and the dose rates in places where occupational works can always access and the controlled area boundary are expected to be far less than the legal criteria throughout the injector commissioning.

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PKBS-2 Subscales for Assessing Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria; Benitez, Juan L.; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Fernando; Garcia, Trinidad; Garcia-Berben, Ana; Justicia, Ana; Alba, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Different research studies point out the importance of social competence as a protective factor against antisocial behavior. They likewise alert us of the importance of having valid, reliable instruments that measure these constructs in early childhood. Method: The objective of this research is to validate the subscales of the…

  19. Validity of the Sleep Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no available sleep disorder measures for individuals with severe and profound intellectual disability. We, therefore, attempted to establish the external validity of the "Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II" (DASH-II) sleep subscale by comparing daily observational sleep data with the responses of…

  20. Comparison of behavioral activation subscales of Gray’s original reinforcement sensitivity theory in opioid and methamphetamine dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghaderi

    2017-10-01

    Results: The methamphetamine-dependents group had a higher BAS-DR subscale score than the opioid dependent group (P0.05. The BAS-RR scores of the methamphetamine-dependents group were higher than the other two groups (P

  1. Validity of the definite and semidefinite questionnaire version of the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Hamilton subscale and the Melancholia Scale. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Bent; Bech, Per

    2011-01-01

    , and their corresponding definite versions of the self-rating questionnaires DMQ and DHAM6 were accepted by the Rasch analysis, and only these four valid scales discriminated significantly between the effect of citalopram and placebo treatment. Our results are limited to patients with moderate depression. Two new self......-reporting versions (definitely and semidefinitely anchored) corresponding to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Subscale (HAM6), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were compared to each other and the clinician-rated version. The unidimensional property of the sum score in each scale...... was tested by the item-response theory model ad modum Rasch. The scales were also tested for their sensitivity to discriminate between placebo and citalopram therapy. The sum scores and the sum score variances of the definite self-rating versions did not differ significantly from the sum scores...

  2. The genetic and environmental structure of the character sub-scales of the temperament and character inventory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Nigel; Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Cloninger, C Robert; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The character higher order scales (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) in the temperament and character inventory are important general measures of health and well-being [Mens Sana Monograph 11:16-24 (2013)]. Recent research has found suggestive evidence of common environmental influence on the development of these character traits during adolescence. The present article expands earlier research by focusing on the internal consistency and the etiology of traits measured by the lower order sub-scales of the character traits in adolescence. The twin modeling analysis of 423 monozygotic pairs and 408 same sex dizygotic pairs estimated additive genetics (A), common environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) influences on twin resemblance. All twins were part of the on-going longitudinal Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). The twin modeling analysis suggested a common environmental contribution for two out of five self-directedness sub-scales (0.14 and 0.23), for three out of five cooperativeness sub-scales (0.07-0.17), and for all three self-transcendence sub-scales (0.10-0.12). The genetic structure at the level of the character lower order sub-scales in adolescents shows that the proportion of the shared environmental component varies in the trait of self-directedness and in the trait of cooperativeness, while it is relatively stable across the components of self-transcendence. The presence of this unique shared environmental effect in adolescence has implications for understanding the relative importance of interventions and treatment strategies aimed at promoting overall maturation of character, mental health, and well-being during this period of the life span.

  3. Comparison of the robustness and functionality of three adrenaline auto-injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwirtz, Andreas; Seeger, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires the intramuscular injection of adrenaline using an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI). This study compared the robustness and performance characteristics of three AAIs available in Europe. Three AAIs (Jext(®), EpiPen(®), and Anapen(®)) were tested in terms of the force needed to activate the AAIs, exposed needle length, injection volume, and injection time. Three conditions were used to assess robustness: base conditions, after three successive free-fall drops from 1.5 m, and after a 40 kg static load challenge. The injection depth and estimated volume of solution delivered into ballistic gelatin were also assessed. Less force was required to remove the safety cap from Jext and EpiPen than from Anapen under base conditions. The required force was unaffected by free-fall drop tests, whereas the static load test significantly increased the force required to remove the safety cap from Jext (difference from base value 7.7 N; P EpiPen ( difference from base value 30.3 N; P EpiPen, and 7.49 mm (SE 0.15) for Anapen. The mean maximum injection depth in gelatin within 10 seconds was 28.87 mm (standard deviation [SD] 0.73) for Jext, 29.68 mm (SD 2.08) for EpiPen, and 18.74 mm (SD 1.25) for Anapen. A comparison of the robustness and performance characteristics of the three AAIs showed that cartridge-based devices (Jext and EpiPen) appeared to be significantly more robust and capable of rapidly and consistently delivering the correct dose of adrenaline to the correct tissue compartment than the syringe-based Anapen. Overall, Jext performed better than EpiPen or Anapen following mechanical stress designed to mimic real-world use.

  4. Calculations for the Optics for a New Injector of the Lund Pelletron Tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Bazhal, Sergei; Faarinen, Mikko; Magnusson, Carlerik

    In this report a preliminary design study of the beam optics for a new heavy ion injector at the Lund Pelletron accelerator is presented. The new injector will be constructed to have a high energy and mass resolution, as well as to provide a high current ion source. The new injector is aimed at the growing AMS project in Lund. To date the calculation of the ion optical properties of the L. E. stage of the accelerator has been carried out. The calculation method based on the solution of a system of differential equations for the envelopes of the beam with the phase density microcanonical distribution is used. The potential distribution of axially symmetric electrostatic lenses is determined by integral equation technique. A superposition principle is applied for the electrostatic field description in the multielectrode systems. Some preliminary results of the calculations are given.

  5. Design and construction of a pre-injector for the Iranian Light Source Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghipanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Every synchrotron accelerator requires a pre-injector for primary injection of the electrons into the booster ring. The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF pre-injector is a 150 MeV S-band linear accelerator with a thermionic cathode RF gun. The design of the pre-injector lattice and its beam dynamics calculation results together with the design of RF gun, alpha magnet, quadrupole magnets and linear accelerator structures are described in this article. The measurement results of the RF gun prototype fabricated in Iran demonstrate a dimension error less than 20 μm and a surface roughness of less than 0.8 μm

  6. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Andriulli, John B.; Strain, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  7. Transient response of a liquid injector to a steep-fronted transverse pressure wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Heister, S.; Stechmann, D.; Kan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the dynamic injection environment posed by unsteady pressure gain combustion processes, an experimental apparatus was developed to visualize the dynamic response of a transparent liquid injector subjected to a single steep-fronted transverse pressure wave. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with a variety of acrylic injector passage designs using water as the working fluid. High-speed visual observations were made of the injector exit near field, and the extent of backflow and the time to refill the orifice passage were characterized over a range of injection pressures. A companion transient one-dimensional model was developed for interpretation of the results and to elucidate the trends with regard to the strength of the transverse pressure wave. Results from the model were compared with the experimental observations.

  8. Use of individual auto-injector kits 'IZAS-05' on the contemporary battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    In crisis situations, such as transportation catastrophes, terrorist attacks or contamination with chemical warfare agents, it is crucial to properly organize and sensibly conduct rescue operations. Among chemical warfare agents, the most toxic ones are the derivatives of organophosphorus compounds. An individual auto-injector kit 'IZAS-05' contains auto-injectors, which are devices designed for intramuscular administration of drugs in self-aid or buddy-aid on the battlefield. This paper describes in detail the components of the 'IZAS-05' kit, as well as its mode of use and possible contraindications.

  9. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  10. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-05-01

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  11. Use of individual auto-injector kits ‘IZAS-05’ on the contemporary battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Summary In crisis situations, such as transportation catastrophes, terrorist attacks or contamination with chemical warfare agents, it is crucial to properly organize and sensibly conduct rescue operations. Among chemical warfare agents, the most toxic ones are the derivatives of organophosphorus compounds. An individual auto-injector kit ‘IZAS-05’ contains auto-injectors, which are devices designed for intramuscular administration of drugs in self-aid or buddy-aid on the battlefield. This paper describes in detail the components of the ‘IZAS-05’ kit, as well as its mode of use and possible contraindications. PMID:22207129

  12. Outgassing measurements and results used in designing the Doublet III Neutral Beam Injector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.M.; Harvey, J.

    1979-11-01

    Material vacuum properties played an important part in designing the Neutral Beam Injector System for General Atomic's Doublet III Tokamak. Low operating vacuum tank pressures were desired to keep re-ionization of the Neutral Beam to a minimum. Plasma contamination was also a major concern, hence stringent material impurity constraints were imposed. Outgassing Rate Measurement and Residual Gas Analyses were performed on different types of materials to determine if their vacuum properties were compatible with the Neutral Beam Injector System requirements.

  13. Effect of Injector Geometry on Atomization of a Liquid-Liquid Double Swirl Coaxial Injector Using Non-invasive Laser, Optical and X-ray Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, C. R.; Meyer, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a liquid-liquid double swirl coaxial injector were studied using non-invasive optical, laser, and X-ray diagnostics. A parametric study of injector exit geometry demonstrated that spray breakup time, breakup type and sheet stability could be controlled with exit geometry. Phase Doppler interferometry was used to characterize droplet statistics and non-dimensional droplet parameters over a range of inlet conditions and for various fluids allowing for a study on the role of specific fluid properties in atomization. Further, X-ray radiography allowed for investigation of sheet thickness and breakup length to be quantified for different recess exit diameters and inlet pressures. Finally, computed tomography scans revealed that the spray cone was distinctively non-uniform and comprised of several pockets of increased mass flux.

  14. Epinephrine auto-injector use in adolescents at risk of anaphylaxis: a qualitative study in Scotland, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M; Worth, A; Cunningham-Burley, S; Sheikh, A

    2011-06-01

    Adolescents with severe allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal anaphylactic reactions. Epinephrine (adrenaline) is known to be under-utilized by teenagers. We sought to gain knowledge of adolescents' attitudes towards and experience of epinephrine auto-injectors in order to inform improvements in patient education. A qualitative study of adolescents in Scotland, UK with a history of anaphylaxis and their parents. In-depth interviews explored adolescents' accounts of anaphylactic reactions, including issues related to using epinephrine auto-injectors. Focus groups with adolescents and parents were used to discuss interventions to improve adolescent self-management of anaphylaxis. Twenty-six adolescents and 28 parents were interviewed. Eight adolescents and 10 parents participated in separate focus groups. Most adolescents had not used the auto-injector in an anaphylactic emergency. We identified multi-faceted barriers to use, including: failure to recognize anaphylaxis; uncertainty about auto-injector technique and when to administer it; fear of using the auto-injector. Most adolescents reported carrying auto-injectors some of the time, though several found this inconvenient due to the size; only one reported non-use of an auto-injector because it had not been carried. Adolescents and parents reported under-use of epinephrine auto-injectors. Carriage is insufficient to ensure that auto-injectors are used. Barriers to use are multiple and complex, and unlikely to be overcome using simple educational interventions. Auto-injector training currently offered is often inadequate preparation for an emergency. A more comprehensive approach is needed, addressing the psychosocial dimensions of anaphylactic emergencies as well as treatment. Training should ideally be provided by specialist allergists or nurses, but can also be provided and reinforced in primary care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Construct Validity and Reliability of the SARA Gait and Posture Sub-scale in Early Onset Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitske F. Lawerman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In children, gait and posture assessment provides a crucial marker for the early characterization, surveillance and treatment evaluation of early onset ataxia (EOA. For reliable data entry of studies targeting at gait and posture improvement, uniform quantitative biomarkers are necessary. Until now, the pediatric test construct of gait and posture scores of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia sub-scale (SARA is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to validate the construct validity and reliability of the pediatric (SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scale.Methods: We included 28 EOA patients [15.5 (6–34 years; median (range]. For inter-observer reliability, we determined the ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores by three independent pediatric neurologists. For convergent validity, we associated SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores with: (1 Ataxic gait Severity Measurement by Klockgether (ASMK; dynamic balance, (2 Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS; static balance, (3 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale -extended and revised version (GMFCS-E&R, (4 SARA-kinetic scores (SARAKINETIC; kinetic function of the upper and lower limbs, (5 Archimedes Spiral (AS; kinetic function of the upper limbs, and (6 total SARA scores (SARATOTAL; i.e., summed SARAGAIT/POSTURE, SARAKINETIC, and SARASPEECH sub-scores. For discriminant validity, we investigated whether EOA co-morbidity factors (myopathy and myoclonus could influence SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores.Results: The inter-observer agreement (ICC on EOA SARAGAIT/POSTURE sub-scores was high (0.97. SARAGAIT/POSTURE was strongly correlated with the other ataxia and functional scales [ASMK (rs = -0.819; p < 0.001; PBS (rs = -0.943; p < 0.001; GMFCS-E&R (rs = -0.862; p < 0.001; SARAKINETIC (rs = 0.726; p < 0.001; AS (rs = 0.609; p = 0.002; and SARATOTAL (rs = 0.935; p < 0.001]. Comorbid myopathy influenced SARAGAIT/POSTURE scores by concurrent muscle weakness, whereas comorbid myoclonus predominantly influenced

