WorldWideScience

Sample records for subproblem patient-to-nurse ratio

  1. Sub-problem Optimization With Regression and Neural Network Approximators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.

    2003-01-01

    Design optimization of large systems can be attempted through a sub-problem strategy. In this strategy, the original problem is divided into a number of smaller problems that are clustered together to obtain a sequence of sub-problems. Solution to the large problem is attempted iteratively through repeated solutions to the modest sub-problems. This strategy is applicable to structures and to multidisciplinary systems. For structures, clustering the substructures generates the sequence of sub-problems. For a multidisciplinary system, individual disciplines, accounting for coupling, can be considered as sub-problems. A sub-problem, if required, can be further broken down to accommodate sub-disciplines. The sub-problem strategy is being implemented into the NASA design optimization test bed, referred to as "CometBoards." Neural network and regression approximators are employed for reanalysis and sensitivity analysis calculations at the sub-problem level. The strategy has been implemented in sequential as well as parallel computational environments. This strategy, which attempts to alleviate algorithmic and reanalysis deficiencies, has the potential to become a powerful design tool. However, several issues have to be addressed before its full potential can be harnessed. This paper illustrates the strategy and addresses some issues.

  2. A sequential quadratic programming algorithm using an incomplete solution of the subproblem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Systems Optimization Lab.; Prieto, F.J. [Universidad `Carlos III` de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Estadistica y Econometria

    1993-05-01

    We analyze sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems that are more flexible in their definition than standard SQP methods. The type of flexibility introduced is motivated by the necessity to deviate from the standard approach when solving large problems. Specifically we no longer require a minimizer of the QP subproblem to be determined or particular Lagrange multiplier estimates to be used. Our main focus is on an SQP algorithm that uses a particular augmented Lagrangian merit function. New results are derived for this algorithm under weaker conditions than previously assumed; in particular, it is not assumed that the iterates lie on a compact set.

  3. Algorithm 873: LSTRS: MATLAB Software for Large-Scale Trust-Region Subproblems and Regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Santos, Sandra A.; Sorensen, Danny C.

    2008-01-01

    A MATLAB 6.0 implementation of the LSTRS method is resented. LSTRS was described in Rojas, M., Santos, S.A., and Sorensen, D.C., A new matrix-free method for the large-scale trust-region subproblem, SIAM J. Optim., 11(3):611-646, 2000. LSTRS is designed for large-scale quadratic problems with one...... at each step. LSTRS relies on matrix-vector products only and has low and fixed storage requirements, features that make it suitable for large-scale computations. In the MATLAB implementation, the Hessian matrix of the quadratic objective function can be specified either explicitly, or in the form...... of a matrix-vector multiplication routine. Therefore, the implementation preserves the matrix-free nature of the method. A description of the LSTRS method and of the MATLAB software, version 1.2, is presented. Comparisons with other techniques and applications of the method are also included. A guide...

  4. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  5. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos

    1993-12-01

    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.

  6. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  7. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  8. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  9. Value-added care: a new way of assessing nursing staffing ratios and workload variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upenieks, Valda V; Akhavan, Jaleh; Kotlerman, Jenny; Esser, Jennifer; Ngo, Myha J

    2007-05-01

    To thoroughly understand the implications of California regulatory staffing ratios on nursing units, the present study examines the relative amounts of time allocated to workload activities among registered nurses. Nursing is a synergistic, intuitive process and may not be capable of being translated into minimum patient-to-nurse ratios that work across an entire region or state. A fundamental step in evaluating the appropriateness of prescribed ratios lies in assessing how registered nurses spend their time while caring for patients. Once workload intensity is assessed, additional factors can be identified to design mandated staffing levels for acute care settings. Variability in workload intensity was assessed using the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation "Transforming Care at the Bedside" work flow methodology approach in evaluating value-added care and assessing the amount of time nurses spent on direct care and other categorical activities. The results revealed a marked variation in the medical-surgical unit compared with the 2 telemetry units regarding the amount of time spent by registered nurses on value-added, necessary, and non-value-added activities, as well as variability in the amount of time that registered nurses spent on direct care, indirect care, documentation, waste, and other activities. By evaluating patient quality of care in acute care settings, we can return to a basic aspect of how nurses spend their time caring for patients-the activities that not only involve direct care but also benefit the patient.

  10. On savings ratio.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochuan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect saving and consumption behaviours, in a context where some believe that the high savings ratio of the East Asia and oil-producing countries is one major cause for the global imbalances and the crisis. The paper elaborates on the factors behind the high savings ratios in East Asia and oil producing countries and low savings ratios in the United States. It argues that the high savings in East Asia can mainly be explained by cultural and structural fac...

  11. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  12. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  13. Gender Ratio in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)

  14. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  15. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  16. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless, the prospect......The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  17. On the Smarandache LCM ratio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A A K Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Two types of the Smarandache LCM ratio functions have been introduced by Murthy [1]. Recently, the second type of the Smarandache LCM ratio function has been considered by Khainar, Vyawahare and Salunke...

  18. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  19. A Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm Using an Incomplete Solution of the Subproblem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Electr6nica e Inform’itica Industrial E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales Universidad Polit6cnica, Madrid Technical Report SOL 90-12 September 1990 -Y...MURRAY* AND FRANCISCO J. PRIETOt *Systems Optimization Laboratory Department of Operations Research Stanford University tDept. de Automitica, Ingenieria

  20. A Heuristic for Decomposing a Problem into a Sequence of Subproblems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    subgoal (is-on a b) will be ivpeded. !his could be redsoned from the followin-" fdCts (possible implementation scheme for Critic-1): - to establish (is-on...elenent cf the sorted list. What rakes this example interesting is the fdCt that the computation of the median depends on the input list having an odd or

  1. The sex ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, E

    1967-10-01

    Several aspects of the disparity in birth ratio of males over females are discussed including variations among different races, variations by order of birth, by age of the parent, and in multiple births. Avenues of statistical exploration are suggested in an attempt to indicate certain peculiarities in nature. The Negro population in the United States has a sex ratio of 102 males to 100 females as opposed to 105:100 for whites, a highly significant difference. Inferences from these statistics are suggested for study of the sex ratios of mixed unions. The group classified as Mulatto show a lower sex ratio and further analysis of this was suggested including examination of slave records. For the white population sex ratio declines from 106.2 to 102.9 between 1st order and 7th order births. This is highly significant. However, nonwhite determinations were more irregular. Data limitations on sex ratio by age of parent prevented conclusive results. Multiple births among whites show a decline from 105.3 for single live births to 103.2 for twins and 86.1 for all other plural deliveries. Among nonwhites these ratios are 102.3, 99.7, and 102.6 respectively. Further information should be developed using the multiple facts relating to the sex ratio at birth.

  2. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  3. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  4. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  5. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2002-04-07

    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested that sex-ratio data offer a relatively cheap and easy method for indirectly estimating inbreeding rates. Here, we exploit a new theoretical machinery to show that there are generally valid relationships between f, Wright's coefficient of inbreeding, and sex ratio, z(*), the generality being with respect to population structure. To focus the discussion, we concentrate on malaria and show that the previously derived result, f = 1 - 2z(*), does not depend on the artificial assumptions about population structure that were previously made. Not only does this justify the use of sex ratio as an indirect measure of f, but also we argue that it may actually be preferable to measure f by measuring sex ratios, rather than by measuring departures from Hardy-Weinberg genotypic proportions both in malaria and parasites more generally.

  6. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F.

    2002-01-01

    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested tha...

  7. Measuring Economies of Size with Expense Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeier, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between three expense ratios: total expense ratio; adjusted total expense ratio; and economic total expense ratio; and discusses economies of size for a sample of Kansas farms. The total expense ratio and the adjusted total expense ratios, though commonly used to examine financial efficiency, are not as good of indicators of economies of size as the economic total expense ratio which includes opportunity costs on unpaid operator and family labor, and farm ...

  8. Odds ratios deconstructed: A new way to understand and explain odds ratios as conditional risk ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Fred M; Hoppe, Daniel J; Walter, Stephen D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this analysis was to provide an alternative derivation of the odds ratio (OR) to provide an intuitive meaning, freeing it from any mention of odds, which may make it a more useful concept for clinicians to use when describing treatment effect. By examining the four possible combinations of treatment/control and corresponding outcomes, we considered the conditional risk ratio (RR, also known as relative risk) of an event with the treatment compared with an event with the control for pairs of patients for whom treatment and control would yield different results. Both matched and unmatched studies are considered. We found that the OR could be derived as the RR of an outcome with treatment compared with an outcome with control conditional on the treatment and control resulting in different outcomes, thus providing a measure of the net benefit of treatment. It has been claimed that the OR comparing the effect of treatment vs. control does not have the same clinical interpretability as RR because it involves ratios of odds and so is difficult to explain in terms of patient numbers. This new derivation provides an interpretation of the OR as an RR but conditional on treatment and control resulting in different outcomes. This may help explain the reason ORs cause interpretation difficulties in practice. Moreover, the OR may be a more clinically useful parameter to patients because it deals with only those situations where the outcome differs between the two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  10. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  11. Improved β Decay Branching Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Golovko, V.

    2008-04-01

    The work we report here aims at increasing the precision possible in the measurement of branching ratios for superallowed β^+decays. Such highly accurate values are essential in generating precise ft-values for 0^+->0^+decays, which can then be used to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix [1]. The required precision is ˜0.1% or better. While this limit was already achieved in the case of ^34Ar [2], it would have been very difficult, if not impossible, to achieve it for other β^+-decays without an upgrade to our acquisition and data-reduction systems. We have thus improved the controls over all the key elements in our experimental set-up: we now have direct control over the dead-time for the singles and coincidence channels and <0.1 mm control over the source-detector distance. In addition, we have extensively studied the efficiency of the β-detector with source-measurements tested against various Monte Carlo programs [3]. We have tested our new acquisition set-up on ^60Co and ^22Na (β^- and β^+ emitters respectively) to validate our new methods. Preliminary results on the two sources are statistically consistent with the expected values. An ^34Ar decay experiment using the new experimental configuration has already been performed and is currently analyzed. [1] J.C. Hardy and I.S. Towner, PRC 71, 055501 (2005) [2] V. Iacob et al., BAPS 52(3)B16; BAPS 52(9)HF3 [3] V. Golovko et al., BAPS 52(9)DH4; this BAPS

  12. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    H. J. MIKKOLA; Ahokas, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 5473% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part ...

  13. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  14. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  15. Spectrophotometry mole ratio and continuous variation experiments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mole-ratio method yield a ratio of 1M : 1L for the silver dithizonate complex and 1M : 3L for cobalt. Employing the continuous variation method give M : L ratio's of 1 : 3 for both nickel and cobalt. Formation constants are readily calculated from absorbance data. Complete methods, data, calculations and outcomes are ...

  16. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  17. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  18. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  19. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang eWu; Anders eWestanmo; Liang eZhou; Junhao ePan

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are bett...

  20. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  1. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    OpenAIRE

    Alexios Arvanitis; Alexandra Hantzi

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchang...

  2. ESTABLISHING THE CARDIOTHORACIC RATIO USING CHEST RA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... The cardiothoracic ratio is therefore expressed as the ratio of the transverse diameter of the heart to the max- imum internal diameter of the thoracic cavity.1,8. De- termination of the heart size including the size of each of the four chambers of the heart is a very important measurement which helps clinicians ...

  3. Estimates of Small Signal/Noise Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    Signal/Noise Ratio Meter measures ratio of signal power to noise power in input that contains both signal and noise. Signal and noise first filtered and normalized in analog circuitry, then digitized and sampled. Performance of SNR meter determined by statistical algorithm chosen for analysis of samples.

  4. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  5. Particle Ratios from Strongly Interacting Hadronic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the particle ratios K+/π+, K-/π-, and Λ/π- for a strongly interacting hadronic matter using nonlinear Walecka model (NLWM in relativistic mean field (RMF approximation. It is found that interactions among hadrons modify K+/π+ and Λ/π- particle ratios, while K-/π- is found to be insensitive to these interactions.

  6. Construction of CCC resistance ratio bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Z.; Jensen, D.H.; Holtoug, J.U. [Danish Institute of Fundamental Metrology, Lynbgy (Denmark)

    1994-12-31

    The paper introduces the cryogenic current comparator (CCC) resistance ratio bridge being built at DFM, which is designed to relate the value of quantized hall resistance R{sub H}(i) to room temperature resistance standards. The CCC is an overlapping tube type with copper wire. A double constant current source is used to supply for the CCC resistance ratio bridge.

  7. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned... associations not meeting the conditions set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, the minimum leverage...

  8. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  9. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  10. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  11. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  12. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  13. CALIPSO lidar ratio retrieval over the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Damien; Rogers, Raymond; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-09-12

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type.

  14. Characteristic ratio assignment in fractional order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Haeri, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the characteristic ratios and generalized time constant are defined for all-pole commensurate fractional order systems. The sufficient condition for stability of these systems in terms of their characteristic ratios is obtained. Also an analytical approach for characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) to have a non-overshooting fast closed loop step response is introduced. The proposed CRA method is then employed to design a fractional order controller. Computer simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the CRA based designed fractional order controllers. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  16. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  17. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  18. KINSHIP INSTITUTIONS AND SEX RATIOS IN INDIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TANIKA CHAKRABORTY; SUKKOO KIM

    2010-01-01

    .... Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South...

  19. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  20. The Sharpe ratio of estimated efficient portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Investors often adopt mean-variance efficient portfolios for achieving superior risk-adjusted returns. However, such portfolios are sensitive to estimation errors, which affect portfolio performance. To understand the impact of estimation errors, I develop simple and intuitive formulas of the squared Sharpe ratio that investors should expect from estimated efficient portfolios. The new formulas show that the expected squared Sharpe ratio is a function of the length of the available data, the ...

  1. Inequalities for q-gamma function ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav

    2017-10-01

    In this work inequalities for the ratios of q-gamma function are obtained which generalize the results obtained independently by Artin, Wendel, Gautschi and Jameson. Using these inequalities bounds for Gaussian binomial coefficients and q-Wallis ratio are derived and Bohr-Mollerup theorem is also proved as applications. The recent methods developed for gamma functions are used in order to obtain main results.

  2. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  3. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  4. Correlation of Waist-Hip-Ratio and Waist-Height-Ratio to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Height ratio(WHtR), could predict cardiovascular disease risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between central obesity measured by waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiovascular ...

  5. Equations to convert compacted crown ratio to uncompacted crown ratio for trees in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Matthew C. Reeves

    2009-01-01

    Crown ratio is the proportion of total tree length supporting live foliage. Inventory programs of the US Forest Service generally define crown ratio in terms of compacted or uncompacted measurements. Measurement of compacted crown ratio (CCR) involves envisioning the transfer of lower branches of trees with asymmetric crowns to fill holes in the upper portion of the...

  6. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  7. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  8. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  9. Optimal aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Bing; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zeng, Yan; Mao, Wei; Hu, Lin; Mao, Zong-Liang; Xu, Hou-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Recent simulations have demonstrated that bioparticle size and shape modulate the process of endocytosis, and studies have provided more quantitative information that the endocytosis efficiency of spherocylindrical bioparticles is decided by its aspect ratio. At the same time, the dimensions of the receptor-ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins within the cellular environment. However, these earlier theoretical works including simulations did not consider the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension on the endocytosis process. Thus, it is necessary to resolve the effects of ligand-receptor complex dimension and determine the optimal aspect ratio of spherocylindrical bioparticles in the process of endocytosis. Accordingly, we proposed a continuum elastic model, of which the results indicate that the aspect ratio depends on the ligand-receptor complex dimension and the radius of the spherocylindrical bioparticle. This model provides a phase diagram of the aspect ratio of endocytosed spherocylindrical bioparticles, the larger aspect ratio of which appears in the phase diagram with increasing ligand density, and highlights the bioparticle design.

  10. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  11. Ultra by-pass ratio engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Masanori; Sugiyama, Shichihisa

    1986-12-10

    A engine where ratio of fan's or propeller's air flow rate to air flow rate through engine combustion chamber is more than 15 is generally named the ultra bypass ratio engine (UBE). This engine employs the exhaust gas from the engine separately to the fan or propeller and jet nozzle exhaust to obtain higher total thrust efficiency. The increase rate of thrust by using UBE is equal to the improvement rate of fuel comsumption. Much efforts are continuously made to develop UBE toward the 21 century by many companies and it is necessary to develop the core engine of high specific output and high heat efficiency, and variable pitch / high aspect ratio fan or propeller and to reseach the integrated system technology. (5 refs, 9 figs)

  12. Referring Patients to Nurses: Outcomes and Evaluation of a Nurse Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Training Program for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Dobrow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a significant health burden. Several screening options exist that can detect colorectal cancer at an early stage, leading to a more favourable prognosis. However, despite years of knowledge on best practice, screening rates are still very low in Canada, particularly in Ontario. The present paper reports on efforts to increase the flexible sigmoidoscopy screening capacity in Ontario by training nurses to perform this traditionally physician-performed procedure. Drawing on American, British and local experience, a professional regulatory framework was established, and training curriculum and assessment criteria were developed. Training was initiated at Princess Margaret Hospital and Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ontario. (During the study, Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre was deamalgamated into two separate hospitals: Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Six registered nurses participated in didactic, simulator and practical training. These nurses performed a total of 77 procedures in patients, 23 of whom had polyps detected and biopsied. Eight patients were advised to undergo colonoscopy because they had one or more neoplastic polyps. To date, six of these eight patients have undergone colonoscopy, one patient has moved out of the province and another patient is awaiting the procedure. Classifying the six patients according to the most advanced polyp histology, one patient had a negative colonoscopy (no polyps found, one patient’s polyps were hyperplastic, one had a tubular adenoma, two had advanced neoplasia (tubulovillous adenomas and one had adenocarcinoma. All these lesions were excised completely at colonoscopy. Overall, many difficulties were anticipated and addressed in the development of the training program; ultimately, the project was affected most directly by challenges in encouraging family physicians to refer patients to the program. As health human resource strategies continue to evolve, it is believed that lessons learned from experience make an important contribution to the knowledge of how nontraditional health services can be organized and delivered.

  13. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  14. Criminalization of Homosexuality and Sex Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activities between consenting adults of the same sex are still criminalized in more than one third of the countries in the world despite a global wave of decriminalization in the past sixty years. This paper empirically investigates the effect of sex ratios, i.e. relative number of men to women, on the criminalization of same-sex sexual conducts. At the individual level, people in high sex ratio countries are found to be more hostile against homosexuality and the homosexuals than their...

  15. Rotor inflow variability with advance ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Danny R.; Althoff, Susan L.; Elliott, Joe W.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study is conducted for the results of inflow calculations based on several analytical wake methods and laser-velocimeter rotor inflow measurements near a rectangular four-bladed rotor system operating in forward flight. The induced-flow characteristics at all advance ratios were found to be unsymmetrical about the longitudinal centerline, with maximum downwash in the rear portion of the disk, and skewed toward the advancing blade-side. Comparisons among analytical methods show that the region of induced upflow over the rotor disk was effectively modeled only at an advance ratio value of 0.15.

  16. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... patients' pain perceptions.[2]. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is relatively new recognized inflammation marker and significant relationship between NLR and outcomes and/or prognosis of many clinical situations including different types of cancers. (colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, esophageal, lung, etc.),.

  17. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  18. Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Trigonometry is a well known branch of Mathematics. The study of trigonometry is of great importance in surveying, astronomy, navigation, engineering, and in different branches of science. This paper reports on the discovery of flaws in the traditional definitions of trigonometric ratios of an angle, which (in most cases) make use of the most…

  19. IKONOS Signal-to-Noise Ratio Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation focuses on the differences in Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) between IKONOS imagery with and without Modulation Transfer Function Correction (MTFC). The researchers used a simulated scene to evaluate the effects of MTFC on SNR. They also used four very uniform IKONOS scenes, two of Antarctica, one of Ivanpah, CA, and one of Mali to estimate SNR.

  20. Measuring Isotope Ratios Across the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Chris R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biology [1]. For the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, for example, the (sup 1)(sup 3)C/(sup 1)(sup 2)C ratio identifies it as a Mars (SNC) meteorite; the ??K/??Ar ratio tells us the last time the rock cooled to solid, namely 4 Gya; isotope ratios in (sup 3)He, (sup 2)(sup 1)Ne and (sup 3)?Ar show it was in space (cosmic ray exposure) for 10-20 million years; (sup 1)?C dating that it sat in Antarctica for 13,000 years before discovery; and clumped isotope analysis of (sup 1)?O(sup 1)(sup 3)C(sup 1)?O in its carbonate that it was formed at 18+/-4 ?C in a near-surface aqueous environment [2]. Solar System Formation

  1. Nonseparating High-Area-Ratio Supersonic Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.; Kassner, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Procedure determines supersonic-nozzle contours that allow higher nozzle-exit wall pressures, reducing chamber pressure without causing wall-flow separation as encountered in optimum large-area-ratio nozzle designs. Procedure applies to chemical-laser nozzles, jet-engine and gas turbines, wind tunnels and rocket nozzles.

  2. Delayed reinforcement and fixed-ratio performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    Effects of delayed reinforcement on fixed-ratio (FR) maintained responding of pigeons were investigated. In Experiments 1-3, the delay of reinforcement was increased across successive sessions until pigeons paused for 300 s. Both signaled and unsignaled delays were studied across different conditions. Overall response rates and run rates (timed from the first to last response of a ratio) decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as delays increased in each experiment. As delays increased, the likelihood of pausing during a ratio run also increased. When these measures were plotted as a function of obtained delays, signaled delays had less of an effect on the above measures than did unsignaled ones. In Experiment 2, delays had a greater effect on the above measures than did a control condition arranging equivalent interreinforcer intervals to those accompanying the delays. Experiments 3 and 4 examined the generality of the effects obtained in the first two experiments. In Experiment 3, delays imposed on FR or yoked-interval schedules had similar behavioral effects. In Experiment 4, effects similar to those found in Experiments 1-3 for 1, 10, and 20-s delays imposed on FR 50 schedules were found when the FR requirement increased across sessions. Despite the different contingencies relating response rate and reinforcement rates on interval and ratio schedules, delays of reinforcement generally affect performance on these schedules similarly. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Mathematical ratio in defining arch form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan A Budiman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The treatment of Class I malocclusion aims to arrange teeth position in a good arch form. The arch form consists of tooth size and arch dimension (intercanine width, canine depth, intermolar width, molar depth. Numerous methods have been used to describe the arch form quantitatively. The aim of this study was to develop a mathematical ratio for identifying arch form (square, oval, tapered using arch dimension variables (intercanine width, canine depth, intermolar width, molar depth. Materials and Methods: Dental cast pre and post-orthodontic treatments from 190 Indonesian patients were scanned to obtain digital data. All data were measured using “Image Tool.” The measured data (tooth size, intercanine width, intercanine depth, intermolar width, intermolar depth, and arch perimeter were analyzed statistically using ordered logistic to find out determining variables to the arch form. Results: The validity, reliability, and normality of all the data were analyzed using Stata. From analyzing the data using ordered logistic, intercanine width and intermolar depth showed a reverse relation to the arch form. The shape of the arch form (square, oval, and tapered can be described quantitatively by using ratio (CD/CW/(MD/MW; a ratio less than 45.30% indicates square, 45.30–53.37% indicates oval, and more than 53.37% indicates tapered. Conclusions: (CD/CW/(MD/MW ratio can be used to describe arch form quantitatively.

  4. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  5. 75 FR 79286 - Designated Reserve Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... withstand a future banking crisis. A 2 percent reserve ratio prior to past crises would ] barely have...: Munsell St. Clair, Chief, Banking and Regulatory Policy Section, (202) 898-8967, Christopher Bellotto... current and future years, including historic experience and potential and estimated losses from insured...

  6. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  7. Handcycling : different modes and gear ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bosmans, I; Bervoets, B; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    2001-01-01

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a straining form of ambulation. In contrast, arm crank exercise in laboratory settings has shown a higher degree of gross mechanical efficiency and increased levels of peak power output. Moreover, arm crank exercise can be conducted at different gear ratios and in

  8. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Colijn, Grant P; Amiot, Volodymyr; Vinish, Erin

    2010-05-23

    Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels) and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive) childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the potential mitigating effect of their partners' income.

  9. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  10. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...

  11. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  12. Signal-to-noise ratio determination circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerkoski, L. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) determination of an input is described, having signal components within a given frequency range and noise components, without actual measurement of the noise components. Bandpass limiter having a constant signal plus noise output level is connected to the output of the first filter, the signal-to-noise ratio of the input to the bandpass limiter being linearly related to the dbm level of signal components at the output. Calibration is connected to the bandpass limiter and is responsive to the signal components at the output to derive the SNR of the input to the determination circuit. The SNR determination circuit is disclosed for use in a diversity receiver having a plurality of input channels.

  13. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  14. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...... of the IVDK and our department. Calculation of RI's and PR's for patch test allergens is of limited value as a measure of quality of the patch test materials, because it predominantly reflects differences in scoring and reading of patch test reactions. Further, questionable reactions (+?) may be clinically...... relevant and very important for the individual patient. Focus on standardization of patch test materials, patch test technique, and reading of patch test reactions is mandatory....

  15. Gyromagnetic ratio of a massive body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Tiomno, J.; Wald, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    It is well known that the gyromagnetic ratio (g factor) of a classical, slowly rotating body whose charge density is proportional to its mass density must be equal to unity. However, if the body is very massive, the spacetime curvature effects of general relativity become important and the result g = 1 is no longer valid. We calculate here the gyromagnetic ratio of a slowly rotating, massive shell with uniform charge density. When the shell is large compared with the Schwarzschild radius we have g = 1, but as the shell becomes more massive the g factor increases. In the limit as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius we obtain g approaching 2 (the same value as for an electron).

  16. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  17. Institutional Environment and Bank Capital Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Alraheb Ab, Tammuz,; Nicolas, Christina; Tarazi, Amine

    2017-01-01

    Please do not quote without the permission of the authors. Abstract We investigate the influence of the institutional environment on bank capital levels. Using a sample of 187 banks operating in the MENA region for the period 2004 to 2014, we find that low corruption levels, high political stability, as well as high economic and financial freedom are associated with higher capital adequacy levels. The effect of institutional factors on bank capital ratios is also more pronounced for conventio...

  18. Polymer squeeze cuts water/oil ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, D.R.

    1973-01-01

    Polymer squeeze techniques have reduced water/oil ratios by 60 to 90% in the Bemis Shutts field of Ellis County, Kans. More than 100 wells have been treated and the success ratio has been extremely high. Not only have W/O ratios been drastically reduced, but a high percentage of the wells has shown a significant increase in oil production. The Bemis Shutts field is divided into 4 sectors: (1) Bemis Shutts with 522 wells; (2) Burnett Sector with 309 wells; (3) Brunnett Southwest Sector with 57 wells; and (4) Walters Sector with 105 wells. Seventy companies or individuals operate these producing wells. Polymer techniques and treatments have progressed at a very rapid pace in the past year. The general stratigraphy including a description of the Arbuckle group, is described. Analyses of water samples will indicate the type, or types, of gypsum deposits and corrosion that are contributing to production problems. Hydrogen sulfide gas in these waters (probably from bacteria) may be causing corrosion.

  19. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Student Obstacles in Ratio and Proportion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andini, W.; Jupri, Al

    2017-02-01

    Ratio and proportion are mathematics topics that are learned in elementary school. In the learning process, teachers often found students who have difficulties in learning these topics. Analysing the difficulties on the topics is important for teachers, as an attempt to doa reflection of the learning process and as a reference in devising a learning plan, including for anticipation of the possibility of these barriers that might appear in the next learning process. This research used as the qualitative method, and involved 49 students of grade 5 and one teacher. From the analysis of the data, i.e., student test results and observation of the learning, we found some obstacles that faced by students, such as students confused in understanding about ratio and proportion topic, students found it difficult in completing the problem which have different contexts, the learning material of ratio and proportion topic that presented in textbooks are still partial (not depth), and the lack of ability of the teacher in creating problems.

  1. Offspring sex ratio of Iranian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Mirdehghan, Seyedeh Reihaneh; Namdari, Mahshid; Bayat, Fariborz

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of occupational factors on the sex ratio of dentists' children. A randomly selected 501 Iranian dentists participated in a telephone interview. The participants were contacted by their mobile number to answer questions about demographic variables (gender, age, marriage status), practice-related variables (year of graduation as general or specialist dentist, years of clinical work, working hours, average number of radiographs taken in a day, and spouse's job), and questions about their children (number, gender and date of birth of each child). Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests served for statistical evaluation. Of all participating dentists, 71 % were men, about two-thirds were 35- to 50-year olds, and 89 % were married. In total, the dentists had 768 children; about 21 % had no child. Of all the children, 54 % were boys (overall sex ratio = 1.17). The offspring sex ratio was 1.13 among male dentists, 1.50 for female dentists, and 1.44 when both parents were dentists. Higher percentages of boys were prevalent among female dentists, younger dentists, and general dental practitioners (p dentists' children in this study. However, the result needs evaluation in further studies.

  2. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2011-01-01

    A family of high aspect ratio nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion systems were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect ratio, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that

  3. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  4. Leptin to adiponectin ratio in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess leptin/adiponectin ratio in preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total leptin and adiponectin were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The one-way ANOVA and Student's t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical calculations. Levels of leptin and adiponectin were also adjusted for BMI. A p-value preeclamsia and imbalance between the adipocytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  5. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  6. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  7. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

    2010-11-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found

  8. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  9. The Log-Ratio Beam Position Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A.

    2002-12-01

    Bergoz Instrumentation has designed a new Log-Ratio Beam Position Monitor (LRBPM). It can be used to measure position of a single short bunch, a bunch train, successive and repetitive (circulating) bunches/trains. The monitor has four parallel channels with band pass filters and logarithmic demodulating high dynamic range amplifiers. The amplifiers detect the envelopes of the RF-bursts brought about by the pickup signals in the filters. Log-ratio processing and conversion of the pickup axes to X,Y is done using a broadband analog technique. The monitor can be used either in a continuous mode, or Sample&Hold or Track&Hold modes. In the last two modes, the LRBPM can be triggered by the beam signal itself. The accuracy limits coming from an inherent demodulator noise, logarithmic nonlinearity, speed of response, etc. of the amplifiers (Analog Devices) are discussed. An accessory developed to determine the LRBPM center offset and resolution with the present beam signals is described.

  10. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vujović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT and male to female transsexuals (MFT and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male’s left hand ratio was lower than in control female’s left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism.

  11. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenen, L P S; Siegel, Joel P

    2015-03-01

    The type of solvent and the volume used to load pheromone components onto rubber septa had significant effects on pheromone release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ratios of synthetic Oriental fruit moth (OFM) pheromone and additional volatile compounds were determined using a gas chromatograph column as a volatile trap for rapid (≤1 hr) analysis from individual rubber septa. Volatile compound solutions were prepared in hexane, pentane, CH2Cl2, and methyl tert-butyl ether, and a 10, 33, or 100 μl aliquot of each solution was applied to rubber septa. Septa loaded with 100 μl of CH2Cl2 emitted significantly (P < 0.05) higher alcohol: acetate (OH:Ac) ratios than septa loaded with the other solvents, which were all similar. Release ratios of the alcohol and acetate components of the OFM pheromone components were assessed over a 3 week period using septa loaded with each solvent. Regardless of loading solvent, the OFM OH:Ac ratios declined logarithmically over 3 weeks; however, the decay slope from septa loaded with CH2Cl2 solutions was different from those of the other three solvents, which were nearly all the same. A high variability in OH:Ac release ratios was measured overall, regardless of the solvent used or the volume it was applied in. Four compounds of near-equal mass: 1-dodecanol, 1-dodecanal, methyl decanoate, and tridecane emitted different release ratios dependent on the solvent, hexane or CH2Cl2, with which a septum was loaded. The more polar and the greater the mass of the test compound, the slower it was emitted from a septum regardless of solvent. These combined results plus comparisons to earlier reports, suggest that researchers should empirically assess the release ratios from septa to be used in bioassays rather than just reporting the type of septum, ratios of compounds applied and solvent used to prepare them.

  12. Root : shoot ratios, optimization and nitrogen productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, Göran I; Franklin, Oskar

    2003-12-01

    Plants respond to nitrogen availability by changing their root : shoot ratios. One hypothesis used to explain this allocation is that plants optimize their behaviour by maximizing their relative growth rate. The consequences of this hypothesis were investigated by formulating two models for root : shoot allocation, with and without explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration. The models also took into account that relative growth rate is a linear function of plant nitrogen concentration. The model without respiration gave qualitatively reasonable results when predictions were compared with observed results from growth experiments with birch and tomato. The explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration improved considerably the agreement between prediction and observation, and for birch was within the experimental accuracy. Further improvements will require additional details in the description of respiratory processes and the nitrogen uptake function. Plants growing under extreme nutrient stress may also optimize their behaviour with respect to other variables in addition to relative growth rate.

  13. High resolution color band pyrometer ratioing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor); Henry, Paul K. (Inventor); LoGiurato, D. Daniel (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The sensing head of a two-color band ratioing pyrometer of a known type using a fiber optic cable to couple radiation to dual detector photodiodes is improved to have high spatial resolution by focusing the radiation received through an objective lens (i.e., by focusing the image of a target area) onto an opaque sheet spaced in front of the input end of the fiber optic cable. A two-mil hole in that sheet then passes radiation to the input end of the cable. The detector has two channels, one for each color band, with an electronic-chopper stabilized current amplifier as the input stage followed by an electronic-chopper stabilized voltage amplifier.

  14. Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D

    2008-07-01

    Conventional sex roles imply caring females and competitive males. The evolution of sex role divergence is widely attributed to anisogamy initiating a self-reinforcing process. The initial asymmetry in pre-mating parental investment (eggs vs. sperm) is assumed to promote even greater divergence in post-mating parental investment (parental care). But do we really understand the process? Trivers [Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871-1971 (1972), Aldine Press, Chicago] introduced two arguments with a female and male perspective on whether to care for offspring that try to link pre-mating and post-mating investment. Here we review their merits and subsequent theoretical developments. The first argument is that females are more committed than males to providing care because they stand to lose a greater initial investment. This, however, commits the 'Concorde Fallacy' as optimal decisions should depend on future pay-offs not past costs. Although the argument can be rephrased in terms of residual reproductive value when past investment affects future pay-offs, it remains weak. The factors likely to change future pay-offs seem to work against females providing more care than males. The second argument takes the reasonable premise that anisogamy produces a male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) leading to males competing for mates. Male care is then predicted to be less likely to evolve as it consumes resources that could otherwise be used to increase competitiveness. However, given each offspring has precisely two genetic parents (the Fisher condition), a biased OSR generates frequency-dependent selection, analogous to Fisherian sex ratio selection, that favours increased parental investment by whichever sex faces more intense competition. Sex role divergence is therefore still an evolutionary conundrum. Here we review some possible solutions. Factors that promote conventional sex roles are sexual selection on males (but non-random variance in male mating success

  15. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  16. Fetal gender ratio in recurrent miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Fabro A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Del Fabro1, Lorenza Driul1, Omar Anis1, Ambrogio P Londero1, Serena Bertozzi2, Livio Bortotto3, Diego Marchesoni11Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Clinic of Surgery, 3Unit of Genetics, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender ratio and incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the products of conception (POC from recurrent miscarriages.Methods: We determined the karyotypes of POC from patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriages between 1999 and 2009.Results: In total, 313 specimens were successfully karyotyped, with a median gestational age of 10 weeks at miscarriage (interquartile range 8–13; 199 (64% were females and 114 (36% were males. In total, 121 (39% had abnormal karyotypes, the most prevalent of which were chromosome 21 and 16 trisomies, triploidy, and monosomy X.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that female POC might be more susceptible to recurrent miscarriages than male ones during embryogenesis, implantation, and initial fetal development.Keywords: fetal gender, recurrent miscarriages, karyotype anomalies

  17. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings-to-investment ratio. 436.21 Section 436.21 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...

  18. Tamil Nadu and the Diagonal Divide in Sex Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBetween 1961 and 2001, India’s 0-6 sex ratio has steadily declined. Despite evidence to the contrary, this ratio is often characterised in terms of a diagonal divide with low 0-6 sex ratios in northern and western India and normal 0-6 sex ratios in eastern and southern India. While

  19. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for a...

  20. Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

  1. [Hemodialysis improves the subendocardial viability ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Antonella; Sirico, Maria; Di Micco, Lucia; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    The subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a parameter introduced by Buckberg, represents a non-invasive measure of myocardial perfusion related to left ventricular work. AIM. The aim of this study was to verify if dialysis may determine modifications of SEVR and how these modifications are modulated in the 2-day interdialytic period. METHODS.We studied 54 subjects of mean age 6314 years and receiving dialysis for 3215 months. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, resistant hypertension and peripheral vascular diseases and intradialytic hypotension evidenced during the study dialysis session. Pulse wave velocity and SEVR assessments were performed during the third dialysis session of the week, before (pre-HD) and after (post-HD) dialysis, in 2-day interdialytic period after and at the beginning of the following dialysis session. RESULTS.Dialysis reduces PWV, in particular the tertile with the lowest PWV presents the highest percentage reduction (-26%) compared with the second and the third tertiles. In the same way, dialysis leads to an increase of SEVR and patients in the tertile with the highest SEVR values maintain high SEVR values during dialysis and in the interdialytic period. Patients with severe vascular calcifications present higher PWV value and lower SEVR value. CONCLUSIONS.The results of present study demonstrate that ultrafiltration improves PWV (with a mean reduction of 16%) and SEVR (increase of 13%) and that the severity of vascular calcifications influences the effect of ultrafiltration on these two parameters. More studies are certainly necessary to verify our findings. Considered the higher mortality of patients with higher SEVR, it would be important to understand if new dialytic strategies are needed in patients with higher PVW and lower SEVR values.

  2. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilke, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Margraf, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  3. Isotope ratio analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, J. M.; Chimiak, L. M.; Dallas, B.; Griep-Raming, J.; Juchelka, D.; Makarov, A.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Several technologies are being developed to examine the intramolecular isotopic structures of molecules (i.e., site-specific and multiple substitution), but various limitations in sample size and type or (for IRMS) resolution have so far prevented the creation of a truly general technique. We will discuss the initial findings of a technique based on Fourier transform mass spectrometry, using the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive GC — an instrument that contains an Orbitrap mass analyzer. Fourier transform mass spectrometry is marked by exceptionally high mass resolutions (the Orbitrap reaches M/∆M in the range 250,000-1M in the mass range of greatest interest, 50-200 amu). This allows for resolution of a large range of nearly isobaric interferences for isotopologues of volatile and semi-volatile compounds (i.e., involving isotopes of H, C, N, O and S). It also provides potential to solve very challenging mass resolution problems for isotopic analysis of other, heavier elements. Both internal and external experimental reproducibilities of isotope ratio analyses using the Orbitrap typically conform to shot-noise limits down to levels of 0.2 ‰ (1SE), and routinely in the range 0.5-1.0 ‰, with similar accuracy when standardized to concurrently run reference materials. Such measurements can be made without modifications to the ion optics of the Q Exactive GC, but do require specially designed sample introduction devices to permit sample/standard comparison and long integration times. The sensitivity of the Q Exactive GC permits analysis of sub-nanomolar samples and quantification of multiply-substituted species. The site-specific capability of this instrument arises from the fact that mass spectra of molecular analytes commonly contain diverse fragment ion species, each of which samples a specific sub-set of molecular sites. We will present applications of this technique to the biological and abiological chemistry of amino acids, forensic identification of

  4. High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redwing, Joan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering; Mallouk, Tom [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mayer, Theresa [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Dickey, Elizabeth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wronski, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-05-17

    The project focused on the development of high aspect ratio silicon heterojunction (HARSH) solar cells. The solar cells developed in this study consisted of high density vertical arrays of radial junction silicon microwires/pillars formed on Si substrates. Prior studies have demonstrated that vertical Si wire/pillar arrays enable reduced reflectivity and improved light trapping characteristics compared to planar solar cells. In addition, the radial junction structure offers the possibility of increased carrier collection in solar cells fabricated using material with short carrier diffusion lengths. However, the high junction and surface area of radial junction Si wire/pillar array devices can be problematic and lead to increased diode leakage and enhanced surface recombination. This study investigated the use of amorphous hydrogenated Si in the form of a heterojunction-intrinsic-thin layer (HIT) structure as a junction formation method for these devices. The HIT layer structure has widely been employed to reduce surface recombination in planar crystalline Si solar cells. Consequently, it was anticipated that it would also provide significant benefits to the performance of radial junction Si wire/pillar array devices. The overall goals of the project were to demonstrate a HARSH cell with a HIT-type structure in the radial junction Si wire/pillar array configuration and to develop potentially low cost pathways to fabricate these devices. Our studies demonstrated that the HIT structure lead to significant improvements in the open circuit voltage (Voc>0.5) of radial junction Si pillar array devices compared to devices fabricated using junctions formed by thermal diffusion or low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). In addition, our work experimentally demonstrated that the radial junction structure lead to improvements in efficiency compared to comparable planar devices for devices fabricated using heavily doped Si that had reduced carrier diffusion

  5. Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing To Deposit Ratio Terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Benget M.

    2011-01-01

    Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah untuk menganalisis Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Operational Efficiency Ratio, Financing to Deposit Ratio terhadap Return On Asset Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia Jenis data yang akan diolah dan diteliti adalah data sekunder berupa laporan keuangan seperti neraca dan laporan laba-rugi serta bahan publikasi lain yang relevan dengan permasalahan yang diteliti. Tahun buku akuntansi yang dipilih adalah tahun buku 2007 sampai dengan t...

  6. 2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar; Muthu, Prathibha K

    2016-12-01

    Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios.

  7. Amplitude ratios in ρ0 leptoproductions and GPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goloskokov S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Using the model results we calculate the ratio of different helicity amplitudes for a transversely polarized proton target to the leading twist longitudinal amplitude. Our results are close to the amplitude ratios measured by HERMES.

  8. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Patrick A.; Lucas, André; Vries, de Casper G.

    1998-01-01

    We advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunctionwith standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle lineardependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial timeseries. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizonssimultaneously, and the

  9. Auditory Discrimination of Frequency Ratios: The Octave Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Damien; Micheyl, Christophe; Semal, Catherine; Dauman, Rene; Demany, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to frequency ratios is essential for the perceptual processing of complex sounds and the appreciation of music. This study assessed the effect of ratio simplicity on ratio discrimination for pure tones presented either simultaneously or sequentially. Each stimulus consisted of four 100-ms pure tones, equally spaced in terms of…

  10. 76 FR 60364 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 700, 701, 702, 725, and 741 RIN 3133-AD87 Net Worth and Equity Ratio AGENCY: National... worth'' and ``equity ratio'' in the Federal Credit Union Act. Through this final rule, NCUA is making... regulation and the definition of ``equity ratio'' as it appears in NCUA's Requirements for Insurance...

  11. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 700, 701, 702, and 741 RIN 3133-AD87 Net Worth and Equity Ratio AGENCY: National... worth'' and ``equity ratio'' in the Federal Credit Union Act. NCUA proposes to make conforming... the definition of ``equity ratio'' as it appears in NCUA's Requirements for Insurance regulation. NCUA...

  12. Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-07-01

    The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

  13. Inferences about ungulate population dynamics derived from age ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N.C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Mills, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Age ratios (e.g., calf:cow for elk and fawn:doe for deer) are used regularly to monitor ungulate populations. However, it remains unclear what inferences are appropriate from this index because multiple vital rate changes can influence the observed ratio. We used modeling based on elk (Cervus elaphus) life-history to evaluate both how age ratios are influenced by stage-specific fecundity and survival and how well age ratios track population dynamics. Although all vital rates have the potential to influence calf:adult female ratios (i.e., calf:xow ratios), calf survival explained the vast majority of variation in calf:adult female ratios due to its temporal variation compared to other vital rates. Calf:adult female ratios were positively correlated with population growth rate (??) and often successfully indicated population trajectories. However, calf:adult female ratios performed poorly at detecting imposed declines in calf survival, suggesting that only the most severe declines would be rapidly detected. Our analyses clarify that managers can use accurate, unbiased age ratios to monitor arguably the most important components contributing to sustainable ungulate populations, survival rate of young and ??. However, age ratios are not useful for detecting gradual declines in survival of young or making inferences about fecundity or adult survival in ungulate populations. Therefore, age ratios coupled with independent estimates of population growth or population size are necessary to monitor ungulate population demography and dynamics closely through time.

  14. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined by...

  15. [Effect of different plant growth regulators on transplanting survival ratio of Haloxylon ammodendron seedling and parasitic ratio of Cistanche deserticola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Ma, Yong-qing; Song, Yu-xia; Shui, Jun-feng; Li, Xiu-wei

    2009-11-01

    To study the effect of different plant growth regulators on the transplanting survival ratio of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings and parasitic ratio of Cistanche deserticola. Different combinations of PDJ and rooting powder were used for rooting soaking with Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings, then the survival ratio of Haloxylon ammodendron and parasitic conditions of Cistanche deserticola were statistical analyzed by SAS software. PDJ had promotable effect on the inoculating survival ratio of Haloxylon ammodendron and the parasitic ratio, parasitic number and size of Cistanche deserticola, but had no significant effect on the transplanting survival ratio. High concentration of PDJ (1 x 10(-5) mol/L) and rooting powder treatment improved the inoculation survival ratio, and low concentration of PDJ (1 x 10(6) mol/L) treatment improved the parasitic ratio of Cistanche deserticola, but PDJ with rooting powder treatment had inhibitive effect on the parasitism of Cistanche deserticola. Principal component analysis showed that the transplanting survival ratio, inoculating survival ratio, parasitic ratio and the parasited number of Cistanche deserticola could be taken to evaluate the effect of different plant growth regulators, and the comprehensive effect was the best with PDJ treatment. Rooting soaking with PDJ can be used to improve the survival ratio of Haloxylon ammodendron seedling and parasitic ratio of Cistanche deserticola.

  16. Activity ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase accurately reflect carbamylation ratios. [Phaseolus vulgaris, Spinacla oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, N.D.; Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Activity ratios and carbamylation ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) were determined for leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Spinacia oleracea exposed to a variety of partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and photon flux densities (PFD). It was found that activity ratios accurately predicted carbamylation ratios except in extracts from leaves held in low PFD. In particular, it was confirmed that the loss of FuBPCase activity in low partial pressure of O{sub 2} and high PFD results from reduced carbamylation. Activity ratios of RuBPCase were lower than carbamylation ratios for Phaseolus leaves sampled in low PFD, presumably because of the presence of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate. Spinacia leaves sampled in darkness also exhibited lower activity ratios than carbamylation ratios indicating that this species may also have an RuBPCase inhibitor even though carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate has not been detected in this species in the past.

  17. Pengaruh Current Ratio Dan Quick Ratio Terhadap Profit Margin Pada PT. Indosat, Tbk Periode 2005-20014

    OpenAIRE

    Sopini, Pupu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the development of the Current Ratio, Quick Ratio and its influence toward the Gross Profit margin on PT. Indosat, Tbk period 2005-2014. The method used is quantitative method with data processing using multiple linear regression statistical formula. Current Ratio progressing fluctuating tends to decrease with an average growth of 9.5%. Quick ratio fluctuates progressing tends to decrease with an average growth of 9.3%. Gross Profit Margin progressing fluctuating ...

  18. A Study on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Engine Speed and Equivalence Ratio on HCCI Combustion of DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio...... was adjusted in steps to find suitable regions of operation, and the effect of engine speed was studied at 1000, 2000 and 3000 RPM. It was found that leaner excess air ratios require higher compression ratios to achieve satisfactory combustion. Engine speed also affects operation significantly....

  19. Sex ratios of Mountain Plovers from egg production to fledging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Riordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.

  20. Combination of carbon isotope ratio with hydrogen isotope ratio determinations in sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Emery, Caroline; Thomas, Andreas; Saugy, Martial; Thevis, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis has been routinely and successfully applied to doping control analysis for many years to uncover the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone. Over the years, several challenges and limitations of this approach became apparent, e.g., the influence of inadequate chromatographic separation on CIR values or the emergence of steroid preparations comprising identical CIRs as endogenous steroids. While the latter has been addressed recently by the implementation of hydrogen isotope ratios (HIR), an improved sample preparation for CIR avoiding co-eluting compounds is presented herein together with newly established reference values of those endogenous steroids being relevant for doping controls. From the fraction of glucuronidated steroids 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol, 3α-Hydroxy-5β-androstane-11,17-dione, 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (ANDRO), 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one (ETIO), 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one (DHEA), 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol (5aDIOL and 5bDIOL), 17β-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one and 17α-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one were included. In addition, sulfate conjugates of ANDRO, ETIO, DHEA, 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one plus 17α- and androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol were considered and analyzed after acidic solvolysis. The results obtained for the reference population encompassing n = 67 males and females confirmed earlier findings regarding factors influencing endogenous CIR. Variations in sample preparation influenced CIR measurements especially for 5aDIOL and 5bDIOL, the most valuable steroidal analytes for the detection of testosterone misuse. Earlier investigations on the HIR of the same reference population enabled the evaluation of combined measurements of CIR and HIR and its usefulness regarding both steroid metabolism studies and doping control analysis. The combination of both stable isotopes would allow for lower reference limits providing the same statistical

  1. The impact of tissue Doppler index E/e' ratio on instantaneous wave-free ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ri, Tonre; Otsuki, Hisao; Nakao, Masashi; Kamishima, Kazuho; Jujo, Kentaro; Minami, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2018-03-01

    The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free, invasive pressure wire index of the functional severity of coronary stenosis and is calculated under resting conditions. In a recent study, iFR was found to be more closely linked to coronary flow reserve (CFR) than fractional flow reserve (FFR). E/e' is a surrogate marker of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and LV diastolic dysfunction. Coronary resting flow was found to be increased in patients with elevated E/e', and higher coronary resting flow was associated with lower CFR. Higher baseline coronary flow induces a greater loss of translesional pressure and may affect iFR. However, no reports have examined the impact of E/e' on iFR. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between iFR and E/e' compared with FFR. We retrospectively examined 103 consecutive patients (142 with stenosis) whose iFR, FFR, and E/e' were measured simultaneously. The mean age, LV mass index, and systolic blood pressure of patients with elevated E/e' were higher than those of patients with normal E/e'. Although no significant differences were observed in mean FFR values and % diameter stenosis, the mean iFR value in patients with elevated E/e' was significantly lower than that in patients with normal E/e'. The iFR was negatively correlated with E/e', while there was no correlation between FFR and E/e'. Multivariate analysis showed that E/e' and % diameter stenosis were independent determinants of iFR. E/e' ratio affects iFR values. Our results suggest that FFR mainly reflects the functional severity of the epicardial stenosis whereas iFR could potentially be influenced by not only epicardial stenosis but also other factors related to LV filling pressure or LV diastolic dysfunction. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence the evaluation of iFR in patients with elevated E/e'. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio and Injury in Glovebox Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Amelia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. Due to the high workload imposed upon the shoulder while working in an industrial glovebox, this study investigated the strength ratio of the rotator cuff muscles in glovebox workers and compared this ratio to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced in the motions of shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios that were significantly different from the healthy norm. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature of glovebox workers in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development.

  3. Financial Ratio and Its Influence to Profitability in Islamic Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Amelia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influence of the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO to Return on Asset (ROA in Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mega. The data analysis method used in this research is multiple regression analysis. From the test results show that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO simultaneously effect to Return on Asset (ROA. Based on the test results of the t statistic was concluded that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF and the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR partially no significant effect to Return on Asset (ROA, while Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO partially significant effect to Return on Asset (ROADOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1700

  4. Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.

  5. Sex ratios in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Salceda Victor M.; Arceo-Maldonado Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Most species show an equal proportion of individuals of both sexes. In diploid species sex ratio is determined by a genic balance between sex chromosomes. In Drosophila sex is determined by the ratio of X- chromosomes versus autosomes and in some species of the genus it is related to the presence of an inversion in the sex chromosome. The present work analyses the sex ratio in 27 natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that inhabit Mexico. Female fl...

  6. Polarization Ratio Determination with Two Identical Linearly Polarized Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Fourier transform analysis of 21 measurements with one of the antennas rotating about its axis a circular polarization ratio is derived which can be... transformed into an equivalent linear polarization ratio. A linearly polarized reference antenna is not required. The technique was verified by...systems the polarization ratio of an an- tenna is of interest for potential frequency / polarization re-use. Newell [1] and Joy [2] developed the three

  7. Exploring the possibilities for stabilizing the sex ratio in India

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava; Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava; Jegadeesh Ramasamy

    2015-01-01

    The sex ratio is an important demographic indicator for a nation. A wide range of adverse social consequences have been observed because of a skewed sex ratio in India. If India as a nation is to achieve the Millennium Development Goal – 3 (which promotes gender equality and ensures the empowerment of women), the primary target should be involve all those involved, so that a collective and comprehensive approach can be developed to counter the public health menace of an asymmetrical sex ratio...

  8. Exploring the possibilities for stabilizing the sex ratio in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Saurabh; SHRIVASTAVA, Prateek; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2016-01-01

    The sex ratio is an important demographic indicator for a nation. A wide range of adverse social consequences have been observed because of a skewed sex ratio in India. If India as a nation is to achieve the Millennium Development Goal – 3 (which promotes gender equality and ensures the empowerment of women), the primary target should be involve all those involved, so that a collective and comprehensive approach can be developed to counter the public health menace of an asymmetrical sex ratio...

  9. Likelihood ratios: Clinical application in day-to-day practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh Rajul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide an introduction to the use of likelihood ratios in clinical ophthalmology. Likelihood ratios permit the best use of clinical test results to establish diagnoses for the individual patient. Examples and step-by-step calculations demonstrate the estimation of pretest probability, pretest odds, and calculation of posttest odds and posttest probability using likelihood ratios. The benefits and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  10. Regulation of the Docosapentaenoic Acid/Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio (DPA/DHA Ratio) in Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Huidong; Chen, Wuxi; Zhao, Minli; Cui, Haiyang; Min, Qingsong; Wang, Haijun; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao

    2017-05-01

    Docosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio (DPA/DHA ratio) in Schizochytrium was relatively stable. But ideally the ratio of DPA/DHA will vary according to the desired end use. This study reports several ways of modulating the DPA/DHA ratio. Incubation times changed the DPA/DHA ratio, and changes in this ratio were associated with the variations in the saturated fatty acid (SFAs) content. Propionic acid sharply increased the SFAs content in lipids, dramatically decreased the even-chain SFAs content, and reduced the DPA/DHA ratio. Pentanoic acid (C5:0) and heptanoic acid (C7:0) had similar effects as propionic acid, whereas butyric acid (C4:0), hexanoic acid (C6:0), and octanoic acid (C8:0) did not change the fatty acid profile and the DPA/DHA ratio. Transcription analyses show that β-oxidation might be responsible for this phenomenon. Iodoacetamide upregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase genes, reduced the DHA content, and improved the DPA content, causing the DPA/DHA ratio to increase. These results present new insights into the regulation of the DPA/DHA ratio.

  11. Seismic Discrimination with Regional Phase Spectral Ratios: Investigation of Transportability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Theron

    1997-01-01

    .... This research developed procedures which could be useful for transporting regional phase spectral ratio discriminant measures by accounting for propagation path effects using prior knowledge of attenuation...

  12. Effect of the Lebanese civil war on sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Musa, Antoine; Usta, Ihab; Hannoun, Antoine; Nassar, Anwar

    2008-01-01

    Sex ratio is a subject of scientific interest but little is known about the factors that affect the sex ratio of humans. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the Lebanese civil war on sex ratio. Data on all live births delivered at a large university hospital for the years 1977-2005 were used in this study. Study periods were defined as wartime (1977-1992) and post-war (1993-2005). The sex ratio in the study time period was calculated as the male proportion, i.e. males/males + females in live-born infants. Sex ratio during the war was compared with that of the post-war period. The sex ratio was similar in the war and post-war period (0.515 versus 0.513; OR = 1.007; 95% CI 0.98-1.04). The annual variation in the sex ratio during the study period did not show any significant change in any of the years. In conclusion, the Lebanese civil war did not cause a detectable change in sex ratio at birth. Factors that might have affected the sex ratio include the nature of the study population (civilians), the variable intensity of war in different periods, and the effect of stress and environmental toxins.

  13. Uniform Silicon Isotope Ratios Across the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Nathaniel N.; Morris, Mark R.; Young, Edward D.

    2017-04-01

    We report the relative abundances of the three stable isotopes of silicon, 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si, across the Galaxy using the v=0,J=1\\to 0 transition of silicon monoxide. The chosen sources represent a range in Galactocentric radii ({R}{GC}) from 0 to 9.8 kpc. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity afforded by the Green Bank Telescope permit isotope ratios to be corrected for optical depths. The optical-depth-corrected data indicate that the secondary-to-primary silicon isotope ratios {}29{Si}{/}28{Si} and {}30{Si}{/}28{Si} vary much less than predicted on the basis of other stable isotope ratio gradients across the Galaxy. Indeed, there is no detectable variation in Si isotope ratios with {R}{GC}. This lack of an isotope ratio gradient stands in stark contrast to the monotonically decreasing trend with {R}{GC} exhibited by published secondary-to-primary oxygen isotope ratios. These results, when considered in the context of the expectations for chemical evolution, suggest that the reported oxygen isotope ratio trends, and perhaps those for carbon as well, require further investigation. The methods developed in this study for SiO isotopologue ratio measurements are equally applicable to Galactic oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen isotope ratio measurements, and should prove useful for future observations of these isotope systems.

  14. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Stable carbon isotope ratios of ambient aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kornilova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of mixing ratios and stable carbon isotope ratios of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC in the atmosphere were made in Toronto (Canada in 2009 and 2010. Consistent with the kinetic isotope effect for reactions of aromatic VOC with the OH radical the observed stable carbon isotope ratios are on average significantly heavier than the isotope ratios of their emissions. The change of carbon isotope ratio between emission and observation is used to determine the extent of photochemical processing (photochemical age,  ∫ [OH]dt of the different VOC. It is found that  ∫ [OH]dt of different VOC depends strongly on the VOC reactivity. This demonstrates that for this set of observations the assumption of a uniform  ∫ [OH]dt for VOC with different reactivity is not justified and that the observed values for  ∫ [OH]dt are the result of mixing of VOC from air masses with different values for  ∫ [OH]dt. Based on comparison between carbon isotope ratios and VOC concentration ratios it is also found that the varying influence of sources with different VOC emission ratios has a larger impact on VOC concentration ratios than photochemical processing. It is concluded that for this data set the use of VOC concentration ratios to determine  ∫ [OH]dt would result in values for  ∫ [OH]dt inconsistent with carbon isotope ratios and that the concept of a uniform  ∫ [OH]dt for an air mass has to be replaced by the concept of individual values of an average  ∫ [OH]dt for VOC with different reactivity.

  16. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on th...

  17. A search for transmission ratio distortions in offspring from crosses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have different genotypes in TRD affecting loci, the total transmission ratio is close to the expected Mendelian ratio and masks potential TRD effects. Highly inbred strains of laboratory mice provide a very good model for studying this phenomenon, because comparing two mice strains is effectively similar as comparison of ...

  18. On efficiency of some ratio estimators in double sampling design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, three sampling ratio estimators in double sampling design were proposed with the intention of finding an alternative double sampling design estimator to the conventional ratio estimator in double sampling design discussed by Cochran (1997), Okafor (2002) , Raj (1972) and Raj and Chandhok (1999).

  19. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  20. The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)

  1. Distribution of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.R.L.; Rao, M.V.; Prasad, P.H.; Reddy, K.G.

    The monthly averages of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean have been computed Three typical situations in the months of January May and September are taken for the present study Month to month differences in the Bowen ratio over the study...

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventory....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... ratio of 2.0, shall be established for each stores using activity. It is recognized, however, that...

  3. Pupil – Teacher Ratio: Implication for Quality Education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, pupil-teacher ratios are very essential to quality of education. They perhaps rank alongside professional knowledge, skill, as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This paper discusses pupil-teacher ratio and relevance that pupils seem to have a greater impact on ...

  4. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  5. A theoretically based determination of bowen-ratio fetch requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, D.I.

    1997-01-01

    Determination of fetch requirements for accurate Bowen-ratio measurements of latent- and sensible-heat fluxes is more involved than for eddy-correlation measurements because Bowen-ratio sensors are located at two heights, rather than just one. A simple solution to the diffusion equation is used to derive an expression for Bowen-ratio fetch requirements, downwind of a step change in surface fluxes. These requirements are then compared to eddy-correlation fetch requirements based on the same diffusion equation solution. When the eddy-correlation and upper Bowen-ratio sensor heights are equal, and the available energy upwind and downwind of the step change is constant, the Bowen-ratio method requires less fetch than does eddy correlation. Differences in fetch requirements between the two methods are greatest over relatively smooth surfaces. Bowen-ratio fetch can be reduced significantly by lowering the lower sensor, as well as the upper sensor. The Bowen-ratio fetch model was tested using data from a field experiment where multiple Bowen-ratio systems were deployed simultaneously at various fetches and heights above a field of bermudagrass. Initial comparisons were poor, but improved greatly when the model was modified (and operated numerically) to account for the large roughness of the upwind cotton field.

  6. Influence of (+)- to (-)-gossypol ratio on Helicoverpa zea larval development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol enantiomer ratios vary considerably among Gossypium species and between different plant tissues. Breeding efforts have focused on the development of germplasm lines with a high (+)- to (-)-gossypol ratio due to the toxicity (-)-gossypol to non-ruminant animals. Interestingly, a previous s...

  7. Determination of Surface Fluxes Using a Bowen Ratio System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point ...

  8. Sex ratio distribution and fecundity of the claroteid catfish Clarotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fecundity was estimated using gravimetric method. Differences in sex ratio distribution were statistically determined by Chi-square (x2), while relationship between length and fecundity, and length and weight were determined by multiple regression analysis. Sex ratio distribution varied greatly with respect to time and space ...

  9. Stable isotope ratios of rain and vapor in 1995 hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, James Robert; Gedzelman, Stanley David; Zhang, Xiaoping; Arnold, Robert

    1998-05-01

    Isotope ratios of rain and vapor samples collected at the surface from four tropical cyclones during the active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season were determined. A two-dimensional bulk microphysics isotope model was applied to steady symmetric tropical cyclones to explain the observed low mean values and inward decrease of isotope ratios of the rain and vapor. The low mean value is caused by the tropical cyclone's relatively large size, longevity, and deep clouds. The inward decrease is due to diffusive isotope exchange between falling rain and converging vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dean, a minimal tropical storm, produced relatively high isotope ratios because of its small size and youth. Rains from the extreme outer edge of Felix, a category 3 hurricane, exhibited high isotope ratios similar to normal summer rain. Isotope ratios of rains and vapors from Hurricane Luis in Puerto Rico decreased as the storm approached. Isotope ratios of rain exhibited an abrupt jump from low values in the eastern half of Puerto Rico to high values farther west which is linked to the storm's rainbands. Isotope ratios of Hurricane Opal's rains reflected the storm's asymmetric structure, with lowest values west of the point of landfall. Record low isotope ratios from a squall line that struck eastern Texas two days before landfall are linked to low-level outflow from Opal and demonstrate that hurricanes can vent enormous quantities of vapor to the surroundings.

  10. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons

  11. Digit ratios, the menstrual cycle and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are partially determined by biological factors. We do this by investigating whether digit ratios (2D:4D) and menstrual cycle information are correlated with choices in ultimatum, trust, public good and dictator games. Digit ratios are thought to be a proxy for

  12. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  13. Computed tomographic bronchioarterial ratio for brachycephalic dogs without pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sungjun; Lee, Ahra; Choi, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycephalic dogs and 15 non-brachycephalic dogs without clinical pulmonary disease were evaluated. The BA ratio of the lobar bronchi in the left and right cranial as well as the right middle, left, and right caudal lung lobes was measured. No significant difference in mean BA ratio was observed between lung lobes or the individual animals (p = 0.148). The mean BA ratio was 1.08 ± 0.10 (99%CI = 0.98~1.18) for brachycephalic dogs and 1.51 ± 0.05 (99% CI = 1.46~1.56) for the non-brachycephalic group. There was a significant difference between the mean BA ratios of the brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic groups (p = 0.00). Defining the normal limit of the BA ratio for brachycephalic breeds may be helpful for diagnosing bronchial disease in brachycephalic dogs.

  14. Effects of Mineral Admixtures, Water Binder Ratio and Curing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the laboratory investigation on the effects of mineral admixtures and water binder ratio on compressive strength is discussed. The study was conducted for three different mineral admixtures namely; FA, SF and Mk with different water cement ratios of 0.32, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.5. The admixture proportion ...

  15. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  16. Isotonic quadriceps-hamstring strength ratios of patients with knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Q/H) ratios of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and apparently healthy control subjects. The relationships between Q/H ratio and each of height, total body weight, age and Quetelet index of both groups were also investigated. Participants in the study were twenty patients with knee OA (13 females and 7 males) and 20 ...

  17. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  18. Introducing errors in progress ratios determined from experience curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2008-01-01

    Progress ratios (PRs) derived from historical data in experience curves are used for forecasting development of many technologies as a means to model endogenous technical change in for instance climate–economy models. These forecasts are highly sensitive to uncertainties in the progress ratio. As a

  19. On the product and ratio of Bessel random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saralees Nadarajah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of products and ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this paper, the exact distributions of the product |XY| and the ratio |X/Y| are derived when X and Y are independent Bessel function random variables. An application of the results is provided by tabulating the associated percentage points.

  20. Sex ratio, gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt, Pomadasys jubelini in the New Calabar-Bonny River were investigated. P. jubelini had a sex ratio of 1: 2.1 (male to female). Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.33 to 7.29% with a mean of 2.89+0.08%. High gonadosomatic ...

  1. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  2. The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan

    Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic

  3. Waist-to-hip ratio, attractiveness and gender discrimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with lower waist-to-hip ratio are considered more attractive to the men. It is suggested that attractiveness is related to the sexual dimorphism of body fat distribution in gluteofemoral region. It is hypothesized that women with lower waist-to-hip ratio provide better energy for pregnancy and lactation; therefore in the ...

  4. Achieving high aspect ratio wrinkles by modifying material network stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Crosby, Alfred J

    2017-06-07

    Wrinkle aspect ratio, or the amplitude divided by the wavelength, is hindered by strain localization transitions when an increasing global compressive stress is applied to synthetic material systems. However, many examples from living organisms show extremely high aspect ratios, such as gut villi and flower petals. We use three experimental approaches to demonstrate that these high aspect ratio structures can be achieved by modifying the network stress in the wrinkle substrate. We modify the wrinkle stress and effectively delay the strain localization transition, such as folding, to larger aspect ratios by using a zero-stress initial wavy substrate, creating a secondary network with post-curing, or using chemical stress relaxation materials. A wrinkle aspect ratio as high as 0.85, almost three times higher than common values of synthetic wrinkles, is achieved, and a quantitative framework is presented to provide understanding the different strategies and predictions for future investigations.

  5. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  6. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  7. A note on Youden's J and its cost ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Niels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Youden index, the sum of sensitivity and specificity minus one, is an index used for setting optimal thresholds on medical tests. Discussion When using this index, one implicitly uses decision theory with a ratio of misclassification costs which is equal to one minus the prevalence proportion of the disease. It is doubtful whether this cost ratio truly represents the decision maker's preferences. Moreover, in populations with a different prevalence, a selected threshold is optimal with reference to a different cost ratio. Summary The Youden index is not a truly optimal decision rule for setting thresholds because its cost ratio varies with prevalence. Researchers should look into their cost ratio and employ it in a decision theoretic framework to obtain genuinely optimal thresholds.

  8. SOLVENCY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU–OLARIU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the solvency ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romania and, in particular, on Timis County. The interest for the solvency ratio was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over 2 paired samples of 1176 companies in total. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the solvency ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.646 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (64.5% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the solvency ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  9. The C-12/C-13 Ratio as a Chemistry Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirstroem, Eva; Geppert, Wolf; Persson, Carina; Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic ratios of elements are considered powerful tools, e.g. in tracing the origin of solar system body materials, or the degree of nucleosynthesis processing throughout the Galaxy. In interstellar molecules, some isotopic ratios like H/D and C-12/C-13 can also be used as indicators of their chemical origin. Isotope fractionation in gas-phase chemical reactions and gas-dust interaction makes observations of the ratio between C-12 and C-13 isotopologues suitable to distinguish between different formation scenarios. We will present observations of the C-12/C-13 ratio in methanol and formaldehyde towards a sample of embedded, massive young stellar objects. In relation to this we also present results from theoretical modeling showing the usefulness of the C-12/C-13 ratio as a chemistry indicator.

  10. Exploring the possibilities for stabilizing the sex ratio in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sex ratio is an important demographic indicator for a nation. A wide range of adverse social consequences have been observed because of a skewed sex ratio in India. If India as a nation is to achieve the Millennium Development Goal – 3 (which promotes gender equality and ensures the empowerment of women, the primary target should be involve all those involved, so that a collective and comprehensive approach can be developed to counter the public health menace of an asymmetrical sex ratio. In conclusion, the nation’s program managers should prioritize the issue of a skewed sex ratio and work towards developing a coordinated response.Key Words: Sex ratio, policy makers, India.

  11. The ratio of cortisol/DHEA in treatment resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulou, Kalypso; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Juruena, Mario F; Poon, Lucia; Pariante, Carmine M; Cleare, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Hypercortisolaemia has been well described in depression and may be a factor associated with treatment resistance. The role of the more abundant adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been recently investigated, with some evidence that it may have an antiglucocorticoid effect. This study measured cortisol, DHEA and their ratio in treatment resistant depression (TRD) and healthy controls and also related these measures to treatment outcome. Plasma cortisol, DHEA and cortisol/DHEA ratio were determined at 0900h in 28 patients with TRD and 40 healthy controls. The measures were repeated following inpatient treatment in a subgroup of 21 patients and related to the outcome of such treatment. The stability of cortisol/DHEA ratios was assessed with 2 hourly samples from 0900 to 1700h in a subgroup of 15 controls. Basal levels of cortisol and the cortisol/DHEA ratio were higher in patients compared to controls. Whilst cortisol levels were lower after treatment, there was no relationship between cortisol levels and treatment outcome. In contrast, treatment responders had significantly lower DHEA on admission and a higher cortisol/DHEA ratio both on admission and on discharge. Cortisol/DHEA ratios were stable between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In addition to cortisol, the cortisol/DHEA ratio is raised in TRD; thus, there is no evidence that DHEA levels could negate the increased glucocorticoid activity in TRD. Patients with a more abnormal cortisol/DHEA ratio, possibly indicating greater biological dysfunction, responded preferentially to inpatient therapy, though the raised cortisol/DHEA ratio persisted after response. The cortisol/DHEA ratio is stable throughout the day and may be a more practical biological marker of TRD.

  12. Nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio using a single image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciak, A S; Jones, A Kyle

    2009-10-01

    The antiscatter grid is an essential part of modern radiographic systems. Since the introduction of the antiscatter grid, however, there have been few methods proposed for acceptance testing and verification of manufacturer-supplied grid specifications. The grid ratio (r) is an important parameter describing the antiscatter grid because it affects many other grid quality metrics, such as the contrast improvement ratio (K), primary transmission (Tp), and scatter transmission (Ts). Also, the grid ratio in large part determines the primary clinical use of the grid. To this end, the authors present a technique for the nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio of antiscatter grids. They derived an equation that can be used to calculate the grid ratio from a single off-focus flat field image by exploiting the relationship between grid cutoff and off-focus distance. The calculation can be performed by hand or with included analysis software. They calculated the grid ratios of several different grids throughout the institution, and afterward they destructively measured the grid ratio of a nominal r8 grid previously evaluated with the method. They also studied the sensitivity of the method to technical factors and choice of parameters. With one exception, the results for the grids found in the institution were in agreement with the manufacturer's specifications and international standards. The nondestructive evaluation of the r8 grid indicated a ratio of 7.3, while the destructive measurement indicated a ratio of 7.53 +/- 0.28. Repeated evaluations of the same grid yielded consistent results. The technique provides the medical physicist with a new tool for quantitative evaluation of the grid ratio, an important grid performance criterion. The method is robust and repeatable when appropriate choices of technical factors and other parameters are made.

  13. Estimating 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio from casual ('spot') urinary sodium/potassium ratio: the INTERSALT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2017-10-01

    Association between casual and 24-h urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio is well recognized, although it has not been validated in diverse demographic groups. Our aim was to assess utility across and within populations of casual urine to estimate 24-h urinary Na/K ratio using data from the INTERSALT Study. The INTERSALT Study collected cross-sectional standardized data on casual urinary sodium and potassium and also on timed 24-h urinary sodium and potassium for 10 065 individuals from 52 population samples in 32 countries (1985-87). Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement were computed for Na/K ratio of casual urine against 24-h urinary Na/K ratio both at population and individual levels. Pearson correlation coefficients relating means of 24-h urine and casual urine Na/K ratio were r = 0.96 and r = 0.69 in analyses across populations and individuals, respectively. Correlations of casual urine Na/creatinine and K/creatinine ratios with 24-h urinary Na and K excretion, respectively, were lower than correlation of casual and 24-h urinary Na/K ratio in analyses across populations and individuals. The bias estimate with the Bland-Altman method, defined as the difference between Na/K ratio of 24-h urine and casual urine, was approximately 0.4 across both populations and individuals. Spread around, the mean bias was higher for individuals than populations. With appropriate bias correction, casual urine Na/K ratio may be a useful, low-burden alternative method to 24-h urine for estimation of population urinary Na/K ratio. It may also be applicable for assessment of the urinary Na/K ratio of individuals, with use of repeated measurements to reduce measurement error and increase precision.

  14. The effects of compression ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, and level on speech recognition in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, B W; Ricketts, T A

    2001-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated reduced speech recognition when speech is presented at higher-than-normal levels (e.g., above conversational speech levels), particularly in the presence of speech-shaped background noise. Persons with hearing loss frequently listen to speech-in-noise at these levels through hearing aids, which incorporate multiple-channel, wide dynamic range compression. This study examined the interactive effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), speech presentation level, and compression ratio on consonant recognition in noise. Nine subjects with normal hearing identified CV and VC nonsense syllables in a speech-shaped noise at two SNRs (0 and +6 dB), three presentation levels (65, 80, and 95 dB SPL) and four compression ratios (1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 6:1). Stimuli were processed through a simulated three-channel, fast-acting, wide dynamic range compression hearing aid. Consonant recognition performance decreased as compression ratio increased and presentation level increased. Interaction effects were noted between SNR and compression ratio, as well as between presentation level and compression ratio. Performance decrements due to increases in compression ratio were larger at the better (+6 dB) SNR and at the lowest (65 dB SPL) presentation level. At higher levels (95 dB SPL), such as those experienced by persons with hearing loss, increasing compression ratio did not significantly affect speech intelligibility.

  15. Sex ratios in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most species show an equal proportion of individuals of both sexes. In diploid species sex ratio is determined by a genic balance between sex chromosomes. In Drosophila sex is determined by the ratio of X- chromosomes versus autosomes and in some species of the genus it is related to the presence of an inversion in the sex chromosome. The present work analyses the sex ratio in 27 natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that inhabit Mexico. Female flies captured in nature were counted and their sex ratio calculated and been called generation P, then cultured individualy, allowed to leave adult offspring which was quantified in order to get its sex ratio and designated generation F1. sex ratio was calculated using the expression: number of males times 100 divided by the number of females proposed by Darwin (1871. The sex ratio of each population was taken using the average of all the individual counts from each sample. The values found varied among different generations and populations, so for generation P their values varieded 37.4 to 190.4 and in generation F1 from 31.3 up to 96.4 males for each 100 females. According to their geographical distribution four North to South transects were arranged and in them means varied from 60.8 to 81.7 males for each 100 females. All this means that in Mexican population are more females than males, exceptionally more males than females.

  16. MIR hollow waveguide (HWG) isotope ratio analyzer for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyou; Zhuang, Yan; Deev, Andrei; Wu, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    An advanced commercial Mid-InfraRed Isotope Ratio (IR2) analyzer was developed in Arrow Grand Technologies based on hollow waveguide (HWG) as the sample tube. The stable carbon isotope ratio, i.e. δ13C, was obtained by measuring the selected CO2 absorption peaks in the MIR. Combined with a GC and a combustor, it has been successfully employed to measure compound specific δ13C isotope ratios in the field. By using both the 1- pass HWG and 5-path HWG, we are able to measure δ13C isotope ratio at a broad CO2 concentration of 300 ppm-37,500 ppm. Here, we demonstrate its applications in environmental studies. The δ13C isotope ratio and concentration of CO2 exhaled by soil samples was measured in real time with the isotope analyzer. The concentration was found to change with the time. We also convert the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) into CO2, and then measure the δ13C isotope ratio with an accuracy of better than 0.3 ‰ (1 σ) with a 6 min test time and 1 ml sample usage. Tap water, NaHCO3 solvent, coca, and even beer were tested. Lastly, the 13C isotope ratio of CO2 exhaled by human beings was obtained consumption ( 1 ml), and broad CO2 concentration range (300 ppm-37,500 ppm).

  17. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  18. Correlation Between Cometary Gas/Dust Ratios and Heliocentric Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Olga; Womack, Maria; Lastra, Nathan

    2017-10-01

    We compiled CO-based gas/dust ratios for several comets out to heliocentric distances, rh, of 8 au to probe whether there is a noticeable change in comet behavior over the range that water-ice sublimation starts. Previously, gas/dust ratios were calculated for an ensemble of comets using Q(CO2)/efp values derived from infrared measurements, which showed that the gas/dust ratio follows a rh-2 within 4 AU, but is flat at greater distances (Bauer et al. 2015). Our project focuses on gas/dust ratios for which CO is assumed to be the dominant gas, in order to test whether similar breaks in slope occur for CO. The gas/dust ratios were calculated from measurements of CO production rates (mostly from millimeter-wavelength spectroscopy) and reflected sunlight of comets (mostly via reported visual magnitudes of dusty comets). We present our new CO-based gas/dust ratios at different heliocentric distances, compare them to existing CO2-based gas/dust ratios, and discuss implications for CO-driven and CO2-driven activity. We discuss O.H. acknowledges support from the Hartmann Student Travel Grant program. M.W. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1615917.

  19. Sex Ratios Among Births in British Columbia, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Lee, Lily; Williams, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have reported distorted sex ratios among live births within specific immigrant groups in Canada. We carried out an investigation into sex ratios in British Columbia. All stillbirths and live births to residents of British Columbia from April 2000 to March 2013 were included in the study, with data obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. We examined sex ratios among births and among pregnancy terminations that resulted in a stillbirth or live birth. Analyses were stratified by congenital anomaly status, maternal residence, and parity. The study population included 567 225 stillbirths and live births. In the Fraser Health Authority, the sex ratio among births without congenital anomalies was 51.3% males (95% CI 51.1 to 51.5); this was significantly higher than the sex ratio of 40.7% males (95% CI 33.2 to 48.6) among late pregnancy terminations without congenital anomalies (P = 0.008). However, in British Columbia, excluding the Fraser Health Authority, the same sex ratios were 51.1% (95% CI 50.9 to 51.3) and 51.1% (95% CI 45.5 to 56.7), respectively (P = 0.99). Sex ratios among births to multiparous women were also significantly different in the Fraser Health Authority. Only a negligible fraction of the shortfall in female births in the Fraser Health Authority could be explained by sex ratio distortions among late pregnancy terminations. Sex ratios among stillbirths and live births to residents of the Fraser Health Authority are distorted relative to those observed elsewhere in British Columbia. This is likely due to sex differences in early pregnancy terminations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios in two lizard species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubolini, Diego; Pupin, Fabio; Sacchi, Roberto; Gentilli, Augusto; Zuffi, Marco A L; Galeotti, Paolo; Saino, Nicola

    2006-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios has been reported for humans, a few other mammals, and two bird species. This dimorphism is thought to arise via an interaction between the prenatal exposure of the embryo to sex hormones and the Hox genes, which are highly conserved among vertebrates and control the development of both the appendices, including fingers and toes, and the urogenital system. In this study, we report on sexual dimorphism in 2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D contralateral ratios of the forelimbs in two species of oviparous lizards, the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) and the tree skink (Mabuya planifrons), as measured on museum specimens. We found that male P. muralis had a larger 2D:4D ratio on both sides and larger 2D:3D ratio on the left side than females, whereas in M. planifrons, males had lower 2D:3D ratios than females on the left side. The two species show opposite patterns of sexual dimorphism in body size, males being larger than females in P. muralis, and the reverse in M. planifrons, suggesting that interspecific variation of sex differences in digit ratios could be associated with sex-specific growth trajectories. There was a limited evidence for directional asymmetry in digit ratios. Therefore, our findings provide the first evidence that digit ratios are sexually dimorphic in any reptile species and are consistent with the idea that the genetic link between limb development and the urogenital system had been established with the evolution of the earliest terrestrial tetrapods. Importantly, many lizard species with genetic sex determination, including the ones we studied, are oviparous and may represent valuable animal models for experimental tests of the association between prenatal exposure to androgens or estrogens and digit ratios. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Efficiency of nonstandard and high contact ratio involute spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A power loss prediction was extended to include involute spur gears of nonstandard proportions. The method is used to analyze the effects of modified addendum, tooth thickness, and gear center distance in addition to the parameters previously considered which included gear diameter, pitch, pressure angle, face width, oil viscosity, speed, and torque. Particular emphasis was placed on high contact ratio gearing (contact ratios greater than two). Despite their higher sliding velocities, high contact ratio gears are designed to levels of efficiency comparable to those of conventional gears while retaining their advantages through proper selection of gear geometry.

  2. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, T.D.; Keim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  3. D/H ratios of the inner Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Hallis, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    The original hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of different planetary bodies may indicate where each body formed in the Solar System. However, geological and atmospheric processes can alter these ratios through time. Over the past few decades, D/H ratios in meteorites from Vesta and Mars, as well as from S- and C-type asteroids, have been measured. The aim of this article is to bring together all previously published data from these bodies, as well as the Earth, in order to determine the original...

  4. Improved measurement of the K+-->pi+nunu; branching ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimovsky, V V; Artamonov, A V; Bassalleck, B; Bhuyan, B; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Chen, S; Chiang, I-H; Christidi, I-A; Cooper, P S; Diwan, M V; Frank, J S; Fujiwara, T; Hu, J; Ivashkin, A P; Jaffe, D E; Kabe, S; Kettell, S H; Khabibullin, M M; Khotjantsev, A N; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T K; Konaka, A; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kudenko, Yu G; Kushnirenko, A; Landsberg, L G; Lewis, B; Li, K K; Littenberg, L S; Macdonald, J A; Mildenberger, J; Mineev, O V; Miyajima, M; Mizouchi, K; Mukhin, V A; Muramatsu, N; Nakano, T; Nomachi, M; Nomura, T; Numao, T; Obraztsov, V F; Omata, K; Patalakha, D I; Petrenko, S V; Poutissou, R; Ramberg, E J; Redlinger, G; Sato, T; Sekiguchi, T; Shinkawa, T; Strand, R C; Sugimoto, S; Tamagawa, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tsunemi, T; Vavilov, D V; Viren, B; Yershov, N V; Yoshimura, Y; Yoshioka, T

    2004-07-16

    An additional event near the upper kinematic limit for K+-->pi(+)nunu; has been observed by experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combining previously reported and new data, the branching ratio is B(K+-->pi(+)nunu;)=(1.47(+1.30)(-0.89))x10(-10) based on three events observed in the pion momentum region 211ratio, the additional event had a signal-to-background ratio of 0.9.

  5. Lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio of the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, James H; Sullivan, James M; Twardowski, Michael S

    2014-07-28

    Bio-optical models are used to develop a model of the lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio applicable to oceanographic lidar. The model is based on chlorophyll concentration, and is expected to be valid for Case 1 waters. The limiting cases of narrow- and wide-beam lidars are presented and compared with estimates based on in situ optical measurements. Lidar measurements are also compared with the model using in situ or satellite estimates of chlorophyll concentration. A modified lidar ratio is defined, in which the properties of pure sea water are removed. This modified ratio is shown to be nearly constant for wide-beam lidar operating in low-chlorophyll waters, so accurate inversion to derive extinction and backscattering is possible under these conditions. This ratio can also be used for lidar calibration.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Signal Intensity Ratio Measurement Before Uterine Artery Embolization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Ravn, Pernille; Green, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity (SI) ratio between the dominant fibroid and the periphery striated muscle can predict fibroid volume reduction >50% after uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2013 until May 2016......, 52 patients were included in this prospective study. The SI ratio before UFE was calculated using circular region of interests placed on the dominant fibroid and the iliac muscle. The SI fibroid-to-iliac muscle ratio was calculated as SI of the dominant fibroid/SI of the iliac muscle on T1-, T2......-, and T1 post-contrast-weighted sequences. The dominant fibroid volume was measured and analyzed before and after UFE. RESULTS: In all, 46 patients who completed the three-month follow-up MRI were available for analysis. The correlation between SI fibroid-to-muscle ratio at the T2-weighted sequence...

  7. Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performance in family dairies, the basis is created for displaying techniques of financial analysis, with a special indication on the specifics of their application in agricultural enterprises focusing on companies engaged in dairying. Applied in the paper is ratio analysis on the example of a dairy enterprise, i.e. a family dairy operating in Serbia. The ratio indicators are the basis for identifying relationships based on which by comparing the actual performance and certain business standards differences or variations are identified.

  8. Elasticity modulus and damping ratio of macaw palm rachillas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villar, Flora Maria de Melo; Pinto, Francisco de Assis de Carvalho; Santos, Fábio Lúcio; Grossi, José Antônio Saraiva; Velloso, Nara Silveira

    2017-01-01

    .... Thus, this study seeks to determine the modulus of elasticity and the damping ratio of four different plant accessions obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV...

  9. ESRD QIP - Standardized Transfusion Ratio - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance ratio, measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the STrR measure included in the PY...

  10. Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios are not ......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...... are not important for the overall transition rate from singlehood to partnership. The results suggest that the workplace constitutes a more important marriage market segment for individuals who are already in a partnership presumably due to higher search cost for (alternative) partners in general....

  11. India’s Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2017-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India’s patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide. PMID:28286369

  12. India's Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India's patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide.

  13. Golden Ratio and a Ramanujan-Type Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Chi Chan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a pedagogical introduction to several beautiful formulas discovered by Ramanujan. Using these results, we evaluate a Ramanujan-type integral formula. The result can be expressed in terms of the Golden Ratio.

  14. Further Developments in Beta-Gamma to Alpha Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L

    2017-04-01

    An emphasis on alpha-emitting nuclides at nuclear power plants has produced methods for assessing the relative hazard of alpha versus other species. From the relative hazards, or ratios, decisions on the level of effort for worker protection and monitoring are made. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has issued technical guidance on relative alpha hazard and action level beta-gamma to alpha ratios. This paper shows the development of the ratio concept from first principles and brings hard-to-detect species into consideration. Outcomes from the exercise of computational forms of the ratios are compared to the EPRI results and the differences are noted. Some discussion of the implications and advantages of the developed forms then follows.

  15. A new class of short distance universal amplitude ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselle, M [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell' Universita di Torino and INFN, via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Grinza, P [SISSA and INFN, via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Guida, R [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, CEA/DSM/SPhT-CNRS/SPM/URA 2306, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Magnoli, N [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova and INFN, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2004-01-30

    We propose a new class of universal amplitude ratios which involve the first terms of the short distance expansion of the correlators of a statistical model in the vicinity of a critical point. We will describe the critical system with a conformal field theory (UV fixed point) perturbed by an appropriate relevant operator. In two dimensions the exact knowledge of the UV fixed point allows for accurate predictions of the ratios and in many nontrivial integrable perturbations they can even be evaluated exactly. In three-dimensional O(N) scalar systems, feasible extensions of some existing results should allow perturbative expansions for the ratios to be obtained. By construction these universal ratios are a perfect tool to explore the short distance properties of the underlying quantum field theory even in regimes where the correlation length and one-point functions are not accessible in experiments or simulations. (letter to the editor)

  16. Borrower risk signaling using loan-to-value ratios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epley, Donald R; Liano, Kartono; Haney, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A study is presented that evaluates the signaling capability of the borrower's selected loan-to-value ratio and finds the equity proportion of housing capital to be a good indicator of the loan's riskiness...

  17. ESRD QIP - Standardized Readmission Ratio - Payment Year 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ESRD QIP – Standardized Readmission Ratio – Payment Year 2017 Lists standardized readmission data used by ESRD QIP to assess dialysis facility performance.

  18. 77 FR 74662 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION... CONTACT: Munsell St. Clair, Chief, Banking and Regulatory Policy Section, Division of Insurance and...

  19. Yearbook sectoral financial ratios in mexico for business benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Bernal Domínguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial analysis through ratios is a useful tool for improving organizational performance. Databases of financial information in Mexico are limited, therefore the importance of an annual publication of financial ratios per company and industry average. The objectives of this research are: describe the financial ratios with higher predictive potential and their formulas, as well as the design of a research instrument for measuring the relevance of the publication. A descriptive methodology was applied selecting through the analysis ofempirical studies, several ratios of liquidity, leverage, asset management, business cycle, performance and self-financing. The questionnaire contains 43 reagents to be applied to a statistically representative sample of 46 entrepreneurs in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico.

  20. Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting

  1. Contrast ratio of six zirconia-based dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanavasita, Widchaya; Triwatana, Premwara; Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Thanapitak, Alisa; Chatchaiganan, Mathura

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thickness and brands on the contrast ratio of six zirconia dental ceramics. Six brands of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics (ZENO® Translucent, Lava™ Plus High Translucency, inCoris TZI, Cercon® Base, Zeno®Zr, Lava™) were used in this study. Disc-shaped specimens with 15 mm diameter were prepared in five thickness levels (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 mm, n = 10) for each brand. The contrast ratio (CR = Y(b) /Y(w) ) was determined from the luminous reflectance over black (Y(b) ) and white (Y(w) ) backgrounds using a spectrophotometer. Two-way ANOVA was performed to determine the significant differences among thicknesses and brands at α = 0.05. The mean contrast ratio values of six zirconia ceramics were significantly different and influenced by both the thickness and brand. The mean contrast ratio values of all groups increased as their thickness increased from 0.3 to 1.5 mm. inCoris TZI was the most translucent, with the lowest contrast ratio at a thickness of 0.6 to 1.5 mm. The mean contrast ratio values of Lava™ and Lava™ Plus were significantly lower than those of Zeno®Zr, ZENO® Translucent, and Cercon® Base. The thickness and brands had significant effects on the contrast ratio of six zirconia dental ceramics. The mean contrast ratio values of inCoris TZI, Lava™, and Lava™ Plus High Translucency were significantly lower than those of Cercon® Base, Zeno®, and ZENO® Translucent at all thicknesses. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Deep Reactive Ion Etching for High Aspect Ratio Microelectromechanical Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jacobsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    A deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) process for fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches has been developed. Trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 and vertical sidewalls with low roughness have been demonstrated. The process has successfully been used in the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (SOI......) released comb drive based resonators and tunable capacitors for MEMS applications. Brief characterizations of the devices are presented....

  3. Atmospheric helium isotope ratio: Possible temporal and spatial variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuji; Furukawa, Yukiko; Takahata, Naoto

    2010-09-01

    The atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio has been considered to be constant on a global scale, because the residence time of helium is significantly longer than the mixing time in the atmosphere. However, this ratio may be decreasing with time owing to the anthropogenic release of crustal helium from oil and natural gas wells, although this observation has been disputed. Here, we present the 3He/ 4He ratios of old air trapped in historical slags in Japan and of modern surface air samples collected at various sites around the world, measured with a newly developed analytical system. In air helium extracted from metallurgical slag found at refineries in operation between AD 1603 and 1907 in Japan, we determined a mean 3He/ 4He ratio of (5106 ± 108) × 10 -5 R HESJ (where R HESJ is the 3He/ 4He ratio of the Helium Standard of Japan), which is consistent with the previously reported value of (5077 ± 59) × 10 -5 R HESJ for historical slags in France and United Arab Emirates and about 4% higher than that of average modern air, (4901 ± 4) × 10 -5 R HESJ. This result implies that the air 3He/ 4He ratio has decreased with time as expected by anthropogenic causes. Our modern surface air samples revealed that the 3He/ 4He ratio increases from north to south at a rate of (0.16 ± 0.08) × 10 -5 R HESJ/degree of latitude, suggesting that the low 3He/ 4He ratio originates in high-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere, which is consistent with the fact that most fossil fuel is extracted and consumed in the northern hemisphere.

  4. India?s Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2016-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in compari...

  5. Trace Ratio Criterion for Feature Extraction in Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized linear discriminant analysis based on trace ratio criterion algorithm (GLDA-TRA is derived to extract features for classification. With the proposed GLDA-TRA, a set of orthogonal features can be extracted in succession. Each newly extracted feature is the optimal feature that maximizes the trace ratio criterion function in the subspace orthogonal to the space spanned by the previous extracted features.

  6. Statistical analyses of plume composition and deposited radionuclide mixture ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Brito, Roxanne; Hunt, Brian D.; Osborn, Douglas.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed method is considered to classify the regions in the close neighborhood of selected measurements according to the ratio of two radionuclides measured from either a radioactive plume or a deposited radionuclide mixture. The subsequent associated locations are then considered in the area of interest with a representative ratio class. This method allows for a more comprehensive and meaningful understanding of the data sampled following a radiological incident.

  7. Isotopic Ratios of Samarium by TIMS for Nuclear Forensic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Jean, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inglis, Jeremy David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The isotopic ratio of Nd, Sm, and Gd can provide important information regarding fissile material (nuclear devices, reactors), neutron environment, and device yield. These studies require precise measurement of Sm isotope ratios, by either TIMS or MC-ICP-MS. There has been an increasing trend to measure smaller and smaller quantities of Sm bearing samples. In nuclear forensics 10-100 ng of Sm are needed for precise measurement. To measure sub-ng Sm samples using TIMS for nuclear forensic analysis.

  8. Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim; SMITH, KIRK R.

    2008-01-01

    The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) an...

  9. Odds Ratios Estimation of Rare Event in Binomial Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobkun Raweesawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the new estimator of odds ratios in rare events using Empirical Bayes method in two independent binomial distributions. We compare the proposed estimates of odds ratios with two estimators, modified maximum likelihood estimator (MMLE and modified median unbiased estimator (MMUE, using the Estimated Relative Error (ERE as a criterion of comparison. It is found that the new estimator is more efficient when compared to the other methods.

  10. Nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio using a single image

    OpenAIRE

    Pasciak, A. S.; Jones, A. Kyle

    2009-01-01

    The antiscatter grid is an essential part of modern radiographic systems. Since the introduction of the antiscatter grid, however, there have been few methods proposed for acceptance testing and verification of manufacturer-supplied grid specifications. The grid ratio (r) is an important parameter describing the antiscatter grid because it affects many other grid quality metrics, such as the contrast improvement ratio (K), primary transmission (Tp), and scatter transmission (Ts). Also, the gr...

  11. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  12. TATP isotope ratios as influenced by worldwide acetone variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howa, John D; Barnette, Janet E; Chesson, Lesley A; Lott, Michael J; Ehleringer, James R

    2018-05-01

    Isotope ratio analysis has been shown to discriminate samples of forensic interest and to link many synthesized and natural materials to their precursors when traditional chemical and physical analyses cannot. Successful application of stable isotope analysis to chemicals of interest requires a background of likely variations in stable isotope ratios; often, this background population can be generated from analysis of possible precursors and the relationships of stable isotopes of precursor(s) to product(s), which may depend on synthesis techniques. Here we measured the carbon ( 13 C/ 12 C) and hydrogen ( 2 H/ 1 H) isotope ratios of the oft-illicitly manufactured explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP, and one of its precursors, acetone. As acetone is the sole source of carbon and hydrogen to TATP, a survey of acetone from 12 countries was conducted to explore the breadth of 13 C/ 12 C and 2 H/ 1 H variation in the precursor, and therefore, its product. Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios were measured using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) techniques. We observed greater ranges in both C and H isotope ratios of acetone than previously published; we also found that country-of-purchase was a large contributing factor to the observed variation, larger than acetone grade and brand. Following clandestine production methods, we observed that the stable isotope ratios of TATP retained the stable isotope signatures of acetone used in synthesis. We confirmed the robustness of TATP carbon isotope ratios to both recrystallization and time-dependent sublimation, important considerations when faced with the task of practical sampling of potential unexploded TATP from a crime scene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An extended likelihood ratio framework for interpreting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckleton, J S; Triggs, C M; Champod, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews some current methods, the likelihood ratio-based approach and the full Bayesian approach for the interpretation of evidence and discusses previously identified shortcomings in them. It suggests an approach based on a compromise--based on an extended likelihood ratio--that may combine the merits of logic without overstepping acceptable bounds for the forensic scientist in the presentation of evidence. The approach is exposed formally and takes advantage of inferential networks called Bayesian networks.

  14. Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train. This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.. One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure [C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.144801]. Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

  15. Image ratio features for facial expression recognition application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Liu, Zicheng; Li, Xuelong; Zhou, Mengchu

    2010-06-01

    Video-based facial expression recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and human-computer interaction. To target this problem, texture features have been extracted and widely used, because they can capture image intensity changes raised by skin deformation. However, existing texture features encounter problems with albedo and lighting variations. To solve both problems, we propose a new texture feature called image ratio features. Compared with previously proposed texture features, e.g., high gradient component features, image ratio features are more robust to albedo and lighting variations. In addition, to further improve facial expression recognition accuracy based on image ratio features, we combine image ratio features with facial animation parameters (FAPs), which describe the geometric motions of facial feature points. The performance evaluation is based on the Carnegie Mellon University Cohn-Kanade database, our own database, and the Japanese Female Facial Expression database. Experimental results show that the proposed image ratio feature is more robust to albedo and lighting variations, and the combination of image ratio features and FAPs outperforms each feature alone. In addition, we study asymmetric facial expressions based on our own facial expression database and demonstrate the superior performance of our combined expression recognition system.

  16. Child underreporting, fertility, and sex ratio imbalance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Child underreporting is often neglected in studies of fertility and sex ratio imbalance in China. To improve estimates of these measures, I use intercensal comparisons to identify a rise in underreporting, which followed the increased enforcement and penalization under the birth planning system in 1991. A new triangulation of evidence indicates that about 19% of children at ages 0-4 were unreported in the 2000 census, more than double that of the 1990 census. This evidence contradicts assumptions underlying the fertility estimates of most recent studies. Yet, the analysis also suggests that China's fertility in the late 1990s (and perhaps beyond) was below officially adjusted levels. I then conduct a similar intercensal analysis of sex ratios of births and children, which are the world's highest primarily because of prenatal sex selection. However, given excess underreporting of young daughters, especially pronounced just after 1990, estimated ratios are lower than reported ratios. Sex ratios in areas with a "1.5-child" policy are especially distorted because of excess daughter underreporting, as well as sex-linked stopping rules and other factors, although it is unclear whether such policies increase use of prenatal sex selection. China's sex ratio at birth, once it is standardized by birth order, fell between 2000 and 2005 and showed a continuing excess in urban China, not rural China.

  17. Should sex-ratio distorting parasites abandon horizontal transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Sex-ratio distorting parasites are of interest due to their effects upon host population dynamics and their potential to influence the evolution of host sex determination systems. In theory, the ability to distort host sex-ratios allows a parasite with efficient vertical (hereditary) transmission to dispense completely with horizontal (infectious) transmission. However, recent empirical studies indicate that some sex-ratio distorting parasites have retained the capability for horizontal transmission. Results Numerical simulations using biologically realistic parameters suggest that a feminising parasite is only likely to lose the capability for horizontal transmission if its host occurs at low density and/or has a male-biased primary sex ratio. It is also demonstrated that even a small amount of horizontal transmission can allow multiple feminising parasites to coexist within a single host population. Finally it is shown that, by boosting its host's rate of population growth, a feminising parasite can increase its own horizontal transmission and allow the invasion of other, more virulent parasites. Conclusions The prediction that sex-ratio distorting parasites are likely to retain a degree of horizontal transmission has important implications for the epidemiology and host-parasite interactions of these organisms. It may also explain the frequent co-occurrence of several sex-ratio distorting parasite species in nature. PMID:22188680

  18. Should sex-ratio distorting parasites abandon horizontal transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside Joseph E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex-ratio distorting parasites are of interest due to their effects upon host population dynamics and their potential to influence the evolution of host sex determination systems. In theory, the ability to distort host sex-ratios allows a parasite with efficient vertical (hereditary transmission to dispense completely with horizontal (infectious transmission. However, recent empirical studies indicate that some sex-ratio distorting parasites have retained the capability for horizontal transmission. Results Numerical simulations using biologically realistic parameters suggest that a feminising parasite is only likely to lose the capability for horizontal transmission if its host occurs at low density and/or has a male-biased primary sex ratio. It is also demonstrated that even a small amount of horizontal transmission can allow multiple feminising parasites to coexist within a single host population. Finally it is shown that, by boosting its host's rate of population growth, a feminising parasite can increase its own horizontal transmission and allow the invasion of other, more virulent parasites. Conclusions The prediction that sex-ratio distorting parasites are likely to retain a degree of horizontal transmission has important implications for the epidemiology and host-parasite interactions of these organisms. It may also explain the frequent co-occurrence of several sex-ratio distorting parasite species in nature.

  19. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  20. Chlorine Isotope Ratios in M Giants and S Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Zachary; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Chlorine is an odd-Z, light element that has been poorly studied in stars. Recently, the first stellar abundance measurements of the isotopologue 35Cl were made and the 35Cl/37Cl ratio was derived in RZ Ari (Maas et al. 2016). Additional abundance measurements are necessary to understand the Galactic chemical evolution and complex nucleosynthesis of Cl. The Cl isotope ratio in particular is important in distinguishing contributions from different nucleosynthesis sites to the surface abundances of stars. For example, current nucloesynthesis models predict that both isotopes of Cl are produced primarily during core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) with the energy and progenitor mass impacting the isotopic ratio of the ejected material. In addition to CCSNe, 37Cl is formed by the s-process both in massive stars and in AGB stars, and 35Cl may be produced from neutrino spallation. Understanding the formation of the Cl isotopes is also important to studies of the interstellar medium (ISM). A range of Cl isotope ratios mainly between 2 - 3.5 have been measured in star forming regions, in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars, and in proto-stellar cores using Cl bearing molecules. Additional measurements of the Cl isotope ratio in nearby stars will test nucleosynthesis models and allow comparisons with the range of isotope ratios observed in the ISM.We build on the results of Maas et al. (2016) by measuring the Cl isotope ratio in six M giants and four S stars using R~50,000 resolution spectra from Phoenix on Gemini South. We find no significant difference between the average Cl isotope ratios in the M stars and S stars and our measurements are consistent with the range of values seen in the ISM. We also find the average Cl ratio to be larger than the predicted isotope ratio of 1.8 for the solar neighborhood. Finally, two S stars, GG Pup and WY Pyx, show anomalously strong HCl features with equivalent widths ~3-5 times larger than the HCl features of other stars of

  1. Evaluation of Neutrophil–Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet–Lymphocyte Ratio and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width–Platelet Ratio for Diagnosis of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Ilhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether systemic inflammatory markers (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR and red blood cell distribution width (RDW to platelet ratio (RPR can be used as reliable markers for the diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI and to determine if there is a relationship between these markers and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH levels.Materials and methods: Written and electronic medical records were reviewed using searches for diagnoses with the terms of 'premature ovarian failure', 'premature ovarian insufficiency'. Patients younger than the age of 40 were diagnosed to have premature ovarian insufficiency based on their menstrual history and sonographic examination and they were compared with healthy females. Complete blood counts, day-3 hormone profiles, AMH levels of all subjects were analyzed.Results: NLR was statistically higher in POI group compared with controls (p < 0.05. NLR had a positive correlation between FSH (r = 0.23, p = 0.045 and a negative association with AMH (r = - 0.27, p = 0.018. The area under ROC curve for NLR in POI was 0.66, with a threshold value 1.5 and sensitivity = 75.7 % and specificity = 46.0 %.Conclusion: NLR can be a marker for the diagnosis of POI. There is a close relationship between NLR and ovarian reserve markers such as FSH and AMH.

  2. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models.

  3. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Stewart

    Full Text Available For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR, is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models.

  4. Influence of La/W ratio on electrical conductivity of lanthanum tungstate with high La/W ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Gen; Shono, Yohei [Department of Environment Systems, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Ushiyama, Hiroshi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oshima, Yoshito [Department of Environment Systems, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Otomo, Junichiro, E-mail: otomo@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Environment Systems, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    The proton-conducting properties of lanthanum tungstates (LWOs) with high La/W ratios were investigated using electrochemical measurements and quantum chemical calculations. Single phases of LWOs with high La/W ratios (6.3≤La/W≤6.7) were synthesized by high-temperature sintering at around 1700 °C. The electrical conductivity of LWO increased with increasing La/W ratio in the single-phase region. The LWO synthesized at the optimum sintering temperature and time, and with the optimum La/W ratio gave the maximum conductivity, i.e., 2.7×10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} with La/W=6.7 at 500 °C. Density functional theory calculations, using the nudged elastic band method, were performed to investigate the proton diffusion barrier. The results suggest that the proton diffusion paths around La sites have the lowest proton diffusion barrier. These findings improve our understanding of LWO synthesis and the proton-conducting mechanism and provide a strategy for improving proton conduction in LWOs. - Graphical abstract: The LWOs with high La/W ratios were synthesized for the first time. The optimum La/W ratio gave the maximum conductivity with La/W=6.7 at 500 °C. The proton diffusion paths were also considered with density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: • The proton-conducting properties of lanthanum tungstates (LWOs) were investigated. • Single phase LWOs with high La/W ratios (6.3≤La/W≤6.7) were synthesized successfully. • LWOs with the high La/W ratios showed high proton conductivity. • The DFT calculation suggested the lowest proton diffusion barrier in the path around La sites.

  5. ANALISIS PENGARUH NON PERFORMING LOAN, LOAN TO DEPOSIT RATIO, CAPITAL ADEQUACY RATIO, BIAYA OPERASIONAL PENDAPATAN OPERASIONAL, TERHADAP RETURN ON ASSET

    OpenAIRE

    IMAM SAHID SUKAMTO, ANDI

    2015-01-01

    2015 ABSTRAK ANDI IMAM SAHID SUKAMTO, A211 11 115, Influence Analysis of Non-Performing Loan (NPL), Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Operational Expense Operational Income (BOPO) towards Return On Asset (ROA) (supervised by Prof. Dr. Nurdin Brasit, SE.,M.Si and Drs. Kasman Damang, ME). This research used time series data from Bank Indonesia???s year???s published financial report of General Bank. After passed the purpossive sample phase, the number of valid ...

  6. The LDL/HDL ratio and atherosclerosis in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, A; Uğur Uslu, A; Icli, A; Cure, E; Arslan, S; Turkmen, K; Toker, A; Kayrak, M

    2017-02-01

    In ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, cardiac and vascular involvement may manifest as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol constitute a significant risk for atherosclerosis. This study investigated the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), LDL/HDL ratio, total oxidant status (TOS; an indicator of oxidative stress) and ischemic modified albumin (IMA; an ischemic marker in AS patients). Sixty AS patients were diagnosed using the Modified New York Criteria; 54 age- and gender-matched participants were included as controls. CIMT, LDL/HDL ratio, TOS and IMA were measured using the most appropriate methods. IMA was higher in AS patients compared to controls (p < 0.0001). TOS was also increased in AS patients (p = 0.005); as was CIMT (p < 0.0001). The LDL/HDL ratio was also greater in AS patients compared to controls (p = 0.047). A positive correlation was found between CIMT and LDL/HDL ratio among AS patients. Elevated CIMT, IMA and TOS levels suggest an increased risk of atherosclerotic heart disease in AS patients. The LDL/HDL ratio was higher in AS patients compared to controls, and there was a correlation between LDL/HDL ratio and CIMT, albeit statistically weak. Therefore, the LDL/HDL ratio is not a reliable marker to predict atherosclerotic heart disease in AS patients.

  7. Determining lead sources in Mexico using the lead isotope ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary-Webb Madhu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning can, in some cases, be traced to a specific route or source of exposure on the basis of the individual's blood lead isotope ratio. To assess the major source of lead exposure among women residing in Mexico City, we compared blood, ceramic, and gasoline lead isotope ratios. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population, randomly selected from participants of a large trial, (1/1996-12/1996 comprised of 16 women whose lead levels exceeded 10 µg/dl and who reported using lead-glazed ceramics. Lead isotope ratios were performed on a Perkin Elmer 5000 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS interfaced with a Perkin Elmer HGA-600MS Electrothermal Vaporization System (ETV. RESULTS: The isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb of both the blood specimens and their corresponding ceramic specimens were highly correlated, with r=0.9979, r²=0.9958, r=0.9957, r²=0.9915 and r=0.9945, r²=0.9890 values for the three isotope ratios, respectively, suggesting that the lead exposure most likely resulted from the use of these ceramic. Measurements of lead isotope ratios from leaded gasoline in use at the time of blood sampling, differed from those in blood and ceramics. CONCLUSIONS: Determining lead isotope ratios can be an efficient tool to identify a major source of lead exposure and to support the implementation of public health prevention and control measures.

  8. Factors influencing the optimum sex ratio in a structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, L; Luck, R F

    1988-02-01

    W. D. Hamilton (1967, Science 156, 477-488) calculated the optimum sex-ratio strategy for a population subdivided into local mating groups. He made three important assumptions: that the females founding each group responded precisely to the number of them initiating the group; that ail broods within a group matured synchronously; and that males were incapable of dispersing between groups. We have examined the effects of relaxing each of these assumptions and obtained the following results: (1) When broods mature asynchronously the optimum sex ratio is considerably more female biased than the Hamiltonian prediction. (2) Increasing male dispersal always decreases the optimum female bias to the sex ratio, but it is of particular interest that when moderate levels of dispersal are coupled with asynchrony of brood maturation then the optimum strategy is relatively insensitive to changes in foundress number. (3) When females cannot precisely determine the number of other foundresses initiating the group then the optimum strategy is almost exactly the strategy appropriate to a group of average size. These effects can be most easily understood in terms of local parental control (LPC) of the sex ratio. Through LPC a founding female can alter the mating success of her sons by altering the sex ratio of her brood. Asynchrony in the maturation of broods within a group increases the control that a founding female has over the mating success of her sons, whereas male dispersal reduces it. We have shown that the role of LPC and the role of inbreeding, which favors a female-biased sex ratio in haploidiploid species, are independent and that their effects can be combined into a single general formula r = (1-(r2/z2) E(alpha z/alpha r]/(1 + I). The concept of LPC can also be used to interpret two factors which have been proposed to select for the Hamiltonian sex ratios: local mate competition is LPC acting through sons; and sib mating is LPC acting through daughters.

  9. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) for Binary Mixtures at Non-Equitoxic Ratios Based on Toxic Ratios-Effects Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposed a QSAR model to predict joint effects at non-equitoxic ratios for binary mixtures containing reactive toxicants, cyanogenic compounds and aldehydes. Toxicity of single and binary mixtures was measured by quantifying the decrease in light emission from the Photobacterium phosphoreum for 15 min. The joint effects of binary mixtures (TUsum) can thus be obtained. The results showed that the relationships between toxic ratios of the individual chemicals and their joint effects can be described by normal distribution function. Based on normal distribution equations, the joint effects of binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( TUsumn:m) can be predicted quantitatively using the joint effects at equitoxic ratios ( TUsum1:1). Combined with a QSAR model of TUsum1:1in our previous work, a novel QSAR model can be proposed to predict the joint effects of mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( TUsumn:m). The proposed model has been validated using additional mixtures other than the one used for the development of the model. Predicted and observed results were similar (p>0.05). This study provides an approach to the prediction of joint effects for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios. PMID:23930105

  10. Steam-air fluidized bed gasification of distillers grains: Effects of steam to biomass ratio, equivalence ratio and gasification temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Eskridge, Kent; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2009-03-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass gasification was performed on a bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Distillers grains, a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstock for the gasification. The goal was to investigate the effects of furnace temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition, carbon conversion efficiency and energy conversion efficiency of the product gas. The experiments were conducted using a 3x3x3 full factorial design with temperatures of 650, 750 and 850 degrees C, steam to biomass ratios of 0, 7.30 and 14.29 and equivalence ratios of 0.07, 0.15 and 0.29. Gasification temperature was found to be the most influential factor. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents, carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. Increasing equivalence ratio decreased the hydrogen content but increased carbon conversion and energy efficiencies. The steam to biomass ratio was optimal in the intermediate levels for maximal carbon conversion and energy efficiencies.

  11. Copper and zinc isotope ratios in human bone and enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Herrscher, Estelle; Balter, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bones and teeth of French people from various historical periods with the aim to understand how Cu and Zn isotope ratios of bone, a tissue that is continuously remodeled throughout life but that is prone to post-mortem diagenesis, compare with that of tooth enamel, a tissue that forms once during childhood but that is more resistant to diagenesis. Specifically, we examine (1) the potential existence of sex-related differences in the Cu isotope ratios (represented as δ65 Cu) in the tooth enamel of identified men and women, and (2) a decrease of Zn isotope delta ratios (represented as δ66 Zn) related to the increase of meat and fish consumption during the 20th century. Four series of material were studied: the archeological population of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble (17th -18th centuries AD), an anatomical collection of skulls (19th century AD), a contemporary anatomical collection of bones never buried, and contemporary teeth samples. The metals were purified by liquid chromatography and their isotopic ratios measured by means of multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We describe a clear offset between bone and tooth enamel for Zn isotope ratios, as previously observed in animals. There is a similar offset for Cu isotope ratios. We did not observe any difference between the δ65 Cu values of men and women when looking at dental enamel. For the contemporary samples, the δ66 Zn values of bioapatite decreased, which might be explained by the increase of animal product consumption among the French people during this period, notably when the access to seafood became widespread. Our study demonstrates that the Cu and Zn isotope compositions of dental enamel are promising tools for childhood diet reconstruction. Meanwhile, the Cu isotope ratio of tooth enamel is unlikely to be useful for the identification of biological sex, even in the case of populations with early menarche. Further works are needed to

  12. Combining Ratio Estimation for Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Saad; Hi, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Code decoding algorithm make use of a scaled receive signal derived from maximizing the log-likelihood ratio of the received signal. The scaling factor (often called the combining ratio) in an AWGN channel is a ratio between signal amplitude and noise variance. Accurately estimating this ratio has shown as much as 0.6 dB decoding performance gain. This presentation briefly describes three methods for estimating the combining ratio: a Pilot-Guided estimation method, a Blind estimation method, and a Simulation-Based Look-Up table. The Pilot Guided Estimation method has shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of signal amplitude is the mean inner product of the received sequence and the known sequence, the attached synchronization marker (ASM) , and signal variance is the difference of the mean of the squared received sequence and the square of the signal amplitude. This method has the advantage of simplicity at the expense of latency since several frames worth of ASMs. The Blind estimation method s maximum likelihood estimator is the average of the product of the received signal with the hyperbolic tangent of the product combining ratio and the received signal. The root of this equation can be determined by an iterative binary search between 0 and 1 after normalizing the received sequence. This method has the benefit of requiring one frame of data to estimate the combining ratio which is good for faster changing channels compared to the previous method, however it is computationally expensive. The final method uses a look-up table based on prior simulated results to determine signal amplitude and noise variance. In this method the received mean signal strength is controlled to a constant soft decision value. The magnitude of the deviation is averaged over a predetermined number of samples. This value is referenced in a look up table to determine the combining ratio that prior simulation associated with the average magnitude of

  13. The acoustics of short circular holes with finite expansion ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Morgans, Aimee

    2016-11-01

    The acoustic response of a circular hole with mean flow passing through it is highly relevant to Helmholtz resonators, fuel injectors, perforated liners, perforated plates and many other engineering applications. Analytical models for the acoustic response of these holes often ignore the impact of a finite expansion ratio either side, or account for it simply by adding an end mass inertial correction derived from the no mean flow assumption. The vortex-sound interaction within a short hole has been recently shown to strongly affect the acoustic response in the low frequency region. The present study uses an analytical model based on the Green's function method to investigate how the expansion ratios either side of a short hole affect the vortex-sound interaction within it - something neglected by previous models. This model is then incorporated into a Helmholtz resonator model, allowing us to consider the effect of a finite neck-to-cavity expansion ratio and the vortex-sound interaction within the finite length neck. Large resistance and acoustic energy absorption performance variations are seen even for small changes in the resonator neck length. Reducing the neck-to-cavity expansion ratio is found to decrease the resonator's sound absorption when the expansion ratio is low. CSC-Imperial PhD Scholarship; ERC Starting Grant, ACOULOMODE (2013-18).

  14. Mathematics education graduate students' understanding of trigonometric ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiǧit Koyunkaya, Melike

    2016-10-01

    This study describes mathematics education graduate students' understanding of relationships between sine and cosine of two base angles in a right triangle. To explore students' understanding of these relationships, an elaboration of Skemp's views of instrumental and relational understanding using Tall and Vinner's concept image and concept definition was developed. Nine students volunteered to complete three paper and pencil tasks designed to elicit evidence of understanding and three students among these nine students volunteered for semi-structured interviews. As a result of fine-grained analysis of the students' responses to the tasks, the evidence of concept image and concept definition as well as instrumental and relational understanding of trigonometric ratios was found. The unit circle and a right triangle were identified as students' concept images, and the mnemonic was determined as their concept definition for trigonometry, specifically for trigonometric ratios. It is also suggested that students had instrumental understanding of trigonometric ratios while they were less flexible to act on trigonometric ratio tasks and had limited relational understanding. Additionally, the results indicate that graduate students' understanding of the concept of angle mediated their understanding of trigonometry, specifically trigonometric ratios.

  15. Musical ratios in sounds from the human cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Katarzyna J; Kwaskiewicz, Konrad; Jedrzejczak, W Wiktor; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    The physiological roots of music perception are a matter of long-lasting debate. Recently light on this problem has been shed by the study of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are weak sounds generated by the inner ear following acoustic stimulation and, sometimes, even spontaneously. In the present study, a high-resolution time-frequency method called matching pursuit was applied to the OAEs recorded from the ears of 45 normal volunteers so that the component frequencies, amplitudes, latencies, and time-spans could be accurately determined. The method allowed us to find that, for each ear, the OAEs consisted of characteristic frequency patterns that we call resonant modes. Here we demonstrate that, on average, the frequency ratios of the resonant modes from all the cochleas studied possessed small integer ratios. The ratios are the same as those found by Pythagoras as being most musically pleasant and which form the basis of the Just tuning system. The statistical significance of the results was verified against a random distribution of ratios. As an explanatory model, there are attractive features in a recent theory that represents the cochlea as a surface acoustic wave resonator; in this situation the spacing between the rows of hearing receptors can create resonant cavities of defined lengths. By adjusting the geometry and the lengths of the resonant cavities, it is possible to generate the preferred frequency ratios we have found here. We conclude that musical perception might be related to specific geometrical and physiological properties of the cochlea.

  16. All passive photonic power divider with arbitrary split ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; Wen, Xiang; Sun, Wenzhao; Zhang, Nan; Yi, Ningbo; Sun, Shang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Integrated optical power splitter is one of the fundamental building blocks in photonic integrated circuits (PIC). Conventional multimode interferometer based power splitter is widely used as it has reasonable footprint and is easy to fabricate. However, it is challenging to realize arbitrary split ratio especially for multi-outputs. In this work, an ultra-compact power splitter with a QR code-like nanostructure is designed by a nonlinear fast search method (FSM). The highly functional structure is composed of a number of freely designed square pixels with the size of 120nm x 120nm which could be either dielectric or air. The lightwaves are scattered by a number of etched squares with optimized locations and the scattered waves superimpose at the outputs with the desired power ratio. We demonstrate 1x2 splitters with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 split ratios and a 1x3 splitter with the ratio of 1:2:1. The footprint for all the devices is only 3.6umx3.6 um. Well-controlled split ratios are measured for all the cases. The mea...

  17. Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2013-06-01

    Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India.

  18. Isotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Hutsemékers, Damien; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Opitom, Cyrielle; Manfroid, Jean; Jehin, Emmanuël; Meech, Karen J.; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Gillon, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that 12C/13C = 100 ± 15, 14N/15N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio from four pairs of NH2 isotopolog lines and measured 14N/15N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets.

  19. D/H ratios of the inner Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallis, L J

    2017-05-28

    The original hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of different planetary bodies may indicate where each body formed in the Solar System. However, geological and atmospheric processes can alter these ratios through time. Over the past few decades, D/H ratios in meteorites from Vesta and Mars, as well as from S- and C-type asteroids, have been measured. The aim of this article is to bring together all previously published data from these bodies, as well as the Earth, in order to determine the original D/H ratio for each of these inner Solar System planetary bodies. Once all secondary processes have been stripped away, the inner Solar System appears to be relatively homogeneous in terms of water D/H, with the original water D/H ratios of Vesta, Mars, the Earth, and S- and C-type asteroids all falling between δD values of -100‰ and -590‰. This homogeneity is in accord with the 'Grand tack' model of Solar System formation, where giant planet migration causes the S- and C-type asteroids to be mixed within 1 AU to eventually form the terrestrial planets.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Exploring racial variations in the spousal sex ratio of killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoeczi, W C

    2001-12-01

    The following article examines differences in the social situation of intimate partners as an explanation of racial differences in the female to male ratio of spousal homicides in Canada. An analysis of homicide data from 1961 to 1983 generated by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics reveals that the ratio of women killing their husbands to men killing their wives is highest for Aboriginals and lowest for Blacks, with the ratio for Whites falling in between. The possible sources of racial differences in this ratio include the proportion of couples (a) in common-law relationships, (b) who are co-residing as opposed to being separated, and (c) for whom there is a substantial age disparity between the partners. These factors are related to the spousal sex ratio of killing more generally. An exploration of interracial homicide patterns and racial variation in jealousy-motivated homicides was also undertaken. The findings reveal that controlling for the above factors substantially reduces the importance of race in predicting the gender of the homicide victim.

  1. D/H ratios of the inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallis, L. J.

    2017-04-01

    The original hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of different planetary bodies may indicate where each body formed in the Solar System. However, geological and atmospheric processes can alter these ratios through time. Over the past few decades, D/H ratios in meteorites from Vesta and Mars, as well as from S- and C-type asteroids, have been measured. The aim of this article is to bring together all previously published data from these bodies, as well as the Earth, in order to determine the original D/H ratio for each of these inner Solar System planetary bodies. Once all secondary processes have been stripped away, the inner Solar System appears to be relatively homogeneous in terms of water D/H, with the original water D/H ratios of Vesta, Mars, the Earth, and S- and C-type asteroids all falling between δD values of -100‰ and -590‰. This homogeneity is in accord with the `Grand tack' model of Solar System formation, where giant planet migration causes the S- and C-type asteroids to be mixed within 1 AU to eventually form the terrestrial planets. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  2. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  3. Musical ratios in sounds from the human cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna J Blinowska

    Full Text Available The physiological roots of music perception are a matter of long-lasting debate. Recently light on this problem has been shed by the study of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs, which are weak sounds generated by the inner ear following acoustic stimulation and, sometimes, even spontaneously. In the present study, a high-resolution time-frequency method called matching pursuit was applied to the OAEs recorded from the ears of 45 normal volunteers so that the component frequencies, amplitudes, latencies, and time-spans could be accurately determined. The method allowed us to find that, for each ear, the OAEs consisted of characteristic frequency patterns that we call resonant modes. Here we demonstrate that, on average, the frequency ratios of the resonant modes from all the cochleas studied possessed small integer ratios. The ratios are the same as those found by Pythagoras as being most musically pleasant and which form the basis of the Just tuning system. The statistical significance of the results was verified against a random distribution of ratios. As an explanatory model, there are attractive features in a recent theory that represents the cochlea as a surface acoustic wave resonator; in this situation the spacing between the rows of hearing receptors can create resonant cavities of defined lengths. By adjusting the geometry and the lengths of the resonant cavities, it is possible to generate the preferred frequency ratios we have found here. We conclude that musical perception might be related to specific geometrical and physiological properties of the cochlea.

  4. Blocked Shape Memory Effect in Negative Poisson's Ratio Polymer Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Katarzyna; Bianchi, Matteo; McCombe, Greg; Gatt, Ruben; Griffin, Anselm C; Richardson, Robert M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Hamerton, Ian; Grima, Joseph N

    2016-08-10

    We describe a new class of negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) open cell PU-PE foams produced by blocking the shape memory effect in the polymer. Contrary to classical NPR open cell thermoset and thermoplastic foams that return to their auxetic phase after reheating (and therefore limit their use in technological applications), this new class of cellular solids has a permanent negative Poisson's ratio behavior, generated through multiple shape memory (mSM) treatments that lead to a fixity of the topology of the cell foam. The mSM-NPR foams have Poisson's ratio values similar to the auxetic foams prior their return to the conventional phase, but compressive stress-strain curves similar to the ones of conventional foams. The results show that by manipulating the shape memory effect in polymer microstructures it is possible to obtain new classes of materials with unusual deformation mechanisms.

  5. On the importance of tail ratios for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Mohr, Elisabeth; Hagmann, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Even small group-mean differences (whether combined with variance differences or not) or variance differences alone (absent mean differences) can generate marked and sometimes surprising imbalances in the representation of the respective groups compared in the distributional tail regions. Such imbalances in group representation, quantified as tail ratios, have general importance in the context of any threshold, susceptibility, diathesis-stress, selection, or similar models (including the study of sex differences), as widely conceptualized and applied in the psychological, social, medical, and biological sciences. However, commonly used effect-size measures, such as Cohen's d, largely exploit data information around the center of distributions, rather than from the tails, thereby missing potentially important patterns found in the tail regions. This account reviews the background and history of tail ratios, emphasizes their importance for psychological research, proposes a consensus approach for defining and interpreting them, introduces a tail-ratio calculator, and outlines future research agenda.

  6. Proton–electron mass ratio from HD+ revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sayan; Karr, J.-Ph; Hilico, L.; Germann, M.; Korobov, V. I.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the proton–electron mass ratio from the hydrogen molecular ion, HD+. The derivation entails the adjustment of the mass ratio in highly precise theory so as to reproduce accurately measured ro-vibrational frequencies. This work is motivated by recent improvements of the theory, as well as the more accurate value of the electron mass in the recently published CODATA-14 set of fundamental constants, which justifies using it as input data in the adjustment, rather than the proton mass value as done in previous works. This leads to significantly different sensitivity coefficients and, consequently, a different value and larger uncertainty margin of the proton–electron mass ratio as obtained from HD+.

  7. Spetroscopic Line-Depth Ratios and Solar Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D.

    The ratios of the central depths of selected spectral lines has proved to be a sensitive index of a star's temperature. Line-depth ratios have been successfully applied to main sequence stars (Gray 1994 P.A.S.P. 106, 1248) as well as giants (Gray &Brown 2001 P.A.S.P., 113, 723). A stellar calibration and subsequent application to solar data over a magnetic cycle gave plausible results (Gray &Livingston 1997 Ap.J., 474, 802), indicating a solar temperature variation ~ 1.5 K. This result is subject to unresolved criticisms. I will review these results and focus on possible meanings of the variations in solar line-depth ratios.

  8. Isomeric ratio measurements with the ILL LOHENGRIN spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebboubi A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of γ heating and neutron damage inside a nuclear reactor is essential to design the next generation of nuclear reactors. The determination of the fission fragment momentum is a key element to perform accurate calculations of the γ heating. One way to assess this information is to look at the isomeric ratio of different nuclei. According to the lifetime of the isomeric state, different experimental techniques were developed at the LOHENGRIN spectrometer. A focus on the measurement of isomeric ratios of 136I in neutron induced fission of 241Pu is presented. A discussion with the current assumptions used in the evaluation process for isomeric ratio is also shown.

  9. Prediction of transparency perception based on cone-excitation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Caterina; Westland, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    Perceptual transparency was measured in two experiments by using simulations of illuminated surfaces presented on a CRT monitor. In a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, observers viewed two simulated Mondrians in temporal sequence. In one sequence the Mondrian was simulated to be partially covered by a transparent filter; in the other sequence the filter color over each Mondrian patch was modified. Observers were instructed to select the sequence containing a transparent filter. Observers' selections corresponded to sequences in which the cone-excitation ratios for each adjacent pair of Mondrian patches were approximately the same as the cone-excitation ratios for the pair of patches covered by a filter. The results suggest that cone-excitation ratios may be a cue for perceptual transparency.

  10. Towards a Reproducible Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Koeppl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed-mediated method in presence of high concentrations of CTAB is frequently implemented in the preparation of high aspect ratio gold nanorods (i.e., nanorods with aspect ratios of 5 or more; however, the reproducibility has still been limited. We rendered the synthesis procedure simpler, decreased the susceptibility to impurities, and improved the reproducibility of the product distribution. As a result of the high aspect ratios, longitudinal plasmon absorptions were shifted up to very high absorption maxima of 1955 nm in UV-vis-NIR spectra (since this band is completely covered in aqueous solution by the strong absorption of water, the gold species were embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol films for UV-vis-NIR measurements. Finally, the directed particle growth in (110 direction leads to the conclusion that the adsorption of CTAB molecules at specific crystal faces accounts for nanorod growth and not cylindrical CTAB micelles, in agreement with other observations.

  11. Posterior distributions for likelihood ratios in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Alberink, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken. The posterior likelihood approach has been criticised both theoretically and with respect to applicability. This paper addresses the latter and illustrates an interesting application area. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of eddy diffusivity ratio on underwater optical scintillation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamassie, Mohammed; Uysal, Murat; Baykal, Yahya; Abdallah, Mohamed; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2017-11-01

    The performance of underwater optical wireless communication systems is severely affected by the turbulence that occurs due to the fluctuations in the index of refraction. Most previous studies assume a simplifying, yet inaccurate, assumption in the turbulence spectrum model that the eddy diffusivity ratio is equal to unity. It is, however, well known that the eddy diffusivities of temperature and salt are different from each other in most underwater environments. In this paper, we obtain a simplified spatial power spectrum model of turbulent fluctuations of the seawater refraction index as an explicit function of eddy diffusivity ratio. Using the derived model, we obtain the scintillation index of optical plane and spherical waves and investigate the effect of the eddy diffusivity ratio.

  13. The Trivers-Willard hypothesis: sex ratio or investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veller, Carl; Haig, David; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-05-11

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis has commonly been considered to predict two things. First, that a mother in good condition should bias the sex ratio of her offspring towards males (if males exhibit greater variation in reproductive value). Second, that a mother in good condition should invest more per son than per daughter. These two predictions differ empirically, mechanistically and, as we demonstrate here, theoretically too. We construct a simple model of sex allocation that allows simultaneous analysis of both versions of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. We show that the sex ratio version holds under very general conditions, being valid for a large class of male and female fitness functions. The investment version, on the other hand, is shown to hold only for a small subset of male and female fitness functions. Our results help to make sense of the observation that the sex ratio version is empirically more successful than the investment version. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Measurement of the pion branching ratio at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrunot, C.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, S.; Kettell, S. H.; Kuno, Y.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L.; Numao, T.; Sher, A.; Sullivan, T.; Vavilov, D.; Yoshida, M.

    2012-09-01

    The branching ratio of pion decays, R = Γ(π+→e+νe+π+→e+νeγ)/Γ(π+→μ+νμ+π+→μ+νμγ is one of the most accurately calculated decay processes involving hadrons and has provided one of the most stringent tests of the hypothesis of electron-muon universality in weak interactions. The current experimental branching ratio Rexp = (1.230±0.004)×10-4 is 40 times less precise than the theoretical prediction RSM = 1.2352(1)10-4. The TRIUMF PIENU experiment aims at measuring the pion branching ratio with a precision improved by at least a factor five.

  15. Ultima Ratio and the Judicial Application of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Ultima Ratio as a principle, its relationship to other principles in the criminal law is the first subject of this paper. After discarding approaches that deny any role to the ultima ratio principle like the criminal law of the enemy, the major readings of the justification of the ius puniendi – deontological and utilitarian – are related to the idea of a restrained resort to criminalisation and penal sanction. The role of the main protagonists in relation to punishment is next considered: transgressor, community and victim. The issues of impunity and overpunity are also considered in this part. The second part of the paper analyses the possible effects of ultima ratio, a general politico-moral principle mainly addressed to the legislator, on the application of the law by the judges. It is then turned into something closer to a general legal principle. The impact of ultima ratio on the different sub-decisions of the judicial application of the criminal law is spelt out in the decisions on qualification, evidence (inferences, interpretation and consequences in sentencing. Next, the role of ultima ratio on decisions in appeal and in cassation is analysed. The third part and conclusion deals with the main ideologies of ultima ratio and the wider issue of its role in securing a guarantee oriented criminal law in Europe. En este artículo se aborda, en primer lugar, el carácter de ultima ratio como principio, su relación con otros principios en el derecho penal. Después de descartar los enfoques que rechazan cualquier papel del principio de ultima ratio como el derecho penal del enemigo, las lecturas principales de la justificación del ius puniendi, deontológico y utilitarista, están relacionadas con la idea de un recurso restringido a la criminalización y sanción penal. A continuación, se analiza el papel de los protagonistas principales relacionados con el castigo: transgresor, comunidad y víctima. En esta parte tambi

  16. d / u Ratio in the Proton at Seaquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel; E906 SeaQuest Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Fermilab E906 SeaQuest experiment measures muons produced from a 120 GeV proton beam incident on liquid Hydrogen, Deuterium and solid C, Fe and W targets. Muons produced through the Drell Yan process are used to measure nuclear effects, in particular for light sea quarks that the SeaQuest spectrometer is optimized to measure. The ratio of d to u quarks was expected to be one when only considering gluon splitting, but was found to deviate from that significantly in past experiments. Using the ratios of deuterium to hydrogen cross sections, the ratio of d / u quarks will be extracted for Björken x values up to .45. This probes a higher x region than previous experiments.

  17. CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Miyaji, Karina T; Hunt, Peter W; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B; Freire, Marcos S; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H; Hong, Marisa A; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C; Cerqueira, Natalia B; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M; Kallas, Esper G

    2016-12-01

    HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation-characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity-may influence vaccine response in this population. We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV-infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio.

  18. Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Alan A; Rudling, Nick; Kissling, Christian; Taurines, Regine; Thome, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    The length of the index finger relative to that of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, has been taken to be a marker of the amount of testosterone (T) that was present in the foetal environment (Manning, Scutt, Wilson, & Lewis-Jones, 1998). It has also been suggested (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1987) that elevated levels of foetal T are associated with left-handedness and that adult levels of circulating T might relate to foetal levels (Jamison, Meier, & Campbell, 1993). We used multiple regression analyses to investigate whether there is any relationship between either left or right hand 2D:4D ratio and handedness. We also examined whether adult levels of salivary T (or cortisol, used as a control hormone) predict digit ratio and/or handedness. Although the 2D:4D ratio of neither the left nor the right hand was related to handedness, the difference between the digit ratios of the right and left hands, D(R-L), was a significant predictor of handedness and of the performance difference between the hands on a peg-moving task, supporting previous findings (Manning & Peters, 2009; Manning et al., 1998; Manning, Trivers, Thornhill, & Singh, 2000; Stoyanov, Marinov, & Pashalieva, 2009). Adult circulating T levels did not predict the digit ratio of the left or right hand; nor was there a significant relationship between concentrations of salivary T (or cortisol) and either hand preference or asymmetry in manual skill. We suggest that the association between D(R-L) and hand preference arises because D(R-L) is a correlate of sensitivity to T in the developing foetus.

  20. Economic support ratios and the demographic dividend in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Prskawetz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Support ratios and dependency ratios are widely used as indicators for measuring the effects of population ageing on economic development. Both of these indicators use fixed age limits to distinguish between the working and the dependent populations. Objective: We apply age-specific profiles of consumption and labour income instead of using arbitrary age limits. Based on these age-specific characteristics, we study the impact of changes in the age structure on the economy. In addition to looking at the compositional effect of age structure changes, we also consider savings/wealth effects. Methods: The National Transfer Accounts (NTA offer researchers a new method for comprehensively analysing economic flows across age groups. Because they combine micro (survey data and macro controls, the NTA provide detailed profiles of consumption and labour income by age, as well as age profiles of transfers and assets, through which the differences between consumption and labour income are covered. Results: The development of the "NTA support ratio" for 2010-2050 indicates that the compositional effect of the changing population structure on economic development will range from -11Š for the UK to -25Š for Slovenia, which exceed the values of the conventional support ratio. The positive saving/wealth effect is almost negligible for the countries studied, except for the UK, Germany, and Spain. Conclusions: Given the current profiles of consumption and labour income in the European NTA countries, the rates of growth in the support ratio induced by the changing demographic structure will be negative in these countries. A positive effect of increased saving/wealth can counteract this decline in the support ratio, but depends on the institutional settings in which the elderly finance their consumption. Comments: We offer for the first time a European comparative study on the effect of changes in the age structure in the economy based on NTA data.

  1. Measurement of muon charge ratio with the Large Volume Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.Yu.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bertoni, R.; Boyarkin, V.V.; Bressan, E.; Bruno, G.; Dadykin, V.L.; Dobrynina, E.A.; Enikeev, R.I.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Ghia, P.L.; Giusti, P.; Kemp, E.; Malgin, A.S.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Persiani, R.; Pless, I.A.; Ryasny, V.G.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Saavedra, O.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M.; Trinchero, G.C.; Vigorito, C.; Yakushev, V.F.; Zichichi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The value of ${\\mu^+/\\mu^-}$ ratio for atmospheric muons has been measured with the Large Volume Detector, (LVD) at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy (minimal depth is 3000 m w.e.). To reach this depth muons should have an energy at the sea level higher than 1.3 TeV. The muon charge is determined studying the decay of stopping positive muons in the LVD iron structure and the decay of stopping positive and negative muons in scintillator. We obtain a ratio ${R = 1.26 \\pm 0.04(stat) \\pm 0.11(sys)}$.

  2. Measurement of the Radiative Ke3 Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Anzivino, Giuseppina; Becker, H G; Bertanza, L; Bevan, A; Biino, C; Bocquet, G; Calvetti, M; Carosi, R; Cartiglia, N; Casali, R; Ceccucci, A; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; Chollet, J C; Cirilli, M; Cogan, J; Collazuol, G; Contalbrigo, M; Costantini, F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Dalpiaz, Pietro; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Dibon, Heinz; Doble, Niels T; Dosanjh, R S; Duclos, J; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fayard, L; Fischer, G; Formica, A; Fox, H; Frabetti, P L; Gatignon, L; Gershon, T J; Gianoli, A; Giudici, Sergio; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Graziani, G; Hay, B; Holder, M; Khristov, P Z; Iacopini, E; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, Manfred; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kalter, A; Kekelidze, Vladimir D; Kleinknecht, K; Knowles, I; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Lai, A; Lazzeroni, C; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Lubrano, P; Madigozhin, D T; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Markytan, Manfred; Marouelli, P; Marras, D; Martelli, F; Martin, V; Martini, M; Mazzucato, E; Menichetti, E; Mestvirishvili, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N A; Munday, D J; Nappi, A; Nassalski, J P; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Ocariz, J; Olaiya, E; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Parker, M A; Pastrone, N; Pellmann, I A; Pepé, M; Pernicka, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G M; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Renk, B; Rondio, Ewa; Sacco, R; Savrié, M; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Szleper, M; Taureg, H; Taurok, A; Turlay, René; Unal, G; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; White, T O; Widhalm, L; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winhart, A; Wislicki, W; Wittgen, M; Wotton, S A; Wronka, S; Zinchenko, A I; Ziolkowski, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the decay KL -> pi e nu gamma (Ke3gamma) with respect to KL-> pi e nu (gamma) (Ke3+Ke3gamma) decay. The result is based on observation of 19 000 Ke3gamma and 5.6 x 10^6 Ke3 decays. The value of the branching ratio is Br(Ke3gamma, Egamma^*>30 MeV,theta(e,gamma)^*>20^o)/Br(Ke3)= (0.964+-0.008+0.011-0.009)%. This result agrees with theoretical predictions but is at variance with a recently published result.

  3. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Cytokine ratios in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anirudh B; Thakur, Srinath; Muddapur, M V; Kulkarni, Raghavendra D

    Chronic periodontitis may influence systemic cytokines in type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine ratios in type 2 diabetes with, and without chronic periodontitis. Gingival status, periodontal, glycemic parameters and serum cytokines were evaluated in participants grouped as healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 diabetes with, and without chronic periodontitis. Cytokine ratios showed significant differences in type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis, were highest in participants having both type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis, with a statistically significant cut-off point and area under curve by receiver operating characteristic. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  6. Acoustic behavior of Negative Poisson’s Ratio Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    production of continuous or large sheets of the material. The fourth plot (Fig. 13) compares foams of various pore densities with a 4 mil polyethylene film...has nearly the same influence on acoustic properties as production of a negative Poisson’s ratio. Acoustic absorptions found for the different...converted to a voltage ratio by: n = 10exp(dB/20) Then n-I and n+l were calculated and subsituted into the formula for Alpha given above. ACOUSTIC

  7. Transformer ratio saturation in a beam-driven wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J. P.; Martorelli, R.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-12-01

    We show that for beam-driven wakefield acceleration, the linearly ramped, equally spaced train of bunches typically considered to optimise the transformer ratio only works for flat-top bunches. Through theory and simulation, we explain that this behaviour is due to the unique properties of the plasma response to a flat-top density profile. Calculations of the optimal scaling for a train of Gaussian bunches show diminishing returns with increasing bunch number, tending towards saturation. For a periodic bunch train, a transformer ratio of 23 was achieved for 50 bunches, rising to 40 for a fully optimised beam.

  8. Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim; Smith, Kirk R

    2008-02-12

    The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) and 1914 (last birth cohort for which male life span can be estimated). We conclude that ambient temperature affects the characteristics of human populations by influencing who survives gestation, a heretofore unrecognized effect of climate on humanity.

  9. The effects of roughness and offset on fracture compliance ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Taleghani, A. Dahi; Sayers, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    Fractures are a source of extra compliance in the rock mass. The mechanical properties of the rock matrix as well as the propagation of seismic waves inside the rock medium are dependent on the magnitude of roughness and offset between the imperfect fracture interfaces. Fracture compliance can estimate the degree of contact between fracture faces, type of fluid filling the fracture and the fracture roughness. To characterize these fracture properties, compliance ratio, known by the ratio of normal-to-shear compliance, can be a potential tool in the subsurface studies to improve the well layout design. The focus of this study is to illustrate how the compliance ratio of a rough fracture, with or without the offset between the fracture faces, can diverge from the compliance ratio of a fracture with smooth interface. Quasi-static and dynamic methods are two common ways to calculate the compliance. The former calculates the compliance by measuring the change in the displacement with the applied stress, while the latter estimates the compliance through monitoring the changes in propagation of seismic waves. To compare the compliance ratios of fractures with imperfect and smooth interfaces in an infinite medium, a numerical finite-element model is built in commercial finite-element software. The imperfect interface of the fracture is modeled with saw-tooth-like structures where they can be partially or fully in contact. The defined saw-tooth-like structures of contact asperities impose an in-plane asymmetry in the shear direction. This asymmetry causes two different values for the compliance in shear direction, known as the soft and stiff shear compliance. Our numerical simulations suggest the increase in the degree of contact between the fracture faces increases the compliance ratio in the stiff direction more than the soft direction. The compliance ratio of the fracture with the imperfect interface is larger than the compliance ratio of the smooth fracture. We suggest

  10. Calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves from harvest age ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Otis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined results from the first national-scale effort to estimate mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) age ratios and developed a simple, efficient, and generalizable methodology for calibrating estimates. Our method predicted age classes of unknown-age wings based on backward projection of molt distributions from fall harvest collections to preseason banding. We estimated 1) the proportion of late-molt individuals in each age class, and 2) the molt rates of juvenile and adult birds. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated our estimator was minimally biased. We estimated model parameters using 96,811 wings collected from hunters and 42,189 birds banded during preseason from 68 collection blocks in 22 states during the 2005–2007 hunting seasons. We also used estimates to derive a correction factor, based on latitude and longitude of samples, which can be applied to future surveys. We estimated differential vulnerability of age classes to harvest using data from banded birds and applied that to harvest age ratios to estimate population age ratios. Average, uncorrected age ratio of known-age wings for states that allow hunting was 2.25 (SD 0.85) juveniles:adult, and average, corrected ratio was 1.91 (SD 0.68), as determined from harvest age ratios from an independent sample of 41,084 wings collected from random hunters in 2007 and 2008. We used an independent estimate of differential vulnerability to adjust corrected harvest age ratios and estimated the average population age ratio as 1.45 (SD 0.52), a direct measure of recruitment rates. Average annual recruitment rates were highest east of the Mississippi River and in the northwestern United States, with lower rates between. Our results demonstrate a robust methodology for calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves and represent the first large-scale estimates of recruitment for the species. Our methods can be used by managers to correct future harvest survey data to generate recruitment estimates for use in

  11. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  12. Clot dynamics and mortality: The MA-R ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Stephanie A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Pohlman, Timothy H; Brewer, Brian L; Magnotti, Louis J; Croce, Martin A; Lim, Garrett H; Martin, Ali C

    2017-10-01

    The coagulopathy of trauma, illustrated by a short R-time, is common and well understood. The physiology behind this may be early thrombin burst with rapid clot formation. Rapid consumption of fibrinogen, however, may result in weak clot and substrate depletion, resulting in low MA. While these characteristics are interesting, utilizing thromboelastography (TEG) to identify those at risk of subsequent bleeding diathesis, especially in those who do not demonstrate early signs of physiologic derangement, is challenging. We have developed a novel ratio utilizing TEG values to describe patients at specific risk of traumatic coagulopathy. The purpose of this study was to create a single TEG value, which would reflect both the hypercoagulability and hypocoagulability of TIC. We hypothesized that this ratio, at admission, would be indicative of TIC and predictive of both blood product transfusion volumes and subsequent mortality. Patients admitted via the highest activation criteria at one of two Level I trauma centers were included if they received at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells in the first 24 hours of admission. The admission TEG was collected, and a ratio was calculated by dividing the MA by the R-time (MA-R). MA-R quartiles were developed, and multivariable logistic regression was utilized to determine odds of mortality. Three hundred thirty patients with admission TEG were included. In all patients, median age was 35 years (interquartile range, 25-54 years), Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 20 (interquartile range, 13-29), 76% were male, and 43% had penetrating trauma. The MA-R groups were based on quartiles. Multivariable analysis, controlling for mechanism of injury, ISS, and admission pH, showed that increasing ratios were associated with decreased odds of death. The lowest MA-R ratios were also significantly associated with higher ISS, higher rates of blunt injury, and higher plasma utilization without a significant difference in packed red blood cell

  13. Referencing strategies and techniques in stable isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R A; Brand, W A

    2001-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios are reported in the literature in terms of a deviation from an international standard (delta-values). The referencing procedures, however, differ from instrument to instrument and are not consistent between measurement facilities. This paper reviews an attempt to unify the strategy for referencing isotopic measurements. In particular, emphasis is given to the importance of identical treatment of sample and reference material ('IT principle'), which should guide all isotope ratio determinations and evaluations. The implementation of the principle in our laboratory, the monitoring of our measurement quality, the status of the international scales and reference materials and necessary correction procedures are discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.

    1989-06-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  15. Flow structure at low momentum ratio river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Gelare; Rennie, Colin. D.; Cardot, Romain; Mettra, François; Lane, Stuart. N.

    2017-04-01

    The flow structure at river confluences is a complex pattern of fluid motion and can be characterized by the formation of secondary circulation. As river confluences play an essential role on flow hydrodynamics and control the movement of sediment through river networks, there has been substantial attention given to this subject in recent decades. However, there is still much debate over how momentum ratio and sediment transport can control secondary circulation and mixing processes. In particular, studies have tended to assume that there is some equilibrium between the bed morphology present and the flow structures that form in the junction region. However, this overlooks the fact that tributaries may be associated with highly varying sediment supply regimes, especially for shorter and steeper tributaries, with temporal changes in sediment delivery ratios (between the main stem and the tributary) that do not follow exactly changes in momentum ratio. This may lead to bed morphologies that are a function of rates of historical sediment supply during sediment transporting events and not the momentum ratio associated with the junction during its measurement. It is quite possible that tributaries with low flow momentum ratio have a relatively higher sediment delivery ratio, such that the tributary is still able to influence significantly secondary circulation in the main channel, long after the sediment transport event, and despite its low flow momentum during measurement. The focus of this paper is low momentum ratio junctions where it is possible that the tributary can deliver large amounts of sediment. Secondary circulation at junctions is thought to be dominated by streamwise-oriented vortical cells. These cells are produced by the convergence of surface flow towards the centre of the main channel, with descending motion in the zone of maximum flow convergence. Once flow arrives at the bed, it diverges and completes its rotation by an upwelling motion through the

  16. The optimal ratio time-frequency mask for speech separation in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shan; Liu, Wenju; Jiang, Wei; Xue, Wei

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a computational goal for a monaural speech separation system is proposed. Since this goal is derived by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it is called the optimal ratio mask (ORM). Under the approximate W-Disjoint Orthogonality assumption which almost always holds due to the sparse nature of speech, theoretical analysis shows that the ORM can improve the SNR about 10log(10)2 dB over the ideal ratio mask. With three kinds of real-world interference, the speech separation results of SNR gain and objective quality evaluation demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and imply that the ORM achieves a better separation performance.

  17. Estimating mapped-plot forest attributes with ratios of means

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Zarnoch; W.A. Bechtold

    2000-01-01

    The mapped-plot design utilized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Inventory and Analysis and the National Forest Health Monitoring Programs is described. Data from 2458 forested mapped plots systematically spread across 25 States reveal that 35 percent straddle multiple conditions. The ratio-of-means estimator is developed as a method to obtain...

  18. Sex ratio of lambs born from assisted reproductive technologies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Key words: Sex ratio, assisted reproductive technologies, sheep. INTRODUCTION. Assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial in- semination (AI) and embryo transfer (ET) have developed into powerful reproductive flock management techniques. Currently, AI alone, or in combination with an ET.

  19. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is on the increase in children, the method of diagnosis is tedious. Newer methods have been suggested. Objective: To assess the usefulness of Blood Pressure height ratio indices in the diagnosis of childhood hypertension. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among ...

  20. Effects of finite aspect ratio on wind turbine airfoil measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark A.; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines partly operate in stalled conditions within their operational cycle. To simulate these conditions, it is also necessary to obtain 2-D airfoil data in terms of lift and drag coefficients at high angles of attack. Such data has been obtained previously, but often at low aspect ratios...

  1. Oxygen isotopic ratios of primordial water in carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    In this work, I estimate the δ18 O and δ17 O values of primordial water in CM chondrites to be 55 ± 13 and 35 ± 9‰, respectively, based on whole-rock O and H data. Also, I found that the O and/or H data of Antarctic meteorites are biased, which is attributed to terrestrial weathering. This characteristic O isotopic ratio of water together with corresponding water abundances in CM chondrites are consistent with the origin of water as ice processed by photochemical reactions at the outer regions of the solar nebula, where mass-independent O isotopic fractionation and water destruction may have occurred. Another possible mechanism to produce the inferred O isotopic ratio of water would be O isotopic fractionation between water vapor and ice, which likely occurred near the condensation front of H2O (snow line) in the solar nebula. The inferred O isotopic ratio of water suggests that carbonate in CM chondrites formed at low temperatures of <150 °C. The O isotopic ratios of primordial water in chondrites other than CM chondrites are not well constrained.

  2. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  3. Determination of surface fluxes using a Bowen ratio system | Kakane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. ... Soil heat flux (Qg) was measured with ground heat flux plates and the change in energy storage of the layer of soil above the heat flux plates was computed using direct measurements of soil ...

  4. Estimation of Cardiothoracic Ratios in Thoracic Radiographs of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An enlarged heart almost always indicates the presence of cardiac or pericardial disease. Radiographic assessment is an invaluable and a practical method of evaluating patients with cardiothoracic disease. Cardiac ratios of twelve clinically healthy West African Dwarf Goats (WADGs) were studied. The aim of this research ...

  5. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma.

  6. Topology Optimized Architectures with Programmable Poisson's Ratio over Large Deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Anders; Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob S; Sigmund, Ole; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2015-10-07

    Topology optimized architectures are designed and printed with programmable Poisson's ratios ranging from -0.8 to 0.8 over large deformations of 20% or more. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jae-Wan; Lee, Chan-Bok; Eun, Denny; Jang, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Park, Jung-Min; Cha, Jun-Youl; Cho, Nam-Heung; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Jin, Yong-Yun; Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/sec. The tested parts were trunk, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joints. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance of the differences between groups. The ipsilateral ratios of peak torque or work per repetition (WR) of trunk flexor and extensor in the golfers were not significantly different compared to those of the control group. These results were similar to the shoulder horizontal abductor and adductor. However, there were significant differences in the ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints. Especially, the WR of the wrist flexor, forearm pronator, and elbow flexor on the left side of amateur golfers showed imbalances in bilateral ratios. Moreover, the WR of the wrist and elbow flexors on the left side of amateur golfers were lower than those of the wrist and elbow extensors. Therefore, amateur golfers should strive to prevent injuries of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints and to reinforce the endurance on those parts of the left side.

  8. Effect of Blend Ratio on Thermo-Physical and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermo-physical properties of bread made from wheat, cassava and soybean blends were investigated. During investigation, the organoleptic acceptance of the composite wheat, cassava and soy bread was determined. All the blend ratios were exposed to equal heating rate during baking at set temperature of 230oC. The ...

  9. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  10. Response to selection for feed conversion ratio in Japanese quail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varkoohi, S.; Moradi Shahr Babak, M.; Pakdel, A.; Nejati Javaremi, A.; Kause, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of selection for 4-wk feed conversion ratio (FCR) on genetic improvement of FCR, BW, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and residual FI (RFI) in Japanese quail. The F line was selected for reduced FCR and the C line was maintained as a randombred control. In each

  11. Diagnostic Role of Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Oral Cavity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of neutrophil– lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and other hemogram parameters in differentiating nonmalignant oral cavity lesions from oral cavity cancers. Methods: Ninety- five patients who were performed oral cavity biopsy between the years 2013 and.

  12. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  13. Cross contamination in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Visser, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Since the early days of geochemical isotope ratio mass spectrometry there has always been the problem of cross contamination, i.e. the contamination of the sample gas with traces of reference gas land vice versa) in a dual inlet system and the analyzer itself. This was attributable to valve leakages

  14. Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial glasses. W THIEMSORN*, K KEOWKAMNERD, P SUWANNATHADA, H HESSENKEMPER. † and. S PHANICHAPHANT. Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202, Thailand. †Institute of Ceramics, Glass and Cement, Freiberg University of ...

  15. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  16. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Reginia H Y; Malisch, Jessica L; Hannon, Robert M; Hurd, Peter L; Garland, Theodore

    2008-09-17

    The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger) divided by the fourth digit (ring finger) tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized") in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running) in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  17. Some solar radiation ratios and their interpretations with regards to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ratios of some radiation fluxes such as global (total) solar radiation, H, direct solar radiation, Hb, diffuse solar radiation, Hd, and extraterrestrial radiation, Ho were proposed to define radiation coefficients related to radiation transfer in the atmosphere and solar radiation measurement on the ground surface. The irradiative ...

  18. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...

  19. The relative importance of financial ratios in creating shareholders’ wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merwe Oberholzer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is firstly to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to aggregate the overall performance (technical efficiency of firms to convert scarce resources into outputs that create wealth for shareholders, and secondly, to determine the degree to which this mentioned performance is reflected in a number of profitability and market value ratios. Annual financial statement data were used for 55 manufacturing companies listed on the JSE Limited over a five-year period in a cross-sectional analysis. The study found that return on equity has the most significant relationship with technical efficiency, followed by return on assets. The market value ratios price/earnings and dividend yield have no significant relationship with technical efficiency. The value of this study is that it is the first of its kind where technical efficiency, which aggregated operating, profitability and marketability efficiencies, is used to determine the relative importance of not only the readily available profitability ratios, but also market value ratios.

  20. Platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A study was performed in adults with acute appendicitis and matched controls to assess the utility of the platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a complete blood count test of 155 adult patients (72 men and 83 women) with ...

  1. Evaluation of Subgrade Soils using California Bearing Ratio (Cbr) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater the resistance to deformation a subgrade is the more load it can support before reaching a critical deformation value. ... The plasticity index (PI) of the samples fall within 10 – 20%. The study has ... Keywords: Subgrade soils, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, Plasticity Index (PI), Rivers State, Nigeria.

  2. Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on a study conducted to quantify the overlap in ungulate resource-use on a game ranch, and to demonstrate how these indices of overlap can be incorporated into substitution ratios for calculating stocking rates. Illustrates with tables. Keywords:Aepyceros melampus; Animal units; Blue wildebeest; Burchell's zebra; ...

  3. The Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1972-01-01

    Under the assumption that the coupling between the sound modes and modes associated with heat and mass diffusion can be neglected, an expression for the Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids is derived using thermodynamic fluctuation theory. Applications of the general formula to ternary

  4. Zooplankton biomass to chlorophyll ratios in relation to trophic status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising eutrophication in South African reservoirs is of major concern, leading to the consideration of top-down biomanipulation as a management option – reducing zooplankton-eating fish to sustain zooplankton grazing pressure and thus restrict autotrophic plankton that proliferate with nutrient increases. The biomass ratio ...

  5. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests for Seasonal Unit Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    In an important generalization of zero frequency autore- gressive unit root tests, Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) developed regression-based tests for unit roots at the seasonal frequencies in quarterly time series. We develop likelihood ratio tests for seasonal unit roots and show...

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Various Ratios of Polysaccharides/Alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effects of various ratios of polysaccharides/ alkaloids from the rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch (RCC) on α-glucosidase. Methods: The polysaccharides (PSD) and alkaloids (ALK) from RCC were prepared using the water extraction and alcohol precipitation method and Reinecke's ...

  7. Crown ratio models for tropical rainforests species in Oban division ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crown ratio (CR) is a characteristic used to describe the crown size, which is an important element of forest growth and yield. It is often used as an important predictor variable for tree-level growth equations. It indicates tree vigour and is an important habitat variable. It is often estimated using allometry. Modified versions of ...

  8. tree crown ratio models for tropical rainforests in oban division

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    CROWN RATIO MODELS FOR TROPICAL RAINFORESTS SPECIES IN. OBAN DIVISION OF THE CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK, NIGERIA. *ADEYEMI, A.A., JIMOH, S.O. AND ADESOYE, P.O.. Department of Forest Resources Management,. University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. *Corresponding Author's Email: ...

  9. Turning Points of the Spherical Pendulum and the Golden Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To…

  10. A simplification of the likelihood ratio test statistic for testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional likelihood ratio test statistic for testing hypothesis about goodness of fit of multinomial probabilities in one, two and multi – dimensional contingency table was simplified. Advantageously, using the simplified version of the statistic to test the null hypothesis is easier and faster because calculating the expected ...

  11. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    Seemingly absent from the arsenal of currently available "nearly efficient" testing procedures for the unit root hypothesis, i.e. tests whose local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope, is a test admitting a (quasi-)likelihood ratio interpretation. We...

  12. Comparison CCEM-K8 of DC voltage ratio: results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marullo-Reedtz, G

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available , he has been with VNIIM where he has been involved in inves- tigation and development of electrical standards of dc voltage and dc current, using quantum effects in LT- and HT-superconductors and ratio voltage mea- surement up to 1000 V. Ronald...

  13. A Measurement of the Tau Topological Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, Dmitri Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Bellunato, T.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Belous, K.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bol, J.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.H.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Croix, J.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Ghodbane, N.; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hertz, O.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovanski, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumstein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kurowska, J.; Lamsa, J.W.; Laugier, J.P.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; Merle, E.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.M.; Murray, W.J.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwanda, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Y.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.; Sette, G.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sokolov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Dam, Piet; Van den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zumerle, G.; Zupan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP-1, measurements of the inclusive tau branching ratios for decay modes containing one, three, or five charged particles have been performed, giving the following results: B_1 = B(\\tau^- -> (particle)^- \\geq 0pi^0 \\geq 0K^0 \

  14. Effects of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yang's theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration ...

  15. Three-dimensional calculation and visualization of fault gouge ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Karen S.; Neave, John W. [Dynamic Graphics, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Understanding the sealing characteristics of faults is critical in assessing the hydrocarbon potential of traps formed by faults. Fault gouge ratio and juxtaposition analysis have often been limited to a single cross section (a two-dimensional approach) or to a single, isolated fault surface (a partial three-dimensional approach). We have now developed a full three-dimensional solution for calculating fault gouge ratio. This method uses a continually varying clay volume fraction, a network of faults (isolated, dying and/or branching), and displacement along the fault surface (instead of just the dip component). The structural model used as the framework for this calculation is based on geometric reconstruction techniques that construct faults and horizons in three-dimensional space, allowing easy and rigorous calculation of juxtaposition and displacement. These last two items are necessary input to the fault gouge ratio calculation. Rigorous calculation of fault gouge ratio depends on a robust structural model. With the model described herein, a variety of scenarios may be investigated, thus incorporating uncertainty into the calculation. Determining whether a fault will act as a seal, or whether there is potential for development of leaks during the production of the reservoir depends on many variables. Minimizing the uncertainty in this analysis may provide increased confidence in assessing risk. (author)

  16. Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the signal to noise ratio is too low, it can obscure the 'chemical message' which the lecturer is trying to convey. This study reports on an action research driven attempt to improve on a Hess's Law experiment, well known in most first year curricula. Data collected in 2000 indicated that students struggled primarily because ...

  17. Blood pressure to height ratio as a screening tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current methods of detection of childhood hypertension are cumbersome and contribute to under‑diagnosis hence, the need to generate simpler diagnostic tools. The blood pressure to height ratio has recently been proposed as a novel screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in some populations.

  18. Novel Ratio Subtraction and Isoabsorptive Point Methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate two innovative spectrophotometric methods used for the simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride and doxycycline in their binary mixture. Methods: Ratio subtraction and isoabsorptive point methods were used for the simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride ...

  19. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...

  20. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Zerrin Defne; Ergin, Mehmet; Koylu, Ramazan; Ozer, Rasit; Cander, Basar; Gunaydin, Yahya Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic to human beings, and pesticide poisoning is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The identification of powerful prognostic markers is important for the management of patients with pesticide poisoning in emergency settings. To investigate the prognostic value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and hematological parameters measured in patients with pesticide poisoning within the first 24 h after admission to the emergency department (ED). All patients (≥15 years old) admitted to the ED from July 2008 through February 2013 due to pesticide poisoning were enrolled in the study. The written and electronic medical charts of patients were reviewed. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were calculated for each patient using absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. Mechanical ventilation requirement and mortality were used as the primary endpoints. A total of 189 patients were included in the study. The mechanically ventilated patients had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios (p pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizations of Distributions of Ratios of Certain Independent Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedani G.G.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Various characterizations of the distributions of the ratio of two independent gamma and exponential random variables as well as that of two independent Weibull random variables are presented. These characterizations are based, on a simple relationship between two truncated moments ; on hazard function ; and on functions of order statistics.

  2. Burst-Suppression Ratio on Electrocorticography Depends on Interelectrode Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Calin, Alexandru; Kumaraswamy, Vishakhadatta M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With deepening of anesthesia-induced comatose states, the EEG becomes fragmented by increasing periods of suppression. When measured from conventional EEG recordings, the binary burst-suppression signal (BS) appears similar across the scalp. As such, the BS ratio (BSR), quantifying...

  3. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical determination of mild splenomegaly is notoriously inaccurate. Objectives: To determine sonographically the spleen to left kidney ratio according to age and somatometric parameters among school age children in a tropical environment. Methods: A cross sectional study and convenience sampling were ...

  4. SSRIs during breastfeeding: spotlight on milk-to-plasma ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, S; Rossi, A; Bellantuono, C

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the milk-to-plasma (M/P) ratio for assessing the risks for the breastfed infant associated with the maternal use of SSRIs. Medline, Toxnet, Embase, Current Contents, and PsycInfo indexed articles from 1980 to September 2006. All studies reporting the M/P ratio in mothers taking SSRIs while breastfeeding or studies which such an information could be calculated from data reported in the article. Higher M/P ratios were rarely associated with a clinically significant impact on the babies during the early phases of breastfeeding. So far no evidence-based information seems to support the hypothesis that SSRIs characterized by a M/P ratio <1.0 should be preferred. Hence, physicians should consider different parameters when attempting to choose the safest SSRI for the breastfeeding woman. These parameters might be represented by the number of well-documented published adverse event reports and the tendency of each SSRI of inducing in the infants serum concentrations that are elevated above 10% of average maternal serum levels. In any case, if the mother wishes to breastfeed her infant while taking a SSRI, the baby should be closely monitored in order to promptly detect any iatrogenic event.

  5. Hamstring And Quadriceps Strength Ratio: Effect Of Age And Gender

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Balance in the strength of extensors and flexors of the knee joint is important for functional usage of the knee in various activities. It has been documented that knee flexor-extensor ratio may vary depending on the angular velocity, the population tested, the measuring equipment, age, test position, sex, total ...

  6. Spatial age-length key modelling using continuation ratio logits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper W.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    -called age-length key (ALK) is then used to obtain the age distribution. Regional differences in ALKs are not uncommon, but stratification is often problematic due to a small number of samples. Here, we combine generalized additive modelling with continuation ratio logits to model the probability of age...

  7. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  8. Length Frequency Distribution And Sex Ratio Of Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length frequency distribution and sex ratio of Macrobrachium macrobrachion sampled by cane traps in the Lagos –Lekki lagoon system were estimated from May 2002 to April 2004. The total number of size classes for the first and second year for both male and female ranged from 10 – 12. The length range was 3 to 14cm ...

  9. High aspect ratio titanium nitride trench structures as plasmonic biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Repän, Taavi; Takayama, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    High aspect ratio titanium nitride (TiN) grating structures are fabricated by the combination of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. TiN is deposited at 500 ◦C on a silicon trench template. Silicon between vertical TiN layers is selectively etched...

  10. The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); von Hippel, Matt [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); McLeod, Andrew J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q- differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.

  11. Measurement of the pi-->eν branching ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, D. A.; Dubois, R.; MacDonald, J. A.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Dixit, M. S.

    1986-03-01

    A measurement of the π-->eν branching ratio using a NaI(Tl) spectrometer yields a value Γ((π-->eν)+(π-->eνγ))/Γ((π-->μν)+(π-->μνγ))=(1. 218+/-0.014)×10-4. The result is consistent with expectations of the standard electroweak theory incorporating electron-muon universality.

  12. New measurement of the. pi -->. e. nu. branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.A.; Dubois, R.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Dixit, M.S.; Berghofer, D.; Poutissou, J.; Macdonald, J.A.; Robertson, B.C.

    1983-01-03

    A new measurement of the ..pi -->..e..nu.. branching ratio yields GAMMA(..pi -->..e..nu..+..pi -->..e..nu gamma..)/GAMMA(..pi --> mu nu..+..pi --> mu nu.. ..gamma..) = (1.218 +- 0.014) x 10/sup -4./ The measured value is in good agreement with the standard-model prediction incorporating electron-muon universality.

  13. New Measurement of the π-->eν Branching Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, D. A.; Dubois, R.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Dixit, M. S.; Berghofer, D.; Poutissou, J.-M.; MacDonald, J. A.; Robertson, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    A new measurement of the π-->eν branching ratio yields Γ(π-->eν+π-->eνγ)Γ(π-->μν+π-->μνγ)=(1.218+/-0.014)×10-4. The measured value is in good agreement with the standard-model prediction incorporating electron-muon universality.

  14. Blood pressure to height ratio as a screening tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: The weights, heights, and blood pressure measurements of 2364 apparently healthy adolescents were determined. Sex-specific systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratios (SBPHR) and (DBPHR) .... gave formal approval while parental written informed consent and student ...

  15. Interference patterns and extinction ratio of the diatom Coscinodiscus granii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Ellegaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical verification of the nature and position of multiple interference points of visible light transmitted through the valve of the centric diatom species Coscinodiscus granii. Furthermore, by coupling the transmitted light into an optical fiber and moving the dia...... the diatom valve between constructive and destructive interference points, an extinction ratio of 20 dB is shown...

  16. Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached...

  17. A Journal-Neutral Ratio for Marketing Faculty Scholarship Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeck, Matt; Baruca, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a journal-neutral Publication to Citation Ratio (PCR) to complement qualitative methods to evaluate a marketing educator's scholarship for reappointment, promotion, tenure, and post-tenure review (RPTP) decisions. We empirically establish a minimum time period to evaluate scholarship data, then benchmark publication and…

  18. The relative worst order ratio applied to paging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, Joan; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Larsen, Kim Skak

    2007-01-01

    The relative worst order ratio, a new measure for the quality of on-line algorithms, was recently defined and applied to two bin packing problems. Here, we apply it to the paging problem and obtain the following results: We devise a new deterministic paging algorithm, Retrospective-LRU, and show...

  19. Empirical likelihood for cumulative hazard ratio estimation with covariate adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Matthews, David E

    2012-06-01

    In medical studies, it is often of scientific interest to evaluate the treatment effect via the ratio of cumulative hazards, especially when those hazards may be nonproportional. To deal with nonproportionality in the Cox regression model, investigators usually assume that the treatment effect has some functional form. However, to do so may create a model misspecification problem because it is generally difficult to justify the specific parametric form chosen for the treatment effect. In this article, we employ empirical likelihood (EL) to develop a nonparametric estimator of the cumulative hazard ratio with covariate adjustment under two nonproportional hazard models, one that is stratified, as well as a less restrictive framework involving group-specific treatment adjustment. The asymptotic properties of the EL ratio statistic are derived in each situation and the finite-sample properties of EL-based estimators are assessed via simulation studies. Simultaneous confidence bands for all values of the adjusted cumulative hazard ratio in a fixed interval of interest are also developed. The proposed methods are illustrated using two different datasets concerning the survival experience of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or ovarian cancer. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Negative Poisson's Ratio Behavior Induced by an Elastic Instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoldi, Katia; Reis, Pedro M.; Willshaw, Stephen; Mullin, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Negative Poisson's ratio behavior has been uncovered in cellular solids that comprise a solid matrix with a square array of circular voids. The simplicity of the fabrication implies robust behavior, which is relevant over a range of scales. The behavior results from an elastic instability, which

  1. Lower seed rates favor seed multiplication ratio with minimal impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in split plot design of three replications to determine effects of four sowing rates (50, 75, 100, 125 kg ha-1) and three row spacing (10, 20, 30 cm) on seed multiplication ratio, seed yield, and seed quality of wheat at Kulumsa and Assasa from 2012 to 2014. Results indicated that ...

  2. TOWARD A UNIQUE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC RATIO IN COMETARY ICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselot, Philippe; Cordier, Daniel; Mousis, Olivier [Institut UTINAM-UMR CNRS 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l' Univers THETA, University of Franche-Comté, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France); Pirali, Olivier; Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Gruet, Sébastien [Synchrotron SOLEIL, ligne AILES, UMR 8214 CNRS, L' orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, F-91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Jehin, Emmanuël; Hutsemékers, Damien; Manfroid, Jean; Arpigny, Claude; Decock, Alice, E-mail: rousselot@obs-besancon.fr [Département d' Astrophysique, de Géophysique et d' Océanographie, Université de Liège, Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2014-01-10

    Determination of the nitrogen isotopic ratios in different bodies of the solar system provides important information regarding the solar system's origin. We unambiguously identified emission lines in comets due to the {sup 15}NH{sub 2} radical produced by the photodissociation of {sup 15}NH{sub 3}. Analysis of our data has permitted us to measure the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N isotopic ratio in comets for a molecule carrying the amine (-NH) functional group. This ratio, within the error, appears similar to that measured in comets in the HCN molecule and the CN radical, and lower than the protosolar value, suggesting that N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} result from the separation of nitrogen into two distinct reservoirs in the solar nebula. This ratio also appears similar to that measured in Titan's atmospheric N{sub 2}, supporting the hypothesis that, if the latter is representative of its primordial value in NH{sub 3}, these bodies were assembled from building blocks sharing a common formation location.

  3. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206 Section 615.5206 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... Financial Assistance Corporation, and any part of the obligation to pay future assessments to the Farm...

  4. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, South West ...

  5. Gain ratio based fuzzy weighted association rule mining classifier for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 39; Issue 1 ... The health care environment still needs knowledge based discovery for handling wealth of data. ... approach, called gain ratio based fuzzy weighted association rule mining, is thus proposed for distinct diseases and also increase the learning time of the previous one.

  6. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  7. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile‑Ife, South West Nigeria, free of ...

  8. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, South West ...

  9. Sex ratio of lambs born from assisted reproductive technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate sex ratio of offspring resulting from superstimulated donors from two different breeds and artificially inseminated ewes from three different breeds. Romanov (n = 5) and Charollais (n = 6) (2 - 7 years of age) donors were superovulated using FSH-p with 400 mg ...

  10. Discrimination of periodontal diseases using diffuse reflectance spectral intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.

  11. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  12. Modelling of wander ratios, travel speeds and productivity of cable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop predictive models for cable and grapple skidder wander ratios, travel speeds (loaded and unloaded), and productivity in softwood roundwood sawtimber harvesting operations. For field data collection, the study utilised on-board computing systems supported by manual time study.

  13. Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infiltration measurements using a double-ring infiltrometer were conducted on a sandy-loam soil located in Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed for an undisturbed soil. The effect of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electric conductivity (EC) of the applied water on infiltration rate was examined. The infiltration ...

  14. Aplicability of golden ratio rule in modern product design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research regarding application of golden ratio rule in field of product design. The rule was applied to the design on vacuum cleaner, as it is a common and widely spread product. The aim of this paper is to research possibilities of applications of the rule in modern design. In order to determine consumer's subjective aesthetic judgment of products designed by directly applying golden ratio rule, one vacuum cleaner was designed in that manner. Results for consumer's subjective aesthetic preference were compared to results for other differently designed vacuum cleaner models present in the market today. Factors used were age, gender and level of education of participants (typical consumer. The results showed no statistical influence of age or gender factors. Statistically significant differences were noticed for level of education factor, between participants with high school diploma and university diploma. It was observed that product designed using golden ratio rule received higher marks regarding aesthetics in case of participants with university diploma. It can be concluded that golden ratio rule can be applied in field of product design, equally successful as in the other art fields where it is commonly used, but consumer demographics must be taken in to consideration, especially education level.

  15. validity of procedures used for analysis of ratios of measurements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tnetshiv

    . In contrast, Wallis. (1999) reported that forming ratios failed to remove the variation in body mass for 10 of the 14 carcass parts that were used in his investigation. In four instances from this study, namely the gizzard, liver, head and feet.

  16. A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the performance of South Africa's commercial banking sector for the period 2005- 2009. Financial ratios are employed to measure the profitability, liquidity and credit quality performance of five large South African based commercial banks. The study found that overall bank performance increased ...

  17. High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... impaired DNA repair, P53 expression, angiogenic effect of Cu and impaired vitamin A metabolism. These converge in the risk of the carcinogenic process, suggesting high Cd: Zn ratio as the critical determinant of the risk of prostate cancer in smokers and possibly a biomarker of susceptibility to this environmental disease ...

  18. Adaptive Nonparametric Variance Estimation for a Ratio Estimator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kernel estimators for smooth curves require modifications when estimating near end points of the support, both for practical and asymptotic reasons. The construction of such boundary kernels as solutions of variational problem is a difficult exercise. For estimating the error variance of a ratio estimator, we suggest an ...

  19. Hamstring-to-quadriceps fatigue ratio offers new and different muscle function information than the conventional non-fatigued ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M D; Blazevich, A J; Andersen, L L; Mil-Homens, P; Pinto, R S

    2017-04-04

    Commonly used injury risk prediction tests such as the hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio appear to be poor predictors of non-contact injury. However, these tests are typically performed in a non-fatigued state, despite accumulated fatigue being an important risk factor for both hamstring strain (HS) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in professional soccer players. After the effect of different H:Q calculation methods were compared and contrasted, the influence of neuromuscular fatigue on the H:Q strength ratio and the association between fatigued and non-fatigued ratio scores were examined. Thirty-five professional soccer players performed a 30-repetition isokinetic fatigue test protocol. Peak knee joint moments were computed for each repetition, and the H:Q conventional ratio (H:QCR ) was calculated using several different, previously published, methods. Knee extensor and flexor moments were statistically decreased by the sixth repetition and continued to decrease until the end of the protocol. However, the H:Q ratio was statistically decreased at the end of the test due to a significant reduction in knee flexor moment (correlation between change in knee flexor moment and change in H:Q, r≈.80; Pdifferent (rs =0.25, P=.15). The present data suggest that H:Q ratio measurement during a fatiguing test (H:QFatigue ) provides different outcomes to the traditional H:QCR . The observed significant hamstring fatigue and the difference, and weak correlation, between H:QCR and H:QFatigue indicate that useful information might be obtained with respect to the prediction of HS and ACL injury risk. The potential predictive value of H:QFatigue warrants validation in future prospective trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Golden Ratio in Time-based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Verba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measure and proportion manifest themselves in all areas of beauty and virtue.–Socrates Mathematics and visual communication share a long historical, symbiotic relationship. In their pursuit of achieving order and beauty, they find common ground through geometry. The golden ratio is a mathematic and aesthetic phenomenon inherent in nature that has consistently evoked sensory enjoyment since antiquity. It may be assumed that the manifestation of the golden ratio in nature accounts for human’s innate enjoyment of it. Throughout the ages, the conscious application of the golden ratio to proportions found in art, architecture, poetry, literature and musical composition has consistently evoked subconscious sensory pleasure. However, the application of the golden ratio to visual temporal proportion, or time-based media, has seldom been investigated. This thesis investigates various applications of the golden ratio as a mathematical framework for choreographing visually harmonious temporal compositions through time-based media. The proliferation of moving images we face on a daily basis is cause for great concern, as we have increasingly less free time in our days. