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Sample records for subretinally injected eyes

  1. Subretinal Implantation of Electrospun, Short Nanowire, and Smooth Poly(e-caprolactone) Scaffolds to the Subretinal Space of Porcine Eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A T; Tao, Shanwen; Smith, M

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds play an important adjunct role in transplantation of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to the subretinal space. Poly(e-Caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with different modifications were subretinally implanted in 28 porcine eyes and evaluated by multifocal electroretinography (mf...

  2. Biocompatibility of brilliant blue G in a rat model of subretinal injection.

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    Ueno, Akifumi; Hisatomi, Toshio; Enaida, Hiroshi; Kagimoto, Tadahisa; Mochizuki, Yasutaka; Goto, Yoshinobu; Kubota, Toshiaki; Hata, Yasuaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of brilliant blue G (BBG) compared with those of indocyanine green (ICG) and trypan blue (TB) in a rat model of subretinal injection. Retinal detachment was produced by subretinal injection of the dyes. The biocompatibility of BBG (0.25 mg/mL) was evaluated over 2 months and 2 weeks by ophthalmic examinations. The eyes were enucleated and analyzed by light, fluorescence, as well as transmission electron microscopy. Apoptotic cell death was detected by TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling. The results were compared with those for ICG (5 mg/mL) and TB (1 mg/mL). ICG caused retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell atrophy 2 weeks after subretinal injection. Apoptotic cell death was detected in the inner and outer nuclear layers and the RPE layer, especially the photoreceptors. TB caused less retinal degeneration, mainly in the area detached by the subretinal injection. BBG had no detectable toxic effects after 2 months and 2 weeks. Apoptotic cell death was detected in the ICG and TB groups, mainly in the photoreceptors. Subretinal injection of the dyes caused retinal cell degeneration at lower concentrations than those reported for intravitreous injection. However, subretinal injection of BBG at 0.25 mg/mL appeared to provide satisfactory biocompatibility.

  3. Subretinal Glial Membranes in Eyes With Geographic Atrophy.

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    Edwards, Malia M; McLeod, D Scott; Bhutto, Imran A; Grebe, Rhonda; Duffy, Maeve; Lutty, Gerard A

    2017-03-01

    Müller cells create the external limiting membrane (ELM) by forming junctions with photoreceptor cells. This study evaluated the relationship between focal photoreceptors and RPE loss in geographic atrophy (GA) and Müller cell extension into the subretinal space. Human donor eyes with no retinal disease or geographic atrophy (GA) were fixed and the eye cups imaged. The retinal posterior pole was stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; astrocytes and activated Müller cells) and vimentin (Müller cells) while the submacular choroids were labeled with Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin lectin (blood vessels). Choroids and retinas were imaged using a Zeiss 710 confocal microscope. Additional eyes were cryopreserved or processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to better visualize the Müller cells. Vimentin staining of aged control retinas (n = 4) revealed a panretinal cobblestone-like ELM. While this pattern was also observed in the GA retinas (n = 7), each also had a distinct area in which vimentin+ and vimentin+/GFAP+ processes created a subretinal membrane. Subretinal glial membranes closely matched areas of RPE atrophy in the gross photos. Choroidal vascular loss was also evident in these atrophic areas. Smaller glial projections were noted, which correlated with drusen in gross photos. The presence of glia in the subretinal space was confirmed by TEM and cross cross-section immunohistochemistry. In eyes with GA, subretinal Müller cell membranes present in areas of RPE atrophy may be a Müller cell attempt to replace the ELM. These membranes could interfere with treatments such as stem cell therapy.

  4. Trans-Corneal Subretinal Injection in Mice and Its Effect on the Function and Morphology of the Retina.

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    Yan Qi

    Full Text Available To introduce a practical method of subretinal injection in mice and evaluate injection-induced retinal detachment (RD and damage using a dynamic imaging system, electrophysiology, and histology.After full dilation of a 2-month-old C57BL/6J mouse pupil, the cornea near the limbus was punctured with a 30 ½-gague disposable beveled needle. A 33 ½-gauge blunt needle was inserted through the corneal perforation into the anterior chamber, avoiding the lens before going deeper into the vitreous cavity, and penetrating the inner retina to reach the subretinal space. The mice were divided into four groups: in group 1, about 80-100% of the retina was filled with subretinally injected solution; in group 2, approximately 50-70% of the retina was filled with injected solution; in group 3, the procedures were stopped before solution injection; and non-injected eyes were used as the negative control in group 4. An optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging system was used to monitor retinal reattachment during the first three days following the injections. Histological and functional changes were examined by light microscopy and electroretinography (ERG at five weeks post-injection.After a short-term training, a 70% success rate with 50% or more coverage (i.e., retinal blebs occupied 50% or more retinal area and filled with the injected solution with minimal injection-related damages can be achieved. Bleb formation was associated with retinal detachment (RD between the neuroretina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer. Partial RD could be observed at post-injection day 1, and by day 2 most of the retina had reattached. At 5 weeks post-injection, compared to uninjected control group 4, the b-wave amplitudes of ERG decreased 22% in group 1, 16% in group 2, and 7% in group 3; the b-wave amplitudes were statistically different between the uninjected group and the groups with either 50-70% or 80-100% coverage. The subretinal injection-induced RD reattached

  5. Integration of Subretinal Suspension Transplants of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in a Large-Eyed Model of Geographic Atrophy.

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    Petrus-Reurer, Sandra; Bartuma, Hammurabi; Aronsson, Monica; Westman, Sofie; Lanner, Fredrik; André, Helder; Kvanta, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Subretinal suspension transplants of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells (hESC-RPE) have the capacity to form functional monolayers in naive eyes. We explore hESC-RPE integration when transplanted in suspension to a large-eyed model of geographic atrophy (GA). Derivation of hESC-RPE was performed in a xeno-free and defined manner. Subretinal bleb injection of PBS or sodium iodate (NaIO3) was used to induce a GA-like phenotype. Suspensions of hESC-RPE were transplanted to the subretinal space of naive or PBS-/NaIO3-treated rabbits using a transvitreal pars plana technique. Integration of hESC-RPE was monitored by multimodal real-time imaging and by immunohistochemistry. Subretinal blebs of PBS or NaIO3 caused different degrees of outer neuroretinal degeneration, RPE hyperautofluorescence, focal RPE loss, and choroidal atrophy; that is, hallmark characteristics of GA. In nonpretreated naive eyes, hESC-RPE integrated as subretinal monolayers with preserved overlying photoreceptors, yet not in areas with outer neuroretinal degeneration and native RPE loss. When transplanted to eyes with PBS-/NaIO3-induced degeneration, hESC-RPE failed to integrate. In a large-eyed preclinical model, subretinal suspension transplants of hESC-RPE did not integrate in areas with GA-like degeneration.

  6. Subretinal Fluid Drainage and Vitrectomy Are Helpful in Diagnosing and Treating Eyes with Advanced Coats' Disease

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    Ayako Imaizumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe forms of Coats’ disease are often associated with total retinal detachment, and a differential diagnosis from retinoblastoma is critically important. In such eyes, laser- and/or cryoablation is often ineffective or sometimes impossible to perform. We report a case of advanced Coats’ disease in which a rapid pathological examination of subretinal fluid was effective for the diagnosis, and external subretinal drainage combined with vitrectomy was effective in preserving the eye.

  7. Differential stimulation of the retina with subretinally injected exogenous neurotransmitter: A biomimetic alternative to electrical stimulation

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    Rountree, Corey M.; Inayat, Samsoon; Troy, John B.; Saggere, Laxman

    2016-12-01

    Subretinal stimulation of the retina with neurotransmitters, the normal means of conveying visual information, is a potentially better alternative to electrical stimulation widely used in current retinal prostheses for treating blindness from photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Yet, no subretinal electrical or chemical stimulation study has stimulated the OFF and ON pathways differentially through inner retinal activation. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of differentially stimulating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through the inner nuclear layer of the retina with glutamate, a primary neurotransmitter chemical, in a biomimetic way. We show that controlled pulsatile delivery of glutamate into the subsurface of explanted wild-type rat retinas elicits highly localized simultaneous inhibitory and excitatory spike rate responses in OFF and ON RGCs. We also present the spatiotemporal characteristics of RGC responses to subretinally injected glutamate and the therapeutic stimulation parameters. Our findings could pave the way for future development of a neurotransmitter-based subretinal prosthesis offering more naturalistic vision and better visual acuity than electrical prostheses.

  8. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

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    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  9. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  10. Iatrogenic subretinal injection of Ozurdex(®) implant and its effect on macular edema.

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    Karandikar, Smita Shriram; Manayath, George J; Saravanan, Veerappan; Narendran, Siddharth; Narendran, Venkatapathy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a rare case of subretinal lodgement of Ozurdex(®) implant (Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) and its effect on macular edema in a case of central retinal vein occlusion (RVO). A rare complication of subretinal lodgement of Ozurdex(®) implant without retinal perforation was encountered in a case of RVO with intractable macular edema. As associated retinal perforation was not noted, no intervention was done. The patient was regularly followed up at 1 month, and the effect on macular edema and intraocular pressure was analyzed. The corticosteroid pellets got disintegrated and totally absorbed with a subtle chorioretinal scar by the 3(rd) follow-up month without any intervention. Even though subretinal, it was capable of reducing macular edema by 181 microns at 1 month postinjection, and its effect started wearing off by 2 months. Subretinal lodgement of Ozurdex(®) implant is rare and preventable, yet a potential complication of intravitreal implants which is now in vogue. We speculate a too acute angle of injection or incomplete insertion of the drug delivery system applicator (DDS) away from the limbus or perhaps less refined previous DDS applicator to be a cause for subretinal delivery of the implant. The early disintegration of implant occurred due to breach in structural integrity that caused loss of controlled drug release and rapid absorption. It reduced macular edema up to 2 months without elevating intraocular pressure. A more widespread application of any technology always portends a more significant risk for complications, and an ophthalmologist should be aware of this potential risk. Though subretinal, corticosteroid implant was capable of reducing macular edema by 181 microns by 1 month and its effect wore off by 2 months.

  11. Subretinal injection of amyloid-β peptide accelerates RPE cell senescence and retinal degeneration.

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    Liu, Chaoqi; Cao, Lining; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Linxinyu; Liu, Pei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Drusen are considered a hallmark characteristic of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In our previous study, we found that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, a component of drusen, induced the cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE; RPE cells) to enter senescence; however, its effects in vivo remain unknown. Thus, the present study was carried out to explore the in vivo effects of Aβ peptide on RPE cell senescence and senescence-associated inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice received a subretinal injection of Aβ(1-42) peptide; on day 7 post-injection, the mice were anesthetized and subjected to whole-body perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in PBS and the whole eyes were then enucleated. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinography (ERG), and the morphological characteristics of the retina were examined by light and electron microscopy. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) was examined by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO). The expression of p16INK4a, a marker of cellular senescence, was examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The RPE-choroid was analyzed for cytokine expression by RT-PCR. In Aβ(1-42)-injected mice, scotopic ERG responses declined. Degenerative alterations, including the disruption of the inner segment (IS)/outer segment (OS) junction and extensive vacuolation and thickness of Bruch's membrane (BrM) were observed under a a light microscope. The accumulation of vacuoles and the loss of basal infoldings in the RPE were identified using an electron microscope. FAF and p16INK4a expression increased in Aβ(1-42)-injected mice. In addition, Aβ(1-42) upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 gene expression in the RPE-choroid. In conclusion, our results confirm the effects of Aβ(1-42) peptide on RPE senescence in vivo. The Aβ-injected mice developed AMD-like ocular pathology. It is thus suggested that RPE cell senescence is a potential mechanistic link between inflammation and retinal degeneration.

  12. Rod Outer Segment Development Influences AAV-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection.

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    Petit, Lolita; Ma, Shan; Cheng, Shun-Yun; Gao, Guangping; Punzo, Claudio

    2017-06-01

    Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the preferred tools for delivering genes to photoreceptors (PR) in small and large animals. AAVs have been applied successfully in various models of PR dystrophies. However, unknown barriers still limit AAV's efficient application in several forms of severe PR degenerations due to insufficient transgene expression and/or treated cells at the time of injection. Optimizations of PR gene therapy strategies will likely benefit from the identification of the cellular factors that influence PR transduction. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the AAV transduction profile of PRs differs significantly between neonatal and adult mouse retinas after subretinal injection. This phenomenon may provide clues to identify host factors that influence the efficiency of AAV-mediated PR transduction. This study demonstrates that rod outer segments are critical modulators of efficient AAV-mediated rod transduction. During retinal development, rod transduction correlated temporally and spatially with the differentiation order of PRs when vectors were introduced subretinally but not when introduced intravitreally. All subretinally injected vectors had an initial preference to transduce cones in the absence of formed rod outer segments and then displayed a preference for rods as the cells matured, independently of the expression cassette or AAV serotype. Consistent with this observation, altered development of rod outer segments was associated with a strong reduction of rod transduction and an increase in the percentage of transduced cones by 2- to 2.8-fold. A similar increase of cone transduction was observed in the adult retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) retina compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that the loss of rod outer segments in diseased retinas could markedly affect gene transfer efficiency of AAV vectors by limiting the ability of AAVs to infect dying rods efficiently. This information could be

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN VISUAL FUNCTION AND SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS IN NORMAL AND EARLY AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION EYES.

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    Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna V; Clark, Mark E; Huisingh, Carrie E; Jackson, Gregory R; Zhang, Yuhua; McGwin, Gerald; Curcio, Christine A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) identified by multimodal retinal imaging and visual function in older eyes with normal macular health or in the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Age-related macular degeneration status for each eye was defined according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 9-step classification system (normal = Step 1, early AMD = Steps 2-4) based on color fundus photographs. Visual functions measured were best-corrected photopic visual acuity, contrast and light sensitivity, mesopic visual acuity, low-luminance deficit, and rod-mediated dark adaptation. Subretinal drusenoid deposits were identified through multimodal imaging (color fundus photographs, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography). The sample included 1,202 eyes (958 eyes with normal health and 244 eyes with early AMD). In normal eyes, SDDs were not associated with any visual function evaluated. In eyes with early AMD, dark adaptation was markedly delayed in eyes with SDDs versus no SDD (a 4-minute delay on average), P = 0.0213. However, this association diminished after age adjustment, P = 0.2645. Other visual functions in early AMD eyes were not associated with SDDs. In a study specifically focused on eyes in normal macular health and in the earliest phases of AMD, early AMD eyes with SDDs have slower dark adaptation, largely attributable to the older ages of eyes with SDD; they did not exhibit deficits in other visual functions. Subretinal drusenoid deposits in older eyes in normal macular health are not associated with any visual functions evaluated.

  14. Subretinal fluid in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis observed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

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    Yanling Ouyang

    Full Text Available To describe the clinical finding of subretinal fluid (SRF in the posterior pole by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT.Retrospective case series.Thirty-nine eyes from 38 patients with active OT [corrected]..Eyes with active OT which underwent SD-OCT were reviewed. SRFs in the posterior pole were further analyzed.Presence of SRF; its accompanying features, e.g. retinal necrosis, cystoid macular edema (CME, choroidal neovascularization (CNV; and longitudinal changes of SRF, including maximum height and total volume before and after treatment.SRF presented in 45.5% (or 15/33 of eyes with typical active OT and in 51.3% (or 20/39 of eyes with active OT. The mean maximum height and total volume of SRF were 161.0 (range: 23-478 µm and 0.47 (range: 0.005-4.12 mm3, respectively. For 12 eyes with SRF related to active retinal necrosis, SRF was observed with complete absorption after conventional anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. The mean duration for observation of SRF clearance was 33.8 (range: 7-84 days. The mean rate of SRF clearance was 0.0128 (range: 0.0002-0.0665 mm3/day.SRF (i.e., serous retinal detachment is a common feature in patients with active OT when SD-OCT is performed. The majority of SRF was associated with retinal necrosis and reacted well to conventional therapy, regardless of total fluid volume. However, SRF accompanying with CME or CNV responded less favorably or remained refractory to conventional or combined intravitreal treatment, even when the SRF was small in size.

  15. Repeated subretinal surgery and removal of subretinal decalin is well tolerated - evidence from a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Klemp, Kristian; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg

    2017-01-01

    to examine the functional and morphological consequences of repeated subretinal manipulation. We hypothesized that PFCL in a porcine model can be injected in the subretinal space and removed with minimal effect on retinal structure and function. METHODS: The left eyes of ten healthy three-month-old female...... domestic pigs were included. Multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) were recorded before surgery. Following vitrectomy, a PFCL bleb (decalin) was injected subretinally using a 41G cannula. After 14 days the decalin was removed through a 41G cannula in combination with a 2 ml syringe and an intermediate...... flexible tube. Two weeks after removal, a control mfERG was recorded, the pigs were enucleated and sacrificed and eyes were examined histologically. All statistics were carried out with a paired t-test in SAS Enterprise Guide 7.1® (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). RESULTS: There was no significant...

  16. Treatment of retinitis pigmentosa due to MERTK mutations by ocular subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus gene vector: results of a phase I trial.

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    Ghazi, Nicola G; Abboud, Emad B; Nowilaty, Sawsan R; Alkuraya, Hisham; Alhommadi, Abdulrahman; Cai, Huimin; Hou, Rui; Deng, Wen-Tao; Boye, Sanford L; Almaghamsi, Abdulrahman; Al Saikhan, Fahad; Al-Dhibi, Hassan; Birch, David; Chung, Christopher; Colak, Dilek; LaVail, Matthew M; Vollrath, Douglas; Erger, Kirsten; Wang, Wenqiu; Conlon, Thomas; Zhang, Kang; Hauswirth, William; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2016-03-01

    MERTK is an essential component of the signaling network that controls phagocytosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the loss of which results in photoreceptor degeneration. Previous proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated the efficacy of gene therapy using human MERTK (hMERTK) packaged into adeno-associated virus (AAV2) in treating RCS rats and mice with MERTK deficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of gene transfer via subretinal administration of rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK in subjects with MERTK-associated retinitis pigmentosa (RP). After a preclinical phase confirming the safety of the study vector in monkeys, six patients (aged 14 to 54, mean 33.3 years) with MERTK-related RP and baseline visual acuity (VA) ranging from 20/50 to improved visual acuity in the treated eye following surgery, although the improvement was lost by 2 years in two of these patients. Gene therapy for MERTK-related RP using careful subretinal injection of rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK is not associated with major side effects and may result in clinical improvement in a subset of patients.

  17. Iatrogenic subretinal injection of Ozurdex® implant and its effect on macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Shriram Karandikar

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: A more widespread application of any technology always portends a more significant risk for complications, and an ophthalmologist should be aware of this potential risk. Though subretinal, corticosteroid implant was capable of reducing macular edema by 181 microns by 1 month and its effect wore off by 2 months.

  18. Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGA3 Vector Delivered by Subretinal Injection in CNGA3 Mutant Achromatopsia Sheep.

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    Gootwine, Elisha; Ofri, Ron; Banin, Eyal; Obolensky, Alexey; Averbukh, Edward; Ezra-Elia, Raaya; Ross, Maya; Honig, Hen; Rosov, Alexander; Yamin, Esther; Ye, Guo-Jie; Knop, David R; Robinson, Paulette M; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Shearman, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation (AGTC) is developing a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human CNGA3 gene designated AGTC-402 (rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGA3) for the treatment of achromatopsia, an inherited retinal disorder characterized by markedly reduced visual acuity, extreme light sensitivity, and absence of color discrimination. The results are herein reported of a study evaluating safety and efficacy of AGTC-402 in CNGA3-deficient sheep. Thirteen day-blind sheep divided into three groups of four or five animals each received a subretinal injection of an AAV vector expressing a CNGA3 gene in a volume of 500 μL in the right eye. Two groups (n = 9) received either a lower or higher dose of the AGTC-402 vector, and one efficacy control group (n = 4) received a vector similar in design to one previously shown to rescue cone photoreceptor responses in the day-blind sheep model (rAAV5-PR2.1-hCNGA3). The left eye of each animal received a subretinal injection of 500 μL of vehicle (n = 4) or was untreated (n = 9). Subretinal injections were generally well tolerated and not associated with systemic toxicity. Most animals had mild to moderate conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, and subconjunctival hemorrhage immediately after surgery that generally resolved by postoperative day 7. Two animals treated with the higher dose of AGTC-402 and three of the efficacy control group animals had microscopic findings of outer retinal atrophy with or without inflammatory cells in the retina and choroid that were procedural and/or test-article related. All vector-treated eyes showed improved cone-mediated electroretinography responses with no change in rod-mediated electroretinography responses. Behavioral maze testing under photopic conditions showed significantly improved navigation times and reduced numbers of obstacle collisions in all vector-treated eyes compared to their contralateral control eyes or pre-dose results in the

  19. Spontaneous resorption of sub-retinal cortical lens material

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    Salil S Gadkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of retained sub-retinal cortical material, which underwent spontaneous resorption. Patient presented with a left eye traumatic retinal detachment with a large retinal tear and posteriorly dislocated cataractous lens. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, silicone oil injection, and endolaser were performed. A good visual result was achieved. The report draws attention to this condition and highlights possible technique for minimizing risk of this complication in similar cases.

  20. Subretinal Hemorrhage after Photodynamic Therapy for Juxtapapillary Retinal Capillary Hemangioma

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    Takayuki Baba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented with a juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH in her left eye. Twelve months after the initial examination, the size of the hemangioma had increased and the exudation from the RCH involved the macula. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA had decreased from 0.8 to 0.3. A total of five intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB; 1.25 mg was given but the RCH did not respond. A photodynamic therapy (PDT was done using multiple laser spots to avoid damaging the optic nerve head. After the first PDT, the subfoveal fluid was reduced but not completely gone. One week after the second PDT, a massive subretinal hemorrhage developed. The subretinal hemorrhage was successfully displaced by injecting intraocular sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas. At the 3-year follow-up examination, no subretinal hemorrhage or fluid was observed at the macula and the BCVA remained at 0.05. Our case was resistant to the combination of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and PDT and had a rare massive subretinal hemorrhage. A further collection of RCH cases treated with anti-VEGF and PDT that would justify this treatment is necessary.

  1. Foveal function and thickness after verteporfin photodynamic therapy in central serous chorioretinopathy with hyperautofluorescent subretinal deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Anders; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    : To assess the prognostic effect of subretinal deposits in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).......: To assess the prognostic effect of subretinal deposits in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)....

  2. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal...... vessels appeared normal without signs of exudation, bleeding, or subretinal elevation. Eyes were harvested at 10-28 days. H&E consistently showed mild retinal vasculitis, depigmentation of the RPE, and marked mononuclear cell infiltrate in the choroid adjacent to the site of transplantation. Human...

  3. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections

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    ... 2013 Part 4 of Our 5-Part Series: Antibiotics for Eye Injections Making healthy lifestyle choices can ... articles that will discuss each item in detail. Antibiotics for Eye Injections A common way to treat ...

  4. Treatment of subretinal fluid associated with dome-shaped macula.

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    Chinskey, Nicholas D; Johnson, Mark W

    2013-11-01

    Dome-shaped macula is a recently described disorder seen in eyes with myopic posterior staphyloma. Vision loss may accompany sub-macular fluid accumulation, for which no effective treatment has been reported. The authors report the successful treatment of two female patients, aged 34 and 59 years, with chronic exudative macular detachment associated with dome-shaped macula. Symptoms of subretinal fluid had been present for at least 2 years in each case, and the fluid was refractory to multiple intravitreal bevacizumab injections in one eye. After a single session of half-fluence verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the submacular fluid resolved completely in each eye. In one eye, recurrent submacular fluid 2 years later responded partially to repeat photodynamic therapy and completely to focal laser photocoagulation. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:593-595.]. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Brilliant crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space following adjunctive intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic vitrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastion, Mae-Lynn Catherine; Mustapha, Mushawiahti; Ho, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    To report a unique case of crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space in a Malay lady following inadvertent subretinal injection of ranibizumab prior to vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23093508

  6. Toxicity profiles of subretinal indocyanine green, Brilliant Blue G, and triamcinolone acetonide: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    /ml and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) 13 mg/ml was injected subretinally in 12 vitrectomized pig eyes. At 6 weeks, retinas were examined by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiograpy, histopathology, and apoptosis assay. RESULTS: mfERG responses were significantly lower in ICG......-injected eyes than in healthy fellow eyes (p¿=¿0.039). The ratio between injected eyes and healthy fellow eyes was lower in the ICG group than in the BBG (p¿=¿0.009) and TA group (p¿=¿0.025). No difference between BBG and TA existed. All retinas were reattached, and fluorescein angiographies showed a window...

  7. Identification of hydroxyapatite spherules provides new insight into subretinal pigment epithelial deposit formation in the aging eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard B.; Reffatto, Valentina; Bundy, Jacob G.; Kortvely, Elod; Flinn, Jane M.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Jones, Emrys A.; McPhail, David S.; Fearn, Sarah; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius; Ratu, Savanjeet Guy Singh; Pauleikhoff, Laurenz; Bird, Alan C.; Lengyel, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of protein- and lipid-containing deposits external to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is common in the aging eye, and has long been viewed as the hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The cause for the accumulation and retention of molecules in the sub-RPE space, however, remains an enigma. Here, we present fluorescence microscopy and X-ray diffraction evidence for the formation of small (0.5–20 μm in diameter), hollow, hydroxyapatite (HAP) spherules in Bruch’s membrane in human eyes. These spherules are distinct in form, placement, and staining from the well-known calcification of the elastin layer of the aging Bruch’s membrane. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging confirmed the presence of calcium phosphate in the spherules and identified cholesterol enrichment in their core. Using HAP-selective fluorescent dyes, we show that all types of sub-RPE deposits in the macula, as well as in the periphery, contain numerous HAP spherules. Immunohistochemical labeling for proteins characteristic of sub-RPE deposits, such as complement factor H, vitronectin, and amyloid beta, revealed that HAP spherules were coated with these proteins. HAP spherules were also found outside the sub-RPE deposits, ready to bind proteins at the RPE/choroid interface. Based on these results, we propose a novel mechanism for the growth, and possibly even the formation, of sub-RPE deposits, namely, that the deposit growth and formation begin with the deposition of insoluble HAP shells around naturally occurring, cholesterol-containing extracellular lipid droplets at the RPE/choroid interface; proteins and lipids then attach to these shells, initiating or supporting the growth of sub-RPE deposits. PMID:25605911

  8. REFRACTORY INTRARETINAL OR SUBRETINAL FLUID IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION TREATED WITH INTRAVITREAL RANIZUBIMAB: Functional and Structural Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianniou, Christina; Dirani, Ali; Jang, Liuna; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the visual acuity results of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and refractory fluid despite monthly treatment with ranibizumab, and to investigate differences between refractory subretinal fluid and intraretinal cystic changes. Retrospective chart review of consecutive treatment-refractory neovascular age-related macular degeneration, defined as persistent intraretinal or subretinal fluid despite monthly ranibizumab injections during 12 months or more. Data were evaluated for baseline characteristics, type and location of the refractory fluid, mean visual acuity change, number of injections, and the time point of first complete disappearance of all fluid on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Seventy-six eyes (74 patients, mean age, 76.8 years) were identified. The mean follow-up was 33.6 months (range, 12-73 months). The mean number of injections was 11.4 in the first year and 27.7 over follow-up. The refractory fluid was located subfoveally in 61.8%. In 27 eyes (35.5%), the fluid resolved after a mean of 21.8 months (range, 13-49 months). Mean visual acuity increased by 9.0, 7.9, and 7.9 letters by Month 12, Month 24, and Month 36, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed a higher risk for fibrosis (odds ratio, 3.30) or atrophy (odds ratio, 3.34) in patients with refractory cysts as compared with refractory subretinal fluid. Furthermore, refractory cysts showed a higher risk for a 10-letter visual acuity loss (P = 0.018). Fluid refractory to monthly treatment with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration still allowed for well-maintained visual improvement, even in subfoveal location. Late fluid resolution may occur. However, refractory cysts were associated with poorer anatomical and functional outcome than subretinal fluid.

  9. Using of magnetic particles for fi xing of isolated cells in subretinal transplantation

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    A. A. Temnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study focuses on the development of the method of introduction of magnetic microparticles in the cytoplasm of HEK-293 cell line with their subsequent fixation under the retina of the eye.Materials and Methods. Magnetic particles (d = 2,8 mm were treated with pluronic and injected into the cytoplasm of HEK-293 cell line, expressing GFP. The surgery was made under general anesthesia. HEK-293 containing magnetic particles were injected into the subretinal space of rabbit eyes (eyes 96, 48 rabbits using original dosing device. In the experimental group (48 eyes, 24 rabbits we fixed episcleral magnetic implant to hold cells in local place. In the control group (48 eyes, 24 rabbit magnetic implant was not fixed. After the surgery all animals were examined using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy with photographic recording, ultrasound, computed tomography and morphological study in certain terms (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 day and 1 month.Results: The introduction of the magnetic particles into the cytoplasm of HEK 293 cell line has no effect on cell viability. HEK-293 containing magnetic particles remains in the place of injection during 21 days in rabbit eyes, where the magnetic implants were fixed (in control group during 3 days. Conclusions: Using of cells containing magnetic particles with fixation of the magnetic implant can be a promising method for cell therapy for the treatment of retinal diseases. 

  10. Airbag-Associated Severe Blunt Eye Injury Causes Choroidal Rupture and Retinal Hemorrhage: A Case Report

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    Shih Hao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of choroidal rupture caused by airbag-associated blunt eye trauma and complicated with massive subretinal hemorrhage and vitreous hemorrhage that was successfully treated with intravitreal injection of expansile gas and bevacizumab is presented. A 53-year-old man suffered from loss of vision in his right eye due to blunt eye trauma by a safety airbag after a traffic accident. On initial examination, the patient had no light perception in his right eye. Dilated ophthalmoscopy revealed massive subretinal hemorrhage with macular invasion and faint vitreous hemorrhage. We performed intravitreal injection of pure sulfur hexafluoride twice for displacement, after which visual acuity improved to 0.03. For persistent subretinal hemorrhage and suspicion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injection was administered. After 3 weeks, the visual acuity of his right eye recovered to 0.4. For early-stage choroidal rupture-induced subretinal hemorrhage and complications of suspected CNV, intravitreal injection of expandable gas and intraocular injection of antiangiogenesis drugs seem to be an effective treatment.

  11. Repeated intraocular crystallization of ganciclovir in one eye after bilateral intravitreal injections: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, Lawrence P L; Fan, Michelle C Y; Lam, Wai-Ching; Wong, Ian Y H

    2018-02-09

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic infection that primarily affects immunocompromised individuals. Intravitreal ganciclovir injection monotherapy or in combination with systemic anti-CMV therapy are effective treatments for CMV retinitis. Crystallization of ganciclovir after intravitreal injection is extremely rare. Only two cases had been reported in literature. Crystallization in only one eye after bilateral injections had not been reported before. We hereby report a case of intraocular ganciclovir crystallization in one eye after bilateral intravitreal injections, and repeated crystallization in the same eye after repeated injections. A 79-year-old patient had bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis and received bilateral intravitreal ganciclovir injections of 2.5 mg in 0.05 ml sterile water. Fundus examination after injection showed formation of needle-shaped, golden-yellow crystals in the vitreous of right eye but not in left eye. The crystals dissolved spontaneously. Repeated bilateral intravitreal ganciclovir injections 4 days later resulted in repeated crystallization of ganciclovir in right eye but not in left eye. The crystals dissolved spontaneously and completely after 5 minutes. Visual acuity remained unchanged and intraocular pressure was normal. Intraocular ganciclovir crystallization could occur after intravitreal injections. It is important to perform fundus examination after injection. The crystals may dissolve rapidly and vitrectomy may not be necessary. Our case suggested intraocular ganciclovir crystallization is an idiosyncratic phenomenon, subjects to distinctive intraocular environment which could be different between two eyes of the same patient. The susceptible intraocular environment could be persistent leading to repeated crystallization.

  12. Worsening anatomic outcomes following aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in eyes previously well controlled with ranibizumab

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    Nudleman E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nudleman,1 Jeremy D Wolfe,2,3 Maria A Woodward,4 Yoshihiro Yonekawa,2,3 George A Williams,2,3 Tarek S Hassan2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2Beaumont Eye Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3Associated Retinal Consultants, Royal Oak, 4Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Purpose: Antivascular endothelial growth factor injection is the mainstay of treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that switching treatment from ranibizumab to aflibercept led to an improvement in eyes with recalcitrant activity. Herein, we identify a unique subset of patients whose eyes with neovascular AMD were previously well controlled with ranibizumab injections were then worsened after being switched to aflibercept. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eyes with neovascular AMD, previously well controlled with monthly injections of ranibizumab, which then developed worsening of subretinal fluid after being switched to aflibercept were included. Results: A total of 17 eyes were included. All eyes developed increased subretinal fluid when switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Fourteen patients were switched back to ranibizumab after a single injection of aflibercept and had subsequent rapid resolution of subretinal fluid. Three patients continued with monthly aflibercept injections for two subsequent months and demonstrated the persistence of the increased subretinal fluid until they were switched back to treatment with ranibizumab at which time the fluid resolved. No eye had persistent decline in visual acuity. Conclusion: Switching from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in eyes with well-controlled neovascular AMD may result in worsening in a subset of patients and resolves when therapy is switched back to ranibizumab. Keywords: anti

  13. Imported intraocular gnathostomiasis with subretinal tracks confirmed by western blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Ho; Kim, Moosang; Kim, Eung Suk; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yu, Seung-Young; Kwak, Hyung-Woo

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of intraocular gnathostomiasis diagnosed by western blot assay in a patient with subretinal tracks. A 15-year-old male patient complained of blurred vision in the right eye, lasting for 2 weeks. Eight months earlier, he had traveled to Vietnam for 1 week and ate raw wild boar meat and lobster. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and anterior chamber examination revealed no abnormalities. Fundus examination showed subretinal tracks in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography showed linear hyperfluorescence of the subretinal lesion observed on fundus in the right eye. Ultrasound examination revealed no abnormalities. Blood tests indicated mild eosinophilia (7.5%), and there was no abnormality found by systemic examinations. Two years later, the patient visited our department again for ophthalmologic evaluation. Visual acuity remained 20/20 in both eyes and the subretinal tracks in the right eye had not changed since the previous examination. Serologic examination was performed to provide a more accurate diagnosis, and the patient's serum reacted strongly to the Gnathostoma nipponicum antigen by western blot assay, which led to a diagnosis of intraocular gnathostomiasis. This is the first reported case of intraocular gnathostomiasis with subretinal tracks confirmed serologically using western blot in Korea.

  14. Effects of Subretinal Gene Transfer at Different Time Points in a Mouse Model of Retinal Degeneration.

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    Xufeng Dai

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1 is necessary for photoreceptors to generate an important lipid component of their membranes. The absence of LPCAT1 results in early and rapid rod and cone degeneration. Retinal degeneration 11 (rd11 mice carry a mutation in the Lpcat1 gene, and are an excellent model of early-onset rapid retinal degeneration (RD. To date, no reports have documented gene therapy administration in the rd11 mouse model at different ages. In this study, the AAV8 (Y733F-smCBA-Lpcat1 vector was subretinally injected at postnatal day (P 10, 14, 18, or 22. Four months after injection, immunohistochemistry and analysis of retinal morphology showed that treatment at P10 rescued about 82% of the wild-type retinal thickness. However, the diffusion of the vector and the resulting rescue were limited to an area around the injection site that was only 31% of the total retinal area. Injection at P14 resulted in vector diffusion that covered approximately 84% of the retina, and we found that gene therapy was more effective against RD when exposure to light was limited before and after treatment. We observed long-term preservation of electroretinogram (ERG responses, and preservation of retinal structure, indicating that early treatment followed by limited light exposure can improve gene therapy effectiveness for the eyes of rd11 mice. Importantly, delayed treatment still partially preserved M-cones, but not S-cones, and M-cones in the rd11 retina appeared to have a longer window of opportunity for effective preservation with gene therapy. These results provide important information regarding the effects of subretinal gene therapy in the mouse model of LPCAT1-deficiency.

  15. Subretinal posterior pole injury induces selective proliferation of RPE cells in the periphery in in vivo studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan U; Prause, Michala

    2007-01-01

    transplantation (n= 4), or both (n= 1) in the left eye. RPE cell proliferation was assayed by injection of the thymidine analogue 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5-BrdU) at postoperative day 0 and 1. RPE cells in S-phase were identified by their incorporation of 5-BrdU, as detected by immunohistochemistry. The in vitro...... proliferation of primary RPE isolates from the peripheral and central retina was assayed by a colorimetric assay and by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. RESULTS: After subretinal surgery, in vivo incorporation of 5-BrdU was seen in peripheral RPE cells in 8 of 10 surgically treated eyes, but never in central RPE...... cells. This observation was true of both types of experimental surgery performed. In vitro, RPE isolates from the pre-equatorial region consistently yielded higher cell densities than did RPE cell isolates from more central parts of the epithelium. This was apparent through the three first passages...

  16. Lens subluxation after plasmin and SF6 injections in rabbit eyes.

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    Wei-Chi Wu

    Full Text Available To investigate the rate of lens subluxation following plasmin and/or SF6 injections in eyes, and whether a subsequent elevated level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and vitreous tap would aggravate subluxation.Four groups of rabbits were used. Group 1 received an intravitreal injection (IVI of plasmin and SF6 in the right eye; group 2 received an IVI of plasmin in the right eye; group 3 received an IVI of SF6 in the right eye; and group 4 received an IVI of balanced salt solution in the right eye. After treatment, IVIs of VEGF were given and vitreous tap was performed three times, followed by clinical observation of lens subluxation and scanning electronic microscope evaluation of the zonular fibers.After IVIs of plasmin and SF6, and VEGF and vitreous tap had been performed one to three times, lens subluxation was noted in 0%, 43%, 71%, 71%, and 86% of the eyes in group 1. After IVIs of plasmin, VEGF, and vitreous tap had been performed one to three times, lens subluxation was noted in 11%, 22%, 44%, 44%, and 67% of the eyes in group 2. The eyes in group 3 and 4 did not show signs of lens subluxation after VEGF IVIs and vitreous tap. Histology confirmed zonular fiber damage in the eyes treated with plasmin.The incidence of lens subluxation increased following plasmin injections in the eyes, and this was aggravated by the subsequent high VEGF level in the eyes and vitreous tapping. Zonular fibers were disrupted following plasmin treatment. These effects should be kept in mind when using plasmin enzymes in patients with vitreoretinal abnormalities.

  17. Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits as revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Rivero, Ernesto Blanco; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, Clark Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A

    2014-09-01

    To describe the microscopic structure of photoreceptors impacted by subretinal drusenoid deposits, also called pseudodrusen, an extracellular lesion associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Observational case series. We recruited 53 patients with AMD and 10 age-similar subjects who had normal retinal health. All subjects underwent color fundus photography, infrared reflectance, red-free reflectance, autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Subretinal drusenoid deposits were classified by a 3-stage OCT-based grading system. Lesions and surrounding photoreceptors were examined by AOSLO. Subretinal drusenoid deposits were found in 26 eyes of 13 patients with AMD and imaged by AOSLO and spectral-domain OCT in 18 eyes (n = 342 lesions). Spectral-domain OCT showed subretinal drusenoid deposits as highly reflective material accumulated internal to the retinal pigment epithelium. AOSLO revealed that photoreceptor reflectivity was qualitatively reduced by stage 1 subretinal drusenoid deposits and was greatly reduced by stage 2. AOSLO presented a distinct structure in stage 3, a hyporeflective annulus consisting of deflected, degenerated or absent photoreceptors. A central core with a reflectivity superficially resembling photoreceptors is formed by the lesion material itself. A hyporeflective gap in the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on either side of this core shown in spectral-domain OCT corresponded to the hyporeflective annulus seen by AOSLO. AOSLO and multimodal imaging of subretinal drusenoid deposits indicate solid, space-filling lesions in the subretinal space. Associated retinal reflectivity changes are related to lesion stages and are consistent with perturbations to photoreceptors, as suggested by histology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  19. Valsalva-Related Subretinal Hemorrhage as a Presenting Symptom of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Subhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a case of Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage as a presenting symptom of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. The patient refrained from treatment against our best advice, and thus this is also a rare case of the natural course of an untreated PCV. Methods. Case report. Results. A 66-year-old female with a respiratory infection coughed intensely until exhaustion, after which she developed visual symptoms on the right eye. Primary care ophthalmologist examined the patient on the same day of the onset of symptoms and referred her to our tertiary medical retinal service for detailed retinal diagnosis including fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. The right eye had a large subretinal hemorrhage and pigment epithelium detachment in the lower temporal arcade with foveal involvement. Against our best advice, the patient refused treatment. In the following 9 months, the BCVA decreased from 68 to 55 ETDRS letters, the subretinal hemorrhage almost regressed, pigment epithelium detachments persisted, and macular edema, intraretinal cysts, and subretinal fibrosis developed. Conclusions. Although classic Valsalva retinopathy with preretinal hemorrhage in most cases can be managed by careful observation and no treatment, this case demonstrates that Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage needs different attention and approach.

  20. The immune response of stem cells in subretinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Bikun; Huang, Bing

    2015-09-14

    Stem cell transplantation is a potential curative treatment for degenerative diseases of the retina. Among cell injection sites, the subretinal space (SRS) is particularly advantageous as it is maintained as an immune privileged site by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. Thus, the success of subretinal transplantation depends on maintenance of RPE integrity. Moreover, both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have negligible immunogenicity and in fact are immunosuppressive. Indeed, many studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressive drugs are not necessary for subretinal transplantation of stem cells if the blood-retinal barrier is not breached during surgery. The immunogenicity of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) appears more complex, and requires careful study before clinical application. Despite low rates of graft rejection in animal models, survival rates for ESCs, MSCs, and iPSCs in retina are generally poor, possibly due to resident microglia activated by cell transplantation. To improve graft survival in SRS transplantation, damage to the blood-retinal barrier must be minimized using appropriate surgical techniques. In addition, agents that inhibit microglial activation may be required. Finally, immunosuppressants may be required, at least temporarily, until the blood-retinal barrier heals. We review surgical methods and drug regimens to enhance the likelihood of graft survival after SRS transplantation.

  1. Effect of Serial Intrasilicone Oil Bevacizumab Injections in Eyes With Recurrent Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason; Khan, M Ali; Shieh, Wen-Shi; Chiang, Allen; Maguire, Joseph I; Park, Carl H; Garg, Sunir J; Ho, Allen C; Kaiser, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of serial intrasilicone oil bevacizumab injections (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) on visual acuity (VA) and anatomic outcomes in eyes undergoing proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)-related retinal detachment (RD) repair. Prospective, nonrandomized, historical-control pilot study. setting: Tertiary care center. Nondiabetic eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil tamponade with or without scleral buckling procedure (SBP) for recurrent RD due to PVR. Intrasilicone oil injection of 1.25 mg bevacizumab was performed intraoperatively and at postoperative months 1, 2, and 3. Retinal reattachment rate, final VA, and rate of epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation at month 6. Twenty eyes of 20 patients were enrolled and compared to a historical control group composed of 35 age- and sex-matched controls. In the study group, logMAR VA improved from mean 1.78 ± 0.43 (Snellen 20/1205) to 1.43 ± 0.70 (Snellen 20/538, P = .04), retinal reattachment was achieved in 14 of 20 eyes (70%), and ERM formation was observed in 7 of 20 eyes (35%) at 6 months. In the control group, logMAR VA improved from mean 1.50 ± 0.74 (Snellen 20/632) to 1.43 ± 0.58 (Snellen 20/538, P = .64), retinal reattachment was achieved in 25 of 35 eyes (71%), and ERM formation was observed in 7 of 35 eyes (20%) at 6 months. No significant difference in final VA (P = .96), retinal reattachment rate (P = .75), or ERM formation (P = .33) was observed between groups. No intrasilicone oil injection-related adverse events occurred. Serial intrasilicone oil injections of bevacizumab did not improve retinal reattachment rate, improve final VA, or reduce ERM formation in patients undergoing PVR-related RD surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ciliary injection: a differential diagnosis for the patient with acute red eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdrill, Samuel

    2010-12-01

    This case presents the challenge of how to accurately assess the unilateral painful red eye with ciliary injection. The diagnosis can be clarified with careful clinical observation and a few basic clinical tests. Physical examination should focus on visual acuity; presence of pain; location of redness; shape, size, and reaction of the pupil; and the IOP, if it can be obtained safely. If a slit lamp is available, the diagnosis can be made more definitively. Because the diagnosis in a situation like this is usually made by an eye specialist, a clinical presentation of unilateral painful red eye will normally be referred after an initial examination and early management commences. A crucial role for the physician assistant or other primary care provider is to carefully observe the physical findings, accurately describe the signs and symptoms, and initiate appropriate management. These steps will facilitate the referral to an eye specialist and optimize resolution of these potentially sight-threatening conditions.

  3. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal......-specific antibodies revealed donor cells in the subretinal space at 10-13 days and smaller numbers within the retina on days 12 and 13, with evidence suggesting a limited degree of morphological integration; however, no cells remained at 4 weeks. The strong mononuclear cell reaction and loss of donor cells indicate...

  4. The effect of intravitreal injections on dry eye, and proposed management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laude A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Augustinus Laude,1–3 Jimmy WK Lim,1,2 Vishwanath Srinagesh,4 Louis Tong2,5–7 1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, 3Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 4Krieger Eye Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Singapore National Eye Centre, 6Duke NUS Medical School, 7Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents has become a commonly used treatment method for a number of ophthalmic conditions, including age-related macular degeneration. Although anti-VEGF therapy has shown promising results for many patients, there are several aspects of its application that have not been thoroughly investigated. One of these is the development and/or escalation of concurrent dry eye syndrome. Many patients undergoing treatment are already predisposed to dry eye disease due to their age and overall ocular health. As dry eye can have a substantial impact on quality of life, it has become increasingly apparent that the clinical signs and symptoms should be closely monitored and aggressively managed. This will allow for the optimization of patient comfort and visual potential. Here, we discuss the reasons why dry eye may develop during the course of repeated ocular anti-VEGF therapy, highlighting the key concerns about current practices and proposing possible solutions to improve the outcome for the patients. Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, povidone–iodine, toxicity, ocular health, chronic ophthalmic treatment

  5. Minimally invasive curved-micro-drainer (CMD) capable of innocuous drainage of subretinal fluid for the treatment of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonghao; Lee, ChangYeol; Li, Cheng Guo; You, Yong Sung; Sung, Ho Lee; Jung, Hyungil

    2016-08-01

    Retinal detachment is a serious vision threatening disease. Current consensus for the treatment of retinal detachment is to reattach the retina onto the choroid layer by drainage of accumulated subretinal fluid. Although several surgical methods have been developed, no satisfactory visual outcome has been obtained without surgical complications such as unintended puncture and hemorrhage of the retina and choroid tissue. In this study, we developed a novel Curved-Micro-Drainer (CMD) for the innocuous drainage of subretinal fluid. It is a curved structure with a 15° beveled tip that is 5 mm in length, with an 80 μm inner diameter and a 100 μm outer diameter. This high inner-to-outer diameter ratio of CMD with a 100 μm outer diameter allows efficient drainage of highly viscous subretinal fluid in a minimally invasive manner. In addition, the curved structure precisely matches the spherical ocular structure, which facilitates the CMD insertion into the subretinal space without choroid tissue damage. We demonstrate that the optimized CMD allows for the innocuous drainage of the viscous subretinal fluid from the porcine eye, whereas the traditional hypodermic needle (31-gauge) induces severe retinal and choroid damage. CMD can overcome a critical safety issue and is a potential alternative to conventional surgical interventions for the innocuous drainage of subretinal fluid.

  6. Membrana neovascular sub-retineana justapapilar em paciente com papiledema e hipertensão intracraniana idiopática Juxtapapillary subretinal neovascular membrane in a patient with papilledema and idiopathic intracranial hyperthension

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    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o caso de uma paciente de 41 anos, com diagnóstico da síndrome da hipertensão intracraniana idiopática (síndrome do pseudotumor cerebral que desenvolveu perda visual em um dos olhos decorrente de membrana neovascular sub-retiniana envolvendo a região macular. Apesar do tratamento clínico adequado e da realização de fenestração da bainha do nervo óptico com boa regressão do edema de papila não houve resolução da membrana neovascular sub-retiniana mesmo após três injeções intravítreas seqüenciais de bevacizumab. Chamamos a atenção para esta complicação incomum do papiledema, revisamos a literatura a este respeito e discutimos as possíveis causas, bem como a evolução mais comum e as modalidades de tratamento disponíveis para tratamento da membrana neovascular sub-retiniana em pacientes com a síndrome do pseudotumor cerebral.We report a 41-years-old woman with idiopathic intracranial hyperthension (psedotumor cerebri syndrome that presented with visual loss in one eye due to subretinal neovascular membrane involving the macular area. Despite the introduction of adequate medical treatment followed by optic nerve sheath fenestration that lead to optic disc edema regression there was no improvement in the subretinal neovascular membrane even after performing three sequential intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. We stress the importance of recognizing this uncommon complication of papilledema and review the literature regarding such an occurrence. We also discuss the possible causes for developing subretinal membrane in papilledema, its most common outcome and the treatment modalities available for managing subretinal neovascular membrane in patients with pseudotumor cerebri syndrome.

  7. A unique case of phaeohyphomycosis subretinal abscess in a patient with arthropathy and lung pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old former gold miner with rheumatoid arthritis, treated with steroids and methotrexate, presented to eye casualty with a painful right eye. Examination revealed an anterior uveitis and despite an initial response to topical steroids, the intraocular inflammation worsened with anterior and posterior uveitis development. Re-examination showed a white mass in the peripheral nasal retina initially suspected of being active Toxoplasmosis infection and anti-toxoplasmosis treatment commenced. After improvement and tapering of this treatment, the intraocular inflammation reoccurred. Cytopathological examination of a pars plana vitrectomy obtained vitreous sample that showed a non-diagnostic non-infectious chronic vitritis. The vitreoretinal surgeons elected to do a direct biopsy of the white subretinal mass in the peripheral nasal area. This revealed, quite unexpectedly, an abscess containing pigmented phaeohyphomycosis fungi. This case report documents the multidisciplinary approach that assisted in clinching a final diagnosis and the role of sub-retinal biopsy in this unprecedented scenario.

  8. Transscleral implantation and neurophysiological testing of subretinal polyimide film electrodes in the domestic pig in visual prosthesis development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Helmut G.; Schanze, Thomas; Brunner, Ursula; Sailer, Heiko; Wiesenack, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    Loss of photoreceptor function is responsible for a variety of blinding diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa. Advances in microtechnology have led to the development of electronic visual prostheses which are currently under investigation for the treatment of human blindness. The design of a subretinal prosthesis requires that the stimulation device should be implantable in the subretinal space of the eye. Current limitations in eye surgery have to be overcome to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and to determine basic stimulation parameters. Therefore, polyimide film-bound electrodes were implanted in the subretinal space in anaesthetized domestic pigs as a prelude to electrical stimulation in acute experiments. Eight eyes underwent surgery to demonstrate the transscleral implantability of the device. Four of the eight eyes were stimulated electrically. In these four animals the cranium was prepared for epidural recording of evoked visual cortex responses, and stimulation was performed with sequences of current impulses. All eight subretinal implantation procedures were carried out successfully with polyimide film electrodes and each electrode was implanted beneath the outer retina of the posterior pole of the operated eyes. Four eyes were used for neurophysiological testing, involving recordings of epidural cortical responses to light and electrical stimulation. A light stimulus response, which occurred 40 ms after stimulation, proved the integrity of the operated eye. The electrical stimuli occurred about 20 ms after the onset of stimulation. The stimulation threshold was approximately 100 µA. Both the threshold and the cortical responses depended on the correspondence between retinal stimulation and cortical recording sites and on the number of stimulation electrodes used simultaneously. The subretinal implantation of complex stimulation devices using the transscleral procedure with consecutive subretinal stimulation is feasible in acute

  9. Experience With a Subretinal Cell-based Therapy in Patients With Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen C; Chang, Tom S; Samuel, Michael; Williamson, Paul; Willenbucher, Robert F; Malone, Terri

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of and clinical response to a single, subretinal dose of human umbilical tissue-derived cells (palucorcel [CNTO-2476]) in the eyes of adults aged ≥50 years with bilateral geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Phase 1/2a, multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation, fellow-eye-controlled study. In the phase 1 portion, eyes were assigned to receive a single, subretinal dose of palucorcel (ranging from 6.0 × 104 to 5.6 × 105 viable cells). In the phase 2a portion, eyes were assigned to one of 2 palucorcel doses (6.0 × 104 or 3.0 × 105 cells) determined during the phase 1 portion. The intervention eye was the eye with worse baseline visual acuity. A total of 35 eligible subjects underwent at least a partial surgical procedure. Palucorcel was administered in 33 eyes. Overall, 17.1% (6/35) of subjects experienced retinal detachments and 37.1% (13/35) experienced retinal perforations. No episodes of immune rejection or tumor formation were observed. At 1 year, ≥10- and ≥15-letter gains in best-corrected visual acuity were observed in 34.5% (10/29) and 24.1% (7/29) of eyes receiving palucorcel, respectively, and in 3.3% (1/30; for both) of fellow eyes. The subretinal delivery procedure in this study was associated with a high rate of retinal perforations (n = 13) and retinal detachments (n = 6). When cells were sequestered in the subretinal space, palucorcel was well tolerated and may be associated with improvements in visual acuity. Larger randomized controlled studies are required to confirm these results. Future studies would require a modified surgical approach. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Deflectometric analysis of high volume injection molds for production of occupational eye wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Alexis; Zelzer, Benedikt; Speich, Marco; Börret, Rainer; Langenbucher, Achim; Eppig, Timo

    2013-12-01

    Most of the protective eye wear devices currently on the market are manufactured on simple polycarbonate shields, produced by injection molding techniques. Despite high importance of optical quality, injection molds are rarely inspected for surface quality before or during the manufacturing process. Quality degradation is mainly monitored by optical testing of the molded parts. The purpose of this work was to validate a non-contact deflectometric measurement technique for surface and shape analysis of injection molds to facilitate deterministic surface quality control and to monitor minor conformity of the injection mold with the design data. The system is based on phase-measuring deflectometry with a operating measurement field of 80×80 mm(2) (±18° slope), a lateral resolution of 60μm and a local sensitivity of some nanometers. The calibration was tested with a calibration normal and a reference sphere. The results were crosschecked against a measurement of the same object with a tactile coordinate measuring machine. Eight injection molds for production of safety goggles with radii of +58mm (convex) and -60mm (concave) were measured in this study. The molds were separated into two groups (cavity 1 and 2 of the tool with different polishing techniques) and measured to test whether the measurement tool could extract differences. The analysis was performed on difference height between the measured surface and the spherical model. The device could derive the surface change due to polishing and discriminate between both polishing techniques, on the basis of the measured data. The concave nozzle sides of the first group (cavity 1) showed good shape conformity. In comparison, the nozzle sides of the second group (cavity 2) showed local deviations from design data up to 14.4μm. Local form variations of about 5μm occurred in the field of view. All convex ejector sides of both groups (cavity 1 and 2) showed rotational symmetric errors and the molds were measured in

  11. Automated Identification and Quantification of Subretinal Fibrosis in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Polarization-Sensitive OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philipp; Sugita, Mitsuro; Deák, Gábor; Baumann, Bernhard; Zotter, Stefan; Pircher, Michael; Sacu, Stefan; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    To identify and quantify subretinal fibrosis in eyes with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Eyes of patients with subretinal fibrosis secondary to nAMD were included in this case series. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination to clearly identify advanced nAMD lesions with fibrosis. Examinations of PS-OCT were performed using a novel system with an integrated eye tracker. Areas of fibrosis in PS-OCT, automatically segmented using a custom-built algorithm, were compared with conventional imaging modalities including spectral-domain OCT, fluorescein angiography, and color fundus photography in their potential to visualize fibrosis in nAMD. Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive patients were included. In polarization-sensitive OCT B-scans, a distinct "column-like" pattern was observed in averaged axis orientation images. En face analysis provided a precise mapping of the fibrotic scar component. Fibrous tissue was selectively identified by PS-OCT based on birefringence in all lesions, whereas in SD-OCT, subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) could not be further classified into scar tissue, fibrovascular material, or other AMD-specific material. Based on simultaneous polarization analyses in PS-OCT, the level of RPE alteration could be evaluated as well, showing thinning and loss of RPE associated with subretinal fibrosis. Using PS-OCT, subretinal fibrosis can be identified as an intrinsically birefringent structure and can be segmented based solely on tissue-specific contrast. Polarization-sensitive OCT offers a unique method to identify clinically relevant components of SHRM (i.e., neovascular tissue versus fibrous tissue) and therefore allows for an optimized disease management and evaluation of therapeutic strategies.

  12. Parents' views on their children's use of eye drops and willingness to accept a new sustained-release subconjunctival injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Semra Ozdemir,1,* Hong King Wu,1,* Eric A Finkelstein,1 Tina T Wong2 1Signature Program in Health Services and Systems Research, Duke-NUS Medical School Singapore, 2Glaucoma Department, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: The objectives of this study were to explore parents' views about their children's use of regular eye drops and whether they would consider a sustained-release subconjunctival injection as a replacement for daily drops.Methods: A survey was conducted with 134 parents of children with chronic eye diseases at the Singapore National Eye Centre. Parents were asked their views about their children’s use of eye drops and were then presented with a discrete choice experiment that, via a series of trade-off tasks, allowed for estimating demand for a series of hypothetical subconjunctival injections that varied along product features, including interval between administrations, risk of complications, out-of-pocket cost and whether it is recommended by the patient’s treating physician.Results: Results showed that the vast majority of parents did not find administration of eye drops to be inconvenient (78% nor did children complain about using daily eye drops (78%. Furthermore, only about half of parents whose child missed doses stated concerns about the consequences of non-compliance. The discrete choice experiment revealed that only one in five parents would consider a subconjunctival injection for their children. These parents tended to be more concerned about the consequences of non-compliance with eye drops, had children who administered the drops themselves or had other chronic disease requiring regular medication. Among these parents, risk of complications had the largest effect on injection uptake.Conclusion: This study shows that parents do not find administration of daily eye drops to be a significant burden. As a result, most would not consider a subconjunctival

  13. Comparison of electrically evoked cortical potential thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Naber, John F.; Ofer Ziv, R.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Kaplan, Henry J.; Enzmann, Volker

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold electrical charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of electrical evoked potentials (EEP) by delivering electrical stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following electrical stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab externo approach was used for placement of the MEA. Liquid perfluorodecaline (PFCL; 0.4 ml) was placed within the vitreous cavity to flatten the neurosensory retina on the MEA after subretinal implantation. The retinal threshold for generation of an EEP was determined for each MEA placement by three consecutive measurements consisting of 100 computer-averaged recordings. Animals were sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment and the eyes were enucleated for histological examination. The retinal threshold to generate an EEP was 9 ± 7 nC (0.023 ± 0.016 mC cm-2) within the subretinal space and 150 ± 122 nC (0.375 ± 0.306 mC cm-2) within the suprachoroidal space. Histology showed disruption of the outer retina with subretinal but not suprachoroidal placement. The retinal threshold to elicit an EEP is significantly lower with subretinal placement of the MEA compared to suprachoroidal placement (P < 0.05). The retinal threshold charge density with a subretinal MEA is well below the published charge limit of 1 mC cm-2, which is the level below which chronic stimulation of the retina is considered necessary to avoid tissue damage (Shannon 1992 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39 424-6). Supported in part by The Charles D Kelman, MD

  14. In vivo performance of photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Yossi; Goetz, George; Lavinsky, Daniel; Huie, Phil; Mathieson, Keith; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore; Manivanh, Richard; Harris, James; Palanker, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, in which camera-captured images are projected onto the retina using pulsed near-IR light. Each pixel in the subretinal implant directly converts pulsed light into local electric current to stimulate the nearby inner retinal neurons. 30 μm-thick implants with pixel sizes of 280, 140 and 70 μm were successfully implanted in the subretinal space of wild type (WT, Long-Evans) and degenerate (Royal College of Surgeons, RCS) rats. Optical Coherence Tomography and fluorescein angiography demonstrated normal retinal thickness and healthy vasculature above the implants upon 6 months follow-up. Stimulation with NIR pulses over the implant elicited robust visual evoked potentials (VEP) at safe irradiance levels. Thresholds increased with decreasing pulse duration and pixel size: with 10 ms pulses it went from 0.5 mW/mm2 on 280 μm pixels to 1.1 mW/mm2 on 140 μm pixels, to 2.1 mW/mm2 on 70 μm pixels. Latency of the implant-evoked VEP was at least 30 ms shorter than in response evoked by the visible light, due to lack of phototransduction. Like with the visible light stimulation in normal sighted animals, amplitude of the implant-induced VEP increased logarithmically with peak irradiance and pulse duration. It decreased with increasing frequency similar to the visible light response in the range of 2 - 10 Hz, but decreased slower than the visible light response at 20 - 40 Hz. Modular design of the photovoltaic arrays allows scalability to a large number of pixels, and combined with the ease of implantation, offers a promising approach to restoration of sight in patients blinded by retinal degenerative diseases.

  15. "VACUOLE" SIGN ADJACENT TO RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL DEFECTS ON SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SUBRETINAL FIBRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Bindu; Kaur, Amardeep; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography features in central serous chorioretinopathy associated with subretinal fibrin. Retrospective observational case series of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy with subretinal fibrin imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients (19 males and 4 females), with mean age of 39.09 ± 5.8 years were included in the study. Subretinal fibrin clinically ranged from localized well-defined areas to extensive ill-defined areas. Along with the presence of subretinal hyperreflectivity (n = 23, 100%), corresponding to fibrin, spectral domain optical coherence tomography also revealed the presence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) defects (n = 23, 100%) in all eyes with an adjacent well-defined hyporeflective vacuole. In 19 eyes wherein fundus fluorescein was performed, the RPE defects and vacuoles corresponded to the site of RPE leak. Serous pigment epithelial detachments (n = 18, 78.2%), multiple RPE defects in the same eye (n = 5), and multiple RPE defects in same pigment epithelial detachment (n = 1) were few other interesting features observed. The presence of a hyporeflective vacuole amid the hyperreflective fibrin adjacent to RPE defects probably indicates the site of constant fluid egress and is an important sign of disease activity especially in cases where fundus fluorescein angiography is not possible.

  16. Location of a Dexamethasone Implant at the Macula after Intravitreal Injection in a Silicone Oil-Filled Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenap Mahmut Esenulku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case with cystoid macular edema (CME due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO presented with a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex trapped at the macula in her silicone oil- (SO- filled eye after injection. No additional complications such as intraocular pressure (IOP rise or retinal damage were observed. The CME was resolved during the follow-up period. At the last visit, 3 months following the injection, Ozurdex implant was found to be mostly dissolved without any additional ocular complications.

  17. Contrast Sensitivity With a Subretinal Prosthesis and Implications for Efficient Delivery of Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Galambos, Ludwig; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the contrast sensitivity of a degenerate retina stimulated by a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, and assess the impact of low contrast sensitivity on transmission of visual information. Methods We measure ex vivo the full-field contrast sensitivity of healthy rat retina stimulated with white light, and the contrast sensitivity of degenerate rat retina stimulated with a subretinal prosthesis at frequencies exceeding flicker fusion (>20 Hz). Effects of eye movements on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity are simulated using a linear–nonlinear model of the retina. Results Retinal ganglion cells adapt to high frequency stimulation of constant intensity, and respond transiently to changes in illumination of the implant, exhibiting responses to ON-sets, OFF-sets, and both ON- and OFF-sets of light. The percentage of cells with an OFF response decreases with progression of the degeneration, indicating that OFF responses are likely mediated by photoreceptors. Prosthetic vision exhibits reduced contrast sensitivity and dynamic range, with 65% contrast changes required to elicit responses, as compared to the 3% (OFF) to 7% (ON) changes with visible light. The maximum number of action potentials elicited with prosthetic stimulation is at most half of its natural counterpart for the ON pathway. Our model predicts that for most visual scenes, contrast sensitivity of prosthetic vision is insufficient for triggering RGC activity by fixational eye movements. Conclusions Contrast sensitivity of prosthetic vision is 10 times lower than normal, and dynamic range is two times below natural. Low contrast sensitivity and lack of OFF responses hamper delivery of visual information via a subretinal prosthesis. PMID:26540657

  18. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

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    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  19. Behavior tests and immunohistochemical retinal response analyses in RCS rats with subretinal implantation of Okayama-University-type retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamusi; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Hosoya, Osamu; Tsutsui, Kimiko M; Uchida, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film as a prototype of retinal prosthesis, which we named Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis. The purposes of this study are to conduct behavior tests to assess vision in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats that underwent subretinal implantation of the dye-coupled film and to reveal retinal response to the dye-coupled film by immunohistochemistry. Polyethylene films were made of polyethylene powder at refined purity, and photoelectric dyes were coupled to the film surface at higher density compared with the prototype. Either dye-coupled film or dye-uncoupled plain film used as a control was implanted subretinally from a scleral incision in both eyes of an RCS rat at 6 weeks of the age. Behavior tests 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after implantation were conducted by observing head turning or body turning in the direction consistent with clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of a black-and-white-striped drum around a transparent cage housed with the rat. After the behavior tests at 8 weeks, rats' eyes were enucleated to confirm subretinal implantation of the films and processed for immunohistochemistry. In the behavior tests, the number of head turnings consistent with the direction of the drum rotation was significantly larger in RCS rats with dye-coupled- compared with plain-film implantation [P < 0.05, repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), n = 7]. The number of apoptotic neurons was significantly smaller in eyes with dye-coupled- compared with plain-film implantation (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test, n = 6). In conclusion, subretinal implantation of photoelectric dye-coupled films restored vision in RCS rats and prevented the remaining retinal neurons from apoptosis.

  20. Prevention of filtering surgery failure by subconjunctival injection of a novel peptide hydrogel into rabbit eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Liang [Department of Ophthalmology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan 430014 (China); Xu Xiaoding; Zhang Xianzheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers of Ministry of Education and Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Feng Mei; Peng Chong; Jiang Fagang [Department of Ophthalmology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2010-08-01

    A novel biocompatible hydrogel was prepared based on the supramolecular self-assembly of a peptide containing a bioactive RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequence and a hydrophobic N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (FMOC) tail. When the self-assembled peptide hydrogel was administered after the filtering surgery of rabbit eyes, the level of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA as well as the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower than that of the control eyes during the 21 postoperative days. The filtration bleb and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images showed that a patent bleb and a filtration fistula could be found in the surgical site of a rabbit eye during the whole experimental period. Histological analysis further evidenced that the filtering surgical wound healing was a normal healing process without scar formation. This new approach, making use of a self-assembled peptide hydrogel to normalize filtering surgical wound healing, may have potential for glaucoma filtering surgery.

  1. INTRAVITREOUS CHEMOTHERAPY FOR ACTIVE VITREOUS SEEDING FROM RETINOBLASTOMA: Outcomes After 192 Consecutive Injections. The 2015 Howard Naquin Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Douglass, Alexzandra M; Beggache, Meriem; Say, Emil Anthony T; Shields, Jerry A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate on the safety and efficacy of intravitreous chemotherapy for retinoblastoma seeding in a relatively large cohort and provide information on the necessary number of injections and long-term control. Retrospective interventional case series of 40 consecutive eyes with viable vitreous seeding after standard treatment of retinoblastoma. All eyes received intravitreal melphalan injection (20-30 μg) and additional topotecan (20 μg) as needed using the trans pars plana route with triple freeze-thaw cryotherapy at needle withdrawal for prevention of extraocular seeding for planned six cycles. The mean patient age at presentation was 36 months, and interval to need for vitreous injection was 14 months. Viable vitreous (n = 40 eyes) and additional subretinal (n = 2 eyes) seeds were documented. There was a total of 192 injections using melphalan (n = 148) and/or topotecan (n = 44) with mean number of injections per eye of melphalan at 4 (median, 4; range, 1-6) and topotecan at 3 (median, 3; range, 1-5). Fewer than six planned melphalan injections (n = 31 cases, 78%) were necessary because of rapid and complete vitreous seed control (n = 30 eyes) or melphalan allergy (n = 1 eye). Fewer than six planned topotecan injections (n = 14 cases, 100%) were necessary because of rapid and complete vitreous seed control in all cases. At median 3-year follow-up, therapeutic success with continued seed regression was observed in all 40 eyes (100%). Globe salvage was attained in 35 cases (88%), and enucleation (n = 5) was necessary for extensive recurrent subretinal seeds (n = 2), neovascular glaucoma with vitreous hemorrhage (n = 2), and hemorrhagic retinal necrosis (n = 1). Side effects included focal retinal pigment epithelial mottling at the site of injection (n = 12), minor focal paraxial lens opacity (not requiring cataract surgery) (n = 11), transient focal vitreous hemorrhage (n = 5), transient hypotony (n = 3), transient retinal hemorrhage (n = 2), optic disc edema

  2. Transplantation of amniotic membrane to the subretinal space in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Scherfig, Erik; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of transplanted amniotic membrane (AM) on subretinal wound healing. Methods. Nine Danish Landrace pigs had surgical removal of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and mechanical damage of Bruch's membrane (BM) and served as a control group. 15 pigs additionally had...... is well tolerated in the subretinal space, causes only limited inflammation, and is covered with a monolayer of pigmented cells when in contact with the host RPE. Conclusions. AM modifies choroidal neovascularisation after BM damage and may serve as a basement membrane substitute for the RPE....

  3. Different treatment modalities for choroidal neovascularization in two eyes of one patient with bilateral type 2A parafoveal telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old diabetic man presented with a history of decrease in vision in both eyes since 2 weeks. At presentation, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA in the right eye (RE was 20/30 and that in the left eye (LE was 20/80. The right fundus revealed a grayish reflex, yellowish crystalline deposits and retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia at the macula. The left fundus showed subretinal fluid and temporal subretinal hemorrhage near a grayish reflex at the macula. A diagnosis in both eyes of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT type 2A with RE stage 4 and LE stage 5, choroidal neovascularization (CNVM was made. The patient was treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT in LE. The visual acuity improved to 20/40 over the next 6 months. At a 4-year follow-up, he developed decreased vision in RE diagnosed as IMT with CNV and was treated with intravitreal ranibizumab. At 6-month follow-up post injection, the vision was 20/40p.

  4. Injecting eye-drops: a mini-review on the non-clinical use of tropicamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Imperatori, Claudio; Prilutskaya, Mariya; Kuliev, Ramiz; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-07-01

    The intravenous (IV) injection of tropicamide for non-clinical purposes is a new and widespread drug trend. The aim of this study is to provide the first literature review on the topic. Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Google Scholar, conference proceedings and select citations. Cases of tropicamide (IV) injection have been reported in Russia, Italy, Turkey and Kazakhstan. This phenomenon is mainly secondary to primary opioid (especially heroin) addiction. Several key factors can be associated with its rapid diffusion: (i) enhancement of the 'positive' effects of heroin; (ii) decrease and delay of heroin withdrawal symptoms; (iii) easy availability; (iv) low costs; (v) fast effects; and (vi) visibility of self-reported experiences on Internet. Acute tropicamide intoxications can lead to anticholinergic syndrome, hyperthermia, tremors and convulsions. Chronic tropicamide-related problems include cardiovascular toxicity, psychosis, renal or liver failures, severe weight loss and infections. Fatalities due to tropicamide IV injection have been reported in non evidence-based/peer-reviewed sources, such as drug fora, websites and media news. Tropicamide IV injections represent a serious health risk. Specific prevention programmes should be implemented for the general population as well as for the high-risk population of polydrug abusers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mutton fat-like subretinal precipitates associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamabata, Kuniko; Hashizume, Kouhei; Ishikawa, Yohei; Fujiwara, Takamitsu; Machida, Shigeki; Kurosaka, Daijiro

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease presenting mutton fat like subretinal precipitates. Observational case report. A 52-year-old Japanese woman developed bilateral uvetis with serous retinal detachment and mutton fat like subretinal precipitates. According to Opthalmologic, auditory, and systemic examination, we diagnosed the patient with VKH disease. Inflamation was controlled by three time steroid therapy and subretinal fluid and precipitates decreased and disappeared. Subretinal granulomatous lesion may present a manifestation of VKH and mean long standing subretinal fluid and inflammation.

  6. Safety study of 38 503 intravitreal ranibizumab injections performed mainly by physicians in training and nurses in a hospital setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Pascal W; Bloch, Sara Brandi; Villumsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate and to compare the safety of intravitreal ranibizumab injections performed by physicians and nurses at a single large hospital clinic in Denmark during 5 years. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional, non-comparative study. METHODS: SETTING: All eyes that underwent a protocoli......PURPOSE: To evaluate and to compare the safety of intravitreal ranibizumab injections performed by physicians and nurses at a single large hospital clinic in Denmark during 5 years. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional, non-comparative study. METHODS: SETTING: All eyes that underwent...... a protocolized ranibizumab injection procedure performed in an operating room mainly by nurses and physicians in their first year of ophthalmology training. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 4623 eyes in 3679 patients with subretinal neovascularization secondary to a variety of retinal diseases, mainly neovascular...... detachment from 2007 to 2012. RESULTS: Overall, 38,503 intravitreal ranibizumab injections were performed in 4623 eyes. Injections were performed by nurses (32.5%), ophthalmology residents (61.3%) and vitreoretinal surgeons (6.2%). Severe complications to treatment were observed in 17 eyes: Endophthalmitis...

  7. Transfer characteristics of subretinal visual implants: corneally recorded implant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, K; Bartz-Schmidt, K U; Braun, A; Gekeler, F; Greppmaier, U; Schatz, A; Stett, A; Strasser, T; Kitiratschky, V; Zrenner, E

    2016-10-01

    The subretinal Alpha IMS visual implant is a CE-approved medical device for restoration of visual functions in blind patients with end-stage outer retina degeneration. We present a method to test the function of the implant objectively in vivo using standard electroretinographic equipment and to assess the devices' parameter range for an optimal perception. Subretinal implant Alpha IMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) consists of 1500 photodiode-amplifier-electrode units and is implanted surgically into the subretinal space in blind retinitis pigmentosa patients. The voltages that regulate the amplifiers' sensitivity (V gl) and gain (V bias), related to the perception of contrast and brightness, respectively, are adjusted manually on a handheld power supply device. Corneally recorded implant responses (CRIR) to full-field illumination with long duration flashes in various implant settings for brightness gain (V bias) and amplifiers' sensitivity (V gl) are measured using electroretinographic setup with a Ganzfeld bowl in a protocol of increasing stimulus luminances up to 1000 cd/m2. CRIRs are a meaningful tool for assessing the transfer characteristic curves of the electronic implant in vivo monitoring the implants' voltage output as a function of log luminance in a sigmoidal shape. Changing the amplifiers' sensitivity (V gl) shifts the curve left or right along the log luminance axis. Adjustment of the gain (V bias) changes the maximal output. Contrast perception is only possible within the luminance range of the increasing slope of the function. The technical function of subretinal visual implants can be measured objectively using a standard electroretinographic setup. CRIRs help the patient to optimise the perception by adjusting the gain and luminance range of the device and are a useful tool for clinicians to objectively assess the function of subretinal visual implants in vivo.

  8. BILATERAL SUBRETINAL FLUID AND RETINAL VASCULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Singh, Ramandeep; Kumar, Abiraj; Dogra, Mangat R; Gupta, Amod

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of bilateral retinopathy associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. History and clinical examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. We report a rare case of unilateral, followed by bilateral retinopathy, subretinal fluid, and vasculopathy in a young boy. History of missed measles vaccination, behavioral and neurologic symptoms, and electroencephalogram suggested a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography was performed to document changes in the retinal microstructure through the natural course of the disease. Within 8 weeks, the changes progressed to retinal atrophy in both eyes. The progressive course of retinitis associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be monitored on optical coherence tomography. Retinitis is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis rapidly progressive from the acute stage to the stage of atrophy, involving full thickness of the retina.

  9. Three-year follow-up after unilateral subretinal delivery of adeno-associated virus in patients with Leber congenital Amaurosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Maguire, Albert M; Rossi, Settimio; Pierce, Eric A; Melillo, Paolo; Marshall, Kathleen; Banfi, Sandro; Surace, Enrico M; Sun, Junwei; Acerra, Carmela; Wright, J Fraser; Wellman, Jennifer; High, Katherine A; Auricchio, Alberto; Bennett, Jean; Simonelli, Francesca

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to show the clinical data of long-term (3-year) follow-up of 5 patients affected by Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA2) treated with a single unilateral injection of adeno-associated virus AAV2-hRPE65v2. Clinical trial. Five LCA2 patients with RPE65 gene mutations. After informed consent and confirmation of trial eligibility criteria, the eye with worse visual function was selected for subretinal delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV2-hRPE65v2). Subjects were evaluated before and after surgery at designated follow-up visits (1, 2, 3, 14, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270, and 365 days, 1.5 years, and 3 years) by complete ophthalmic examination. Efficacy for each subject was monitored with best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic visual field, nystagmus testing, and pupillary light reflex. Best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic visual field, nystagmus testing, and pupillary light reflex. The data showed a statistically significant improvement of best-corrected visual acuity between baseline and 3 years after treatment in the treated eye (P<0.001). In all patients, an enlargement of the area of visual field was observed that remained stable until 3 years after injection (average values: baseline, 1058 deg(2) vs. 3 years after treatment, 4630 deg(2)) and a reduction of the nystagmus frequency compared with baseline at the 3-year time point. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was observed in the pupillary constriction of the treated eye (P<0.05) compared with the untreated eye in 3 patients at 1- and 3-year time points. No patients experienced serious adverse events related to the vector in the 3-year postinjection period. The long-term follow-up data (3 years) on the 5-patient Italian cohort involved in the LCA2 gene therapy clinical trial clearly showed a stability of improvement in visual and retinal function that had been achieved a few months after treatment. Longitudinal data analysis showed that the maximum improvement was

  10. Ganciclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people ... in transplant recipients at risk for CMV infection. Ganciclovir injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. [Initial subretinal localization of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML5) recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, S; François, S; Urier, N; Genevieve, F; d'Hermies, F; Rachieru, P; Ifrah, N

    2001-10-13

    Reduced visual acuity in patients with acute leucemia can result from many causes including an ocular localization. A patient previously treated for acute myeloblastic leucemia-5 (AML5) developed bilateral vision impairment related to a subretinal localization of the leucemia. Meningeal and bone marrow relapse followed. The subretinal localization responded only to massive systemic steroid treatment. Although asymptomatic, ocular localizations are frequent in leucemia. Their prognostic impact depends on the ocular structure involved and on the chronology of onset--early or late in the leucemia course. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of ocular involvement remains unexplained but hyperleucocytosis at presentation may be a risk factor and would justify at least systematic specialized examinations and discussion of prophylactic treatment.

  12. Intravitreal injection analysis at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute: evaluation of clinical indications for the treatment and incidence rates of endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila L Cavalcante

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ludimila L Cavalcante, Milena L Cavalcante, Timothy G Murray, Michael M Vigoda, Yolanda Piña, Christina L Decatur, R Prince Davis, Lisa C Olmos, Amy C Schefler, Michael B Parrott, Kyle J Alliman, Harry W Flynn, Andrew A MoshfeghiBascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAObjective: To report the incidence of endophthalmitis, in addition to its clinical and microbiological aspects, after intravitreal injection of vascular-targeting agents.Methods: A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 10,142 intravitreal injections of vascular targeting agents (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, triamcinolone acetonide, and preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide between June 1, 2007 and January 31, 2010, performed by a single service (TGM at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute.Results: One case of clinically-suspected endophthalmitis was identified out of a total of 10,142 injections (0.009%, presenting within three days of injection of bevacizumab. The case was culture-positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis. Final visual acuity was 20/40 after pars plana vitrectomy surgery.Conclusions: In this series, the incidence of culture-positive endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of vascular agents in an outpatient setting was very low. We believe that following a standardized injection protocol, adherence to sterile techniques and proper patient follow-up are determining factors for low incidence rates.Keywords: endophthalmitis, intravitreal injections, vascular targeting agents 

  13. COMPLETE SUBRETINAL FLUID DRAINAGE IS NOT NECESSARY DURING VITRECTOMY SURGERY FOR MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT WITH PERIPHERAL BREAKS: A Prospective, Nonrandomized Comparative Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Ying; Hong, Ling; Zhu, Li; Deng, Jun; Din, Qin; Huang, Zhijian; Zhou, Hezhen

    2017-03-01

    To compare clinical outcomes in eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments managed by surgical protocols, the result in either complete (CSFD) or partial subretinal fluid drainage (PSFD). Fifty-four eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments with peripheral retinal breaks of 54 patients were assigned prospectively to one of the two surgical designs (PSFD or CSFD, 2:1) in a sequence. Patients were treated with 25-gauge plus vitrectomy, either CSFD (n = 18) or PSFD (n = 36), and 14% C3F8 was used for intraocular tamponade. Anatomical and visual outcomes as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications of the two groups were compared. The single-operation success rates were 16/18 (88.9%) and 33/36 (91.6%), respectively, for the CSFD and the PSFD groups (P = 1.00). The mean BCVA improvement (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) at the 6-month postoperative was not significantly different between the two groups (26.50 ± 15.43 in CSFD group vs. 22.64 ± 15.43 in PSFD group, P = 0.43). Partial subretinal fluid drainage procedure during vitrectomy for the repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments revealed comparable results with CSFD in terms of anatomical and visual outcomes. Complete subretinal fluid drainage during vitrectomy seems to be unnecessary for all RRD reattachment surgical procedures.

  14. In vivo operation of the Boston 15-channel wireless subretinal visual prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Douglas B.; Doyle, Patrick; Kelly, Shawn K.; Gingerich, Marcus D.; Chen, Jinghua; Cogan, Stuart F.; Drohan, William A.; Mendoza, Oscar; Theogarajan, Luke; Wyatt, John; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2010-02-01

    This presentation concerns the engineering development of the Boston visual prosthesis for restoring useful vision to patients blind with degenerative retinal disease. A miniaturized, hermetically-encased, 15-channel wirelessly-operated retinal prosthetic was developed for implantation and pre-clinical studies in Yucatan mini-pig animal models. The prosthesis conforms to the eye and drives a microfabricated polyimide stimulating electrode array having sputtered iridium oxide electrodes. This array is implanted into the subretinal space using a specially-designed ab externo surgical technique; the bulk of the prosthesis is on the surface of the sclera. The implanted device includes a hermetic titanium case containing a 15-channel stimulator chip; secondary power/data receiving coils surround the cornea. Long-term in vitro pulse testing was also performed on the electrodes to ensure their stability over years of operation. Assemblies were first tested in vitro to verify wireless operation of the system in biological saline using a custom RF transmitter circuit and primary coils. Stimulation pulse strength, duration and frequency were programmed wirelessly using a computer with a custom graphical user interface. Operation of the retinal implant was verified in vivo in 3 minipigs for more than three months by measuring stimulus artifacts on the eye surface using contact lens electrodes.

  15. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel,I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD.

  16. Anti-VEGF and its impact on the outer retina: retinal pigment epithelium tear after an injection of aflibercept in contralateral eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Polo, R; Rubio Sánchez, C

    2016-05-01

    A 62-year-old woman with a history of bilateral retinal pigment epithelium detachment (PED), secondary of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), who presented with a retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tear on her left eye after an aflibercept injection in the contralateral eye one month earlier. A RPE tear is the main complication when the anti-VEGF therapy is used for the management of the PED. Furthermore, it should be noted that systemic absorption of the drug can induce an effect on the untreated eye. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on the OCT-measured macular choroidal thickness of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Rony C; Mutti, Anibal; Ferraz, Daniel A; Zacharias, Leandro C; Nakashima, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Walter Y; Monteiro, Mario L R

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on macular choroidal thickness parameters in eyes with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. High-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients undergoing laser treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study. One eye was randomly selected for laser treatment combined with bevacizumab injections, study group, whereas the corresponding eye was subjected to laser treatment alone, control group. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used to measure the macular choroidal thickness prior to and 1 month after treatment. Measurements in both groups were compared. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01389505. Nineteen patients (38 eyes) with a mean±standard deviation age of 53.4±9.3 years were evaluated, and choroidal thickness measurements for 15 patients were used for comparison. The greatest measurement before treatment was the subfoveal choroidal thickness (341.68±67.66 μm and 345.79±83.66 μm for the study and control groups, respectively). No significant difference between groups was found in terms of macular choroidal thickness measurements at baseline or after treatment. However, within-group comparisons revealed a significant increase in choroidal thickness parameters in 10 measurements in the study group and in only 5 temporal measurements in the control group when 1-month follow-up measurements were compared to baseline values. The macular choroidal thickness does not appear to be significantly influenced by laser treatment alone but increases significantly when associated with bevacizumab injections in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Because bevacizumab injections reduce short-term laser pan-retinal photocoagulation-induced macular edema, our findings suggest that the choroid participates in its pathogenesis.

  18. Transplantation of allogenic anterior lens capsule to the subretinal space in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Wiencke, Anne Katrine; Scherfig, Erik

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the consequences of transplantation of a new basement membrane to the subretinal space (SRS) as a substitution of Bruch's membrane.......To investigate the consequences of transplantation of a new basement membrane to the subretinal space (SRS) as a substitution of Bruch's membrane....

  19. Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschner, Renate; Greppmaier, Udo; Kokelmann, Martin; Rudorf, Sandra; Rudorf, Ralf; Schleehauf, Sebastian; Wrobel, Walter G

    2017-03-01

    Despite recent developments and new treatments in ophthalmology there is nothing available to cure retinal degenerations like Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) yet. One of the most advanced approaches to treat people that have gone blind due to RP is to replace the function of the degenerated photoreceptors by a microelectronic neuroprosthetic device. Basically, this subretinal active implant transforms the incoming light into electric pulses to stimulate the remaining cells of the retina. The functional time of such devices is a crucial aspect. In this paper the laboratory and clinical reliability of the two active subretinal implants Alpha IMS and Alpha AMS is presented. Based on clinical data the median operating life of the Alpha AMS is estimated to be 3.3 years with a one-sided lower 75 % confidence level of 2.0 years. This data shows a significant improvement of the device lifetime compared to the previous device Alpha IMS which shows a median lifetime of 0.6 years with a lower confidence bound (75 %) of 0.5 years. The results are in good agreement with laboratory data from accelerated aging tests of the implant components, showing an estimated median lifetime for Alpha IMS components of 0.7 years compared to the improved lifetime of Alpha AMS of 4.7 years.

  20. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-02-01

    Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD.

  1. DYNAMISM OF DOT SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION DEMONSTRATED WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Godara, Pooja; Zhang, Tianjiao; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the natural history of dot subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) in age-related macular degeneration, using high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Six eyes of four patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration were studied at baseline and 1 year later. Individual dot SDD within the central 30° retina were examined with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. A total of 269 solitary SDD were identified at baseline. Over 12.25 ± 1.18 months, all 35 Stage 1 SDD progressed to advanced stages. Eighteen (60%) Stage 2 lesions progressed to Stage 3 and 12 (40%) remained at Stage 2. Of 204 Stage 3 SDD, 12 (6.4%) disappeared and the rest remained. Twelve new SDD were identified, including 6 (50%) at Stage 1, 2 (16.7%) at Stage 2, and 4 (33.3%) at Stage 3. The mean percentage of the retina affected by dot SDD, measured by the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, increased in 5/6 eyes (from 2.31% to 5.08% in the most changed eye) and decreased slightly in 1/6 eye (from 10.67% to 10.54%). Dynamism, the absolute value of the areas affected by new and regressed lesions, ranged from 0.7% to 9.3%. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy reveals that dot SDD, like drusen, are dynamic.

  2. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  3. Effect assessment of subconjunctival injection of rapamycin-loaded microspheres in non-obese diabetic mice with dry eye caused by Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of rapamycin-loaded microspheres in non-obese diabetic(NODmice with dry eye caused by Sjögren's syndrome(SS. METHODS: Twenty 8-week-old female NOD mice with dry eye caused by SS were randomly divided into 4 groups. One week later, the mice were treated with subconjunctival injection. GroupⅠ and Ⅱ received 200μg/kg and 400μg/kg rapamycin-loaded microspheres, Group Ⅲ and Ⅳ received normal saline and empty microspheres. Five 8-week-old female healthy KM mice were used as untreated controls. Before and 5, 10, 15, 20 days after the experiment, the amount of secretion of tears, the score of corneal fluorescein staining and rose bengal staining were investigated. Conjunctival epithelial cells were observed and graded by conjunctival impression cytology. RESULTS: Compared with the group Ⅲ and Ⅳ, the amount of secretion of tears of the mice in groupⅠ and Ⅱ increased. The scores of corneal fluorescein staining and rose bengal staining were lower. The levels of conjunctival impression cytology reduced. CONCLUSION: Rapamycin-loaded microspheres can decrease dry eye signs by alleviating the ocular surface inflammation of NOD mice. It suggests rapamycin-loaded microsphere is valuable to dry eye caused by SS.

  4. Subretinal delivery of erythropoietin alleviates the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced photoreceptor degeneration and visual functional impairments: an in vivo and ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Wang, Yue; Ma, Zhao; Wang, Liqiang; Qin, Limin; Wang, Lu; Huang, Yi Fei; Zhang, Shizhong

    2017-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group hereditary retinal disease that is characterized by photoreceptor degeneration. The present study sought to explore the therapeutic effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced photoreceptor degeneration. The MNU-administered mouse or normal control received a subretinal injection of EPO (at the dose of 10U). Twenty-four hours after EPO injection, the retinal EPO levels of experimental animals were quantified. Subsequently, the experimental animals were subjected to optokinetic tests, ERG examination, SD-OCT examination, histology assessment, and immunohistochemistry evaluation. The retinal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expression levels of several apoptotic factors were also quantified. The subretinal injection of EPO up-regulated the retinal EPO level in the retinas of MNU-administered mice. The optokinetic tests and ERG examination suggested the visual functional impairments in MNU-administered mice were ameliorated after EPO treatment. The SD-OCT and histological examination suggested the morphological devastations in MNU-administered mice were alleviated after EPO treatment. The cone photoreceptors in MNU-administered mice were protected from the MNU-induced detrimental effects. Moreover, the EPO treatment rectified the apoptotic abnormalities in MNU-administered mice, and enhanced the expression level of Foxo3, a critical mediator of autophagy. The EPO treatment also mitigated the MDA concentration and enhanced the retinal SOD activity, thereby counteracting the retinal oxidative stress in MNU administered mice. In ophthalmological practice, the subretinal delivery of EPO is a feasible therapeutic strategy to alleviate photoreceptor degeneration. These findings would enrich our pharmacological knowledge about EPO and shed light on the development of an effective therapy against RP.

  5. The prognosis of cases with massive subretinal hemorrhage after photodynamic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Shingo; Naito, Takeshi; Takebayashi, Masaru; Sato, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose : To investigate cases with massive subretinal hemorrhage after photodynamic therapy(PDT). Subjects and Methods : We studied four cases(3 men and 1 woman, mean 80.5 yeas old) with massive subretinal hemorrhage after PDT about type of disease, spot size, period to the onset of hemorrhage, visual acuity (VA) before and after PDT. Results : Four cases consisted of one with age-related macula degeneration (AMD) and 3 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). The average spot size of P...

  6. Safety and durability of effect of contralateral-eye administration of AAV2 gene therapy in patients with childhood-onset blindness caused by RPE65 mutations: a follow-on phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jean; Wellman, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathleen A; McCague, Sarah; Ashtari, Manzar; DiStefano-Pappas, Julie; Elci, Okan U; Chung, Daniel C; Sun, Junwei; Wright, J Fraser; Cross, Dominique R; Aravand, Puya; Cyckowski, Laura L; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Mingozzi, Federico; Auricchio, Alberto; Pierce, Eric A; Ruggiero, Jason; Leroy, Bart P; Simonelli, Francesca; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M

    2016-08-13

    Safety and efficacy have been shown in a phase 1 dose-escalation study involving a unilateral subretinal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) in individuals with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations. This finding, along with the bilateral nature of the disease and intended use in treatment, prompted us to determine the safety of administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2 to the contralateral eye in patients enrolled in the phase 1 study. In this follow-on phase 1 trial, one dose of AAV2-hRPE65v2 (1.5 × 10(11) vector genomes) in a total volume of 300 μL was subretinally injected into the contralateral, previously uninjected, eyes of 11 children and adults (aged 11-46 years at second administration) with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations, 1.71-4.58 years after the initial subretinal injection. We assessed safety, immune response, retinal and visual function, functional vision, and activation of the visual cortex from baseline until 3 year follow-up, with observations ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01208389. No adverse events related to the AAV were reported, and those related to the procedure were mostly mild (dellen formation in three patients and cataracts in two). One patient developed bacterial endophthalmitis and was excluded from analyses. We noted improvements in efficacy outcomes in most patients without significant immunogenicity. Compared with baseline, pooled analysis of ten participants showed improvements in mean mobility and full-field light sensitivity in the injected eye by day 30 that persisted to year 3 (mobility p=0.0003, white light full-field sensitivity p0.49 for all time-points compared with baseline). To our knowledge, AAV2-hRPE65v2 is the first successful gene therapy administered to the contralateral eye. The results highlight the use of several outcome measures and help to delineate the variables that

  7. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. HL-217, a new topical anti-angiogenic agent, inhibits retinal vascular leakage and pathogenic subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yun-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Geun-Hyeog [Research and Development Center, Hanlim Pharm. Co. Ltd., 1656-10, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Sook, E-mail: jskim@kiom.re.kr [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HL-217 is a new synthetic topical anti-angiogenic agent. • HL-217 attenuated subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice. • HL-217 blocked the binding of PDGF-BB to PDGFRβ. - Abstract: HL-217 is a new synthetic angiogenesis inhibitor. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action and efficacy of topical application of HL-217 on subretinal neovascularization in very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Vldlr{sup −/−}) mice. In three-week-old male Vldlr{sup −/−} mice, HL-217 (1.5 or 3 mg/ml) was administered twice per day for 4 weeks by topical eye drop instillation. Neovascular areas were then measured. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. The inhibitory effect of HL-217 on the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. The neovascular area in the Vldlr{sup −/−} mice was significantly reduced by HL-217. Additionally, HL-217 decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, HL-217 dose-dependently inhibited the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC{sub 50} = 38.9 ± 0.7 μM). These results suggest that HL-217 is a potent inhibitor of PDGF-BB. HL-217, when applied topically, is an effective inhibitor of subretinal neovascularization due to its ability to inhibit the pro-angiogenic effects of PDGF-BB.

  9. Phase 2a Randomized Clinical Trial: Safety and Post Hoc Analysis of Subretinal rAAV.sFLT-1 for Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Ian J; Pierce, Cora M; Lai, Chooi-May; Magno, Aaron L; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A; French, Martyn A; McAllister, Ian L; Butler, Steve; Barone, Samuel B; Schwartz, Steven D; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Rakoczy, Elizabeth P

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a Phase 2a randomized controlled trial investigating the safety, and secondary endpoints of subretinal rAAV.sFLT-1 gene therapy in patients with active wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD). All patients (n=32), (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01494805), received ranibizumab injections at baseline and week 4, and thereafter according to prespecified criteria. Patients in the gene therapy group (n=21) received rAAV.sFLT-1 (1×10(11)vg). All patients were assessed every 4weeks to the week 52 primary endpoint. Ocular adverse events (AEs) in the rAAV.sFLT-1 group were mainly procedure related and self-resolved. All 11 phakic patients in the rAAV.sFLT-1 group showed progression of cataract following vitrectomy. No systemic safety signals were observed and none of the serious AEs were associated with rAAV.sFLT-1. AAV2 capsid was not detected and rAAV.sFLT-1 DNA was detected transiently in the tears of 13 patients. ELISPOT analysis did not identify any notable changes in T-cell response. In the rAAV.sFLT-1 group 12 patients had neutralizing antibodies (nAb) to AAV2. There was no change in sFLT-1 levels in bodily fluids. In the rAAV.sFLT-1 group, Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) improved by a median of 1.0 (IQR: -3.0 to 9.0) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters from baseline compared to a median of -5.0 (IQR: -17.5 to 1.0) ETDRS letters change in the control group. Twelve (57%) patients in the rAAV.sFLT-1 group maintained or improved vision compared to 4 (36%) in the control group. The median number of ranibizumab retreatments was 2.0 (IQR: 1.0 to 6.0) for the gene therapy group compared to 4.0 (IQR: 3.5 to 4.0) for the control group. Interpretation rAAV.sFLT-1 combined with the option for co-treatment appears to be a safe and promising approach to the treatment of wAMD. National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (AP1010405), Lions Eye Institute, Perth Australia, Avalanche Biotechnologies, Menlo Pk, CA, USA

  10. Oral Doxycycline Reduces the Total Number of Intraocular Bevacizumab Injections Needed to Control Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Ahmad; Azimi, Pourya; Abdolahi, Ali; Mirshahi, Romina; Abdollahian, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    Tetracyclines, especially doxycycline, play a role in the regulation of inflammation, immunomodulation, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. Treatment of corneal angiogenesis or choroidal neovascularization with tetracyclines has been shown to be effective in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral doxycycline in reducing the total number of intraocular injections needed for controlling neovascular age-related macular degeneration in human patients. In this interventional case series, 28 random consecutive patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration from Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran were treated for 4 months with 200 mg doxycycline once a day after the first intravitreal bevacizumab injection in addition to standard therapy in agreement with as-needed regimen. After 12 months of follow-up, total number of injections, foveal thickness and visual acuity were compared to those at baseline and of similar studies. Similar to standard treatment, co-treatment with doxycycline was able to control active disease (intraretinal or subretinal fluid or leakage, new-onset of macular hemorrhage, and reduction of visual acuity more than 5 letters based on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] charts) yet with fewer injections (for current study and standard treatment, respectively 3.14 vs. 5.92, P 0.05). If confirmed in larger studies, the findings of this interventional case series could provide a strategy to control neovascular age-related macular degeneration with fewer intraocular bevacizumab injections by co-administering a well-known oral agent-doxycycline.

  11. Subretinal Fluid Levels of Signal-Transduction Proteins and Apoptosis Molecules in Macula-Off Retinal Detachment Undergoing Scleral Buckle Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Paolo; Aharrh-Gnama, Agbeanda; Ciciarelli, Vincenzo; Borrelli, Enrico; Petti, Francesco; Aloia, Raffaella; Lamolinara, Alessia; Di Nicola, Marta; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate signal transduction and early apoptosis protein levels in subretinal fluid collected during scleral buckling surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Our aim was to assess both their relation with RRD features and their influence on the posttreatment outcome. Thirty-three eyes of 33 RRD patients scheduled for scleral buckle surgery were enrolled in the study. Undiluted subretinal fluid samples were collected during surgery and analyzed via magnetic bead-based immunoassay. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation at baseline and at each follow-up visit (months 1, 3, and 6). Moreover, both at baseline and at the postsurgery month 6 visit, the patients were tested by means of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in order to evaluate the average ganglion cell-inner plexiform complex thickness, as well as the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction status. Patients' clinical features (retinal detachment size, detachment duration, and occurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy) were associated with several early apoptotic factors (caspase-8, caspase-9, and B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2]-associated death promoter [BAD]). Furthermore, both early apoptosis factors (caspase-8, Bcl-2, and p53) and signal-transduction proteins (ERK 1/2) were found to influence the postsurgery month 3 OCT characteristics. Signal-transduction proteins and early apoptosis proteins are associated with different clinical features and postsurgery outcomes.

  12. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Stanzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is being developed as a cell-replacement therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived RPE are currently translating toward clinic. We introduce the adult human RPE stem cell (hRPESC as an alternative RPE source. Polarized monolayers of adult hRPESC-derived RPE grown on polyester (PET membranes had near-native characteristics. Trephined pieces of RPE monolayers on PET were transplanted subretinally in the rabbit, a large-eyed animal model. After 4 days, retinal edema was observed above the implant, detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and fundoscopy. At 1 week, retinal atrophy overlying the fetal or adult transplant was observed, remaining stable thereafter. Histology obtained 4 weeks after implantation confirmed a continuous polarized human RPE monolayer on PET. Taken together, the xeno-RPE survived with retained characteristics in the subretinal space. These experiments support that adult hRPESC-derived RPE are a potential source for transplantation therapies.

  13. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, Boris V.; Liu, Zengping; Somboonthanakij, Sudawadee; Wongsawad, Warapat; Brinken, Ralf; Eter, Nicole; Corneo, Barbara; Holz, Frank G.; Temple, Sally; Stern, Jeffrey H.; Blenkinsop, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transplantation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is being developed as a cell-replacement therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE are currently translating toward clinic. We introduce the adult human RPE stem cell (hRPESC) as an alternative RPE source. Polarized monolayers of adult hRPESC-derived RPE grown on polyester (PET) membranes had near-native characteristics. Trephined pieces of RPE monolayers on PET were transplanted subretinally in the rabbit, a large-eyed animal model. After 4 days, retinal edema was observed above the implant, detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundoscopy. At 1 week, retinal atrophy overlying the fetal or adult transplant was observed, remaining stable thereafter. Histology obtained 4 weeks after implantation confirmed a continuous polarized human RPE monolayer on PET. Taken together, the xeno-RPE survived with retained characteristics in the subretinal space. These experiments support that adult hRPESC-derived RPE are a potential source for transplantation therapies. PMID:24511471

  14. Micro-Computed Tomography Detection of Gold Nanoparticle-Labelled Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Rat Subretinal Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooi Ling Mok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are widely used in many pre-clinical and clinical settings. Despite advances in molecular technology; the migration and homing activities of these cells in in vivo systems are not well understood. Labelling mesenchymal stem cells with gold nanoparticles has no cytotoxic effect and may offer suitable indications for stem cell tracking. Here, we report a simple protocol to label mesenchymal stem cells using 80 nm gold nanoparticles. Once the cells and particles were incubated together for 24 h, the labelled products were injected into the rat subretinal layer. Micro-computed tomography was then conducted on the 15th and 30th day post-injection to track the movement of these cells, as visualized by an area of hyperdensity from the coronal section images of the rat head. In addition, we confirmed the cellular uptake of the gold nanoparticles by the mesenchymal stem cells using transmission electron microscopy. As opposed to other methods, the current protocol provides a simple, less labour-intensive and more efficient labelling mechanism for real-time cell tracking. Finally, we discuss the potential manipulations of gold nanoparticles in stem cells for cell replacement and cancer therapy in ocular disorders or diseases.

  15. Clearance of apoptotic photoreceptors: elimination of apoptotic debris into the subretinal space and macrophage-mediated phagocytosis via phosphatidylserine receptor and integrin alphavbeta3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Tsutsumi, Chikako; Qiao, Hong; Enaida, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Kubota, Toshiaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Kura, Shinobu; Susin, Santos A; Kroemer, Guido

    2003-06-01

    The effective phagocytotic clearance of apoptotic debris is fundamental to the maintenance of neural tissues during apoptosis. Retinal photoreceptors undergo apoptosis after retinal detachment. Although their induction phase of apoptosis has been well discussed, their phagocytotic process remains quite unclear. We herein demonstrate that apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated from their physiological localization, the outer nuclear layer, to the subretinal space, and then phagocytosed by monocyte-derived macrophages. This could be shown by an ultrastructural and immunophenotypic analysis. Moreover, in chimera mice expressing transgenic green fluorescent protein in bone marrow-derived cells, the local infiltration of macrophages could be detected after retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. The local injection of an antibody blocking the phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) or a peptide (GRGDSP)-blocking integrin alphavbeta3 revealed that phagocytotic clearance involves the PSR as well as integrin alphavbeta3 in vivo. Importantly, the level of blockade obtained with these reagents was different. Although anti-PSR increased the frequency of apoptotic cells that fail to bind to macrophages, GRGDSP prevented the engulfment (but not the recognition) of apoptotic photoreceptor cells by macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the mechanisms through which apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated via a directional process in the subretinal space.

  16. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics of retained subretinal perfluoro-n-octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Eric J; Randolph, John C; Rafieetary, Mohammad R; Charles, Steve; Calzada, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    To describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics of retained subretinal perfluoro-n-octane (SR-PFO) after vitreoretinal surgery. Consecutive patients referred for retained SR-PFO after pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment were prospectively evaluated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The clinical findings, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography images, and anatomical outcomes, were reviewed. Three consecutive patients presented to the vitreoretinal service with history of retinal detachment and pervious vitrectomy with intraoperative PFO. Subretinal PFO bubbles were observed on clinical examination and imaging studies, including spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Case 1 had subfoveal PFO removal and developed a postoperative choroidal neovascular membrane. Case 2 had multiple foci of SR-PFO after giant retinal tear repair. Case 3 had superotemporal SR-PFO that remained stable for several years without migration or other associated pathology. Subretinal PFO appears as a low-reflectance spherical mass, often with a pinpoint focus of hyperreflectance at the apex of the bubble. Optical coherence tomography details beneath subretinal PFO appear relatively hyperreflectant compared to adjacent tissue. Long-term observation revealed preferential absence of the outer retinal layers with no nerve fiber layer erosion, subretinal inflammatory precipitates, or proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Some evidence of retinal pigment epithelial disruption was observed but seemed to remain stable or improve with observation. The authors suggest management involving follow-up with close observation in SR-PFO unless present in the subfoveal region. Choroidal neovascular membrane can occur after SR-PFO removal and may be successfully managed with intravitreal bevacizumab.

  17. Food-Induced Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgin, Susan G

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the etiology of red eyes and a novel case of food-induced red eye. An 82-year-old white male patient reported 50 years of episodes of severe unilateral bulbar injection in either eye following ingestion of certain foods. Thinned scleras in this particular patient made the injection in his eyes more observable. Photodocumentation of this reaction after he ingested these foods is shown. It is hypothesized that this is a new explanation for an intermittent, unilateral, self-limited red eye-a food-induced red eye.

  18. Intravitreal injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic - intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone - intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone - intravitreal injection; Lucentis - intravitreal injection; Avastin - intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab - intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab - intravitreal injection; ...

  19. Effect of shape and coating of a subretinal prosthesis on its integration with the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterwick, A; Huie, P; Jones, B W; Marc, R E; Marmor, M; Palanker, D

    2009-01-01

    Retinal stimulation with high spatial resolution requires close proximity of electrodes to target cells. This study examines the effects of material coatings and 3-dimensional geometries of subretinal prostheses on their integration with the retina. A trans-scleral implantation technique was developed to place microfabricated structures in the subretinal space of RCS rats. The effect of three coatings (silicon oxide, iridium oxide and parylene) and three geometries (flat, pillars and chambers) on the retinal integration was compared using passive implants. Retinal morphology was evaluated histologically 6 weeks after implantation. For 3-dimensional implants the retinal cell phenotype was also evaluated using Computational Molecular Phenotyping. Flat implants coated with parylene and iridium oxide were generally well tolerated in the subretinal space, inducing only a mild gliotic response. However, silicon-oxide coatings induced the formation of a significant fibrotic seal around the implants. Glial proliferation was observed at the base of the pillar electrode arrays and inside the chambers. The non-traumatic penetration of pillar tips into the retina provided uniform and stable proximity to the inner nuclear layer. Retinal cells migrated into chambers with apertures larger than 10 mum. Both pillars and chambers achieved better proximity to the inner retinal cells than flat implants. However, isolation of retinal cells inside the chamber arrays is likely to affect their long-term viability. Pillars demonstrated minimal alteration of the inner retinal architecture, and thus appear to be the most promising approach for maintaining close proximity between the retinal prosthetic electrodes and target neurons.

  20. Outcomes in Eyes with Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Shaffer, James; Ying, Gui-shuang; Grunwald, Juan E; Martin, Daniel F; Jaffe, Glenn J; Maguire, Maureen G

    2016-03-01

    To compare baseline characteristics, visual acuity (VA), and morphologic outcomes between eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and all other eyes among patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs. Prospective cohort study within the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Patients with NVAMD. Reading center staff evaluated digital color fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography (FA) images, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of eyes with NVAMD treated with either ranibizumab or bevacizumab over a 2-year period. Retinal angiomatous proliferation was identified by the intense intra-retinal leakage of fluorescein in combination with other associated features. Visual acuity; fluorescein leakage; scar; geographic atrophy (GA) on FA; retinal thickness, fluid, and subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) on OCT; and the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections at 1 and 2 years. Retinal angiomatous proliferation was present in 126 of 1183 (10.7%) study eyes at baseline. Mean VA improvement from baseline was greater (10.6 vs. 6.9 letters; P = 0.01) at 1 year, but similar at 2 years (7.8 vs. 6.2 letters; P = 0.34). At 1 year, eyes with RAP were more likely to have no fluid (46% vs. 26%; P < 0.001) on OCT, no leakage on FA (61% vs. 50%; P = 0.03), and greater reduction in foveal thickness (-240 μm vs. -161 μm; P < 0.001). They were more likely to demonstrate GA (24% vs. 15%; P = 0.01) and less likely to have scarring (17% vs. 36%; P < 0.001) or SHRM (36% vs. 48%; P = 0.01). These results were similar at 2 years. The mean change in lesion size at 1 year differed (-0.27 DA vs. 0.27 DA; P = 0.02), but was similar at 2 years (0.49 DA vs. 0.79 DA; P = 0.26). Among eyes treated PRN, eyes with RAP received a lower mean number of injections in year 1 (6.1 vs. 7.4; P = 0.003) and year 2 (5.4 vs. 6.6; P = 0.025). At both 1 and 2 years

  1. The effect of subretinal viscoelastics on the porcine retinal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Fischer; Ejstrup, Rasmus; Svahn, Thøger Frøsig

    2012-01-01

    pharmaceutical therapy is needed, and can only be tested in a suitable animal model. The porcine model is promising and the mfERG is well validated in this model. RD was induced in 18 pigs by vitrectomy and healon injection of various concentrations. Preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively eight animals were...... examined by mfERG. The major component P1 was analyzed statistically. Indirect ophthalmoscopy and bilateral color fundus photography (FP) were performed. Selected animals underwent high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Examination by ophthalmoscopy and FP showed that the RDs remained detached...... makes the porcine model unsuitable for examining adjuvant pharmaceutical RD treatment. Future studies should focus on foveated primates....

  2. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy ... Eye allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Son las Alergias ...

  3. Interleukin and growth factor levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas J A G Ricker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD is a major cause of visual loss in developed countries. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, an eye-sight threatening complication of RRD surgery, resembles a wound-healing process with inflammation, scar tissue formation, and membrane contraction. This study was performed to determine the possible involvement of a wide range of cytokines in the future development of PVR, and to identify predictors of PVR and visual outcome. METHODOLOGY: A multiplex immunoassay was used for the simultaneous detection of 29 different cytokines in subretinal fluid samples from patients with primary RRD. Of 306 samples that were collected and stored in our BioBank between 2001 and 2008, 21 samples from patients who developed postoperative PVR were compared with 54 age-, sex-, and storage-time-matched RRD control patients who had an uncomplicated postoperative course during the overall follow-up period. FINDINGS: Levels of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, VEGF, and ICAM-1 were significantly higher (P0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that IL-3 (P = 0.001, IL-6 (P = 0.047, ICAM-1 (P = 0.010, and preoperative visual acuity (P = 0.026 were independent predictors of postoperative PVR. Linear regression analysis showed that ICAM-1 (P = 0.005 and preoperative logMAR visual acuity (P = 0.001 were predictive of final visual outcome after primary RRD repair. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that after RRD onset an exaggerated response of certain cytokines may predispose to PVR. Sampling at a time close to the onset of primary RRD may thus provide clues as to which biological events may initiate the development of PVR and, most importantly, may provide a means for therapeutic control.

  4. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs such as the lungs, eyes, skin, and heart and interfere with the function of these organs); ... of the ingredients in corticotropin repository injection, or porcine (pig) proteins. Ask your pharmacist or check the ...

  5. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography analysis of persistent subretinal fluid after scleral buckling surgery for macula-off retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiya, M; Malagola, R; Mariotti, C; Parisi, F; De Vico, U; Ganino, C; Grandinetti, F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive value of markers for persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) absorption and the influence of subfoveal fluid on visual outcome after scleral buckle (SB) surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study. We reviewed the medical records of 64 eyes of 64 patients who underwent SB surgery for macula-off RRD. Patients underwent clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before surgery, at 1 month and every 3 months postoperatively. The height and width of SRF bleb(s) were measured over time. Results Persistent SRF at 1 month was observed in 40 eyes (62.5%). SRF blebs were first detected 1.7±2.2 months postoperatively. In 29 cases that could be fully followed up, SRF blebs were completely absorbed 7.8±4.4 months postoperatively. Resolution of fluid was associated with an improvement of VA (P=0.003). Serial measurements of SRF bleb size showed that bleb width decreased significantly at all time points during the 12-month follow-up period (P0.05). The cut-off value of the bleb width-to-height ratio level for predicting bleb absorption at 6 months was 7, with 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Conclusions Visual improvement may occur with late resolution of residual subfoveal fluid. A bleb width-to-height ratio >7 indicates a higher risk of SRF to persist beyond 6 months after surgery. PMID:26139048

  6. Ocular Emergencies: Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarff, Andreina; Behrens, Ashley

    2017-05-01

    "Red eye" is used as a general term to describe irritated or bloodshot eyes. It is a recognizable sign of an acute/chronic, localized/systemic underlying inflammatory condition. Conjunctival injection is most commonly caused by dryness, allergy, visual fatigue, contact lens overwear, and local infections. In some instances, red eye can represent a true ocular emergency that should be treated by an ophthalmologist. A comprehensive assessment of red eye conditions is required to preserve the patients visual function. Severe ocular pain, significant photophobia, decreased vision, and history of ocular trauma are warning signs demanding immediate ophthalmological consultation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  8. Subretinal Fibrosis in Stargardt’s Disease with Fundus Flavimaculatus and ABCA4 Gene Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settimio Rossi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report on 4 patients affected by Stargardt’s disease (STGD with fundus flavimaculatus (FFM and ABCA4 gene mutation associated with subretinal fibrosis. Methods: Four patients with a diagnosis of STGD were clinically examined. All 4 cases underwent a full ophthalmologic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity measured by the Snellen visual chart, biomicroscopic examination, fundus examination, fundus photography, electroretinogram, microperimetry, optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. All patients were subsequently screened for ABCA4 gene mutations, identified by microarray genotyping and confirmed by conventional DNA sequencing of the relevant exons. Results: In all 4 patients, ophthalmologic exam showed areas of subretinal fibrosis in different retinal sectors. In only 1 case, these lesions were correlated to an ocular trauma as confirmed by biomicroscopic examination of the anterior segment that showed a nuclear cataract dislocated to the superior site and vitreous opacities along the lens capsule. The other patients reported a lifestyle characterized by competitive sport activities. The performed instrumental diagnostic investigations confirmed the diagnosis of STGD with FFM in all patients. Moreover, in all 4 affected individuals, mutations in the ABCA4 gene were found. Conclusions: Patients with the diagnosis of STGD associated with FFM can show atypical fundus findings. We report on 4 patients affected by STGD with ABCA4 gene mutation associated with subretinal fibrosis. Our findings suggest that this phenomenon can be accelerated by ocular trauma and also by ocular microtrauma caused by sport activities, highlighting that lifestyle can play a role in the onset of these lesions.

  9. Attenuation of EMT in RPE cells and subretinal fibrosis by an RAR-γ agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Orita, Tomoko; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yang; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kurakazu, Taishi; Noda, Takeshi; Yanai, Ryoji; Morishige, Naoyuki; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2015-07-01

    Subretinal fibrosis contributes to the loss of vision associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of AMD including the fibrotic reaction. We examined the role of retinoic acid receptor-γ (RAR-γ) in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and other fibrosis-related processes in mouse RPE cells cultured in a type I collagen gel. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2)-induced collagen gel contraction mediated by the RPE cells was inhibited by the RAR-γ agonist R667 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Expression of the mesenchymal markers α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, the release of interleukin-6, and the phosphorylation of paxillin, mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, p38, and JNK), Smad2, and AKT induced by TGF-β2 were also suppressed by the RAR-γ agonist. Furthermore, gelatin zymography and immunoblot analysis revealed that the TGF-β2-induced release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 from RPE cells was inhibited by R667, and the MMP inhibitor GM6001 attenuated TGF-β2-induced RPE cell contraction. Finally, immunohistofluorescence analysis with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein showed that R667 inhibited the development of subretinal fibrosis in a mouse model in vivo. Our results thus suggest that RAR-γ agonists may prove effective for the treatment of subretinal fibrosis associated with AMD. RAR-γ agonist R667 suppressed collagen gel contraction mediated by RPE cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in RPE cells was inhibited by RAR-γ agonist R667. RAR-γ agonist R667 inhibited fibrosis-related processes in RPE cells. RAR-γ agonists may attenuate AMD-associated fibrosis.

  10. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using intratumoral injection of the 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for the treatment of eye cancer in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Raduan; Mancilha, Geraldo; Zângaro, Renato A.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio

    2007-02-01

    A six-year old Holstein cow with an eye cancer (ocular squamous cell carcinoma) involving the third eyelid and conjunctiva was submitted to photodynamic therapy using intratumoral 20% aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA - Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, USA) and a light emitting diode (LED - VET LED - MMOptics (R)) with wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, power of 150 mW, light dose of 50 J/cm2 as a source of irradiation. Fifteen days after the experimental procedure we observed about 50% tumor reduction and complete remission after 3 months. Relapse was not observed up to 12 months after the treatment. Although the study only includes one animal not allowing definite conclusions, it indicates that PDT represents a safe and technically feasible approach in the treatment of eye cancer in cattle.

  11. Tropisms of AAV for subretinal delivery to the neonatal mouse retina and its application for in vivo rescue of developmental photoreceptor disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adeno-associated virus (AAV is well established as a vehicle for in vivo gene transfer into the mammalian retina. This virus is promising not only for gene therapy of retinal diseases, but also for in vivo functional analysis of retinal genes. Previous reports have shown that AAV can infect various cell types in the developing mouse retina. However, AAV tropism in the developing retina has not yet been examined in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subretinally delivered seven AAV serotypes (AAV2/1, 2/2, 2/5, 2/8, 2/9, 2/10, and 2/11 of AAV-CAG-mCherry into P0 mouse retinas, and quantitatively evaluated the tropisms of each serotype by its infecting degree in retinal cells. After subretinal injection of AAV into postnatal day 0 (P0 mouse retinas, various retinal cell types were efficiently transduced with different AAVs. Photoreceptor cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/5. Retinal cells, except for bipolar and Müller glial cells, were efficiently transduced with AAV2/9. Horizontal and/or ganglion cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/8, AAV2/9 and AAV2/10. To confirm the usefulness of AAV-mediated gene transfer into the P0 mouse retina, we performed AAV-mediated rescue of the Cone-rod homeobox gene knockout (Crx KO mouse, which exhibits an outer segment formation defect, flat electroretinogram (ERG responses, and photoreceptor degeneration. We injected an AAV expressing Crx under the control of the Crx 2kb promoter into the neonatal Crx KO retina. We showed that AAV mediated-Crx expression significantly decreased the abnormalities of the Crx KO retina. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In the current study, we report suitable AAV tropisms for delivery into the developing mouse retina. Using AAV2/5 in photoreceptor cells, we demonstrated the possibility of gene replacement for the developmental disorder and subsequent degeneration of retinal photoreceptors caused by the absence of Crx.

  12. Tropisms of AAV for Subretinal Delivery to the Neonatal Mouse Retina and Its Application for In Vivo Rescue of Developmental Photoreceptor Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Sanuki, Rikako; Ueno, Shinji; Koyasu, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is well established as a vehicle for in vivo gene transfer into the mammalian retina. This virus is promising not only for gene therapy of retinal diseases, but also for in vivo functional analysis of retinal genes. Previous reports have shown that AAV can infect various cell types in the developing mouse retina. However, AAV tropism in the developing retina has not yet been examined in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We subretinally delivered seven AAV serotypes (AAV2/1, 2/2, 2/5, 2/8, 2/9, 2/10, and 2/11) of AAV-CAG-mCherry into P0 mouse retinas, and quantitatively evaluated the tropisms of each serotype by its infecting degree in retinal cells. After subretinal injection of AAV into postnatal day 0 (P0) mouse retinas, various retinal cell types were efficiently transduced with different AAVs. Photoreceptor cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/5. Retinal cells, except for bipolar and Müller glial cells, were efficiently transduced with AAV2/9. Horizontal and/or ganglion cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/8, AAV2/9 and AAV2/10. To confirm the usefulness of AAV-mediated gene transfer into the P0 mouse retina, we performed AAV-mediated rescue of the Cone-rod homeobox gene knockout (Crx KO) mouse, which exhibits an outer segment formation defect, flat electroretinogram (ERG) responses, and photoreceptor degeneration. We injected an AAV expressing Crx under the control of the Crx 2kb promoter into the neonatal Crx KO retina. We showed that AAV mediated-Crx expression significantly decreased the abnormalities of the Crx KO retina. Conclusion/Significance In the current study, we report suitable AAV tropisms for delivery into the developing mouse retina. Using AAV2/5 in photoreceptor cells, we demonstrated the possibility of gene replacement for the developmental disorder and subsequent degeneration of retinal photoreceptors caused by the absence of Crx. PMID:23335994

  13. Progenitor cells from the porcine neural retina express photoreceptor markers after transplantation to the subretinal space of allorecipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassen, Henry; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Zahir, Tasneem

    2007-01-01

    and rhodopsin. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed expression of the transcription factors Dach1, Hes1, Lhx2, Pax6, Six3, and Six6. Progenitor cells prelabeled with vital dyes survived as allografts in the subretinal space for up to 5 weeks (11 of 12 recipients) without exogenous...

  14. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  15. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  16. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  17. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep flushing the eye with clean water or saline for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical help right away. Do not delay. EYE CUT, SCRATCH, OR BLOW Gently apply a clean cold compress to the eye to reduce swelling and ...

  18. Vitreous and subretinal fluid concentrations of orally administered dabigatran in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Verena C; Kluft, Cornelis; van Meurs, Jan C

    2016-11-01

    One of the factors that was shown to contribute to the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the coagulation factor thrombin. Therefore, a specific oral thrombin inhibitor such as dabigatran might be a possible therapeutic option. An oral drug has the advantage of patient-friendly prolonged administration in contrast to drugs that can only be applied during vitrectomy, on condition that the drug reaches the target site. We tested whether dabigatran reaches the vitreous and subretinal fluid (SRF) after a single oral dose of dabigatran. Twenty-eight patients with a retinal detachment received a single dose of 220 mg dabigatran etexilate 2-8 hr prior to surgery. During surgery, we took a blood sample and a vitreous or subretinal fluid sample. The concentration of dabigatran was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The dabigatran concentration between 2 and 9 hr after administration was higher in SRF than in vitreous (max 8.5 and 3.8 ng/ml). Corresponding plasma concentrations ranged from 15 to 225 ng/ml. There was a significant relationship between SRF levels and plasma levels (rs  = 0.68, p = 0.014); the levels in vitreous fluid showed no such relationship (rs  = 0.20, p = 0.48). In addition, we measured the vitreous concentration of a non-study patient using 150 mg dabigatran twice daily. The concentration was approximately 10 times higher than after a single dosage (25.8 ng/ml). We demonstrate that oral intake of dabigatran, a candidate drug to modulate PVR, results in potentially relevant intraocular concentrations. We suggest that repeated dosing may lead to higher concentrations, but this should be further explored. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Behavior tests and immunohistochemical retinal response analyses in RCS rats with subretinal implantation of Okayama-University-type retinal prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alamusi; Matsuo, Toshihiko; HOSOYA, OSAMU; Tsutsui, Kimiko M.; Uchida, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film as a prototype of retinal prosthesis, which we named Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis. The purposes of this study are to conduct behavior tests to assess vision in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats that underwent subretinal implantation of the dye-coupled film and to reveal retinal response to the dye-coupled film by immunohistochemistry. Polyethylene films were made of polyethylene powder at refined purity, and phot...

  20. Ranibizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can lead to vision loss), and diabetic retinopathy (damage to the eyes caused ...

  1. Aflibercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can lead to vision loss), and diabetic retinopathy (damage to the eyes caused ...

  2. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis ( ...

  3. A Method for En Face OCT Imaging of Subretinal Fluid in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study is to report a method for en face imaging of subretinal fluid (SRF due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT. Methods. High density SDOCT imaging was performed at two visits in 4 subjects with neovascular AMD and one healthy subject. En face OCT images of a retinal layer anterior to the retinal pigment epithelium were generated. Validity, repeatability, and utility of the method were established. Results. En face OCT images generated by manual and automatic segmentation were nearly indistinguishable and displayed similar regions of SRF. En face OCT images displayed uniform intensities and similar retinal vascular patterns in a healthy subject, while the size and appearance of a hypopigmented fibrotic scar in an AMD subject were similar at 2 visits. In AMD subjects, dark regions on en face OCT images corresponded to reduced or absent light reflectance due to SRF. On en face OCT images, a decrease in SRF areas with treatment was demonstrated and this corresponded with a reduction in the central subfield retinal thickness. Conclusion. En face OCT imaging is a promising tool for visualization and monitoring of SRF area due to disease progression and treatment.

  4. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form of childhood eye cancer. Hemangioma is a benign tumor of the choroid and retina that starts in the blood vessels. Other, rare cancers of the eye include: Conjunctival melanoma is a tumor of the conjunctiva, which is ...

  5. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  6. Sumatriptan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuma® Injection ... Imitrex® Injection ... Sumavel® Injection ... Sumatriptan injection is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes are accompanied by ...

  7. [Red eye in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Arnaud; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Bourcier, Tristan

    2008-02-29

    Red eye in children is a common consultation purpose. Mostly benign, this sign may also cause visual impairment. We differentiate three kinds of red eye: localised, diffused and perikeratic injection. The last one must be recognized because of its association with severe ocular diseases. Diagnosis must be sure and treatment has to be efficient to not pertubate childrens visual development. Unfortunately, physical examination on children is not always easy. Consultation with an ophthalmologist is justified if a doubt remains, in case of chronic pathology or resistance to first intention treatment.

  8. Implantation of stimulation electrodes in the subretinal space to demonstrate cortical responses in Yucatan minipig in the course of visual prosthesis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, H G; Gekeler, F; Schwahn, H; Jakob, W; Köhler, M; Schulmeyer, F; Marienhagen, J; Brunner, U; Framme, C

    2005-01-01

    During the course of the development of visual prostheses, subretinal stimulation films were implanted in micropigs in order to prove the feasibility of subretinal electrical stimulation with subsequent cortical response. One aim was to demonstrate that epidural recording of visual evoked potentials is possible in the micropig. Film-bound stimulation electrode arrays were placed in the subretinal space of micropigs. This enabled the retina to be stimulated subretinally. Since conventional visual evoked potential (VEP) measuring is virtually impossible in the pig from the neurosurgical point of view, epidural recording electrode arrays were positioned over the visual cortex as permanent electrodes. The feasibility of temporary implantation of film-bound stimulation electrode arrays was successfully demonstrated in the micropig model. On stimulation with monopolar voltage pulses (1000 to 3000 mV), reproducible epidural VEP measurements (5 to 10 micronV) were detected. The feasibility of subretinal stimulation of the retina was demonstrated in a retinal model that is similar to the human retina. This animal model therefore offers a suitable means of studying the tolerability of stimulation situations in the course of visual prosthesis development.

  9. TYPE 2 (SUBRETINAL) NEOVASCULARIZATION IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH PURE RETICULAR PSEUDODRUSEN PHENOTYPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naysan, Jonathan; Jung, Jesse J; Dansingani, Kunal K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Freund, K Bailey

    2016-03-01

    To report the association of pure type 2 neovascularization (NV) in age-related macular degeneration occurring almost exclusively in patients with reticular pseudodrusen. An observational retrospective cohort study of all eyes receiving antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy for newly diagnosed neovascular age-related macular degeneration by a single practitioner over a 6-year period. Only patients with treatment-naive, pure type 2 NV who also had either pre-neovascular imaging of the study eye or imaging of a nonneovascular fellow eye available to determine baseline characteristics including drusen type and choroidal thickness were incuded. Of 694 patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, only 8 met the inclusion criteria with pure type 2 NV. Of these, 7 (88%) had exclusively reticular pseudodrusen (5 in the nonneovascular fellow eye, 2 in the study eye before developing NV). Six (75%) patients in the affected neovascular eye and 6 (75%) in the fellow nonneovascular eye had choroidal thickness age-related macular degeneration, occurring almost exclusively in patients with reticular pseudodrusen and thin choroids.

  10. Adalimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humira® Injection ... Adalimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in ... some areas of the body) in adults. Adalimumab injection is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  11. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxacillin injection is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. ... works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other ...

  12. Rituximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituximab injection (Rituxan) and rituximab and hyaluronidase human injection (Rituxin Hycela) are used alone or with other medications to ... that begins in the white blood cells). Rituximab injection is also used with another medication to treat ...

  13. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrucil® Injection ... Fluorouracil injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be given intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse ... you are feeling during your treatment with fluorouracil injection.

  14. Ondansetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  15. Romiplostim Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or may tell you to stop taking these medications if romiplostim injection works well for you.Romiplostim injection does not ... will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication ... romiplostim injection. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor ...

  16. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  17. Tuberculosis; Eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle could present as a painful swelling over the corresponding part of the eye with associated restriction of ocular motility involving the muscle. TUBERCULOSIS OF THE EYE. CORNEA: Primary infection of the cornea is very rare. Corneal involvement is usually due to a hypersentitivity or cross-reaction whereby the.

  18. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, M N

    2000-10-01

    There are many eye cosmetics available to enhance the beauty or improve the appearance of the face. To prevent infection, most eye cosmetics contain preservatives. Fragrance is usually absent to keep the products as safe as possible. Hypoallergenic products contain fewer ingredients and may be more appropriate for patients with sensitive skin.

  19. Ibandronate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  20. Tocilizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the syringe and do not inject the medication.You may inject tocilizumab injection on the front of the thighs or anywhere ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Tocilizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  1. Certolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... package or the syringe. Do not inject the medication.You may inject certolizumab injection anywhere on your stomach or thighs except your ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Certolizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  2. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for RA or who could not take these medications. Sarilumab injection is in a class of medications called interleukin- ... are any problems and do not inject the medication.You may inject sarilumab injection on the front of the thighs or anywhere ...

  3. Red Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AskMayoExpert. Conjunctivitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Jan. 11, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/red-eye/basics/definition/SYM-20050748 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  5. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacrolimus injection is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people who ...

  6. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivitrol® ... Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  7. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefazolin injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  8. Mipomersen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  9. Denosumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denosumab injection (Prolia) is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and ... not respond to other medications for osteoporosis. Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss ...

  10. Ampicillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampicillin injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the ... heart, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract infections. Ampicillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. ...

  11. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  12. Eculizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  13. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  14. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; ... consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the symptoms ...

  15. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceftazidime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications called cephalosporin ...

  16. Tobramycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobramycin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Tobramycin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  17. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefoxitin injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; ... organs, blood, bone, joint, and skin infections. Cefoxitin injection may also be used before and during surgery, ...

  18. Naloxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naloxone injection and naloxone prefilled auto-injection device (Evzio) are used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) ...

  19. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  20. Dulaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaglutide injection is used with a diet and exercise program to control blood sugar levels in adults with type ... medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ...

  1. Mitoxantrone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoxantrone injection is used to decrease the number of symptom episodes and slow the development of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid medications to ...

  2. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  3. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefepime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney infections. Cefepime injection is used in combination with metronidazole (Flagyl) to ...

  4. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection is used in people who are hospitalized to treat certain conditions in which the stomach produces too ... were not successfully treated with other medications. Ranitidine injection is also used on a short-term basis ...

  5. Gentamicin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentamicin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Gentamicin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  6. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meropenem injection is used to treat skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of ... children 3 months of age and older. Meropenem injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. ...

  7. Pralatrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  8. Tesamorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  9. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daptomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain blood infections in adults or ... children 1 year of age and older . Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic ...

  10. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiglutide injection is used with a diet and exercise program to control blood sugar levels in adults with type ... medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ...

  11. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefuroxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefuroxime injection may also be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  12. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  13. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aztreonam injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and ... area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  14. Peramivir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  15. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such as endocarditis ( ... of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called glycopeptide ...

  16. Amikacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amikacin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Amikacin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  17. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphenhydramine injection is used to treat allergic reactions, especially for people who are unable to take diphenhydramine by mouth. ... is used also to treat motion sickness. Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other ...

  18. Abaloparatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection may cause osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in laboratory rats. It is not known whether abaloparatide injection increases ... too have too much calcium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much ...

  19. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have been exposed to anthrax in the air. Doxycycline injection is in a class of medications ... decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections). Talk to your doctor ...

  20. Trastuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  1. Metronidazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metronidazole injection is used to treat certain skin, blood, bone, joint, gynecologic, and abdominal (stomach area) infections ... spinal cord), and certain respiratory infections, including pneumonia. Metronidazole injection is also to prevent infection when used ...

  2. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Dexrazoxane injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  3. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bowel from the effects of opioid (narcotic) medications. ... questions about how to prepare or inject this medication.Methylnaltrexone injection comes in prefilled syringes and in vials to ...

  4. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ... doctor.Do not let anyone else use your medication. Lacosamide injection is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled ...

  5. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your dose depending on your response to this medication.Alirocumab injection helps to control cholesterol levels, but does not ... prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen containing alirocumab injection.

  6. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma is not controlled with their current asthma medication. Mepolizumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... want to decrease the doses of your other medications gradually.Mepolizumab injection is not used to treat a sudden attack ...

  7. Romidepsin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It works by ...

  8. Avelumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or after it was treated with other chemotherapy medications. Avelumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... avelumab based on your body's response to this medication.Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of ...

  9. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose. You also should not mix any other medications with etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or device only once ...

  10. Busulfan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  11. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antagonists. It works by blocking serotonin, a natural substance in the body that causes nausea and vomiting. ... throat chest pain injection site redness, swelling, or warmth with or without fever (for the extended-release injection) injection site bleeding, bruising, or pain (for ...

  12. Pain in the quiet (not red) eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, David C; Pasternak, Andrew V; Radwan, Rabab M

    2010-07-01

    Although eye pain is often accompanied by redness or injection, pain can also occur with a quiet eye. Pain in a quiet eye can be the first sign of a vision-threatening condition, a more benign ophthalmologic condition, or a nonophthalmologic condition. Acute narrow-angle glaucoma is an emergent vision-threatening condition that requires immediate treatment and referral to an ophthalmologist. Although most nonophthalmologic conditions that cause eye pain do not need immediate treatment, giant cell (temporal) arteritis requires urgent treatment with corticosteroids. Other vascular conditions, such as carotid artery disease, thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, and transient ischemic attack or stroke, rarely cause eye pain but must be considered. Pain may also be referred from the sinuses or from neurologic conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia, migraine and cluster headaches, and increased intracranial pressure. The differential diagnosis of eye pain in the quiet eye is extensive, necessitating a systematic and thorough approach. (c) 2010 American Academy of Family Physicians.

  13. Subretinal transplantation of rat MSCs and erythropoietin gene modified rat MSCs for protecting and rescuing degenerative retina in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y; Cui, L; Qu, Z; Lu, L; Wang, F; Wu, Y; Zhang, J; Gao, F; Tian, H; Xu, L; Xu, G; Li, W; Jin, Y; Xu, G-T

    2013-11-01

    For degenerative retinal diseases, like the acquired form exemplified by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), there is currently no cure. This study was to explore a stem cell therapy and a stem cell based gene therapy for sodium iodate (SI)-induced retinal degeneration in rats. Three cell types, i.e., rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) alone, erythropoietin (EPO) gene modified rMSCs (EPO-rMSCs) or doxycycline (DOX) inducible EPO expression rMSCs (Tet-on EPO-rMSCs), were transplanted into the subretinal spaces of SI-treated rats. The rMSCs were prepared for transplantation after 3 to 5 passages or modified with EPO gene. During the 8 weeks after the transplantation, the rats treated with rMSCs alone or with two types of EPO-rMSCs were all monitored with fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and electroretinogram. The transplantation efficiency of donor cells was examined for their survival, integration and differentiation. Following the transplantation, labeled donor cells were observed in subretinal space and adopted RPE morphology. EPO concentration in vitreous and retina of SI-treated rats which were transplanted with EPO-rMSCs or Tet-on EPO-rMSCs was markedly increased, in parallel with the improvement of retinal morphology and function. These findings suggest that rMSCs transplantation could be a new therapy for degenerative retinal diseases since it can protect and rescue RPE and retinal neurons, while EPO gene modification to rMSCs could be an even better option.

  14. Fast spin-echo MR imaging of the eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosten, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Lemke, A.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Bornfeld, N. [Dept. of Ophtalmology, Klinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wassmuth, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Schweiger, U. [Dept. of Radiology, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Terstegge, K. [Dept. of Ophtalmology, Klinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the eye usually includes T2-weighted images both for screening purposes and for characterization of melanoma. Conventional T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) imaging suffers both from long acquisition times and incomplete recovery of the virteous` signal. A fast SE sequence was therefore compared prospectively with conventional sequences in 29 consecutive patients with lesions of the eye. Fast SE images delineated melanoma and other lesions of the eye from vitreous better than conventional T2-weighted images. Image quality and lesion conspicuity were improved on the fast sequence. Whereas melanoma appeared hypointense to vitreous on both types of images, subretinal effusion was hypointense on fast images and hyperintense on conventional T2-weighted images. Ghosting of the globe, which, however, did not decrease diagnostic value, was more pronounced on fast images. Conventional T2-weighted images may be replaced by fast SE images in MR studies of the eye with a gain in lesion conspicuity and significant time saving. (orig.)

  15. DOME-SHAPED MACULA IN MYOPIC EYES: Twelve-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Arias, Luis; Choudhry, Netan; Millan, Eduard; Flores, Ignacio; Rubio, Marcos J; Cobos, Estefanía; García-Bru, Pere; Filloy, Alejandro; Caminal, Josep M

    2017-04-01

    To study the long-term clinical course of dome-shaped macula in myopic eyes and to evaluate treatment efficacy for subretinal fluid (SRF) as a related complication. A retrospective, single-center consecutive case series study was conducted. The authors analyzed myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula in patients who presented for evaluation of decreased vision. Dome-shaped macula was defined as a convexity of the retina-choroidal macular complex seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. All patients were followed for at least 12 months (mean, 25 months). Fluorescein angiography and/or indocyanine green angiography were performed in cases with SRF to rule out choroidal neovascularization. A total of 56 dome-shaped macula eyes from 36 patients were included in the study (bilateral in 55% of patients). Mean patient age was 56.9 ± 13.1 years. The mean spherical equivalent was -9.1 ± 6.0 diopters; 53% of eyes were considered highly myopic (>-6 diopters) and 47% of eyes were mildly myopic. In most cases (37 eyes; 66.1%), the dome-shaped macula was detected on vertical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns. No significant changes (P ≥ 0.1) were observed in mean best-corrected visual acuity or mean central foveal thickness from baseline to final follow-up. Subretinal fluid was present in 29 eyes (51.8%) at baseline, with no differences in best-corrected visual acuity in eyes with and without SRF (P ≥ 0.05). Nineteen of the 29 SRF eyes were treated: 8 underwent low-fluence photodynamic therapy, whereas 7 received bevacizumab, and 4 ranibizumab. No significant differences were found between treated and untreated SRF eyes in best-corrected visual acuity improvement (P ≥ 0.1), or complete resolution of SRF (P ≥ 0.1). Likewise, photodynamic therapy did not yield any significant benefit versus untreated eyes in best-corrected visual acuity or improvement of SRF. Dome-shaped macula is a condition associated with myopic eyes that seems

  16. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Industrial workers should be protected by safety glasses but injuries occur nonetheless. Eye trauma is frequent in homes, farms and backyards where safety glasses are not available. Angle-grinders, metal beating, hammering, fence mending, herding animals, forestry, fire fighting and cutting sugar cane ...

  17. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK if you ask to see their liver! Big as a Ping Pong Ball The eye is about as big as a ping-pong ball and sits in ... of sight! Reviewed by: Jonathan H. Salvin, MD Date reviewed: February 2015 More on this topic for: ...

  18. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can be overcome using cotton tips to retract the eyelids, or lid retractors can be made from bent paper clips (Illustration 1).

  19. Injection compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnogorac Luka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the methods and materials for injection in underground construction, with a focus on the use of new injection compounds for this purpose. The aim is to draw attention to the possibility of applying new materials for injection that are present in the world, which would facilitate the work, significantly shorten time of work and downtime.

  20. Foscarnet Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatment: rash hives swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, or throat difficulty breathing or swallowing chest pain fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat fainting lightheadedness loss of consciousness vomiting diarrhea fever, chills, cough, or other signs ...

  1. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty swallowing or breathing; hoarseness; swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes; hives; rash; itching; fainting; lightheadedness; dizziness; or loss of consciousness. If you experience a severe reaction, your doctor ...

  2. Ibritumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the throat; hives; itching; swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, mouth, or throat; pain in the chest, jaw, arm, back, or neck; confusion; loss of consciousness; fast heartbeat; sweating; pale skin; fast breathing; decreased ...

  3. Correlation between neovascular lesion type and clinical characteristics of nonneovascular fellow eyes in patients with unilateral, neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Marcela; Boddu, Sucharita; Chen, Christine Y; Jung, Jesse J; Mrejen, Sarah; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the association between the type of neovascularization (NV) and the clinical characteristics of nonneovascular fellow eyes in patients with unilateral, neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Eighty-three patients with treatment-naive, unilateral, neovascular age-related macular degeneration were retrospectively analyzed. Neovascular lesions were classified using both fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography as Type 1 (subretinal pigment epithelium), 2 (subretinal), 3 (intraretinal), or mixed NV. The associations between NV lesion type and baseline clinical and imaging characteristics of the fellow eye, including central geographic atrophy, noncentral geographic atrophy, pigmentary changes, soft drusen, cuticular drusen, reticular pseudodrusen, and subfoveal choroidal thickness, were examined. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was defined as thin if thickness was macular degeneration, Type 3 NV had an increased adjusted odds ratio of reticular pseudodrusen (15.361, P macular degeneration, certain nonneovascular features of the fellow eye correlate with the NV lesion composition based on type, as anatomically classified utilizing both fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. Patients with Type 3 NV were more likely to have reticular pseudodrusen and/or thin subfoveal choroidal thickness in the fellow eye compared with those with Type 1 NV. Patients with Type 3 NV also showed a trend toward increased central geographic atrophy in the fellow eye.

  4. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can put on your web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  6. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video ... Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many ...

  9. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  10. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  12. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  14. Influence of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection in scleral buckling surgery for macula-off retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Ahmad; Karkhaneh, Reza; Zamani Amir, Javad; Movassat, Morteza; Azadi, Pejvak

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection on the resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF), and its correlation with visual outcome after scleral buckle (SB) surgery. A prospective consecutive case series was conducted in patients who underwent SB surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) at Farabi Eye Hospital from February 1, 2012 to August 30, 2013. Exclusion criteria included previous ocular surgery (e.g. primary surgical failure) except cataract surgery, recurrent retinal detachment, macular hole, epiretinal membrane, proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C, history of trauma, other retinal diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Patients were assigned to two groups. In group 1, patients received 2 mg of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection at the end of surgery while patients in group 2 received intravitreal balanced saline solution for balancing the intraocular pressure (IOP). Patients were followed up at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months after the surgery by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slitlamp examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) was used at all visits except day 1 after the surgery. Student's t test and χ(2) tests were used for comparisons; p value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Sixty-two eyes of 62 patients were enrolled in the study. There were 33 male patients (53%) and 29 female patients (47%). The average age was 43.8 years (18-72 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 34.7 ± 46.8 days. There were 29 eyes in group 1 and 33 eyes in group 2. Twelve weeks after the operation, 25 patients (40%) had SRF beneath the macula, but there was no significant difference (p = 0.24, χ(2) test) between the two groups. Improvement in BCVA in both groups was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001) but did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.09) apart from week 12, in which the improvement

  15. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... want to decrease the doses of your other medications gradually.Omalizumab injection is not used to treat a sudden attack ... your doctor about the risks of using this medication.Omalizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  16. Elotuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or that had improved after treatment with other medications but later returned. Elotuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Elotuzumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  17. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have, and how well you respond to the medication.You may receive colistimethate injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. If you will be receiving colistimethate injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you ...

  18. Carfilzomib Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on how well your body responds to the medication.Carfilzomib injection may cause a severe or life-threatening reactions ... if you are allergic to carfilzomib, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in carfilzomib injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  19. Vedolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that has not improved when treated with other medications. Vedolizumab injection is in a class of medications called integrin ... to the medication. You may be given other medications to treat reactions to vedolizumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse immediately if you ...

  20. Leucovorin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Leucovorin injection is also used to treat anemia (low level ... is also used with 5-fluorouracil (a chemotherapy medication) to treat ... intestine). Leucovorin injection is in a class of medications called folic ...

  1. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  2. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  3. In vitro experiment to elucidate the mechanism of the 'soft shell technique' for preventing subretinal migration of perfluoro-octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Kei; Lu, Yongjie; Czanner, Gabriela; Wu, Jing; Cheng, Ho Ching; Hussain, Rumana; Sakamoto, Taiji; Shum, Ho Cheung; Wong, David

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) can migrate into subretinal space in detached and stiffened retina with open holes during vitreoretinal surgery. An innovative 'soft shell' technique was introduced to reduce the complication using hyaluronate (HA) to 'cover' the retinal hole. This study aims to study the effectiveness of this technique in vitro. Ex vivo porcine retina was mounted on a transwell insert. Beneath the retina was an aqueous solution. Two retinal holes were made using needle punctures. One of the two retinal holes was covered with HA. Perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) was added above the retina incrementally using a syringe pump. The height of PFO required to cause the migration of PFO through the retinal holes was measured. The 'pendant drop' method was carried out to measure the interfacial tensions between the PFO and aqueous, and between PFO and four different concentrations of HA solution. A statistically higher PFO level was required to cause the migration of PFO through the retinal hole with HA coating than without HA coating (Tobit regression with p<0.05). The use of HA was associated with 2.39-fold increase in hydrostatic pressure before the collapse of the PFO interface at the retinal holes. The interfacial tension between PFO and HA solution with concentrations of 0.05%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% were 54.2±0.6, 55.3±0.6, 59.5±1.5 and 68.3±1.3 mN/m, respectively (mean±SD). The interfacial tension between PFO and aqueous with 1% HA coating (68.3±1.3 mN/m) was significantly higher than that without (37.4±3.4 mN/m) (p<0.05). The interfacial tension between HA and PFO is higher than that between aqueous and PFO. This is a plausible physical explanation of how the 'soft shell' technique might work to prevent subretinal migration of PFCL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los Ojos Reviewed ...

  5. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Alex L. C.; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang, Zhexue; Yücel, Yeni H.

    2011-10-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  6. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  7. Neurite Mistargeting and Inverse Order of Intraretinal Vascular Plexus Formation Precede Subretinal Vascularization in Vldlr Mutant Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Johnson

    Full Text Available In the retina blood vessels are required to support a high metabolic rate, however, uncontrolled vascular growth can lead to impaired vision and blindness. Subretinal vascularization (SRV, one type of pathological vessel growth, occurs in retinal angiomatous proliferation and proliferative macular telangiectasia. In these diseases SRV originates from blood vessels within the retina. We use mice with a targeted disruption in the Vldl-receptor (Vldlr gene as a model to study SRV with retinal origin. We find that Vldlr mRNA is strongly expressed in the neuroretina, and we observe both vascular and neuronal phenotypes in Vldlr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, horizontal cell (HC neurites are mistargeted prior to SRV in this model, and the majority of vascular lesions are associated with mistargeted neurites. In Foxn4-/- mice, which lack HCs and display reduced amacrine cell (AC numbers, we find severe defects in intraretinal capillary development. However, SRV is not suppressed in Foxn4-/-;Vldlr-/- mice, which reveals that mistargeted HC neurites are not required for vascular lesion formation. In the absence of VLDLR, the intraretinal capillary plexuses form in an inverse order compared to normal development, and subsequent to this early defect, vascular proliferation is increased. We conclude that SRV in the Vldlr-/- model is associated with mistargeted neurites and that SRV is preceded by altered retinal vascular development.

  8. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... you have recently stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol or if you have or have ever had ...

  9. Oxytocin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  10. Ifosfamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. It may be injected ... for allergies or hay fever; medications for nausea; opioid (narcotic) medications for pain; rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane); sedatives; ...

  11. Furosemide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furosemide injection is used to treat edema (fluid retention; excess fluid held in body tissues) caused by ... fluid in the lungs), kidney, and liver disease. Furosemide is in a class of medications called diuretics (' ...

  12. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lightheadedness fainting change in the amount or color of urine changes in vision feeling confused Pembrolizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  13. Botox Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LEARN logo to transfer to the LEARN Portal Botox Injections The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery recommends persons considering Botox® treatment to: Check the physician’s credentials: The physician ...

  14. Epinephrine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refrigerate epinephrine injection or leave it in your car, especially in hot or cold weather. If the ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  15. Nivolumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivolumab injection is used alone or in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy) to treat certain types of melanoma ( ... has worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Nivolumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  16. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...

  17. Palivizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the skin swelling of the lips, tongue, or face difficulty swallowing difficult, rapid, or irregular breathing bluish-tinged skin, lips, or fingernails muscle weakness or floppiness loss of consciousness Palivizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  18. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  19. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...

  20. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to risperidone ...

  1. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Aripiprazole extended-release injection (Abilify Maintena) is also ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to aripiprazole ...

  2. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to olanzapine ...

  3. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and ofloxacin (Floxin); fluvoxamine (Luvox); omeprazole (Prilosec); and ticlopidine (Ticlid). Your doctor may need ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  4. Pegloticase Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  5. Leuprolide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron Depot) ... itching in women spotting (light vaginal bleeding) or menstruation (periods) decrease in size of testicles decrease in ...

  6. Lixisenatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) to obtain the Medication Guide. ... exenatide (Bydureon, Byetta), liraglutide (Saxenda, Victoza), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lixisenatide injection. Ask your pharmacist or check the Medication Guide ...

  7. Tisagenlecleucel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Tisagenlecleucel injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  8. Meperidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... and during surgery or other medical procedures. Meperidine injection is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing ...

  9. Child With Red Eye and Blurry Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joo Lee; Elkhunovich, Marsha; Rankin, Jessica Hersman

    2017-10-01

    Point-of-care ocular ultrasound can provide the clinician with more information about potential intraorbital and extraocular pathology, especially in cases when direct visualization of the eye is limited. This case report describes the findings in a pediatric patient who presented with a 1-month history of eye injection and worsening blurry vision. After point-of-care ultrasound demonstrated abnormal debris in the posterior vitreous cavity, subsequent evaluation revealed a diagnosis of pars planitis.

  10. Heparin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moisture (not in the bathroom). Do not freeze heparin. It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant ...

  11. Submacular hemorrhage: A study amongst Indian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the management outcomes amongst various treatment modalities for submacular hemorrhage (SMH in Indian subjects. Settings and Design: Retrospective, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with SMH between 1999 and 2006 were included. Treatment modalities included: vitrectomy with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA assisted SMH evacuation (group 1, n = 14; pneumatic displacement with intravitreal r-tPA and gas (group 2, n = 25; and pneumatic displacement with intraocular gas (group 3, n = 7. Favorable anatomical outcome was defined as complete displacement of SMH from fovea and favorable functional outcome was defined as a gain of >2 Snellen lines from the baseline. Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to compare the three groups, while Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used to evaluate the influence of duration and size of SMH on outcomes. Results: There was no difference amongst groups in terms of favorable anatomical (P = 0.121 or functional outcomes (P = 0.611. Eyes with median duration of SMH less than 7.5 days had a significantly higher probability of achieving favorable anatomical outcome compared to eyes with SMH >14.5 days (P = 0.042. However, duration of SMH did not influence functional outcome (P = 0.595. Similarly, size of SMH did not affect anatomical (P = 0.578 or functional (P = 0.381 outcome. Median follow-up was 31.5, 6.5, and 2.5 months in the three groups, respectively. Conclusions: Co- existing posterior segment conditions and duration of SMH may influence the choice of treatment modality and treatment outcomes. Pneumatic displacement with r-tPA and r-tPA assisted vitrectomy appear to be favorable options for the management of SMH.

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ... Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? ...

  17. Foveal hemorrhage in an eye with foveal hypoplasia associated with albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naonori Masuda, Taiji Hasegawa, Mariko Yamashita, Nahoko Ogata Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan Abstract: Oculocutaneous albinism is a group of congenital disorders caused by alterations of melanin biosynthesis. We report our findings in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism who presented with foveal hypoplasia and a foveal hemorrhage. A 48-year-old man noted a dark spot in the middle of the visual field of his right eye. He had depigmented skin, white hair, white eyebrows, and white cilia. He also had horizontal nystagmus and depigmented irides. His best-corrected visual acuity was 2/100 with -14.0 diopters in the right eye and 3/100 with -5.0 diopters in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed diffuse depigmentation in both eyes and a foveal hemorrhage in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography showed the absence of a foveal pit in both eyes and a subretinal hyperreflective lesion corresponding to the foveal hemorrhage in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography showed that the retinal and choroidal vessels were relatively hypofluorescent because of the lack of a blocking effect of the pigments in the retinal pigment epithelium. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography did not show any evidence of choroidal neovascularization in either eye. The foveal hemorrhage in the right eye spontaneously regressed and finally resolved at 3 months after onset. At the final examination, the patient reported that his vision had recovered. A foveal hemorrhage is a rare condition in an eye with foveal hypoplasia associated with albinism. The hemorrhage may be related to high myopia and also to the hypoplasia of the fovea associated with albinism. Keywords: albinism, foveal hemorrhage, foveal hypoplasia, simple hemorrhage

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made ... of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  20. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  1. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  2. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  3. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy for Kids With Rare Eye Disease (Video) Ocular Implant (Video) Glaucoma Additional Content Medical News Eyes, ... has other eye symptoms, such as dryness, increased tear formation, double vision, loss of vision, irritation, or ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ... When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety Tips Sep 25, ...

  5. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to correct a very nearsighted eye may prevent amblyopia (lazy eye). Your eyes must be healthy and ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  7. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  8. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film. How do ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ... Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  12. Liraglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke, or death in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart and blood vessel disease. Liraglutide injection ( ... helps move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for ... appetite and cause weight loss.Over time, people who have diabetes and ...

  13. Obinutuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other chemotherapy medication(s). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells. ... office or hospital. Your doctor will select a schedule to give you obinutuzumab ... certain side effects. Your doctor will give you other medications to ...

  14. Ipilimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (ip'' i lim' ue mab)Ipilimumab injection may cause severe or life-threatening side effects. This includes ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  15. Isavuconazonium Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungal infections such as invasive aspergillosis (a fungal infection that begins in the lungs and spreads through the bloodstream to other organs) and invasive mucormycosis (a fungal infection that usually begins in the sinuses, brain, or lungs). Isavuconazonium injection is in a class of medications ...

  16. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  17. A RESCUE THERAPY FOR PERSISTENT OPTIC DISK PIT MACULOPATHY IN PREVIOUSLY VITRECTOMIZED EYES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Marta S; Nadal, Jeroni; Contreras, Inés

    2018-01-01

    To report the results of vitrectomy with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application and gas tamponade as a rescue therapy in previously vitrectomized eyes with optic disk pit (ODP) maculopathy. Three patients with visual loss due to persistent or recurrent ODP maculopathy who had undergone previous vitrectomy were offered application of PRP. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained by centrifugation of a blood sample from each patient. Surgery consisted of vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling if the membrane had not been already removed (in two eyes). After fluid/air exchange, three drops of PRP were applied on the ODP followed by 8% C3F8 tamponade. Immediately after surgery, the patient remained supine for 30 minutes and then kept a face-down position for 2 weeks. Optic disk pit maculopathy improved as soon as two weeks after surgery and resolved in all eyes between six and eight months after PRP application. Patients were followed up for three years, with no recurrences. Visual acuity remained stable in one eye and improved in two eyes. Vitrectomy with PRP application may be useful as a rescue therapy in patients with refractory ODP maculopathy. Platelet-rich plasma may act by promoting the closure of the communication between the vitreous and the intraretinal/subretinal space at the pit. This treatment may avoid potentially harmful maneuvers that have been used to treat ODP maculopathy.

  18. Exogenous group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following intravitreal ranibizumab injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugu S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Suleyman Kugu,1 Mehmet Sahin Sevim,2 Nilufer Zorlutuna Kaymak,1 Gurkan Erdogan,3 Baran Kandemir,1 Omer Kamil Dogan41Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 2Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 3Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 4World Eye Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: We report a case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal ranibizumab injection for a choroidal neovascular membrane. Pars plana vitrectomy was applied for endophthalmitis and group G Streptococcus cultures were isolated in the vitreous samples taken from the patient. Twenty-four hours following pars plana vitrectomy the patient underwent myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal injection.Keywords: group G Streptococcus, endophthalmitis, intravitreal injection

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both far and near objects. Iris is ... front of your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera ( ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  1. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very high risk. This includes boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.There are several types of common eye injuries in sports.Blunt trauma injuries. These occur when something or someone hits you in or around your eye. A black eye is bruising of your eye, eyelid, or ...

  2. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... to Safer Champagne Celebrations Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Reconociendo las Lesiones de los ...

  3. Treatment of asymmetrical vernal keratoconjunctivitis with supratarsal corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanathanee, Onsiri; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Suwan-apichon, Olan

    2014-11-19

    A 6-year-old Thai girl presented with itching, redness and copious discharge in both eyes. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the left eye revealed cobblestone papillae with marked ptosis while in the right eye only small papillae were observed. Punctuate epithelial keratitis was noted only in the left eye. There were no associated factors for giant papillary conjunctivitis (ie, suture or contact lens). The cobblestone papillae in the left eye persisted after maximal topical and oral antiallergic medications. Two doses of supratarsal corticosteroid (20 mg of triamcinolone acetonide) injection without any topical or oral antiallergic medications were undertaken in the left eye 1 month apart. Cobblestone papillae and punctate epithelial erosion (including allergic symptoms) were completely recovered. There was no recurrence after 18 months of follow-up. This case report indicates that using supratarsal corticosteroid injection by itself in recalcitrant vernal keratoconjunctivitis provides promising results. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Post-implantation impedance spectroscopy of subretinal micro-electrode arrays, OCT imaging and numerical simulation: towards a more precise neuroprosthesis monitoring tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Pascale; Roux, Sébastien; Matonti, Frédéric; Dupont, Florent; Agache, Vincent; Chavane, Frédéric

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown that single-frequency impedance measurements could provide useful information about the distance between the neuroprosthesis and the retina. This work investigates the use of impedance spectroscopy in monitoring subretinal implantations of flexible micro-electrode arrays and focuses on determining what is governing impedance profiles. Approach. In this study, we use impedance spectroscopy together with optical coherence tomography imaging and numerical simulation to quantitatively evaluate the constituent elements of measured impedance. Main results. We show the existence of specific impedance spectrum profiles for retinal detection and retinal detachment that are in good agreement with numerical simulations. These simulations suggest that monopolar impedance is mainly influenced by the subretinal space. Numerical simulations also provide a quantitative prediction of the lateral spread of current density in the vicinity of the measuring contact as a function of retina-electrode distance. Significance. In general, our results point to the need for scanning a large frequency range for impedance measurements since capacitive and resistive regimes are strongly dependent on retina-electrode proximity. We believe that these results will contribute to a better understanding of electrical stimulation in neuroprostheses and ultimately improve their efficiency.

  5. Allogenic iPSC-derived RPE cell transplants induce immune response in pigs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elliott H; Jiao, Chunhua; Kaalberg, Emily; Cranston, Cathryn; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2015-07-03

    Stem cell strategies focused on replacement of RPE cells for the treatment of geographic atrophy are under intense investigation. Although the eye has long been considered immune privileged, there is limited information about the immune response to transplanted cells in the subretinal space of large animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of allogenic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE cells (iPSC-RPE) delivered to the subretinal space of the pig as well as determine whether these cells induce an immune response in non-diseased eyes. GFP positive iPSC-RPE, generated from outbred domestic swine, were injected into the subretinal space of vitrectomized miniature swine. Control eyes received vehicle only. GFP positive iPSC-RPE cells were identified in the subretinal space 3 weeks after injection in 5 of 6 eyes. Accompanying GFP-negative cells positive for IgG, CD45 and macrophage markers were also identified in close proximity to the injected iPSC-RPE cells. All subretinal cells were negative for GFAP as well as cell cycle markers. We found that subretinal injection of allogenic iPSC-RPE cells into wild-type mini-pigs can induce the innate immune response. These findings suggest that immunologically matched or autologous donor cells should be considered for clinical RPE cell replacement.

  6. Tomographic and angiographic characteristics of eyes with macular focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Ryo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ueta, Takashi; Yuda, Kentaro; Kure, Kayo; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    To describe detailed clinical features of eyes with focal choroidal excavation. Twenty-one eyes of 17 patients with focal choroidal excavation were retrospectively studied. All eyes underwent thorough examination including funduscopy, visual field analysis, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and B-scan ultrasonography. Patients' age ranged between 25 years and 70 years. Four patients (24%) were affected bilaterally. Spherical equivalent of refractive error ranged from 0.5 diopters to -10.0 diopters (D). Funduscopic examination showed hypopigmentation (n = 12) and yellowish plaquelike appearances (n = 2). Indocyanine green angiography showed not only filling defects at the excavation (n = 16) but also choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (n = 7) and punctate hyperfluorescent spots (n = 7). Cicatrized subretinal neovascularization was seen in three eyes. The mean follow-up period was 37 months (6-66 months). There was no change in the appearance of excavation. Central serous chorioretinopathy (n = 1) and choroidal neovascularization (n = 1) developed during follow-up. Background factors and ophthalmic findings are similar to those that have been reported previously, including relatively stable findings even after a long observation and the occurrence of central serous chorioretinopathy and choroidal neovascularization. Bilateral cases are not rare in the current cohort, and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability is frequently observed in indocyanine green angiography, suggesting there were choroidal hemodynamic changes around the excavation.

  7. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 12, 2017 Can lupus affect my vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 ... link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye ...

  11. Eye muscle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child may go home. You should have a follow-up visit with the eye surgeon 1 to 2 weeks after the surgery. To prevent infection, you will probably need to put drops or ointment in your child's eyes.

  12. National Eye Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing new therapies. Learn more Learn about the Eye and Vision Our web pages for kids make ... illusions, and more. View the site Video: New Eye Imaging Tools The NEI Audacious Goals Initiative is ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low ... iris adjusts the size of the pupil and controls the amount of light that can enter the ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ... When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines ...

  15. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  16. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many ... make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  19. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye (scratching your cornea, for example) with a mascara wand or other applicator. Even a slight scratch ... containers of eye cosmetics. Manufacturers usually recommend discarding mascara two to four months after purchase. Discard dried- ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services ... 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Follow The Academy ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  3. Cultivating the Third Eye

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holden, Constance

    2005-01-01

    Zoologist Om Prakash Jangir and his colleagues found that if the removed tadpoles' eyes and raised the animals in a medium enriched with vitamin A, a new eye developed within ten days over the site of the pineal gland...

  4. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: Lesiones de los Ojos en ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  6. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include: Mild swelling Saggy or loose skin Dark circles When to see a doctor You may not ... Rochester, Minn., July 22, 2014. Related Chemical peel Dark circles under eyes Bags under eyes Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & ...

  7. Eyes Wide Open

    OpenAIRE

    Zoi Manesi; Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2016-01-01

    Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory...

  8. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  10. Common eye emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... Common eye emergencies may present as an acute red eye, sudden visual loss or acute ocular trauma. Most eye emergencies will require referral to an ophthalmologist after initial basic examination and primary management. A relevant history of onset and symptoms of the current problem must be ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News ... For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2017 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery ... Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  12. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  13. Eye Care: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute) Sports and Your Eyes (National Eye Institute) Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Eye Care updates by email What's this? GO Related Health Topics Eye Diseases Eye Infections Eye Injuries Eye Wear ...

  14. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  15. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  16. Clinical and histological findings after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) in a porcine model of choroidal neovascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Scherfig, Erik

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of intravitreally injected bevacizumab (Avastin) on the histological and angiographic morphology of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a masked and placebo-controlled animal study. METHODS: Choroidal neovascularization was induced surgically in 11 porcine eyes...... leaking on FA, whereas only one of five bevacizumab-injected eyes exhibited leakage. On histological examination, all 11 eyes contained CNV membranes of similar size, regardless of treatment. The number of vascular endothelial cells was significantly reduced (p = 0.03) in CNV membranes from eyes that had...... been injected with bevacizumab when compared with CNV membranes from placebo-injected eyes. There was a trend towards more retinal pigment epithelium cells (p = 0.16) and fewer glial fibres (p = 0.08) in membranes from bevacizumab-treated eyes compared with placebo-treated eyes. Bevacizumab...

  17. Dispersive Raman spectroscopy for the in vitro identification and quantification of injected vancomycin intra-vitreous

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Roney Carlos; Silveira, LandulfoJr.; Zamuner, Stella Regina; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a study which aimed to quantify the intravitreally-injected vancomycin antibiotic using dispersive Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares multivariate calibration. Eyes of New Zealand rabbits were injected with 5.0 mg vancomycin at different time intervals (8, 24 and 48 h groups). Distilled water was injected into the eyes of rabbits in the control group. The vitreous was then removed from each eyeball, placed into a quartz cuvette and submitted for dispersive Raman s...

  18. Intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a phase 1, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Jeffrey S; Kherani, Saleema; Desai, Shilpa; Dugel, Pravin; Kaushal, Shalesh; Cheng, Seng H; Delacono, Cheryl; Purvis, Annie; Richards, Susan; Le-Halpere, Annaig; Connelly, John; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Varona, Rafael; Buggage, Ronald; Scaria, Abraham; Campochiaro, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Long-term intraocular injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralising proteins can preserve central vision in many patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. We tested the safety and tolerability of a single intravitreous injection of an AAV2 vector expressing the VEGF-neutralising protein sFLT01 in patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This was a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalating study done at four outpatient retina clinics in the USA. Patients were assigned to each cohort in order of enrolment, with the first three patients being assigned to and completing the first cohort before filling positions in the following treatment groups. Patients aged 50 years or older with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and a baseline best-corrected visual acuity score of 20/100 or less in the study eye were enrolled in four dose-ranging cohorts (cohort 1, 2 × 10 8 vector genomes (vg); cohort 2, 2 × 10 9 vg; cohort 3, 6 × 10 9 vg; and cohort 4, 2 × 10 10 vg, n=3 per cohort) and one maximum tolerated dose cohort (cohort 5, 2 × 10 10 vg, n=7) and followed up for 52 weeks. The primary objective of the study was to assess the safety and tolerability of a single intravitreous injection of AAV2-sFLT01, through the measurement of eye-related adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01024998. 19 patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration were enrolled in the study between May 18, 2010, and July 14, 2014. All patients completed the 52-week trial period. Two patients in cohort 4 (2 × 10 10 vg) experienced adverse events that were possibly study-drug related: pyrexia and intraocular inflammation that resolved with a topical steroid. Five of ten patients who received 2 × 10 10 vg had aqueous humour concentrations of sFLT01 that peaked at 32·7-112·0 ng/mL (mean 73·7 ng/mL, SD 30·5) by week 26 with a slight decrease to

  19. Joint Injection/Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Treatments Joint Injection / Aspiration Joint Injections (Joint Aspirations) Fast Facts Joint aspiration is used ... is derived from a joint aspiration or joint injection? Joint aspiration usually is done for help with ...

  20. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  1. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5]. This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5]. This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Hurdle faced in Clinical Translation and its solution: After HCEP transplantation, the eye balls need to be fixed 24- 36 hours facing down, to facilitate the gravity-assisted settling of the cells injected into the anterior chamber on to the endothelium which is possible in animals but difficult in humans. To overcome this hurdle, we used the nanocomposite gel sheet (D25-NC gel sheet developed by Haraguchi [6] as a supporting material to support the HCEP cells during transplantation and the HCEP transplantation using this NC gel sheet was successfully demonstrated in a cadaver bovine's eye cornea [7]. Thus the second step in the 'Eye for eyes' mission was accomplished. The Pilot Clinical study: The study was undertaken in three patients, two suffering from bullous keratopathy and one patient with congenital corneal dystrophy after proper informed consent. The right eye was affected in each

  2. Modern sports eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained paintball players. Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists ...

  7. Flow inside an eye under vitreous surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Daiki; Sakamoto, Shun; Sakakibara, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Vitreous is a clear gel filling the space between crystalline lens and retina in human eye. Under circumstances where the vitreous becomes opaque due to bleeding or other disease, ophthalmologist removes the vitreous from eye by cutting and sucking through a pipe named vitreous cutter, and meanwhile replaces fluid in the eye with a balanced salt solution by injecting it through the infusion port. Jet flow from the infusion port may cause intense flow. Consequently, this may generate a pressure and a shear stress on the retinal wall and possibly lead to the damage of retinal cell. In this study, we visualized the flow inside eye and estimated the shear stress on the retinal wall under the vitreous surgery. Instead of using human eye, we used a spherical shell model simulating human eyeball, and measured the two dimensional distribution of two-component velocity by PIV. Under the condition of Re=66 to 99, which meet in the actual operation, the maximum shear stress reaches 0.4 Pa. This value is insufficient to cause retinal detachment, while any physiological effect on the retinal endothelial cells is still unclear. Flow field under higher Re will be presented in the talk. Supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science under Grant No. 25289026.

  8. Incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy following photodynamic therapy in Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Sharma, Minal; Maitray, Aditya; Bhende, Muna; Gopal, Lingam; Sharma, Tarun; Ratra, Dhanashree; Sen, Parveen; Bhende, Pramod; Rao, Chetan; Susvar, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) following photodynamic therapy (PDT). Medical records of 94 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with PCV who underwent PDT between January 2007 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of PCV was based on clinical features and indocyanine green angiography. Eyes were treated with PDT monotherapy or a combination of PDT plus anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. PDT was performed at (standard [SFPDT] or reduced fluence RFPDT). Ninety-four eyes had 119 PDT treatment sessions (mean: 1.3 sessions). Mean presenting vision was 0.46 ± 0.44 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). Following PDT, ten eyes (11%) of nine patients had hemorrhagic complications such as subretinal hemorrhage (SRH; n = 5), subretinal pigment epithelium (RPE) hemorrhage (n = 1), breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage (BVH; n = 3), and SRH with sub-RPE hemorrhage and BVH (n = 1). Median interval to hemorrhage following PDT was 2 months. Age (P = 0.842), duration of symptoms (P = 0.352), number of laser spots (P = 0.219), and laser spot size (LSS) (P = 0.096) were not significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic complications. Female gender was associated with reduced risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.045). SFPDT was significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.026). The probability of developing hemorrhagic complications in SFPDT group was 0.24 compared to 0.07 in RFPDT group (P = 0.039). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed SFPDT as the only significant risk factor for hemorrhage following PDT (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-24.8, P = 0.03). Mean final vision was 0.61 ± 0.53 logMAR at mean follow-up of 33 months (median = 22 months; range = 2-157 months). Age, LSS, number of laser spots, preexisting hemorrhages, or use of anticoagulants were not associated with increased risk of

  9. Incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy following photodynamic therapy in Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors for hemorrhagic complications in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV following photodynamic therapy (PDT. Methods: Medical records of 94 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with PCV who underwent PDT between January 2007 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of PCV was based on clinical features and indocyanine green angiography. Eyes were treated with PDT monotherapy or a combination of PDT plus anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. PDT was performed at (standard [SFPDT] or reduced fluence RFPDT. Results: Ninety-four eyes had 119 PDT treatment sessions (mean: 1.3 sessions. Mean presenting vision was 0.46 ± 0.44 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR. Following PDT, ten eyes (11% of nine patients had hemorrhagic complications such as subretinal hemorrhage (SRH; n = 5, subretinal pigment epithelium (RPE hemorrhage (n = 1, breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage (BVH; n = 3, and SRH with sub-RPE hemorrhage and BVH (n = 1. Median interval to hemorrhage following PDT was 2 months. Age (P = 0.842, duration of symptoms (P = 0.352, number of laser spots (P = 0.219, and laser spot size (LSS (P = 0.096 were not significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic complications. Female gender was associated with reduced risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.045. SFPDT was significantly associated with increased risk of hemorrhage (P = 0.026. The probability of developing hemorrhagic complications in SFPDT group was 0.24 compared to 0.07 in RFPDT group (P = 0.039. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed SFPDT as the only significant risk factor for hemorrhage following PDT (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1–24.8, P = 0.03. Mean final vision was 0.61 ± 0.53 logMAR at mean follow-up of 33 months (median = 22 months; range = 2–157 months. Conclusion: Age, LSS, number of laser spots, preexisting hemorrhages, or use of anticoagulants

  10. Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Katarina; Schippert, Ruth; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Besch, Dorothea; Cottriall, Charles L; Edwards, Thomas L; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Kiel, Katja; Koitschev, Assen; Kühlewein, Laura; MacLaren, Robert E; Ramsden, James D; Roider, Johann; Rothermel, Albrecht; Sachs, Helmut; Schröder, Greta S; Tode, Jan; Troelenberg, Nicole; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the safety and efficacy of a technically advanced subretinal electronic implant, RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS, in end stage retinal degeneration in an interim analysis of two ongoing prospective clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to describe the interim functional results (efficacy). Methods: The subretinal visual prosthesis RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) was implanted in 15 blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations at four study sites with a follow-up period of 12 months (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01024803 and NCT02720640). Functional outcome measures included (1) screen-based standardized 2- or 4-alternative forced-choice (AFC) tests of light perception, light localization, grating detection (basic grating acuity (BaGA) test), and Landolt C-rings; (2) gray level discrimination; (3) performance during activities of daily living (ADL-table tasks). Results: Implant-mediated light perception was observed in 13/15 patients. During the observation period implant mediated localization of visual targets was possible in 13/15 patients. Correct grating detection was achieved for spatial frequencies of 0.1 cpd (cycles per degree) in 4/15; 0.33 cpd in 3/15; 0.66 cpd in 2/15; 1.0 cpd in 2/15 and 3.3 cpd in 1/15 patients. In two patients visual acuity (VA) assessed with Landolt C- rings was 20/546 and 20/1111. Of 6 possible gray levels on average 4.6 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD, n = 10) were discerned. Improvements (power ON vs. OFF) of ADL table tasks were measured in 13/15 patients. Overall, results were stable during the observation period. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 4 patients: 2 movements of the implant, readjusted in a second surgery; 4 conjunctival erosion/dehiscence, successfully treated; 1 pain event around the coil, successfully treated; 1 partial reduction of silicone oil tamponade leading to distorted vision (silicon oil successfully refilled). The majority of adverse events (AEs

  11. Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Stingl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We assessed the safety and efficacy of a technically advanced subretinal electronic implant, RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS, in end stage retinal degeneration in an interim analysis of two ongoing prospective clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to describe the interim functional results (efficacy.Methods: The subretinal visual prosthesis RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany was implanted in 15 blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations at four study sites with a follow-up period of 12 months (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01024803 and NCT02720640. Functional outcome measures included (1 screen-based standardized 2- or 4-alternative forced-choice (AFC tests of light perception, light localization, grating detection (basic grating acuity (BaGA test, and Landolt C-rings; (2 gray level discrimination; (3 performance during activities of daily living (ADL-table tasks.Results: Implant-mediated light perception was observed in 13/15 patients. During the observation period implant mediated localization of visual targets was possible in 13/15 patients. Correct grating detection was achieved for spatial frequencies of 0.1 cpd (cycles per degree in 4/15; 0.33 cpd in 3/15; 0.66 cpd in 2/15; 1.0 cpd in 2/15 and 3.3 cpd in 1/15 patients. In two patients visual acuity (VA assessed with Landolt C- rings was 20/546 and 20/1111. Of 6 possible gray levels on average 4.6 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD, n = 10 were discerned. Improvements (power ON vs. OFF of ADL table tasks were measured in 13/15 patients. Overall, results were stable during the observation period. Serious adverse events (SAEs were reported in 4 patients: 2 movements of the implant, readjusted in a second surgery; 4 conjunctival erosion/dehiscence, successfully treated; 1 pain event around the coil, successfully treated; 1 partial reduction of silicone oil tamponade leading to distorted vision (silicon oil successfully refilled. The majority of adverse events

  12. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  13. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties ... and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ ...

  17. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El Cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  18. Chemotherapy in eye cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemotherapy in eye cancer. Chemotherapy is one of several treatment strategies used to halt the uncontrolled division, proliferation and unpredictable growth patterns of malignant cells. R Dolland, BSc, MB BCh, FC Ophth (SA). Consultant, St John Eye Hospital, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurosciences, ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions ... of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ...

  2. Understanding pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  3. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  4. LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persistent dry eyes Unstable vision due to medications, hormonal changes, pregnancy, breast-feeding or age Keratitis, uveitis, herpes simplex ... to certain conditions, such as abnormal wound healing, hormonal imbalances or pregnancy. Sometimes this change in vision is due to another eye problem, ...

  5. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician ... Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki ... IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ...

  11. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About ...

  12. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI......). The mean reduction in CFT was 14% (95% CI 4-24%, p = 0.01). Sixteen eyes (48.5%) became devoid of oedema on the last OCT scan. Despite the significant reduction in CFT, the visual acuity remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal ranibizumab can be effective in previously vitrectomized eyes with diabetic...

  13. Beam Injection into RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  14. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein by ...

  15. Pachometry before and after vitrectomy with silicone oil injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Nielsen, N V; Prause, J U

    1999-01-01

    : A progressive central corneal thickening could be demonstrated in both groups. Eyes which received silicone oil showed maximum CCT increase of 0.083 mm (14.1%) 48 hours post operatively. At follow-up CCT had decreased to baseline value in both groups. Silicone oil did not induce CCT changes that were......PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) before and after vitrectomy with injection of silicone oil as vitreous substitution material in order to determine whether silicone oil causes more frequent and/or pronounced corneal decompensation than other substitution materials....... METHODS: CCT was measured by ultrasonic pachometry in 42 eyes. 25 eyes received injection of silicone oil and 17 eyes C3F8, atmospheric air or saline. Measurements were performed 24 hours pre operatively, during anaesthesia pre operatively and 24 hours, 48 hours and five months post operatively. RESULTS...

  16. Ocular complication of intralesional corticosteroid injection of a chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoşal, B M; Zilelioğlu, G

    2003-01-01

    To report a major complication of intralesional corticosteroid injection for the treatment of a chalazion. A 28-year-old woman presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her left eye that developed after corticosteroid injection to her upper eyelid for the treatment of chalazion. The visual acuity was 20/20 in her right and finger counting in her left eye. Anterior segment examination showed an inferior corneal opacity with positive Seidel test and cataract. A soft contact lens was applied to cornea and antibiotic therapy was given to prevent endophthalmitis. Cataract was removed by lens aspiration and a posterior chamber intraocular lens was implanted. After surgery, the visual acuity increased to 20/20 in her left eye. Inadvertent corneal penetration and traumatic cataract are possible and serious complications of intralesional corticosteroid injection.

  17. Adverse drug events leading to emergency department visits at an eye hospital: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Safa; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Gholami, Kheirollah; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate adverse drug events (ADEs) resulting in emergency department visits in an eye hospital. Emergency department visits at Farabi Eye Hospital were assessed for a 7-day period. The patients' eye disorders and drug history were evaluated to detect ADEs. Of 1631 emergency visits, 5 (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.71%) were drug related. Tetracaine eye drops accounted for 4 (80%, 95% CI: 38-96%) cases with corneal involvement. The other case was an intense conjunctival injection due to naphazoline eye drops. ADEs should be considered in differential diagnosis of ocular emergency problems and preventive measure should be considered.

  18. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  19. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  20. Aquaporins in the Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary...... pressure. In the retina, water is transported into the vitreous body and across the retinal pigment epithelium to regulate the extracellular environment and the hydration of the retina. Aquaporins (AQPs ) take part in the water transport throughout the eye....

  1. Principles of pharmacology in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Sahar; Mohamed Ahmed, Abeer H A; Sharma, Garima; Heng, Jacob S; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve; Lockwood, Alastair

    2017-09-02

    The eye is a highly specialized organ that is subject to a huge range of pathology. Both local and systemic disease may affect different anatomical regions of the eye. The least invasive routes for ocular drug administration are topical (e.g. eye drops) and systemic (e.g. tablets) formulations. Barriers that subserve as protection against pathogen entry also restrict drug permeation. Topically administered drugs often display limited bioavailability due to many physical and biochemical barriers including the pre-corneal tear film, the structure and biophysiological properties of the cornea, the limited volume that can be accommodated by the cul-de-sac, the lacrimal drainage system and reflex tearing. The tissue layers of the cornea and conjunctiva are further key factors that act to restrict drug delivery. Using carriers that enhance viscosity or bind to the ocular surface increases bioavailability. Matching the pH and polarity of drug molecules to the tissue layers allows greater penetration. Drug delivery to the posterior segment is a greater challenge and, currently, the standard route is via intravitreal injection, notwithstanding the risks of endophthalmitis and retinal detachment with frequent injections. Intraocular implants that allow sustained drug release are at different stages of development. Novel exciting therapeutic approaches include methods for promoting transscleral delivery, sustained release devices, nanotechnology and gene therapy. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Assessing the cone photoreceptor mosaic in eyes with pseudodrusen and soft Drusen in vivo using adaptive optics imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrejen, Sarah; Sato, Taku; Curcio, Christine A; Spaide, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the cone photoreceptor mosaic in eyes with pseudodrusen as evidenced by the presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) and conventional drusen using adaptive optics (AO) imaging integrated into a multimodal imaging approach. Observational case series. Eleven patients (11 eyes) with pseudodrusen and 6 patients (11 eyes) with conventional drusen. Consecutive patients were examined using near-infrared reflectance (IR) confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and flood-illuminated retinal AO camera of nonconfluent pseudodrusen or conventional drusen. Correlations were made between the IR-SLO, SD-OCT, and AO images. Cone density analysis was performed on AO images within 50 × 50-μm windows in 5 regions of interest overlying and in 5 located between SDD or conventional drusen with the same retinal eccentricity. Cone densities in the regions of interest. The pseudodrusen correlated with subretinal accumulations of material in SD-OCT imaging and this was confirmed in the AO images. Defects in the overlying ellipsoid zone band as seen by SD-OCT were associated with SDD but not conventional drusen. The mean ± standard deviation cone density was 8964 ± 2793 cones/mm(2) between the SDD and 863 ± 388 cones/mm² over the SDD, a 90.4% numerical reduction. By comparison the mean cone packing density was 9838 ± 3723 cones/mm² on conventional drusen and 12,595 ± 3323) cones/mm² between them, a 21.9% numerical reduction. The difference in cone density reduction between the two lesion types was highly significant (P material in multiple imaging modalities. Reduced visibility of cones overlying SDD in the AO images can be because of several possible causes, including a change in their orientation, an alteration of their cellular architecture, or absence of the cones themselves. All of these explanations imply that decreased cone photoreceptor function is possible, suggesting that eyes

  3. A prospective randomized evaluation of topical gatifloxacin on conjunctival flora in patients undergoing intravitreal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jason M; Sanislo, Steven R; Ta, Christopher N

    2009-08-01

    We sought to assess the efficacy of 3-day topical gatifloxacin use in combination with povidone-iodine (PVI) versus PVI alone in eliminating conjunctival bacterial flora in patients scheduled to undergo intravitreal (IVT) injection. Prospective, randomized single-blind clinical trial. We included 129 patients scheduled to undergo 273 IVT injections at California Vitreoretinal Center at Stanford University. Study patients were randomized to self-administration of gatifloxacin drops for 3 days before injection, or no pretreatment antibiotics. Cultures were collected from the bulbar conjunctiva at the injection site and at the corresponding location in the fellow eye before PVI preparation. After topical PVI treatment and immediately before injection, a third culture was obtained at the injection site. Additionally, the injection needle was also cultured after the procedure. Incidence of positive bacterial samples collected from injection site conjunctiva and injection needles. Three-day gatifloxacin use resulted in a significantly lower rate of SeptiChek (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) positive cultures compared with untreated controls (21% vs 48% respectively, P = 0.005). After topical PVI, the rate of positive bacterial cultures in gatifloxacin-treated and control eyes were similar (8% and 4%, respectively; P = 0.324). Although 3-day topical gatifloxacin use is effective in reducing the frequency of conjunctival bacterial growth relative to untreated eyes, antibiotic use confers no additional benefit in combination with PVI than eyes receiving PVI alone. This supports that topical PVI is an effective preinjection monotherapy for infection prophylaxis in the setting of IVT injections.

  4. Magnetic eye tracking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-09-05

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications.

  5. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  6. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ataş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD. Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4% were male and twenty (55.6% were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86. The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7% of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5% of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4% of control eyes (P=0.03. Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2. Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0% isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9% of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes (P=0.44. There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About ...

  8. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your child's routine activities, such as a sport , follow up by investing in an ounce of prevention — protective goggles or unbreakable glasses ... Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Eye Injuries Your Child's Vision What ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications ...

  11. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  12. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can lupus affect my vision? May 27, 2017 Is ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry vision in the morning? ... 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, ... and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI Division ...

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  17. About the Eye

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  18. About the Eye

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  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  7. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please Don’t Shave the Inside ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  10. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... necessary. Another possible consequence may be night blindness. Artificial tears provide relief of symptoms. Vitamin A supplements, ... of the lens of the eye that impairs vision). SUMMARY Although not everyone with Crohn’s disease or ...

  11. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye ... Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2017 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery * Required * First Name: * Last Name: ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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  14. About the Eye

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  15. Using Eye Makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  16. Standard eye exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye ( glaucoma ) using a method called tonometry Color blindness is tested using cards with colored dots that ... Astigmatism (abnormally curved cornea) Blocked tear duct Cataracts Color blindness Corneal abrasion (or dystrophy) Corneal ulcers and infections ...

  17. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at high risk for eye injuries. Baseball Basketball Water Sports Boxing ... Protective Eyewear Fast Facts Everyone should wear protective eyewear. Ordinary prescription glasses, contact lenses, and sunglasses won’t protect you from injuries. ...

  18. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Search Search the NEI Website search NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L ... Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ...

  19. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... of tears or tear film. How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads ... Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety Tips Sep 25, 2012 Follow The Academy Professionals: ...

  1. About the Eye

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  2. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ ...

  3. Get Your Eyes Tested

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    ... blurry or distorted at all distances Presbyopia (“prez-bee-OH-pee-uh”) – a condition that older adults ... sections Take Action! Take Action: Schedule Your Exam Protect your vision. Get regular eye exams so you ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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  5. Eye Injuries at Work

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    ... work. Use machine guarding, work screens or other engineering controls. Use proper eye protection. Wear protective eyewear ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  6. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

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    ... presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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  8. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... of what we see as tears. This layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not ... Last Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  9. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...... are robust to the inclusion of an extensive set of climate and geography controls. Moreover, using a global data set on economic activity for all terrestrial grid cells we show that the link between UVB-R and economic development survives the inclusion of country fixed effect....

  10. Diagram of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...

  11. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...

  12. The Aging Eye

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    ... eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of ...

  13. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  14. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. ... iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both ...

  15. About the Eye

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  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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  17. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the ... now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense ...

  18. Anatomy of the Eye

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    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

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  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... lot of tears. But, sometimes the eyes don’t make enough tears or something affects one or ... preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please Don’t Shave the Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, ...

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  3. About the Eye

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  4. About the Eye

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  5. Incidence of outer retinal tubulation in eyes with choroidal neovascularization under intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiji Takagi,1–3 Michiko Mandai,1,4 Noriko Miyamoto,1,2 Akihiro Nishida,1,2 Yasuhiko Hirami,1,2 Hirofumi Uyama,1,2 Midori Yamamoto,1,2 Masayo Takahashi,1,2,4 Goji Tomita,3 Yasuo Kurimoto1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 2Department of Translational Research, Division of Ophthalmology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 4RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of outer retinal tubulation (ORT among patients with different types of choroidal neovascularization (CNV over time. Materials and methods: In this retrospective chart review, disease type was classified as typical age-related macular degeneration (t-AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP, or myopic CNV (mCNV. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT images were evaluated for the appearance of ORT and subretinal fibrosis and fluid. Furthermore, the association of the presence of ORT with clinical data and OCT findings was investigated. Results: Among the 136 eyes studied, the overall rates of occurrence of ORT were 7.8%, 18.8%, and 31.6% after 12, 24, and 36 months from baseline, respectively. Among patients with t-AMD, RAP, and mCNV, the occurrence of ORT increased soon after the initial visit. In contrast, among patients with PCV, the occurrence of ORT increased slowly over time. Patients with and without ORT – ORT(+ and ORT(- groups, respectively – differed significantly in terms of sex ratio and presence of intraretinal fluid at the initial visit and presence of subretinal fibrosis at 3 years from baseline. The ORT(+ group exhibited lower visual acuity (VA; 0.67±0.43 than that of the ORT(- group (0.41±0.36; P<0.001.Conclusion: The occurrence of ORT tended to increase more slowly

  6. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena

    2016-01-01

    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...

  7. Iron Dextran Injection

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    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... be treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

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    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  9. Co-trimoxazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-trimoxazole injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as infection of the intestine, lungs ( ... younger than 2 months of age. Co-trimoxazole injection is in a class of medications called sulfonamides. ...

  10. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoetin alfa injection is used to treat anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells) in people with chronic ... working over a period of time). Epoetin alfa injection is also used to treat anemia caused by ...

  11. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  12. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated ... out of the spine. Why Get an Epidural Steroid Injection? Narrowing of the spinal passages can occur ...

  14. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B liposomal injection is used to treat fungal infections such as cryptococcal meningitis (a fungal infection of the ... infections in people who cannot receive conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B liposomal injection is in a ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. ... before the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  16. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... adults 18 years of age and older. OnabotulinumtoxinA injection is in a class of medications called neurotoxins. When onabotulinumtoxinA is injected into a ...

  17. Rich catalytic injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veninger, Albert [Coventry, CT

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  18. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection comes in a cartridge to be mixed in ... and vitamin D while you are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue ...

  20. Experience of intravitreal injections in a tertiary Hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinai, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    To find out statistical data regarding intravitreal injections in an outpatient department setup at a tertiary center in Oman. Retrospective chart review. Data collection of patients who underwent intravitreal injections from November 2009 to May 2013 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Throughout a period of 42 months, a total of 711 intravitreal injections were performed. That included 214 patients (275 eyes). Around one-third of the eyes received two injections or more. The injected agents were bevacizumab (59.8%), ranibizumab (32.3%), triamcinolone (7.5%), and very few patients with endophthalmitis received intravitreal antibiotics and antifungal agents. The three most common indications for the injection therapy were diabetic macular edema (50.9%), choroidal neovascularization (24.3%), and retinal vein occlusive diseases (11.5%). Serious adverse events were rare, and they occurred as ocular (0.9% per patient) and systemic (3.3% per patient). There were 42 eyes received intravitreal triamcinolone, and 24% of them developed intraocular hypertension that required only medical treatment. Different intravitreal agents are currently used to treat many ocular diseases. Currently, therapy with intravitreal agents is very popular, and it carries a promising outcome with more efficiency and safety.

  1. Autologous blood injection for marked overfiltration early after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, K; Tsukamoto, H; Masumoto, M; Jian, K; Okada, M; Mochizuki, H; Mishima, H K

    2001-06-01

    After trabeculectomy with mitomycin C, extremely low intraocular pressure (IOP) with excess filtration may cause hypotonous maculopathy in the early postoperative period. We evaluated the effect of injecting autologous blood on reversing early postoperative marked hypotony after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C was performed in 258 eyes between 1994 and 1998. Peribleb autologous blood injection was performed in five eyes in which pressure patches were ineffective in reversing excess filtration. Approximately 0.1 to 0.3 ml of whole unclotted blood was slowly injected at least 3 mm from the edge of the flap using a sterile 27-gauge needle. None of these eyes developed hypotonous maculopathy after injection. After a mean 31-month follow-up, all eyes had well-controlled IOP and visual acuity in three eyes was much improved. Postoperative complications included mild IOP elevation in one eye treated with laser suturelysis, and fibrinous pupillary membrane in one eye. In the early postoperative period, autologous blood injection is effective in reversing excess filtration.

  2. LHC Injection Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2002-01-01

    Injection of nominal beam intensities from the SPS into the LHC must be done under well-controlled conditions since an abnormal state of one or more elements in the LHC could lead to severe damage of LHC machine components. This note proposes some general principles to be applied for injection into the LHC. Firstly, only low intensity beams below damage threshold can be injected into an empty machine. Secondly, high intensity beams can only be injected when some beam is already present in the machine. Procedures for injection and failure scenarios are discussed.

  3. Risk of Extraocular Extension in Eyes With Retinoblastoma Receiving Intravitreous Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jasmine H; Abramson, David H; Ji, Xunda; Shields, Carol L; Teixeira, Luiz F; Schefler, Amy C; Cassoux, Nathalie; Hadjistilianou, Doris; Berry, Jesse L; Frenkel, Shahar; Munier, Francis L

    2017-12-01

    The risk of extraocular extension from injecting chemotherapy into eyes with retinoblastoma is minimally understood; however, understanding this risk is important because of the increasing use of intravitreous chemotherapy. To evaluate the risk of extraocular extension in eyes with retinoblastoma that have received intravitreous chemotherapy injections. This retrospective cohort study was performed in 655 patients at 10 retinoblastoma centers in North and South American, European, Israeli, and Chinese centers. Physicians at the retinoblastoma centers administered more than 120 intravitreous chemotherapy injections in eyes with retinoblastoma from February 1, 1999, through February 28, 2017. Risk of extraocular extension with secondary observational variables, including injection and precautionary techniques. A total of 3553 intravitreous chemotherapy injections (3201 melphalan hydrochloride, 335 topotecan hydrochloride, and 17 methotrexate sodium) were administered to 704 eyes in 655 patients with retinoblastoma (mean [SD] age of patients at the time of the initial injections, 31.6 [11.6] months; 348 male [53.1%]). There were no extraocular tumor events related to prior intravitreous injections. This finding resulted in a calculated proportion of zero extraocular events per eye. According to the rule of 3, the risk is no greater than 0.08% injections. All 10 centers included in this study used at least 2 presumed precautionary injection methods (lowering of intraocular pressure, cryotherapy, ocular surface irrigation, ultrasonic biomicroscopy surveillance of the injection site, and subconjunctival chemotherapy deposition). With use of at least 2 presumed precautionary safety methods, no extraocular extension of tumor events occurred. According to the rule of 3, this finding suggests that the risk is no greater than 0.08% injections.

  4. The frontal eyes of crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf

    2006-12-01

    Frontal eyes of crustaceans (previously called nauplius eye and frontal organs) are usually simple eyes that send their axons to a medial brain centre in the anterior margin of the protocerebrum. Investigations of a large number of recent species within all major groups of the Crustacea have disclosed four kinds of frontal eyes correlated with taxonomic groups and named after them as the malacostracan, ostracod-maxillopodan, anostracan, and phyllopodan frontal eyes. The different kinds of eyes have been established using the homology concept coined by Owen [Owen, R., 1843. Lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, London] and the criteria for homology recommended by Remane [Remane, A., 1956. Die Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik. 2nd ed. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Geest und Portig, Leipzig]. Common descent is not used as a homology criterion. Frontal eyes bear no resemblance to compound eyes and in the absence of compound eyes, as in the ostracod-maxillopodan group, frontal eyes develop into complicated mirror, lens-mirror, and scanning eyes. Developmental studies demonstrate widely different ways to produce frontal eyes in phyllopods and malacostracans. As a result of the studies of recent frontal eyes in crustaceans, it is concluded by extrapolation that in crustacean ancestors four non-homologous frontal eye types evolved that have remained functional in spite of concurrent compound eyes.

  5. Fellow Eye Macular Edema Improvement after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Radiation Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis A. S. Brito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation retinopathy (RR is a progressive, chronic condition directly related to the amount of radiation administered to the retina. We report a 37-year-old patient with medulloblastoma that was treated with external beam radiation and presented to us with bilateral cystoid macular edema. He was treated with monthly bevacizumab injections only in his worst seeing eye. There was a significant improvement in his fellow eye, with marked retinal thickness reduction. Therefore, we present clinical evidence of systemic absorption and fellow eye activity of the drug (bevacizumab. One must be aware of distant side effects after intravitreal injections.

  6. Effect of intralesional 5 fluorouracil injection in primary pterygium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saim; Malik, Sidra; Basit, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine mean change in visual acuity, corneal astigmatism and clinical appearance of pterygium after intralesional injection of 5-Fluorouracil. Methods: This was a Quasi experimental study conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from June 2014 to May 2015. Total 68 eyes of 54 patients were included in the study. Patients were treated by injecting 0.1 ml of 5-FU (5mg) weekly injections for 04 weeks. All the patients underwent ophthalmic clinical examination that included Uncorrected distant visual acuity (UCVA), corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), keratometery with Auto Ref-keratometer (RK-F1, Canon) and slit lamp examination before and 04 weeks after the last injection. Results: Total 68 eyes of 54 patients (18 females and 36 males) were treated with intralesional injection of 5 FU. Out of total, 30 were right eyes while 38 were left eyes. Age of patients ranged from 23 to 53 years with mean age of 39.2 ± 4.90 years. Mean UCVA and corneal astigmatism before treatment were 0.162 ± 0.167 and 2.12 ± 1.53 respectively while the same parameters 04 weeks after last injection of 5 FU were 0.166 ± 0.168 and 1.92±1.45 respectively. The magnitude of induced change in astigmatism was (0.235 ± 1.35). Ninety seven percent of the patients showed improvement in clinical appearance. Conclusion: Intralesional 5-FU injection results in significant clinical and cosmetic improvement of primary pterygium. PMID:27022360

  7. Low power transpupillary thermotherapy with retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide for central exudative chorioretino- pathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of low power transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTwith retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor central exudative chorioretinopathy(CEC.METHODS: Fourteen eyes with idiopathic choroidal neovascularization were treated with retrobulbar injection of TA and performed by low power TTT after one week. Laser parameters were as follows: spot diameter 0.8-3.0mm, low power 120-360mW, time 60 seconds. By 3 to 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity, ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTwere used to observe the curative effects.RESULTS: Visual acuity were improved in 5 eyes(36%, remained stable in 8 eyes(57%and declined in 1 eye(7%after treatment. The macular hemorrhage and exudation were reduced significantly in 12 eyes. FFA showed that the fluorescein leakage ceased or decreased in 7 eyes, unchanged in 5 eyes, and enlarged in 2 eyes. The macular edema of 12 eyes in OCT was reduced unequally.CONCLUSION: Low power TTT combined with retrobulbar injection of TA shows good therapeutic effect on CEC.

  8. Subfoveal fibrosis in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal ranibizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis.......To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis....

  9. Fireworks and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study involving all casualty departments in Trent Region and 81% of the major eye units in UK was performed to determine ocular morbidity from the use of fireworks during 1986. A serious injury was defined as involving admission to hospital and/or intraocular damage. Of all the injuries from fireworks, 16.7% seen at major eye units were serious and were caused by rockets or exploding fireworks (P less than 0.001). Only 53% of all injuries and 12.5% of serious injuries involved children, and in contrast to the 1950s and early 1960s, young adults appear at greatest risk in the 1980s. Legislation to reduce ocular morbidity should concentrate on restricting the use of rockets and exploding fireworks and encouraging the use of suitable eye protection. PMID:3184088

  10. Outcome of cytomegalovirus retinitis in immunocompromised patients without Human Immunodeficiency Virus treated with intravitreal ganciclovir injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Kumari, Neha; Trehan, Amita; Khadwal, Alka; Dogra, Mangat R; Gupta, Vishali; Sharma, Aman; Gupta, Amod; Singh, Ramandeep

    2014-09-01

    To study the outcomes of treatment with intravitreal ganciclovir injection for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients without Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. In this retrospective cohort study, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with CMV retinitis without HIV were noted. Patients received intravitreal ganciclovir injection (2 mg/0.1 ml) alone until quiescence. The outcome measures were time taken for the lesions to heal, number of injections, change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), recurrence of retinitis, occurrence of immune recovery uveitis (IRU) or injection-related complications and retinal detachment (RD). 18 eyes of ten patients (six males) with mean age of 33.7 years from June 2004 to March 2013 were included. Thirteen eyes with active lesions (mean BCVA of 0.51 ± 0.41) received 5.54 ± 3.36 intravitreal ganciclovir injections with complete healing within 1.81 ± 1.25 months. The final BCVA was 0.43 ± 0.52. IRU was observed in six eyes (33.33%) and RD developed in one eye. One eye had recurrence 1 month after stopping ganciclovir injections. The rest of the patients had recurrence-free follow-up at 9.46 ± 12.42 months. Non-HIV patients with CMV retinitis can be successfully treated with intravitreal ganciclovir injection alone, avoiding the systemic side effects of systemic anti-CMV therapy.

  11. Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Miyakoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV keratitis with detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of not only the symptomatic eye but also the contralateral asymptomatic eye by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods: This is a case report. A 63-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with circular corneal ulcer and stromal opacity with infiltration accompanied by mild conjunctival and ciliary injections in the left eye. Bacterial cultures of the corneal scrapings and virus PCR analyses of tear fluid from both eyes were performed. Results: No pathogen was found by bacterial cultures. PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, but positive for VZV. VZV DNA was also detected in the unaffected eye. Based on the diagnosis of VZV keratitis, oral valacyclovir and acyclovir eye ointment were administered to the corneal infected eye. The infected eye was healed and VZV DNA turned negative in the tear fluid of the treated eye after 6 months of treatment; however, VZV DNA was still positive in the tear fluid of the contralateral eye. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of both affected and unaffected eyes in a patient with VZV keratitis. Asymptomatic conjunctival shedding of VZV may continue in the healthy unaffected eye in VZV keratitis patients.

  12. Hollow Prosthetic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Emma

    A new technique to produce hollow prostheses is presented. A small case series of patients utilized standard methods to fabricate hollow ocular prostheses where rehabilitation had proved difficult. This article describes the fabrication and results of hollow ocular prostheses. Each hollow eye was significantly reduced in weight, one-third lighter than the original weight, with the exact size, shape, and volume of the existing solid prosthesis. This simple design significantly reduced the weight of these eyes and revolutionized these patients' rehabilitation. Previously the solid prostheses overburdened the lower eyelids, causing discomfort, irritation, discharge, and reddening, whereas the new lightweight prostheses are unobtrusive, comfortable, and good aesthetically.

  13. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  14. A Case of Sustained Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Multiple Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Matsubara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents are widely used to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD. Although these treatments are effective, multiple injections have recently been recommended to ensure that there is a good long-term prognosis. However, sustained intraocular pressure (IOP elevations have been reported to develop after multiple injections of anti-VEGF agents. We present our findings of a case of uncontrolled and persistent IOP elevation after switching from intravitreal ranibizumab injections to intravitreal aflibercept injections. A 74-year-old Japanese man without a history of glaucoma underwent 22 ranibizumab injections for nAMD and suddenly developed an elevated IOP after the 22nd injection. Although the subsequent medical treatment led to normalization of his IOP, the subretinal fluid under the central fovea remained even after the 25th injection of ranibizumab. Thus, ranibizumab treatment was switched to bimonthly intravitreal aflibercept injections in conjunction with glaucoma medications. His IOP recovered to within the normal range; however, after the 11th aflibercept injection, there was a sudden elevation of his IOP in spite of the continued glaucoma medications. Due to this sustained IOP elevation, his aflibercept injections were suspended for 16 weeks. Because his IOP could not be normalized by a full glaucoma medication regimen, the patient underwent trabeculotomy, which resulted in a lowering of the IOP to normal levels. We conclude that patients who receive serial intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents need to be closely monitored because severe and sustained ocular hypertension can develop.

  15. Anatomical and visual outcomes of ranibizumab injections in retinal pigment epithelium tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kazım Erol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To report the anatomical and visual results in patients diagnosed as having retinal pigment epithelium (RPE tears after receiving ranibizumab injections. Methods: Eyes diagnosed as having RPE tears with a minimum 6-month follow-up were retrospectively evaluated. Each eye was treated with at least three doses of ranibizumab at monthly intervals. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, anterior segment findings, intraocular pressure, and fundus examination results were evaluated during control visits. Color fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiographies, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT images were obtained. The height of pigment epithelial detachment (PED was measured by SD-OCT. Results: Twelve eyes with RPE tears were studied. Nine eyes (75% developed RPE tears during ranibizumab injections for choroidal neovascularization (eight eyes with vascularized PED and one eye with choroidal osteoma, and tears occurred in three eyes before any injections. The median number of ranibizumab injections after diagnosis of RPE tears was 3 (min 2, max 5. In the most recent follow-up visit, there was no statistically significant correlation between the grade of RPE and logMAR of BCVA (p>0.05, r=0.112. Eight of twelve eyes had PED, and seven of these had irregular PED contours before injection therapy. The mean PED height was 447 ± 122 µm. Conclusions: In this series, RPE tears developed mostly after intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for vascularized PED. Increased vertical height and irregular contours of the PEDs can be risk factors for the formation of RPE tears. The continuation of anti-VEGF therapy after tear formation is beneficial for vision improvement in eyes with RPE tears.

  16. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    DHE-45® Injection ... to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you may spray or inject ... home.If you are using the solution for injection, you should never reuse syringes. Dispose of syringes ...

  17. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Jun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical curative effect of intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG.METHODS:Totally 25 eyes of 25 patients with NVG who underwent intravitreal Bevacizumab injection of 1.0mg(0.05mL, after the regression of iris neovascularization, 5 eyes with anterior chamber paracentesis fluid auxiliary controlled intraocular pressure. After 2wk, patients were treated by trabeculectomy and phacomulsification(9 eyes were implanted intraocular lens. The changes and complications of intraocular pressure, visual acuity, corneas and neovessels were observed after surgery, and followed up 12mo.RESULTS:After injection Bevacizumab in 25 eyes, iris neovascularization of 20 eyes subsided in 3~5d, and 5 eyes subsided in 7d. After controlling intraocular pressure, count of the corneal endothelial cell were 1 629±226mm2, and none suffered decompensation of corneal endothelium after two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification. After followed up 12mo, intraocular pressure of 20 eyes were controlled in normal range; 2 eyes could control in normal range after treated by a kind of anti-glaucoma medicine and 3 eyes was 34~38mmHg after treated by anti-glaucoma medicine. 9 eyes had improved vision after implanted intraocular lens.CONCLUSION:Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection can subside iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization effectively in a short time and reduce intraocular pressure. It can also reduce the risk of bleeding during operation or after operation. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined with two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification can treat neovascular glaucoma effectively.

  18. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  19. Clinical and histological findings after intravitreal injection of bevacizumsb (Avastin®) in a porcine model of choroidal neovascularisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Scherfig, Erik

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of intravitreally injected bevacizumab (Avastin) on the histological and angiographic morphology of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a masked and placebo-controlled animal study. METHODS: Choroidal neovascularization was induced surgically in 11 porcine eyes...... leaking on FA, whereas only one of five bevacizumab-injected eyes exhibited leakage. On histological examination, all 11 eyes contained CNV membranes of similar size, regardless of treatment. The number of vascular endothelial cells was significantly reduced (p = 0.03) in CNV membranes from eyes that had...

  20. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  1. EXPERIMENTAL VISUALIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF VITREOUS CONTAMINATION FOLLOWING INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashizuka, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Jun; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yuzawa, Mitsuko

    2016-10-01

    To detect and quantify vitreous contamination after intravitreal injection using an experimental vitreous contamination model. Enucleated porcine eyes served as a Type 1 experimental vitreous contamination model with fluoresbrite carboxylate microspheres applied to the conjunctival surface. Saline solution (0.05 mL) was injected using a 27-, 30-, or 32-gauge (G) needle. Injection procedures were monitored using an intraocular fiber catheter. Condensed microspheres were applied to an excised sheet of porcine sclera (Type 2 experimental vitreous contamination model). Saline solution (0.05 mL) was injected from the top of an applied condensed microsphere through the sclera using a needle of one of the aforementioned gauges, and samples were then collected. The fluorescence strength of samples was measured using fluorophotometry. We visually detected fluorescent microspheres in 10/10, 9/10, and 9/10 eyes injected with 27-G, 30-G, and 32-G needles, respectively. In the experimental quantification study, values at all needle gauges were significantly higher than those of controls (P contamination directly into the eyes even when a 32-G needle is used. Furthermore, the 27-G needle carries the highest contamination risk.

  2. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Xeomin), onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc), any other medications, cow's milk protein, or any of the ingredients in ... tell your doctor if you have ever had eye or face surgery; or any side effect from ...

  3. NGC6543: Cat's Eye and Bull's Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, B.; Wilson, J. M.

    2000-05-01

    Deep Hubble images of NGC 6543 reveal a series of regularly spaced circular concentric ``rings'' that surround the famous Cat's Eye nebula. The rings seen in the lines of Hα , [O III], and [N II] but not the continuum. These photoionized rings are almost certainly the result of periodic spherical mass pulsations by the nucleus before the Cat's Eye formed. A good fit to the observed Hα surface brightness distribution is obtained if the bubbles were ejected with constant mass, thickness, and ejection velocity. The model can be used to estimate the total mass of the rings, ~ 0.1M⊙ , which lies between that of the core ( ~ 0.05 M⊙ ) and the surrounding halo ( ~ 0.5 M⊙ ). Assuming an ejection speed of 10 km s-1 the interpulse period is 1500 +/- 300 y, the same as the expansion age of the core itself. Hubble images of other planetaries displayed on the poster, IC 418, NGC 7027, and Hubble 5 (a bipolar) show similar sets of multiple concentric rings. Hence, it appears, regular isotropic AGB mass pulses often precede the formation of brighter and more complex PN cores. However, the interpulse time scale, ~ 103 y, is a serious problem for extant models of core thermal pulses and surface pulsations. The cores of PNe seem to form in an abrupt change of mode of mass loss, as predicted by disrputive binary companion merger models. A preprint is available from ftp://ftp.astro.washington.edu/pub/users/balick/6543paper. Financial support from NASA/STScI grant GO 7501 is very gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Eye - foreign object in

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M. Editorial team. Eye Injuries Read more Foreign Bodies Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make the right type of tears or tear film. How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The ... and keeps tears from drying up too quickly. This layer is made in the eye’s meibomian glands . ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect ... Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ...

  10. The ageing eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-10

    Nov 10, 2007 ... form of reading glasses (plus lenses) becomes necessary. If distance corrective lenses are worn then the presbyopic correction may be incorporated as bifocal or multifocal spectacle lenses. If corrected with contact lenses the options include monovision, where one eye is corrected for distance vision and ...

  11. Diabetes - eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000078.htm Diabetes - eye care To use the sharing features on this page, ... medical care in diabetes - 2016: summary of revisions. Diabetes Care . 2016;39:S4-S5. PMID: 26696680 www.ncbi. ...

  12. The eye of Vesalius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laey, Jean J

    2011-05-01

    In the time of Vesalius, knowledge of ocular anatomy was limited. The first description of the anatomy of the eye comes from Democrites, for whom the eye was surrounded by two 'coats', filled with a homogenous fluid. The optic nerve was hollow and the lens was considered to be a postmortem artefact. Until the 15th century AD, medicine was influenced by the writings of Galenus and the model of the eye he proposed was still considered valid, even after Vesalius. According to the Alexandrian tradition, the lens was considered as the seat of visual perception. Although Vesalius rightly deserves the title of father of modern anatomy, his description of ocular anatomy was rudimentary and often incorrect. He described a musculus retractorius bulbi, which is found only in lower mammals, not in primates. The lens, the role of which as an optical device he recognized correctly, was placed too centrally in the eye. The optic nerve was not correctly placed and, following Galenus, Vesalius described only seven cranial nerves. The Galenian concept of ocular anatomy was to endure until the development of the microscope by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Modern ocular anatomy, in fact, can be dated from the works of Zinn. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español ... film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...

  14. Genetics of eye diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vasculature, to the transparent refractive structures of lens and cornea—varied yet complementary in their roles. The field of ophthalmic genetics encompasses this diversity not only in the location and manifestation of different eye diseases but also in the spectrum of genetic causation. While the field has been predom-.

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to ... | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Lead joe.balintfy@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations afh@nei.nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...

  19. [The red eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, A; Gérard, P; Bremer, F

    2014-09-01

    The red eye is a frequent symptom in emergency consultation. The general practitioner should be aware about the sample of possible etiologies. The diseases causing redness are various, sometimes benign but sometimes threatening vision. The most frequent diagnostic hypotheses will be summarized here, as well as the practical methodological elements allowing gross differential diagnosis in the absence of specific instrumentation.

  20. The pediatric red eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa M; Anninger, William

    2014-06-01

    There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The allergic eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several non-infective inflammatory conditions presenting as hypersensitivity reactions may be associated with clinical manifestations of ocular allergy.[2] Typically the anterior segment of the eye is affected, and all four types of hypersensitivity reactions may be involved; either as a single cause, or as an overlap between the ...

  2. Diabetes and the eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... Diabetes causes a wide spectrum of diseases in and around the eye. Diabetic damage is not limited to the lens and retina, but also includes other orbital, ocular and neurological complications. The. WHO estimates that there are 150 million people worldwide living with diabetes, and expects this figure to ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites ... of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women ... Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural ... is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part of the eye behind ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / ... 19, 2013 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy ...

  6. The Learned Eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den Marieke; Eck, van Natasja; Korevaar, Gerbrand; Tummers, Anna; Weststeijn, Thijs

    2005-01-01

    The 'learned eye' or oculus eruditus was a concept used by seventeenth-century writers on painting. It illustrated their view that the ideal artist was not only skilled in painting techniques, but also had knowledge of the history of art and an interest in poetry and literature.In this book,

  7. Pursuit Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  8. A novel multifunctional, intravitreal injection assistant: evaluation and comparison with conventional technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikran G Hovaghimian

    2016-01-01

    It guided the needle at a fixed angle to penetrate the eye either at a distance of 3.5 or 4 mm from the limbus, allowed a stepped injection, ability to simultaneously inject two types of medication, as well as provided a guided controlled paracentesis. It is a multifunctional device, believed to be a worthy addition to the ophthalmological surgical armamentarium.

  9. Incidence of damage to the crystalline lens during intravitreal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carsten H; Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Michels, Stephan; Mennel, Stefan; Schmidt, Jörg C; Helb, Hans-Martin; Hager, Annette; Martinazzo, Mauricio; Farah, Michel E

    2010-10-01

    To report the incidence of traumatic lens injuries as a complication of intravitreal injection at 5 high-volume academic centers. We determined in a retrospective, interventional, multicenter case series the consecutive number of the injections between January 5, 2006 and December 22, 2008 from the injection log books. All injections were performed under sterile conditions in a laying position, 3.5-4.0 mm behind the limbus in an oblique fashion. The main outcome measure was the incidence of lens damage. A total of 32,318 intravitreal injections were performed, and 3 cases of iatrogenic lens damage were reported during 36 consecutive months. All affected eyes were hyperopic. The overall incidence rate of lens injury was 0.006% (2/32,318) for intravitreal injections and 1 during a paracentesis 0.003 (1/32,318). The rate of phakic eyes determined was 67%, and thus, the incidence rate of lens damage in phakic eyes was 0.009% (2/21,653) (95% confidence interval, 0.00%-0.05%). Although there is no agreement regarding the proper intravitreal injection technique, the incidence of traumatic injuries to the crystalline lens was very low in a large series of injected patients in a community setting. The incidence compares favorably with that reported in clinical trials in which much more extensive preinjection preparation was mandated. A good preparation of the surgical incision with proper anesthesia and detailed information of the patient, as well as good anatomical skills of the treating physician, are mandatory to prevent this rare adverse event.

  10. Intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane for the treatment of vitreomacular traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Wan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane(C3F8in releasing vitreomacular traction. METHODS: Twelve eyes of 12 consecutive patients with vitreomacular traction received a single intravitreal injection of 0.3mL 100%(C3F8were retrospectively analyzed. The best corrected vision acuity and the neural epithelium thickness of central macular were observed. RESULTS: One month following treatment, vitreomacular traction was released in 5 eyes(42%, mean final visual acuity(VAimproved 0.04 and mean central foveal thickness decreased by 69μm. The vision acuity before and after treatment were 0.20±0.07, 0.25±0.04 respectively.CONCLUSION: Intravitreal C3F8 injection could offer a minimally invasive alternative to pars plana vitrectomy in patients with vitreomacular traction.

  11. Degenerative effects in rat eyes after experimental ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scarsella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was used to evaluate the degenerative effects on the retina and eye-cup sections after experimental induction of acute ocular hypertension on animal models. In particular, vascular events were directly focused in this research in order to assess the vascular remodeling after transient ocular hypertension on rat models. After local anaesthesia by administration of eye drops of 0.4% oxibuprocaine, 16 male adult Wistar rats were injected in the anterior chamber of the right eye with 15 µL of methylcellulose (MTC 2% in physiological solution. The morphology and the vessels of the retina and eye-cup sections were examined in animals sacrificed 72 h after induction of ocular hypertension. In retinal fluorescein angiographies (FAGs, by means of fluorescein isothiocyanate-coniugated dextran (FITC, the radial venules showed enlargements and increased branching, while the arterioles appeared focally thickened. The length and size of actually perfused vessels appeared increased in the whole superficial plexus. In eye-cup sections of MTC-injected animals, in deep plexus and connecting layer there was a bigger increase of vessels than in controls. Moreover, the immunolocalization of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP revealed its increased expression in internal limiting membrane and ganglion cell layer, as well as its presence in Müller cells. Finally, the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was found to be especially expressed by neurones of ganglion cell layer, both in control and in MTC-injected eyes. The data obtained in this experimental model on the interactions among glia, vessels and neurons should be useful to evaluate if also in glaucomatous patients the activation of vessel-adjacent glial cells might play key roles in following neuronal dysfunction.

  12. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as the sexually transmitted infection called gonorrhea. Women with untreated gonorrhea can pass the bacteria to her baby during ... conjunctivitis is less common than conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms usually include red eye(s) and ...

  13. Disability: recommendations for eye programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, CBM’s Medical Eye Care Advisory Working Group met in Hyderabad, India to discuss the inclusion of people with disabilities in eye care.As a result of these discussions, recommendations were made.

  14. Characteristics and vitreoretinal management of retinal detachment in eyes with Boston keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Petros; Banerjee, Philip J; Wilkins, Mark R; Singh, Mandeep; Eastlake, Karen; Limb, G Astrid; Charteris, David G

    2017-05-01

    To review the incidence and features of vitreoretinal complications of a permanent Boston keratoprosthesis and to report the use and outcomes of 23-gauge vitrectomy to manage vitreoretinal pathology. Retrospective non-comparative, interventional case series. 27 eyes of 27 patients managed with a Boston keratoprosthesis at Moorfields Eye Hospital over a 3-year period. All eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and had at least 6 months follow-up were analysed with a specific focus on the anatomical and histological characteristics of retinal detachment and outcomes of surgery. Anatomical success and characteristics of retinal detachment over the follow-up period. 27 patients underwent Boston keratoprosthesis implantation over the study period. Of these, six (22%) required PPV for retinal detachment which demonstrated a specific pattern of serous elevation with subsequent severe anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The mean follow-up period was 9 months (range 6-14 months). At final follow-up, visual acuity ranged from perception of light to 6/18, and five of six cases had attached retinae under the silicone oil. Histological analysis of a subretinal membrane demonstrated a predominantly glial/retinal pigment epithelium fibrocellular tissue, consistent with PVR. The study showed that retinal detachment complicated by PVR, as demonstrated by the clinical and histological characteristics of this condition, is common in patients undergoing Boston keratoprosthesis. We also showed that 23-gauge vitrectomy can be effectively performed in patients with a permanent prosthesis. Visual acuity often remains poor, despite successful anatomical results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Ischemic necrosis and atrophy of the optic nerve after periocular carboplatin injection for intraocular retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Ingo; Hubbard, G Baker; Kang, Shin J; Aaberg, Thomas M; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2006-08-01

    To report four cases of optic nerve neuropathy in three children treated with periocular carboplatin injections for unilateral or bilateral intraocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective, observational case series. University-based Ophthalmology Practice. Four eyes of three children with retinoblastoma enucleated after nonsuccessful multimodality treatment including periocular carboplatin injections. The enucleated eyes were routinely processed and evaluated by light microscopy. A retrospective chart review of all four cases was performed. Three enucleated eyes (Reese-Ellsworth groups III and VB) were obtained from two children with bilateral multifocal retinoblastoma, and one eye (Reese-Ellsworth group IIB) was harvested from a child with unilateral retinoblastoma. All affected eyes underwent three to seven periocular carboplatin injections before enucleation. Additional treatment modalities included systemic chemotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, transscleral cryotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. Histopathologic evaluation of the enucleated eyes revealed focal areas of ischemic necrosis or atrophy of the optic nerve along with dystrophic calcification and mild inflammation in the surrounding fibrovascular adipose tissue. Periocular injections of carboplatin may be a useful treatment approach in the management of patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma and may minimize systemic side-effects. However, ophthalmologists and pediatric oncologists should be aware of potential marked local complications with periocular carboplatin delivery, including ischemic optic neuropathy. Modifying the injection site/location (for example, subtenon space) or adding other delivery routes adjuncts (for example, fibrin sealant) deserves further study.

  16. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  17. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  18. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eHiggins; Mallorie eLeinenger; Keith eRayner

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...

  19. Multipoint Fuel Injection Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A multipoint fuel injection system includes a plurality of fuel manifolds. Each manifold is in fluid communication with a plurality of injectors arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal axis for multipoint fuel injection. The injectors of separate respective manifolds are spaced radially apart from one another for separate radial staging of fuel flow to each respective manifold.

  20. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated 7/2009 Epidural Steroid Injections (ESIs) are a common method of treating inflammation associated with low back related leg pain, or neck related arm pain. In both of ...