  16. TARGET/CRYOCHIL - THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SUBSCALE MODELING OF SPACE-BASED ORBIT TRANSFER VEHICLE CRYOGENIC PROPELLANT RESUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defelice, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for space-based transfer vehicles. As part of NASA Lewis's ongoing efforts in micro-gravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques have been developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. These efforts have been incorporated into two FORTRAN programs, TARGET and CRYOCHIL. The TARGET code is used to determine the maximum temperature at which the filling of a given tank can be initiated and subsequently filled to a specified pressure and fill level without venting. The main process is the transfer of the energy stored in the thermal mass of the tank walls into the inflowing liquid. This process is modeled by examining the end state of the no-vent fill process. This state is assumed to be at thermal equilibrium between the tank and the fluid which is well mixed and saturated at the tank pressure. No specific assumptions are made as to the processes or the intermediate thermodynamic states during the filling. It is only assumed that the maximum tank pressure occurs at the final state. This assumption implies that, during the initial phases of the filling, the injected liquid must pass through the bulk vapor in such a way that it absorbs a sufficient amount of its superheat so that moderate tank pressures can be maintained. It is believed that this is an achievable design goal for liquid injection systems. TARGET can be run with any fluid for which the user has a properties data base. Currently it will only run for hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen since pressure-enthalpy data sets have been included for these fluids only. CRYOCHIL's primary function is to predict the optimum liquid charge to be injected for each of a series of charge-hold-vent chilldown cycles. This information can then be used with specified mass flow rates and valve response times to control a liquid injection system for tank chilldown operations. This will

  17. The use of Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wijk, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Panic behavior poses a particular threat to the health and safety of subaquatic occupational specialists. Trait anxiety has previously been identified as a marker of panic behavior under water, and Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) has been previously used to measure trait anxiety among subaquatic specialists. Using archived data, the trait anxiety scores of subaquatic specialists were analyzed to meet 3 objectives: 1stly – to develop a trait...

  18. Macroscopic Properties of Hollow Cone Spray Using an Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector in GCI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Penghui

    2016-07-01

    Fuel mixture formation and spray characteristics are crucial for the advancement of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. For investigations of spray characteristics, a high-pressure high-temperature spray chamber with constant volume has been designed, tested and commissioned at CCRC, KAUST. Back light illumination technique has been applied to investigate the macroscopic spray properties of an outwardly opening piezoelec- tric injector. Three parameters including injection pressure, ambient pressure, and ambient temperature have been involved. A total of 18 combinations of experimental conditions were tested under non-reactive conditions. Through qualitative analysis of spray morphology under different operating conditions, an apparent distinction of spray morphology has been noticed. Spray morphology and propagation have shown strong dependencies on ambient pressure and ambient tempera- ture while injection pressure has a negligible effect on spray shape. Increasingly compact and bushier spray patterns were observed in the cases of high ambient pressure due to in- creasing aerodynamic drag force on spray boundary. It should also be noted that ambient temperature plays a fairly important role in fuel evaporation rate. At 200 °C, oscillating and considerably short spray shape was produced. Also, circumferential ring-like vortices and distinctive string-like structures have been identified for the fuel spray exiting this hollow cone injector. It has been observed that high ambient pressure conditions (Pamb = 4 bar and 10.5 bar) are favorable to the vortices generation, which has also been reported in previous literature. The quantitative description of macroscopic spray properties reveals that ambient pres- sure and ambient temperature are found to be the most influential parameters on liquid penetration length. The rise of ambient pressure results in considerably shorter liquid pen- etration length. Ambient temperature also appears to be a very effective

  19. The Child Behavior Checklist-Obsessive-Compulsive Subscale Detects Severe Psychopathology and Behavioral Problems Among School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Laura O; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Manfro, Gisele G; Shavitt, Roseli G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Alvarenga, Pedro G

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) dimensionally in a school-aged community sample and to correlate them with clinical and demographical variables; (2) to determine a subgroup with significant OCS ("at-risk for OCD") using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-OCS) and (3) to compare it with the rest of the sample; (4) To review the CBCL-OCS subscale properties as a screening tool for pediatric OCD. Data from the Brazilian High Risk Cohort were analyzed. The presence and severity of OCS were assessed through the CBCL-OCS subscale. DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were obtained by the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Youth Strengths Inventory, and the CBCL internalizing and externalizing behavior subscales. A total of 2512 (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) children were included. Moderate correlations were found between OCS severity and functional impairment (r = 0.36, p behavioral problems (p behavioral patterns and psychiatric comorbidities (e.g., tics [odds ratios, OR = 6.41, p approach suggests that the presence of OCS in children is associated with higher rates of comorbidity, behavioral problems, and impairment. The "at-risk for OCD" group defined by the CBCL revealed a group of patients phenotypically similar to full blown OCD.

  20. Large volume sample introduction using temperature programmable injectors: imlications of liner diameter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Janssen, H.G.; Cramers, C.A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Temperature programmable injectors with liner diameters ranging from 1 to 3.5 mm are evaluated and compared for solvent split injection of large volumes in capillary gas chromatography. The liner dimensions determine whether a large sample volume can be introduced rapidly or has to be introduced in

  1. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  2. Modeling of internal and near-nozzle flow for a GDI fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Kaushik [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Som, Sibendu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Battistoni, Michele [Univ. of Perugia (Italy); Li, Yanheng [Convergent Science Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Quan, Shaoping [Convergent Science Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Senecal, Peter Kelly [Convergent Science Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-11-08

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for a fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k -ε turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative and flashing conditions. Noticeable hole-to-hole variations have been observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under all the operating conditions considered in this study. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Under favorable conditions considerable flashing has been observed in the near-nozzle regions. An enormous volume is occupied by the gasoline vapor, stantial computational cost. Volume-averaging instead of mass-averaging is observed to be more effective, especially for finer mesh resolutions.

  3. Epinephrine auto-injector prescriptions to food-allergic patients in primary care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh-Langenberg, Jacquelien; Dubois, A. E. J.; Groenhof, F.; Kocks, J. W. H.; van der Molen, T.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of general practitioner(s) (GPs) regarding food allergy and anaphylaxis and practices in the prescription of epinephrine auto-injector(s) (EAIs) among GPs has previously only been studied using questionnaires and hypothetical cases. Therefore, there are currently no data as

  4. Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+LINAC as injector for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+LINAC as injector for SNS synchrotron/ADS LINAC. S A PANDE, MOONOOKU PRASAD, NITA KULKARNI and P R HANNURKAR. Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India. Abstract. It is proposed to construct a spallation neutron source (SNS) at Centre for ...

  5. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1989-01-12

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to the Fermilab fixed target program.

  6. Development And Characterization Of A Liner-On-Target Injector For Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Conti, F.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Narkis, J.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and optimization of a liner-on-target injector for Staged Z-pinch experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g. Ar, Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized deuterium target. The liner nozzle injector has been carefully studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated 1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on the 1 MA Zebra current driver. The CFD simulations produce density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape and gas. These profiles are initialized in the MHD MACH2 code to find the optimal liner density for a stable, uniform implosion. We use a simple Snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a CW He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas and the plasma gun density as a function of time. The measurements are compared with models and calculations and benchmarked accordingly. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  7. Injector design for liner-on-target gas-puff experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Conti, F.; Wessel, F.; Fadeev, V.; Narkis, J.; Ross, M. P.; Rahman, H. U.; Ruskov, E.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of a gas-puff injector for liner-on-target experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g., Ar and Kr) gas and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers an ionized deuterium target. The annular supersonic nozzle injector has been studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated (M > 5), ˜1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on ˜1-MA current generators. The CFD simulations allowed us to study output density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape, gas pressure, and gas composition. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas density. The measurements agree well with the CFD values. We have used a simple snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector.

  8. Preliminary design studies of-/H+LINAC as injector for SNS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 59; Issue 5. Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+ LINAC as injector for SNS synchrotron/ADS LINAC ... In this paper, we present the results of our preliminary physics design studies of the RFQ–SDTL, RFQ–CCDTL and RFQ–DTL–SDTL configurations.

  9. Epinephrine Auto-Injector Versus Drawn Up Epinephrine for Anaphylaxis Management: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chime, Nnenna O; Riese, Victoria G; Scherzer, Daniel J; Perretta, Julianne S; McNamara, LeAnn; Rosen, Michael A; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening event. Most clinical symptoms of anaphylaxis can be reversed by prompt intramuscular administration of epinephrine using an auto-injector or epinephrine drawn up in a syringe and delays and errors may be fatal. The aim of this scoping review is to identify and compare errors associated with use of epinephrine drawn up in a syringe versus epinephrine auto-injectors in order to assist hospitals as they choose which approach minimizes risk of adverse events for their patients. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched using terms agreed to a priori. We reviewed human and simulation studies reporting errors associated with the use of epinephrine in anaphylaxis. There were multiple screening stages with evolving feedback. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers for eligibility. Data were extracted using an instrument modeled from the Zaza et al instrument and grouped into themes. Three main themes were noted: 1) ergonomics, 2) dosing errors, and 3) errors due to route of administration. Significant knowledge gaps in the operation of epinephrine auto-injectors among healthcare providers, patients, and caregivers were identified. For epinephrine in a syringe, there were more frequent reports of incorrect dosing and erroneous IV administration with associated adverse cardiac events. For the epinephrine auto-injector, unintentional administration to the digit was an error reported on multiple occasions. This scoping review highlights knowledge gaps and a diverse set of errors regardless of the approach to epinephrine preparation during management of anaphylaxis. There are more potentially life-threatening errors reported for epinephrine drawn up in a syringe than with the auto-injectors. The impact of these knowledge gaps and potentially fatal errors on patient outcomes, cost, and quality of care is worthy of further investigation.

  10. Development and validation of subscales to assess perceived support for self-management of mood or emotional problems: Results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Haggerty, Jeannie; De Raad, Manon; Belzile, Eric; Bouharaoui, Fatima; Beaulieu, Christine; Yaffe, Mark; Ciampi, Antonio

    2017-06-10

    To validate 2 new patient-reported measures of self-management support from health professionals for mood and emotional problems. The sample comprised primary care patients with chronic physical conditions and co-morbid depressive symptoms enrolled in a randomized trial of telephone coaching of a depression self-care intervention (n=120). At 6-month follow-up, patients completed 2 subscales with respect to support for self-management of their chronic physical condition(s): 1) Self-Management Information (SMInfo-Phys); and 2) Care Plan (CP-Phys) and equivalent subscales adapted to assess self-management support for mood and emotional problems: SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood. Subscale scoring was assessed with Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis. Convergent validity of the mood subscales was assessed. The sensitivity of the mood and physical condition subscales to mental health interventions was assessed with generalized estimating equations (GEE). The mood subscales were associated with relevant measures of perceived unmet mental health needs. Both SMInfo-Mood and CP-Mood were sensitive to the coaching intervention; CP-Mood was also sensitive to receipt of depression treatment outside the trial. This study provides preliminary evidence for the validity of the 2 new subscales. The subscales may be used to assess perceived health professional support for self-management of mood and emotional problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaporization and configuration effects in a high-pressure/high-temperature combustor equipped with multiple Venturi-type fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Chun, K. S.; Lee, C. M.; Ratvasky, William J.

    1994-03-01

    The flow field and fuel/air mixing patterns produced in an optically accessible, premixing/prevaporization section of a high pressure/high temperature combustor were examined via focused Schlieren high-speed photography. A focal plane, approximately 8 mm thick and centered within this section downstream of the fuel injectors, was imaged at a framing rate of 8,000 frames/second. High-speed focused Schlieren images were obtained for three different Venturi-type fuel injector configurations under identical experimental parameters. The results demonstrate the efficacy of this technique to discern fuel spray patternization, fuel-air mixing efficiencies, and mixing times of various fuel injector arrangements.

  12. Thermal effects in high power cavities for photoneutralization of D{sup −} beams in future neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Feng, Jiatai; Pichot, Mikhaël; Chaibi, Walid, E-mail: chaibi@oca.eu [ARTEMIS, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Boulevard de l' Observatoire - CS 34229 - F 06304 (France)

    2015-04-08

    Photoneutralization may represent a key issue in the neutral beam injectors for future fusion reactors. In fact, photodetachment based neutralization combined with an energy recovery system increase the injector overall efficiency up to 60%. This is the SIPHORE injector concept in which photoneutralization is realized in a refolded cavity [1]. However, about 1 W of the several megaWatts intracavity power is absorbed by the mirrors coatings and gives rise to important thermoelastic distortions. This is expected to change the optical behavior of the mirrors and reduce the enhancement factor of the cavity. In this paper, we estimate these effects and we propose a thermal system to compensate it.

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  14. Gasification of straw pellets operation of a staged gasification with controlled slagging and energy introduction with a plasma injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpl, M.; Schulze, K.; Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Eder, G. (Australian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Area gasification, Graz (Austria)); Hofbauer, W. (Vienna University of Technology, Institute Of Chemical Engineering, Environmental Technology and Biosciences, Vienna (Austria)); Kepplinger, W. (Leoben University of Mining and Materials, Institute For Process Technology and Industrial Environmental Protection, Leoben (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    The substitution of fossil fuels by biomass needs cheep and available feedstocks additionally to nowadays usual. Straw and short rational materials are fuels with a high energy density when used as pellets, but difficult ash behaviour. This project verifies the thermo chemical utilisation of these raw materials within the process characteristics in a test plant. Literature studies and lab tests have shown the composition of raw material and the chemical conversion characteristics including the product composition after pyrolysis. The content of ash building substances and the ash softening characteristics of straw are further main aspects of the fuel characterisation. The comparison of char fractions out of straw and out of woody material shows new aspects in the reactive behaviour. We completed this knowledge by tests in laboratory and pilot plant and scaled to concept the conversion in each single step. A staged gasification plant with comprehensive equipment has been developed, constructed and built. This set up is now operated and used for the reported work. The produced gas composition and the main impurities were investigated in different tests with and without the plasma injector. (orig.)

  15. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  16. Test of parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C J; Schneider, H G

    1999-10-01

    An item pool was developed to assess basic parenting skills in the areas of attachment, emotional capacity, judgment, knowledge of child development, and safety. Initially, 200 items were generated and completed by a sample of 15 parents. Item scores correlated with scores on a social desirability scale or having low variance were edited or eliminated. A sample of 56 parents completed the revised scale, a social desirability scale, and the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory. The reliabilities of the final subscales of the Test of Parenting Skills were modest, ranging from .56 to .77. Scores on the subscales were also correlated with those subscales from the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory. With the exception of the Judgment scores being correlated with the use of harsh discipline, the significant correlations suggested concurrent validity. The individual subscales require additional refinement to achieve adequate internal consistency, but they have potential for measuring competency in core parenting skills.

  17. Modeling of the poly-phase flow inside and at the exit of diesel injectors; Modelisation de l'ecoulement polyphasique a l'interieur et en sortie des injecteurs diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J.B.

    2005-12-15

    Because of pollutant emission requirements for individual vehicles, engine designers are very concerned about high pressure Diesel injection and the related cavitation phenomenon. Computational fluid dynamics is a powerful and cheap tool to investigate such complex systems. A homogeneous multiphase model has been developed: it consists in a mixture of fuel - that may be either liquid or vapor - and gas. It is based on an equation of state that was tabulated between a baro-tropic law for the fuel and the ideal gas equation for the gas. This model is validated on a bubble collapse test and on classical 2D injection cases. 3D computations on realistic injectors highlight the influence of cavitation and secondary flows, inside the injector nozzle, on jet destabilization and liquid core primary atomization. (author)

  18. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  19. Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aziz; Simons, F Estelle R; Barbour, Victoria; Worth, Allison

    2012-08-15

    Anaphylaxis is a serious hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors are recommended as the initial, potentially life-saving treatment of choice for anaphylaxis in the community, but they are not universally available and have limitations in their use. To assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1980 to January 2012 ), CINAHL (EBSCO host) (1982 to January 2012 ), AMED (EBSCO host) (1985 to January 2012 ), LILACS, (BIREME) (1980 to January 2012 ), ISI Web of Science (1950 to January 2012 ). We adapted our search terms for other databases. We also searched websites listing on-going trials: the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio, and the meta Register of Controlled Trials; and contacted pharmaceutical companies who manufacture adrenaline auto-injectors in an attempt to locate unpublished material. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing auto-injector administration of adrenaline with any control including no intervention, placebo, or other adrenergic agonists were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. None of the 1328 studies that were identified satisfied the inclusion criteria. Based on this review, we cannot make any new recommendations on the effectiveness of adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Although randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of high methodological quality are necessary to define the true extent of benefits from the administration of adrenaline in anaphylaxis via an auto-injector

  20. Impact of Flight Enthalpy, Fuel Simulant, and Chemical Reactions on the Mixing Characteristics of Several Injectors at Hypervelocity Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Baurle, Robert A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The high total temperatures or total enthalpies required to duplicate the high-speed flight conditions in ground experiments often place stringent requirements on the material selection and cooling needs for the test articles and intrusive flow diagnostic equipment. Furthermore, for internal flows, these conditions often complicate the use of nonintrusive diagnostics that need optical access to the test section and interior portions of the flowpath. Because of the technical challenges and increased costs associated with experimentation at high values of total enthalpy, an attempt is often made to reduce it. This is the case for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP) currently underway in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The EIMP aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships between mixing performance and losses relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The experiments will consider a "direct-connect" approach and utilize a Mach 6 nozzle to simulate the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. However, while the value of the Mach number is matched to that expected at the combustor entrance in flight, the maximum value of the total enthalpy for these experiments is limited by the thermal-structural limits of the uncooled experimental hardware. Furthermore, the fuel simulant is helium, not hydrogen. The use of "cold" flows and non-reacting mixtures of fuel simulants for mixing experiments is not new and has been extensively utilized as a screening technique for scramjet fuel injectors. In this study, Reynolds-averaged simulations are utilized (RAS) to systematically verify the implicit assumptions used by the EIMP. This is accomplished by first performing RAS of mixing for two injector configurations at planned nominal experimental

  1. Core Length and Spray Width Measurements in Shear Coaxial Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    based: insensitive to liquid-gas interfaces Used to study diesel, swirl , gas-centered swirl -coaxial , impingers, and aerated liquid jet injectors...injectors are so named because they rely on the shear between an outer low-density, high-velocity annulus and a high-density, low-velocity inner jet to...compared to two-phase core length measurements from the literature. The core length nondimensionalized by the inner jet diameter was found to scale with

  2. Influence of the gas injector configuration on the temperature evolution during refuelling of on-board hydrogen tanks

    OpenAIRE

    de Miguel, N.; Acosta, B.; Moretto, P.; Ortiz Cebolla, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we show a refueling strategy analysis using different injector configurations to refuel a 70 MPa composite reinforced type 4 tank. The gas has been injected through single openings of different diameters (3 mm, 6 mm and 10 mm) and alternatively through multiple small holes (4 × 3 mm). For each injector configuration, slow (12 min) and faster (3 min) fillings have been performed. The gas temperature has been measured at different positions inside the tank, as well as the temper...

  3. Pressure Model for the Vacuum System for the Electron Gun and Injector for LCLS Final Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, L S; Eriksson, L

    2006-04-28

    The vacuum system of the injector for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The vacuum system layout and detailed analyses for the injector are presented in this final design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated.

  4. Psychometric validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bille, Jim; Møller, Stine Bjerrum

    2014-01-01

    patients with various diagnoses, was tested. RESULTS: The PCA of the SCL-D16 and the SCL-A14 separated the core depression items from the arousal items on the SCL-D16 and the psychic anxiety items from the somatic anxiety items on the SCL-A14. According to the Mokken analyses, only the SCL-D6, the SCL-ASS8...... and the IPS5 were unidimensional. Interestingly, the same three scales displayed discriminant validity for depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The study is based on data from Denmark. This may limit the validity of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Three unidimensional...

  5. Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kaizhi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique is introduced. Twelve ferrite loaded induction cells are connected in a series through central conducting stalks to achieve a pulsed voltage higher than 3.5 MV across the diode. Electrons are extracted from the velvet emitter and guided through the anode pipe by the magnets placed inside the cathode and anode shrouds. Measurements at the exit of injector show that, with an electric field of 200  kV/cm near the velvet surface and suitable magnetic field distribution, an electron beam up to 2.8 kA can be obtained with a normalized emittance of 1040π   mm mrad, and energy spread of 2.1% (3σ around the central energy of 3.5 MeV.

  6. Mechanical engineering of a 75-keV proton injector for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hodgkins, D.J.; Meyer, E.A.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.D.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Zaugg, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    A dc injector capable of 75-keV, 110-mA proton beam operation is under development for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project at Los Alamos. The injector uses a dc microwave proton source which has demonstrated 98% beam availability while operating at design parameters. A high-voltage isolation transformer is avoided by locating all ion source power supplies and controls at ground potential. The low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) uses two solenoid focusing and two steering magnets for beam matching and centroid control at the RFQ matchpoint. This paper will discuss proton source microwave window design, H{sub 2} gas flow control, vacuum considerations, LEBT design, and an iris for beam current control.

  7. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, H

    2015-01-01

    The CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the first report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This report includes the design of the power couplers. The fundamental mode beam loading and higher order modes effect were preliminary studied.

  8. Beam-based calibrations of the BPM offset at C-ADS Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Long; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Chi; Dou, Wei-Ping; Tao, Yue; Jia, Huan; Wang, Wang-Sheng; Liu, Shu-Hui; He, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Beam-based BPM offset calibration was carried out for Injector II at the C-ADS demonstration facility at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). By using the steering coils integrated in the quadrupoles, the beam orbit can be effectively adjusted and BPM positions recorded at the Medium Energy Beam Transport of the Injector II Linac. The studies were done with a 2 mA, 2.1 MeV proton beam in pulsed mode. During the studies, the “null comparison method” was applied for the calibration. This method is less sensitive to errors compared with the traditional transmission matrix method. In addition, the quadrupole magnet’s center can also be calibrated with this method. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  9. Initial source of microbunching instability studies in a free electron laser injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S.; Hidaka, Y; Murphy, J.B.; Podobedov, B.; Qian, H.; Shen, Y.; Wang, X.J.; Yang, X

    2011-11-16

    We present the first experimental studies of the initial source of electron beam microbunching instability in a free electron laser (FEL) injector. By utilizing for the studies a transform-limited laser pulse at the photocathode, we eliminated laser-induced microbunching at the National Synchrotron Light Source Source Development Laboratory (SDL). The detailed measurements of the resulting electron beam led us to conclude that, at SDL, microbunching arising from shot noise is not amplified to any significant level, thereby allowing us to set an upper limit on the initial modulation depth of microbunching arising from shot noise. Our analysis demonstrated that the only significant source of microbunching instability under normal operational conditions at SDL is the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser pulse. Our work shows that assuring a longitudinally smoothed photocathode laser pulse allows mitigating microbunching instability at a typical FEL injector with a moderate microbunching gain.

  10. Studies on the radio frequency power supply system for the ITER NB injector ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaio, E. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: elena.gaio@igi.cnr.it; Kraus, W.; Martens, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Postfach 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Piovan, R. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Speth, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Postfach 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    In the framework of the European activities on the ITER neutral beam (NB) injector, the design of a 1 MHz, 1 MW power supply (PS) system for the radio frequency (RF) driven ion source, has been developed in cooperation between IPP and RFX laboratories. This paper describes the studies performed with particular emphasis on the system design, the definition of the best modularity level to be adopted and the integration of the RF PS in the overall power supply system of the NB injector. Dedicated analyses were addressed to the RF matching network optimization which led to an improved and simplified solution without both matching transformers and remotely controlled variable capacitors in the source.

  11. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector (2nd report)

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub-harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the second report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This second report includes the study of HOM effects, retuning the cells, study of dimensional tolerances and the heat dissipation on the surface.

  12. Spin Tracking of Polarized Protons in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Lorenzon, W. [Michigan U.; Aldred, C. [Michigan U.

    2016-07-01

    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab currently produces high-intensity beams of protons at energies of 120 GeV for a variety of physics experiments. Acceleration of polarized protons in the MI would provide opportunities for a rich spin physics program at Fermilab. To achieve polarized proton beams in the Fermilab accelerator complex, shown in Fig.1.1, detailed spin tracking simulations with realistic parameters based on the existing facility are required. This report presents studies at the MI using a single 4-twist Si-berian snake to determine the depolarizing spin resonances for the relevant synchrotrons. Results will be presented first for a perfect MI lattice, followed by a lattice that includes the real MI imperfections, such as the measured magnet field errors and quadrupole misalignments. The tolerances of each of these factors in maintaining polariza-tion in the Main Injector will be discussed.

  13. Initial source of microbunching instability studies in a free electron laser injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seletskiy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first experimental studies of the initial source of electron beam microbunching instability in a free electron laser (FEL injector. By utilizing for the studies a transform-limited laser pulse at the photocathode, we eliminated laser-induced microbunching at the National Synchrotron Light Source Source Development Laboratory (SDL. The detailed measurements of the resulting electron beam led us to conclude that, at SDL, microbunching arising from shot noise is not amplified to any significant level, thereby allowing us to set an upper limit on the initial modulation depth of microbunching arising from shot noise. Our analysis demonstrated that the only significant source of microbunching instability under normal operational conditions at SDL is the longitudinal modulation of the photocathode laser pulse. Our work shows that assuring a longitudinally smoothed photocathode laser pulse allows mitigating microbunching instability at a typical FEL injector with a moderate microbunching gain.

  14. Non-magnetic organic/inorganic spin injector at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Shinto P.; Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Naaman, Ron, E-mail: ron.naaman@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Moshe, Hagay; Mastai, Yitzhak [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2014-12-15

    Spin injection into solid-state devices is commonly performed by use of ferromagnetic metal electrodes. Here, we present a spin injector design without permanent magnet; rather, the spin selectivity is determined by a chiral tunneling barrier. The chiral tunneling barrier is composed of an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that is deposited on top of a chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), which consists of cysteine or oligopeptide molecules. The experimentally observed magnetoresistance can be up to 20% at room temperature, and it displays an uncommon asymmetric curve as a function of the applied magnetic field. These findings show that the spin injector transmits only one spin orientation, independent of external magnetic field. The sign of the magnetoresistance depends on the handedness of the molecules in the SAM, which act as a spin filter, and the magnitude of the magnetoresistance depends only weakly on temperature.

  15. Development of Au nanowire injector system to deliver plasmid into mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkotchorong Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we developed a Au nanowire injector (Au NWI for directly delivering plasmid into the 1-cell stage of the mouse embryos designed to successfully attach and detach the plasmid on the Au NWI, highly minimizing physical and chemical damage on the embryos. This data presents that a Au NWI system does not induce detrimental damages on development of embryos and efficiently express the green fluorescence protein in vitro. The data provided herein is in association with the research article related to reduce the occurrence of mosaicism by a Au NWI,” Suppressing Mosaicism by Au Nanowire Injector-driven Direct Delivery of Plasmids into Mouse Embryos” (Park et al., 2017 [1].

  16. A compact flexible pellet injector for the TJ-II stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K J; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Caughman, J B O; Fehling, D T; Foust, C R; McGill, J M; Carmona, J M; Rasmussen, D A

    2008-10-01

    A compact pellet injector is being built for the TJ-II stellarator. It is an upgraded version of the "pellet injector in a suitcase" developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus where it continues to be used in many plasma experiments. The design aim is to provide maximum flexibility at minimal cost, while allowing for future upgrades. It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation, a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system, pellet diagnostics, and an injection line, destined for use as an active diagnostic and for fueling. In order to fulfill both objectives it will be sufficiently flexible to permit pellets, with diameters from 0.4 to 1 mm, to be fabricated and accelerated to velocities from 150 to approximately 1000 m s(-1).

  17. Classification of quality of life subscales within the ICF framework in burn research: identifying overlaps and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirte, J; van Loey, N E E; Maertens, K; Moortgat, P; Hubens, G; Van Daele, U

    2014-11-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is one of the leading outcomes in burn care research. This study classifies subscales of common QOL measures within the International Classification of Functioning disability and health (ICF) framework to determine to which extent the measures are complementary or overlapping and to investigate whether the instruments are able to describe the full spectrum of patients' functioning. A literature search was performed to determine the most frequently used questionnaires in burn research. The subscales of the three mostly used questionnaires were classified within the ICF framework. Two generic measures, the Short Form-36 items (SF-36) and the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and a disease specific measure, the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B), were analyzed. The BSHS-B covered most domains and was the only scale that included personal factors. The SF-36 included only one domain in the activity limitations and similar to the EQ-5D no contextual factors were included. Environmental factors were not addressed in the questionnaires, even though these may have an impact on the quality of life in patients with burns. To capture the full spectrum of dysfunctioning a combination of the BSHS-B with a generic questionnaire seems obligatory. However still some domains of functioning remain uncovered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. What are the 'ideal' features of an adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injector in the treatment of anaphylaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A J

    2011-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a systemic allergic reaction that often involves respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular collapse, which are potentially life-threatening if not treated promptly with intramuscular adrenaline. Owing to the unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis and accidental exposure to allergens (such as peanuts and shellfish), patients should be prescribed intramuscular adrenaline auto-injectors and carry these with them at all times. Patients also need to be able to use their auto-injectors correctly while under high stress, when an anaphylactic attack occurs. Despite this, an alarming number of patients fail to carry their auto-injectors and many patients, carers of children with known anaphylaxis and healthcare professionals do not know how to use the device correctly, despite having had training. Currently available auto-injector devices have various limitations that may impede their use in the management of anaphylaxis. There is also a lack of validated assessment criteria and regulatory requirements for new devices. This review describes the different delivery systems used in currently available auto-injectors and discusses the key barriers to the use of adrenaline auto-injectors, with the goal of identifying the 'ideal' features/characteristics of such devices in the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis that will ensure ease of use, portability and accurate delivery of a life-saving drug. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Diagnosing of car engine fuel injectors damage using DWT analysis and PNN neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr CZECH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many research centers all over the world nowadays works are being carried out aimed at compiling method for diagnosis machines technical condition. Special meaning have non-invasive methods including methods using vibroacoustic phenomena. In this article is proposed using DWT analysis and energy or entropy, which are a base for diagnostic system of fuel injectors damage in car combustion engine. There were conducted researches aimed at building of diagnostic system using PNN neural networks.

  20. Computational Modeling Approaches for Studying Transverse Combustion Instability in a Multi-element Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    shows the vortex impingement that takes place during the high amplitude instability phase. Fuel entrained vortices are shed from the injector lip... Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRC 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7680 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. 9...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQR 5 Pollux Drive 11

  1. Epinephrine auto-injector prescriptions to food-allergic patients in primary care in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh-Langenberg, Jacquelien; Dubois, A. E. J.; Groenhof, F.; Kocks, J. W. H.; van der Molen, T.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The knowledge of general practitioner(s) (GPs) regarding food allergy and anaphylaxis and practices in the prescription of epinephrine auto-injector(s) (EAIs) among GPs has previously only been studied using questionnaires and hypothetical cases. Therefore, there are currently no data as to whether or not GPs prescribe EAIs to high risk food-allergic patients presenting to primary care practices. The aim of this study was therefore to describe and evaluate practice in EAI prescript...

  2. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    with six fuels including conventional (No. 2 Diesel , JP-8, Jet-A), alternative fuels, and a surrogate with the objective of assessing the performance...density were reported with peak liquid penetration lengths reported with No. 2 Diesel (max) and Fischer-Tropsch/ surrogate (min). Variations in vapor...The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon

  3. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Korematsu, Seigo; Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. Objective To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. Methods In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 42...

  4. Anaphylaxis and epinephrine auto-injector training: who will teach the teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouhi, M; Alshehri, M; Hummel, D; Roifman, C M

    1999-07-01

    Anaphylaxis is the most urgent clinical immunologic event. Effective treatment is best achieved by administration of epinephrine. Accidental exposure to the responsible allergen is the most common cause of anaphylaxis, and because it could be fatal within minutes, epinephrine in preloaded syringes and auto-injectors has been introduced. In our experience patients and medical personnel are not familiar with the use of this device. We sought to assess community-based professionals' knowledge of epinephrine auto-injector use and their ability to educate patients. Study participants consisted of a medical convention's delegates and emergency department personnel in metropolitan Toronto, as well as pharmacists of the target hospitals and retail pharmacists. Research assistants approached eligible professionals to fill out a questionnaire and demonstrate their ability to use a standard placebo auto-injector trainer. A total of 122 professionals (composed of emergency physicians, family practitioners, and pediatricians) consented to participate in this study. The majority of participants (81%) did not have a placebo trainer to educate their patients; 76% did not know the 2 available dose strengths. To provide instructions and reinforcement, physicians clearly must have the necessary skills and knowledge, yet only 25% of the study participants were able to demonstrate the 3 steps of injection correctly. Our study highlights a specific and important deficiency in medical professionals' care of patients at risk for anaphylaxis. The results challenge the current methods of educating professionals, as well as patients, when prescribing or using epinephrine auto-injectors. Clearly a new approach to educating and maintaining such skills is required.

  5. Site Layout of the proposed new Hadrons' Injector Chain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Baldy, J L; Evans, L; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Lindroos, M; López-Hernandez, L A; Maury, S; Poehler, M; Silari, M; Vretenar, M

    2008-01-01

    The replacement of almost all the LHC injector complex on the Meyrin-site of CERN (Linac2, PSB and PS) is planned within the next 10 years. The layout foreseen for the new accelerators is described in this paper, together with its compatibility with the existing experimental physics facilities. These machines can, after upgrade, supply with high beam power future physics facilities for radioactive ions and/or neutrinos. Their possible layout is also sketched in this document.

  6. Work on the high voltage platform of the pre-injector of PS Linac 1

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    Henry Charmot adjusting the electronics of the ion source on a platform which, during operation, was at 520 kV to ground. The cage containing the electronics is opened by hydraulic jacks. Visible on the left is the ion source (pill box structure) attached to the corrugated acceleration column, where the protons pass from 520 kV to ground potential. See 7403120 and for more details on the pre-injector see 7403064X and 7403066X.

  7. Manufacturing of the full size prototype of the ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector – The SPIDER beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavei, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pavei@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Boilson, Deirdre [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonicelli, Tullio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boury, Jacques [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bush, Michael [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Ceracchi, Andrea; Faso, Diego [CECOM S.r.l., Via Tiburtina – Guidonia Montecelio, Roma (Italy); Graceffa, Joseph [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Heinemann, Bernd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hemsworth, Ronald [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lievin, Christophe [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Marcuzzi, Diego [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Masiello, Antonio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sczepaniak, Bernd [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Singh, Mahendrajit [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Toigo, Vanni; Zaccaria, Pierluigi [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Negative ion sources are key components of neutral beam injectors for nuclear fusion. • The SPIDER experiment aims to optimize the negative ion source of MITICA and HNB. • The SPIDER Beam Source manufacturing is currently on-going. • Manufacturing and assembling technological issues encountered are presented. - Abstract: In ITER, each heating neutral beam injector (HNB) will deliver about 16.5 MW heating power by accelerating a 40 A deuterium negative ion beam up to the energy of 1 MeV. The ions are generated inside a caesiated negative ion source, where the injected H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} is ionized by a radio frequency electromagnetic field. The SPIDER test bed, currently being manufactured, is going to be the ion source test facility for the full size ion source of the HNBs and of the diagnostic neutral beam injector of ITER. The SPIDER beam source comprises an ion source with 8 radio-frequency drivers and a three-grid system, providing an overall acceleration up to energies of about 100 keV [1]. SPIDER represents a substantial step forward between the half ITER size ion source, which is currently being tested at the ELISE test bed in IPP-Garching, and the negative ion sources to be used on ITER, in terms of layout, dimensions and operating parameters. The SPIDER beam source will be housed inside a vacuum vessel which will be equipped with a beam dump and a graphite diagnostic calorimeter. The manufacturing design of the main parts of the SPIDER beam source has been completed and many of the tests on the prototypes have been successfully passed. The most complex parts, from the manufacturing point of view, of the ion source and the accelerator, developed by galvanic deposition of copper are being manufactured. The manufacturing phase will be completed within 2015, when the assembly of the device will start at the PRIMA site, in Padova (I). The paper describes the status of the procurement, the adaptations operated on the design of the beam

  8. Fast phase switching within the bunch train of the PHIN photo-injector at CERN using fiber-optic modulators on the drive laser

    CERN Document Server

    Divall Csatari, M; Bolzon, B; Bravin, E; Chevallay, E; Dobert, S; Drozdy, A; Fedosseev, V; Hessler, C; Lefevre, T; Livesley, S; Losito, R; Mete, O; Petrarca, M; Rabiller, A N

    2011-01-01

    The future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) e^-/e^+ collider is based on the two-beam acceleration concept, whereby interleaving electron bunches of the drive beam through a delay loop and combiner rings as well as high peak RF power at 12GHz are created locally to accelerate a second beam, the main beam. One of the main objectives of the currently operational CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate beam combination from 1.5GHz to 12GHz, which requires satellite-free fast phase-switching of the drive beam with sub-ns speed. The PHIN photo-injector, with the photo-injector laser, provides flexibility in the time structure of the electron bunches produced, by direct manipulation of the laser pulses. A novel fiber modulator-based phase-switching technique allows clean and fast phase-switch at 1.5GHz. This paper describes the switching system based on fiber-optic modulators, and the measurements carried out on both the laser and the electron beam to verify the scheme.

  9. Civilian adult self injections of atropine-trimedoxime (TMB4) auto-injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Layish, Ido; Krivoy, Amir; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Rotman, Eran; Haim, Shmuel Bar; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Kozer, Eran

    2006-01-01

    The clinical effects of self injections of atropine-trimedoxime auto-injectors distributed to the civilian population as a field antidote for nerve agent attack were assessed. Data on self injections by adults (> or = 18 years) were collected from the Israel Poison Information Center and a hospital Emergency Department's records during a 2-year period. The data included demographics, time interval from injection, type of auto-injector, clinical manifestations and atropinization score. Sixty-five patients, all with unintentional self injections, were reported. Systemic atropine effects were observed in 24 patients, but no severe atropinization. The atropinization score was significantly higher in the 2 mg atropine dose group than in the two lower dose groups, which were in the normal range. No specific adverse effects attributable to trimedoxime were observed. Intravenous fluids and physostigmine were not required. Only mild reactions were observed following self-injection of atropine trimedoxime auto-injectors in adults, attesting to their relative safety under these conditions.

  10. Study on atomization and combustion characteristics of LOX/methane pintle injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin-xin; Shen, Chi-bing

    2017-07-01

    Influences of main structural parameters of the LOX/methane pintle injectors on atomization cone angles and combustion performances were studied by experiments and numerical simulation respectively. In addition, improvement was brought up to the structure of the pintle injectors and combustion flow fields of two different pintle engines were obtained. The results indicate that, with increase of the gas-liquid mass flow ratio, the atomization cone angle decreases. In the condition of the same gas-liquid mass flow ratio, as the thickness of the LOX-injection gap grows bigger, the atomization cone angle becomes smaller. In the opposite, when the half cone angle of the LOX-injection gap grows bigger, the atomization cone angle becomes bigger. Moreover, owing to the viscous effects of the pintle tip, with increase of the 'skip distance', the atomization cone angle gets larger. Two big recirculation zones in the combustor lead to combustion stability of the pintle engines. When the value of the non-dimensional 'skip distance' is near 1, the combustion efficiency of the pintle engines is the highest. Additionally, pintle engines with LOX injected in quadrangular slots can acquire better mixing efficiency of the propellants and higher combustion efficiency as the gas methane can pass through the adjacent slots. However, the annular-channel type of pintle injectors has an 'enclosed' area near the pintle tip which has a great negative influence on the combustion efficiency.

  11. Syringeless power injector versus dual-syringe power injector: economic evaluation of user performance, the impact on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT workflow exams, and hospital costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Ivo A Bergamo Andreis,3 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Giacomo M Bruno,2 Claudio Mondellini31Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy; 2Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche (S.A.V.E., Milan, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, City Hospital, Legnano, ItalyObjective: The utilization of diagnostic imaging has substantially increased over the past decade in Europe and North America and continues to grow worldwide. The purpose of this study was to develop an economic evaluation of a syringeless power injector (PI versus a dual-syringe PI for contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT in a hospital setting.Materials and methods: Patients (n=2379 were enrolled at the Legnano Hospital between November 2012 and January 2013. They had been referred to the hospital for a CECT analysis and were randomized into two groups. The first group was examined with a 256-MDCT (MultiDetector Computed Tomography scanner using a syringeless power injector, while the other group was examined with a 64-MDCT scanner using a dual-syringe. Data on the operators' time required in the patient analysis steps as well as on the quantity of consumable materials used were collected. The radiologic technologists' satisfaction with the use of the PIs was rated on a 10-point scale. A budget impact analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed under the base-case scenario.Results: A total of 1,040 patients were examined using the syringeless system, and 1,339 with the dual-syringe system; the CECT examination quality was comparable for both PI systems. Equipment preparation time and releasing time per examination for syringeless PIs versus dual-syringe PIs were 100±30 versus 180±30 seconds and 90±30 and 140±20 seconds, respectively. On average, 10±3 mL of contrast media (CM wastage per examination was observed with the dual-syringe PI and 0±1 mL with the syringeless PI. Technologists had higher satisfaction with the syringeless PI than with the dual

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of the CASI-4R Psychosis Subscale for Children Evaluated in Pediatric Outpatient Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sabeen H; Salcedo, Stephanie; Youngstrom, Eric A; Freeman, Lindsey K; Gadow, Kenneth D; Fristad, Mary A; Birmaher, Boris; Kowatch, Robert A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Frazier, Thomas W; Arnold, L Eugene; Taylor, H Gerry; Findling, Robert L

    2018-01-26

    Diagnostic accuracy of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI-4R) Psychotic Symptoms scale was tested using receiver operating characteristic analyses to identify clinically significant psychotic symptoms. Participants were new outpatients (N = 700), ages 6.0 to 12.9 years (M = 9.7, SD = 1.8) at 9 child outpatient mental health clinics, who participated in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) Study baseline assessment. Because LAMS undersampled participants with low mania scores by design, present analyses weighted low scorers to produce unbiased estimates. Psychotic symptoms, operationally defined as a score of 3 or more for hallucinations or 4 or more for delusions based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) psychosis items, occurred in 7% of youth. K-SADS diagnoses for those identified with psychotic symptoms above threshold included major depressive disorder, bipolar spectrum disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychotic disorders, and autism spectrum disorder. The optimal psychosis screening cut score (maximizing sensitivity and specificity) was 2.75+ (corresponding diagnostic likelihood ratio [DiLR] = 4.29) for the parent version and 3.50+ (DiLR = 5.67) for the teacher version. The Area under the Curve for parent and teacher report was .83 and .74 (both p clinically useful for identifying psychotic symptoms in children because of its brevity and accuracy.

  13. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Evers-Stephan, A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Thewissen, V.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home.

  14. Analysis of Correlation between an Accelerometer-Based Algorithm for Detecting Parkinsonian Gait and UPDRS Subscales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOur group earlier developed a small monitoring device, which uses accelerometer measurements to accurately detect motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson’s (On and Off state based on an algorithm that characterizes gait through the frequency content of strides. To further validate the algorithm, we studied the correlation of its outputs with the motor section of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part-III (UPDRS-III.MethodSeventy-five patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease were asked to walk both in the Off and the On state while wearing the inertial sensor on the waist. Additionally, all patients were administered the motor section of the UPDRS in both motor phases. Tests were conducted at the patient’s home. Convergence between the algorithm and the scale was evaluated by using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient.ResultsCorrelation with the UPDRS-III was moderate (rho −0.56; p < 0.001. Correlation between the algorithm outputs and the gait item in the UPDRS-III was good (rho −0.73; p < 0.001. The factorial analysis of the UPDRS-III has repeatedly shown that several of its items can be clustered under the so-called Factor 1: “axial function, balance, and gait.” The correlation between the algorithm outputs and this factor of the UPDRS-III was −0.67 (p < 0.01.ConclusionThe correlation achieved by the algorithm with the UPDRS-III scale suggests that this algorithm might be a useful tool for monitoring patients with Parkinson’s disease and motor fluctuations.

  15. Modeling and simulation of a GOX/kerosene subscale rocket combustion chamber with film cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglauer, C.; Kniesner, B.; Knab, O.; Schlieben, G.; Kirchberger, C.; Silvestri, S.; Haidn, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed knowledge on the heat transfer mechanisms is crucial for the design of reliable and efficient rocket engines. Due to the high heat loads of the combustion chamber walls and the corrosive hot gases, film cooling is often applied supplementary or even as a primary cooling technique. Nevertheless, the dominating processes determining the film effectiveness under the conditions representative for rocket combustors are still not fully understood. In context of the national research program Transregio SFB/TRR-40, TEKAN and TARES, the Institute for Flight Propulsion (LFA) of the Technische Universität München (TUM) and Airbus Defence and Space carry out experimental and numerical investigations on heat transfer and film cooling techniques at application-relevant combustion pressures and temperatures. In this paper, results from film cooling experiments and numerical simulations with liquid and transcritical kerosene films in a water-cooled GOX/kerosene rocket combustion chamber are presented. The tests have been performed at two different combustion chamber pressures and with two different throat diameters to study the influence of Reynolds and Mach number. In the numerical investigations, a major issue has been the modeling of kerosene films in sub- and transcritical state. For the modeling Airbus Defence and Space's in-house tool, Rocflam-II has been applied. The main goal of Rocflam-II is to provide a tool package for the simulation of a wide range of rocket combustion devices, validated against experimental data. This includes the modeling of propellant injection, atomization, mixing, combustion, wall heat transfer, film modeling as well as the conjugate heat transfer into the chamber wall and the cooling channels.

  16. Heroin chasers and heroin injectors: differences observed in a community sample in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, J; Griffiths, P; Powis, B; Gossop, M

    1999-01-01

    "Chasing the dragon" has spread rapidly as a method of use of heroin in many countries over the last quarter of a century, and is now the most widely used method of heroin use worldwide. However, little examination has been made of the differences in characteristics and drug-taking patterns between heroin chasers and injectors. In this study, a comparison is made of the personal, social and drug-taking characteristics of heroin users in a community sample (i.e., not drawn from treatment services, contacted through a range of non-treatment access routes), according to whether the heroin user was currently a heroin chaser or injector, and according to whether or not they had ever injected. Data were examined on 400 heroin users contacted and interviewed in South London by privileged access interviewers using a structured interview schedule. Severity of dependence was measured using the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Heroin chasing and injecting were almost equally prevalent among this community sample. Of the 400 heroin users, 178 (44.5%) identified "chasing the dragon" as their current route of heroin use, and 222 (55.5%) injecting. Heroin chasers were younger, though they had first used at an older age, had a larger proportion of non-using friends, and contained larger proportions of women and people of Afro-Caribbean origin. Injectors were using higher daily doses and were significantly more likely to be using on a daily basis. Those who had never injected were more likely to be women and to have friends who did not use drugs. Severity of Dependence (SDS) scores were greater amongst injectors, with scores for injectors almost all being above the informal clinical threshold of greater than 5; while one third of the chasers had SDS scores below this level. Heroin chasing had been a longstanding pattern of behavior for a large proportion of the study sample. Chasers were generally less deeply involved in a heroin-using culture and were less likely to be using

  17. Subcutaneous Interferon ?-1a Administration by Electronic Auto-injector is Associated with High Adherence in Patients with Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in a Real-life Study

    OpenAIRE

    J?rvinen, Elina; Multanen, Juha; Atula, Sari

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to investigate adherence measured by an electronic auto-injector device, and self-reported adherence and treatment convenience in subjects with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), using an electronic auto-injector Rebismart® to self-inject interferon β-1a. Thirty one patients with RRMS using the electronic auto-injector Rebismart® for selfinjecting interferon β-1a subcutaneously three times weekly were included in a reallife clinical multicenter study for 24 weeks...

  18. Diabetes fatalism and its emotional distress subscale are independent predictors of glycemic control among Lebanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Egede, Leonard E; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya

    2017-09-04

    Achieving and sustaining optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is difficult because of socio-cultural and psychosocial factors including diabetes fatalism. Diabetes fatalism is 'a complex psychological cycle characterized by perceptions of despair, hopelessness, and powerlessness'. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether diabetes fatalism and other psychosocial and socio-cultural variables are correlates of glycemic control in Lebanese population with T2DM. A convenience sample of 280 adult participants with T2DM were recruited from a major hospital in greater Beirut-Lebanon area and from the community. Diabetes fatalism was assessed using the Arabic version of 12-item Diabetes Fatalism Scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between HbA1c and psychosocial and socio-cultural characteristics including diabetes fatalism. Four models were run to examine the independent association between HbA1c and diabetes fatalism and to identify which of the 3 subscales (emotional distress, spiritual coping and perceived self-efficacy) were associated with HbA1c. The mean age of the participants was 58.24(SD = 13.48) and the majority were females (53.76%), while 32.73% of the sample had diabetes for more than 10 years. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that higher scores on diabetes fatalism and the emotional distress subscale (P = 0.018) were significantly associated with higher HbA1c values. In addition, having diabetes for more than 11 years (P = 0.05) and a higher number of diabetes complications (P fatalism as an independent predictor of glycemic control among Lebanese. Future studies should further investigate this construct to guide interventions that can address it for better diabetes outcomes.

  19. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hai Hua; Li, Youtang [Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China); He, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Shichun; Yuan, Chenzhang; Jia, Huan; Zhang, Shenghu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-08-15

    A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT) for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS) Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR) bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. The concurrent validity of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale in adolescent patients in an urban federally qualified health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sharon M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; Schwartz, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses. Adolescents (N = 525; 93% African American, 55% female) 12-17 years of age awaiting primary care appointments at a Federally Qualified Health Center in Baltimore, Maryland completed the 17-item POSIT substance use/abuse subscale and items from a modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview corresponding to DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were examined with DSM-5 AUD, CUD, and a diagnosis of either or both disorders for the standard and revised subscales using risk cutoffs of either 1 or 2 POSIT "yes" responses. For the 17-item subscale, sensitivities were generally high using either cutoff (range: 0.79-1.00), although a cutoff of 1 was superior (sensitivities were 1.00 for AUD, CUD, and for either disorder). Specificities were also high using either cutoff (range: 0.81-0.95) but were higher using a cutoff of 2. For the 11-item subscale, a cutoff of 1 yielded higher sensitivities than a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.96-1.00 and 0.79-0.86, respectively). Specificities for this subscale were higher using a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.82-0.89 and 0.89-0.96, respectively). Findings suggest that the POSIT's substance use/abuse subscale is a potentially useful tool for screening adolescents in primary care for AUD or CUD using a cutoff of 1 or 2. The briefer, revised subscale may be preferable to the standard subscale in

  2. High Charge PHIN Photo Injector at CERN with Fast Phase switching within the Bunch Train for Beam Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Csatari Divall, M; Bolzon, B; Bravin, E; Chevallay, E; Dabrowski, A; Doebert, S; Drozdy, A; Fedosseev, V; Hessler, C; Lefevre, T; Livesley, S; Losito, R; Olvegaard, M; Petrarca, M; Rabiller, A N; Egger, D; Mete, O

    2011-01-01

    The high charge PHIN photo-injector was developed within the framework of the European CARE program to provide an alternative to the drive beam thermionic gun in the CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility) at CERN. In PHIN 1908 electron bunches are delivered with bunch spacing of 1.5 GHz and 2.33 nC charge per bunch. Furthermore the drive beam generated by CTF3 requires several fast 180 deg phase-shifts with respect to the 1.5 GHz bunch repetition frequency in order to allow the beam combination scheme developed at CTF3. A total of 8 subtrains, each 140 ns long and shifted in phase with respect to each other, have to be produced with very high phase and amplitude stability. A novel fiber modulator based phase-switching technique developed on the laser system provides this phase-shift between two consecutive pulses much faster and cleaner than the base line scheme, where a thermionic electron gun and sub-harmonic bunching are used. The paper describes the fiber-based switching system and the measurements verifying the schem...

  3. Effect of the Impeller Design on Degasification Kinetics Using the Impeller Injector Technique Assisted by Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Abreu-López

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to describe the hydrodynamics of a batch reactor for aluminum degassing utilizing the rotor-injector technique. The mathematical model uses the Eulerian algorithm to represent the two-phase system including the simulation of vortex formation at the free surface, and the use of the RNG k-ε model to account for the turbulence in the system. The model was employed to test the performances of three different impeller designs, two of which are available commercially, while the third one is a new design proposed in previous work. The model simulates the hydrodynamics and consequently helps to explain and connect the performances in terms of degassing kinetics and gas consumption found in physical modeling previously reported. Therefore, the model simulates a water physical model. The model reveals that the new impeller design distributes the bubbles more uniformly throughout the ladle, and exhibits a better-agitated bath, since the transfer of momentum to the fluids is better. Gas is evenly distributed with this design because both phases, gas and liquid, are dragged to the bottom of the ladle as a result of the higher pumping effect in comparison to the commercial designs.

  4. Acoustic emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel generator at various loads and with a failing injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Brian; Harris, James

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic emission sensing techniques have been applied in recent years to dynamic machinery with varying degrees of success in diagnosing various component faults and distinguishing between operating conditions. This work explores basic properties of acoustic emission signals measured on a small single cylinder diesel engine in a laboratory setting. As reported in other works in the open literature, the measured acoustic emission on the engine is mostly continuous mode and individual burst events are generally not readily identifiable. Therefore, the AE are processed into the local (instantaneous) root mean square (rms) value of the signal which is averaged over many cycles to obtain a mean rms AE in the crank angle domain. Crank-resolved spectral representation of the AE is also given but rigorous investigation of the AE spectral qualities is left to future study. Cycle-to-cycle statistical dispersion of the AE signal is considered to highlight highly variable engine processes. Engine speed was held constant but load conditions are varied to investigate AE signal sensitivity to operating condition. Furthermore, during the course of testing the fuel injector developed a fault and acoustic emission signals were captured and several signal attributes were successful in distinguishing this altered condition. The sampling and use of instantaneous rms acoustic emission signal demonstrated promise for non-intrusive and economical change detection of engine injection, combustion and valve events.

  5. The Drive Laser System for DC-SC Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Xiang Yang; Quan, Shengwen; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Kui

    2004-01-01

    PKU-SCAF has developed a photoinjector which adopt a 1+1/2 cell super conducting cavity and DC electron gun. We also developed a low cost drive laser system for the photocathode DC gun to provide high average beam current. This laser system include a commercial high repetition rate, ps, all solid-state laser, the home made SHG and FHG, Fourier relay optics and the uniform illumination optics. The test results shows the output power at 266 nm of the laser system is more than 1.2W and got more than 500 A beam current from CsTe cathode from the DC gun.

  6. Start-to-end simulations for beam dynamics in the injector system of the KHIMA heavy ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yumi; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Chanmi; Bahng, Jungbae; Li, Zhihui; Hahn, Garam

    2017-07-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project has been developed for cancer therapy. The injector system consists of a low energy beam transport (LEBT) line, a radio-frequency quadrupole, a drift tube linac with two tanks, and a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line with a charge stripper section. The injector system transports and accelerates the 12C4+ beam that is produced from electron cyclotron resonance ion source up to 7 MeV/u, respectively. The 12C6+ beam, which is transformed by a charge stripper from the 12C4+ beam, is injected into a synchrotron and accelerated up to 430 MeV/u. The lattice for the injector system was designed to optimize the beam parameters and to meet beam requirements for the synchrotron. We performed start-to-end simulations from the LEBT line to the MEBT line to confirm that the required design goals of the beam and injector system were met. Our simulation results indicate that our design achieves the required performance and a good transmission efficiency of 90%. We present the lattice design and beam dynamics for the injector system in the KHIMA project.

  7. Design of the torus interface for the neutral beam injectors of Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocentini, R., E-mail: riccardo.nocentini@ipp.mpg.de; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Rust, N.; Orozco, G.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Two NBI injectors are installed in W7-X, each capable of hosting four ion sources. • The NBI boxes and their NBI ports in W7-X are connected by NBI–torus interfaces. • Each NBI–torus interface includes a DN800 bellow, copper scrapers and diagnostics. • The design of the NBI–torus interface has been challenging due to the shape of W7-X. • The design includes the numerical shape optimization of one of the beam scrapers. - Abstract: A neutral beam injection (NBI) heating system for the stellarator project Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is currently under construction at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) Greifswald, Germany. The NBI at W7-X is based on the similar system in operation on the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade at IPP in Garching, Germany, and makes use of radio-frequency-driven positive ion sources. Two NBI injectors are going to be installed in W7-X, each being capable of hosting four ion sources. Initially each injector is being equipped with two ion sources of 1.8 (2.5) MW beam power each in H (D). Accelerated positive ions are going to be neutralized and transported inside an NBI-box, which also hosts a residual ion dump, titanium sublimation pumps and a calorimeter. The beams are focused at a point 6.5 m downstream of the ion sources and are injected into the plasma vessel of W7-X through two ports. The NBI boxes and their NBI ports are connected by NBI–torus interfaces, which are made of several components that minimize beam losses while protecting the port walls and bellows from energetic re-ionized particles and beam intersection. This paper describes the design of the NBI–torus interface, including the shape optimization of a beam scraper and the integration of beam diagnostics.

  8. Space Charge Effects for the ERL Prototype Injector Line at Daresbury Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Muratori, Bruno; Owen, Hywel; de Loos, Marieke; van der Geer, Bas

    2005-01-01

    Daresbury Laboratory is currently building an Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) that will operate at a beam energy of 35 MeV. In this paper we examine the space charge effects on the beam dynamics in the ERLP injector line. A Gaussian particle distribution is tracked with GPT (General Particle Tracer) through the injection line to the main linac to calculate the effect of 3Dspace charge in the dipoles. The nominal beam energy in the injection line is 8.3 MeV and the bunch charge 80 pC. The effects of space charge on the transverse and longitudinal emittance are studied for various electron beam parameter settings.

  9. A dynamic dispersion insert in the Fermilab Main Injector for momentum collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (MI) accelerator is designed as a FODO lattice with zero dispersion straight sections. A scheme will be presented that can dynamically alter the dispersion of one of the long straight sections to create a non-zero dispersion straight section suitable for momentum collimation. During the process of slip stacking DC beam is generated which is lost during the first few milliseconds of the ramp. A stationary massive primary collimator/absorber with optional secondary masks could be utilized to isolate beam loss due to uncaptured beam.

  10. Comparison with simulations to experimental data for photo-neutron reactions using SPring-8 Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of photo-nuclear reactions by using Monte Carlo codes PHITS and FLUKA have been performed to compare to the measured data at the SPring-8 injector with 250MeV and 961MeV electrons. Measurement data of Bismuth-206 productions due to photo-nuclear reactions of 209Bi(γ,3n 206Bi and high energy neutron reactions of 209Bi(n,4n206 Bi at the beam dumps have been compared with the simulations. Neutron leakage spectra outside the shield wall are also compared between experiments and simulations.

  11. LS1 general planning and strategy for the LHC, LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) is to perform the full maintenance of equipment, and the necessary consolidation and upgrade activities in order to ensure reliable LHC operation at nominal performance from mid 2014. LS1 not only concerns LHC but also its injectors. To ensure resources will be available an analysis is in progress to detect conflict/overload and decide what is compulsary, what we can afford, and what can be postponed to LS2. The strategy, time key drivers, constraints, and draft schedule will be presented here.

  12. Work on the high voltage platform of the pre-injector of Linac 1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Henry Charmot adjusting the electronics of the ion source on a platform which, during operation, was at a potential of 520 kV to ground. The cage containing the electronics is opened by hydraulic jacks. Visible on the right is the ion source (pill box structure) attached to the corrugated acceleration column, where the protons pass from 520 keV to ground potential. For more details on the pre-injector see 7403064X, 7403066X, 7403067X, 7403070, 7403071X, 7403124.

  13. Experimental investigation of syngas flame stability using a multi-tube fuel injector in a high pressure combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Sergio Elzar

    Over 92% of the coal consumed by power plants is used to generate electricity in the United States (U.S.). The U.S. has the world's largest recoverable reserves of coal, it is estimated that reserves of coal will last more than 200 years based in current production and demand levels. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants aim to reduce the amount of pollutants by gasifying coal and producing synthesis gas. Synthesis gas, also known as syngas, is a product of coal gasification and can be used in gas turbines for energy production. Syngas is primarily a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and is produced by gasifying a solid fuel feedstock such as coal or biomass. The objective of the thesis is to create a flame stability map by performing various experiments using high-content hydrogen fuels with varying compositions of hydrogen representing different coal feedstocks. The experiments shown in this thesis were performed using the High-Pressure Combustion facility in the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (CSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). The combustor was fitted with a novel Multi-Tube fuel Injector (MTI) designed to improve flame stability. This thesis presents the results of testing of syngas fuels with compositions of 20, 30, and 40% hydrogen concentrations in mixtures with carbon monoxide. Tests were completed for lean conditions ranging from equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 0.9. The experimental results showed that at an equivalence ratio of 0.6, a stable flame was not achieved for any of the fuel mixtures tested. It was also observed that the stability region of the syngas flame increased as equivalence ratio and the hydrogen concentration in syngas fuel increases with the 40% hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixture demonstrating the greatest stability region. Design improvements to the MTI are also discussed as part of the future work on this topic.

  14. An open-label trial of a sumatriptan auto-injector for migraine in patients currently treated with subcutaneous sumatriptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Stephen H; Tepper, Stewart J; Wein, Theodore; Schweizer, Edward; Ramos, Elodie

    2013-01-01

    To assess the ability of patients, during an acute migraine attack, to successfully self-inject a single dose of sumatriptan using a novel sumatriptan auto-injector (Alsuma(®)), and to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this sumatriptan auto-injector during an acute migraine attack. This sumatriptan auto-injector is a single-use system for the rapid subcutaneous delivery of 6 mg of sumatriptan succinate in the acute management of migraine pain. This auto-injector was developed to address the clinical need for an easy-to-use and rapid-to-administer system that did not require any assembly during the time of an ongoing attack. This was an open-label, phase 3 trial conducted at 10 sites in the USA. Male or female adults, ages 18-60 years old, were eligible for study entry if they met International Headache Society criteria for migraine with or without aura, with at least 2 attacks per month, and if they reported use of subcutaneous injectable sumatriptan on at least 2 occasions within the previous 2 months. During the onset of a migraine attack of moderate-to-severe intensity, patients were asked to administer a 6-mg subcutaneous dose of sumatriptan using the auto-injector. Patients returned to the study site within 72 hours of the migraine for the post-treatment assessment visit. A total of 63 patients met entry criteria and received a dose of study medication (the intent-to-treat sample). Sixty-one patients (96.8%) reported injection in the thigh, and 2 patients (3.2%) reported injection in the arm. On the patient questionnaire, 100% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.3-100%) "agreed" or "agreed strongly" that the written instructions for the auto-injector were clear and easy to follow (30.2% "agreed"; 69.8% "agreed strongly"); 95.2% of patients (95% CI 86.7-99.0%) found that the auto-injector was easy to use (36.5% "agreed"; 58.7% "agreed strongly"), and 65.1% of patients (95% CI 52.0-76.7%) stated that they preferred the new auto-injector

  15. Design Considerations for an MEBT Chopper Absorber of 2.1 MeV H- at the Project X Injector Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Awida, M.; Chen, A.; Eidelman, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Prost, L.; Shemyakin, A.; Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    The Project X Injector Experiment (PIXIE) will be a prototype of the Project X front end that will be used to validate the design concept and decrease technical risks. One of the most challenging components of PIXIE is the wide-band chopping system of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) section, which will form an arbitrary bunch pattern from the initially CW 162.5 MHz 5mA beam. The present scenario assumes diverting 80% of the beam to an absorber to provide a beam with the average current of 1mA to SRF linac. This absorber must withstand a high level of energy deposition and high ion fluence, while being positioned in proximity of the superconductive cavities. This paper discusses design considerations for the absorber. Thermal and mechanical analyses of a conceptual design are presented, and future plans for the fabrication and testing of a prototype are described.

  16. Numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in Diesel injectors; Modelisation de l'ecoulement diphasique dans les injecteurs diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, N.

    2004-12-15

    Combustion quality in Direct Injection Diesel engine depends strongly on the jet atomization in the combustion chamber. Atomization is due to aerodynamic interaction, but it is also influenced by the liquid flow characteristics at the injector exit. As the phenomena are extremely rapid and they take place in very small geometries, experimental investigations are pretty hard to manage. Consequently, our purpose is to develop a simulation code which has two goals: a better comprehension of the flow in the injector in order to optimize the injector geometry, and the prediction of the flow characteristics at the injector exit, in order to provide boundary conditions to combustion simulation codes. At first, we describe phenomena occurring in the injector and their influence on atomization. Their we make a revue of the two-phase models, defining their validity domains. We present the model that we use, based on a homogeneous flow assumption in each mesh cell, and its implementation in KIVA-MB. We show that a particular attention has been focused on exit boundary conditions: we used non-reflective conditions. Simulations results are then described and validated for a one-hole injector and a multi-hole injector, showing the code possibilities to get a better understanding of the liquid flow in an injector during the whole injection. (author)

  17. Clinical utility of the MMPI-A content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales in the assessment of suicidal risk factors in psychiatric adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopper, B A; Osman, A; Osman, J R; Hoffman, J

    1998-02-01

    This study of 143 inpatient adolescents (68 boys and 75 girls) investigated the clinical utility of the MMPI-A in assessing suicidal risk factors by examining the unique contribution of the content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales beyond what is provided by the basic clinical scales. The results of the regression analyses indicated that for boys, the Depression, Psychopathic Deviate and Hypomania scales; Alienation and Anxiety content scales: and Subjective Depression. Self Alienation, Imperturbability, and Amorality Harris-Lingoes subscales contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide probability. For girls, the Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, and Hypomania scales; Family Problems, Conduct Problems, School Problems, Depression, and Social Discomfort content scales; and the Subjective Depression, Self Alienation, Psychomotor Acceleration, and Imperturbability Harris-Lingoes subscales contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide probability.

  18. Comparative Responsiveness of the PROMIS Pain Interference Short Forms, Brief Pain Inventory, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain Subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Jacob; Monahan, Patrick O; Kroenke, Kurt; Wu, Jingwei; Yu, Zhangsheng; Stump, Tim E; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity to change and the responsiveness to intervention of the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), 3-item PEG scale, and SF-36 Bodily Pain subscale in a sample of patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain of moderate severity. Standardized response means, standardized effect sizes, and receiver operating curve analyses were used to assess change between baseline and 3-month assessments in 250 participants who participated in a randomized clinical effectiveness trial of collaborative telecare management for moderate to severe and persistent musculoskeletal pain. The BPI, PEG, and SF-36 Bodily Pain measures were more sensitive to patient-reported global change than the PROMIS Pain Interference short forms, especially for the clinically improved group, for which the change detected by the PROMIS short forms was not statistically significant. The BPI was more responsive to the clinical intervention than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures. Post hoc analyses exploring these findings did not suggest that differences in content or rating scale structure (number of response options or anchoring language) adequately explained the observed differences in the detection of change. In this clinical trial, the BPI and PEG measures were better able to detect change than the SF-36 Bodily Pain and PROMIS Pain Interference measures.

  19. Treatment adherence with the easypod™ growth hormone electronic auto-injector and patient acceptance: survey results from 824 children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larroque Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurately monitoring adherence to treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH enables appropriate intervention in cases of poor adherence. The electronic r-hGH auto-injector, easypod™, automatically records the patient's adherence to treatment. This study evaluated adherence to treatment of children who started using the auto-injector and assessed opinions about the device. Methods A multicentre, multinational, observational 3-month survey in which children received r-hGH as part of their normal care. Physicians reviewed the recorded dose history and children (with or without parental assistance completed a questionnaire-based survey. Children missing ≤2 injections per month (92% of injections given were considered adherent to treatment. Adherence was compared between GH treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced children. Results Of 834 recruited participants, 824 were evaluated. The median (range age was 11 (1-18 years. From the recorded dose history, 87.5% of children were adherent to treatment over the 3-month period. Recorded adherence was higher in treatment-naïve (89.7%, n = 445/496 than in treatment-experienced children (81.7%, n = 152/186 [Fisher's exact test FI(X = 7.577; p = 0.0062]. According to self-reported data, 90.2% (607/673 of children were adherent over 3 months; 51.5% (421/817 missed ≥1 injection over this period (mainly due to forgetfulness. Concordance between reported and recorded adherence was 84.3%, with a trend towards self-reported adherence being higher than recorded adherence. Most children liked the auto-injector: over 80% gave the top two responses from five options for ease of use (720/779, speed (684/805 and comfort (716/804. Although 38.5% (300/780 of children reported pain on injection, over half of children (210/363 considered the pain to be less or much less than expected. Given the choice, 91.8% (732/797 of children/parents would continue using the device. Conclusions

  20. Design and model for the giant magnetostrictive actuator used on an electronic controlled injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guangming; Zhang, Peilin; He, Zhongbo; Li, Ben; Rong, Ce

    2017-05-01

    Giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA) may be a promising candidate actuator to drive an electronic controlled injector as giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) has excellent performances as large output, fast response and high operating stability etc. To meet the driving requirement of the injector, the GMA should produce maximal shortening displacement when energized. An unbiased GMA with a ‘T’ shaped output rod is designed to reach the target. Furthermore, an open-hold-fall type driving voltage is exerted on the actuator coil to accelerate the response speed of the coil current. The actuator displacement is modeled from establishing the sub-models of coil current, magnetic field within GMM rod, magnetization and magnetostrictive strain sequentially. Two modifications are done to make the model more accurate. Firstly, consider the model fails to compute the transient-state response precisely, a dead-zone and delay links are embedded into the coil current sub-model. Secondly, as the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain sub-models just influence the change rule of the transient-state response the linear magnetostrictive strain-magnetic field sub-model is introduced. From experimental results, the modified model with linear magnetostrictive stain expression can predict the actuator displacement quite effectively.

  1. THz cavities and injectors for compact electron acceleration using laser-driven THz sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Fakhari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a design methodology for developing ultrasmall electron injectors and accelerators based on cascaded cavities excited by short multicycle THz pulses obtained from laser-driven THz generation schemes. Based on the developed concept for optimal coupling of the THz pulse, a THz electron injector and two accelerating stages are designed. The designed electron gun consists of a four cell cavity operating at 300 GHz and a door-knob waveguide to coaxial coupler. Moreover, special designs are proposed to mitigate the problem of thermal heat flow and induced mechanical stress to achieve a stable device. We demonstrated a gun based on cascaded cavities that is powered by only 1.1 mJ of THz energy in 300 cycles to accelerate electron bunches up to 250 keV. An additional two linac sections can be added with five and four cell cavities both operating at 300 GHz boosting the bunch energy up to 1.2 MeV using a 4-mJ THz pulse.

  2. Design optimization of a vaneless ``fish-friendly'' swirl injector for small water turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airody, Ajith; Peterson, Sean D.

    2015-11-01

    Small-scale hydro-electric plants are attractive options for powering remote sites, as they draw energy from local bodies of water. However, the environmental impact on the aquatic life drawn into the water turbine is a concern. To mitigate adverse consequences on the local fauna, small-scale water turbine design efforts have focused on developing ``fish-friendly'' facilities. The components of these turbines tend to have wider passages between the blades when compared to traditional turbines, and the rotors are designed to spin at much lower angular velocities, thus allowing fish to pass through safely. Galt Green Energy has proposed a vaneless casing that provides the swirl component to the flow approaching the rotor, eliminating the need for inlet guide vanes. We numerically model the flow through the casing using ANSYS CFX to assess the evolution of the axial and circumferential velocity symmetry and uniformity in various cross-sections within and downstream of the injector. The velocity distributions, as well as the pressure loss through the injector, are functions of the pitch angle and number of revolutions of the casing. Optimization of the casing design is discussed via an objective function consisting of the velocity and pressure performance measures.

  3. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade. Main Injector. Technical Components and Civil Construction, January, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-12

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to the Fermilab fixed target program. The Main Injector (MI) is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The MI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the MI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the MI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two to three. In addition the MI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  4. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January 1990 (Rev. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-01-10

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The Main Injector (MI) is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The MI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the MI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the MI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two to three. In addition the MI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  5. Performance of a Liner-on-Target Injector for Staged Z-Pinch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, F.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F.; Wessel, F. J.; Ruskov, E.; Rahman, H. U.; McGee, E.

    2016-10-01

    We present the design and characterization of a compact liner-on-target injector, used in the Staged Z-pinch experiments conducted on the UNR-NTF Zebra Facility. Previous experiments and analysis indicate that high-Z gas liners produce a uniform and efficient implosion on a low-Z target plasma. The liner gas shell is produced by an annular solenoid valve and a converging-diverging nozzle designed to achieve a collimated, supersonic, Mach-5 flow. The on-axis target is produced by a coaxial plasma gun, where a high voltage pulse is applied to ionize neutral gas and accelerate the plasma by the J-> × B-> force. Measurements of the liner and target dynamics, resolved by interferometry in space and time, fast imaging, and collection of the emitted light, are presented. The results are compared to the predictions from Computational Fluid Dynamics and MHD simulations that model the injector. Optimization of the design parameters, for upcoming Staged Z-pinch experiments, will be discussed. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  6. The beam bunching and transport system of the Argonne positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Bogaty, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new positive ion injector (PII) is currently under construction at Argonne that will replace the existing 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as an injector into ATLAS. It consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance-ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a superconducting linac optimized for very slow (..beta.. less than or equal to .007 c) ions. This combination can potentially produce even higher quality heavy-ion beams than are currently available from the tandem since the emittance growth within the linac is largely determined by the quality of the bunching and beam transport. The system we have implemented uses a two-stage bunching system, composed of a 4-harmonic gridded buncher located on the ECR high-voltage platform and a room temperature spiral-loaded buncher of novel design. A sinusoidal beam chopper is used for removal of tails. The beam transport is designed to provide mass resolution of M/..delta..M > 250 and a doubly-isochronous beamline is used to minimize time spread due to path length differences. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Low-volume multiplexed proteolytic activity assay and inhibitor analysis through a pico-injector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Xien; Miller, Miles A; Jing, Tengyang; Lauffenburger, Doug A; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2015-02-21

    Secreted active proteases, from families of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), participate in diverse pathological processes. To simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities, a series of parallel enzyme reactions combined with a series of inhibitor analyses for proteolytic activity matrix analysis (PrAMA) are essential but limited due to the sample quantity requirements and the complexity of performing multiple reactions. To address these issues, we developed a pico-injector array to generate 72 different reactions in picoliter-volume droplets by controlling the sequence of combinational injections, which allowed simultaneous recording of a wide range of multiple enzyme reactions and measurement of inhibitor effects using small sample volumes (~10 μL). Multiple MMP activities were simultaneously determined by 9 different substrates and 2 inhibitors using injections from a pico-injector array. Due to the advantages of inhibitor analysis, the MMP/ADAM activities of MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, were characterized with high MMP-2, MMP-3 and ADAM-10 activity. This platform could be customized for a wide range of applications that also require multiple reactions with inhibitor analysis to enhance the sensitivity by encapsulating different chemical sensors.

  8. Flame monitoring of a model swirl injector using 1D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Cao, Zhang; Li, Fangyan; Lin, Yuzhen; Xu, Lijun

    2017-05-01

    Distributions of temperature and H2O concentration in a swirling flame are critical to evaluate the performance of a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, 1D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy tomography (1D-TDLAST) was introduced to monitor swirling flames generated from a model swirl injector by simultaneously reconstructing the rotationally symmetric distributions of temperature and H2O concentration. The optical system was sufficiently simplified by introducing only one fan-beam illumination and a linear detector array of 12 equally-spaced photodetectors. The fan-beam illumination penetrated a cross section of interest in the swirling flame and the transmitted intensities were detected by the detector array. With the transmitted intensities in hand, projections were extracted and employed by a 1D tomographic algorithm to reconstruct the distributions of temperature and H2O concentration. The route of the precessing vortex core generated in the swirling flame can be easily inferred from the reconstructed profiles of temperature and H2O concentration at different heights above the nozzle of the swirl injector.

  9. STELLARATOR INJECTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R.F.

    1962-09-01

    A method and means are described for injecting energetic neutral atoms or molecular ions into dense magnetically collimated plasma columns of stellarators and the like in such a manner that the atoms or ions are able to significantly penetrate the column before being ionized by collision with the plasma constituent particles. Penetration of the plasma column by the neutral atoms or molecular ions is facilitated by superposition of two closely spaced magnetic mirrors on the plasma confinement field. The mirrors are moved apart to magnetically sweep plasma from a region between the mirrors and establish a relatively low plasma density therein. By virture of the low density, neutral atoms or molecular ions injected into the region significantly penetrate the plasma column before being ionized. Thereafter, the mirrors are diminished to permit the injected material to admix with the plasma in the remainder of the column. (AEC)

  10. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  11. Adverse learning strategy: the Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory and its subscale replicability in a medical student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G; Pearce, K; Lewis, M; Mellsop, G

    1990-03-01

    The Adelaide Diagnostic Learning Inventory (ADLIMS) is a measure of learning styles and learning pathologies that was designed to investigate the impact of traditional approaches to learning versus problem-based learning and to identify students whose approach to learning tasks predicted poor academic performance. In this study, some important psychometric properties of the ADLIMS were examined, including its factor structure. In this study, factor replicability across samples was argued to provide a more robust and psychologically meaningful factor solution than that which can be obtained using traditional mathematical criteria. The results of the factor analysis did not confirm the presence of the four factor solution earlier reported for the ADLIMS, but did identify three clear factors that had very high replicability. An inspection of the items comprising these three factors showed that factor 1 tapped subjective distress related to poor study habits, lack of motivation to study, and distraction from social activities. Factor 2 tapped distress arising from high achievement expectations that were hampered by superficial or disorganized study habits that did not enable the student to grasp the relationships between concepts and ideas. Factor 3 tapped positive feelings and a sense of satisfaction associated with a problem-based approach to the learning of new study material. Although the internal reliability of the ADLIMS subscales met the requirements of a measure to be used in general research such as in the investigation of correlates among groups of medical students, they did not meet the higher requirements of a measure to be used to identify or predict individuals with pathological learning styles.

  12. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Testing to Transition the J-2X from Paper to Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tom

    2010-01-01

    water flow, turbine air flow, turbopump seal testing, main injector and gas generator, injector testing, augmented spark igniter testing, nozzle side loads cold flow testing, nozzle extension film cooling flow testing, control system testing with hardware in the loop, and nozzle extension emissivity coating tests. In parallel with hardware manufacturing, work is progressing on the new A-3 test stand to support full duration altitude testing. The Stennis A-2 test stand is scheduled to be turned over to the Constellation Program in September 2010 to be modified for J-2X testing also. As the structural steel was rising on the A-3 stand, work was under way in the nearby E complex on the chemical steam generator and subscale diffuser concepts to be used to evacuate the A-3 test cell and simulate altitude conditions.

  14. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

  15. Measurement of aggressive behaviors in dementia: comparison of the physical aggression subscales of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the Ryden Aggression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whall, Ann L; Kim, Hyojeong; Colling, Kathleen Byrne; Hong, Gwi-Ryung; DeCicco, Barry; Antonakos, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    One of the central issues in the development of research-based interventions for aggressive behavior (AB) in late-stage dementia is the provision of precise measurement of the major dependent variable, in this case, AB levels. To advance the nursing goal of evidence-based practice, this article presents the characteristics of two research instruments: the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) aggressive behavior subscale (CMAI-ABS) and the Ryden Aggression Scale (RAS) physically aggressive behavior subscale (RAS-PABS). A total of 282 shower bath events (which are most associated with AB) were observed for 107 nursing home residents with dementia in nine randomly selected nursing homes. Then, we compared the psychometric properties of the CMAI-ABS and the RAS-PABS. Moderate to substantial agreements between the two instruments were identified using Cohen's Kappa. A similar percentage of AB was found on both subscales. Similar items on both subscales, such as hitting and pushing, were moderately correlated. Overall, the study results support that the CMAI-ABS and RAS-PABS measure a single but multifaceted construct-physically aggressive behavior in dementia. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Complex Relationships Among Masculine Norms and Health/Well-Being Outcomes: Correlation Patterns of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory Subscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Zachary T; Levant, Ronald F

    2018-03-01

    The Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI) is a widely used multidimensional scale. Studies using the CMNI most often report only total scale scores, which are predominantly associated with negative outcomes. Various studies since the CMNI's inception in 2003 using subscales have reported both positive and negative outcomes. The current content analysis examined studies ( N = 17) correlating the 11 subscales with 63 criterion variables across 7 categories. Most findings were consistent with past research using total scale scores that reported negative outcomes. For example, conformity to masculine norms has been inversely related to help-seeking and positively correlated with concerning health variables, such as substance use. Nonetheless, past reliance on total scores has obscured the complexity of associations with the CMNI in that 30% of the findings in the present study reflected positive outcomes, particularly for health promotion. Subscales differed in their relationships with various outcomes: for one subscale they were predominantly positive, but six others were mostly negative. The situational and contextual implications of conformity to masculine norms and their relationships to positive and negative outcomes are discussed.

  17. Toward defining a cutoff score for elevated fear of hypoglycemia on the hypoglycemia fear survey worry subscale in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajós, Tibor R S; Polonsky, William H; Pouwer, Frans

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine a cutoff score for clinically meaningful fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) on the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey Worry subscale (HFS-W). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on the HFS-W, history of hypoglycemia, emotional well-being (World Health Organization-5 well-being index...

  18. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  19. The compliance and burden of treatment with the epinephrine auto-injector in food-allergic adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh-Langenberg, J.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Goossens, N. J.; Kemna, J. C.; van der Velde, J. L.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    BackgroundFood-allergic patients at high risk of potential fatal anaphylaxis should carry an epinephrine auto-injector (EAI) at all times. This treatment may be perceived as burdensome and this may affect compliance and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aims of the study were (1) to

  20. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, April 1992 (Rev. 3.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1992-04-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimation of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI). The construction of this accelerator will simulataneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs.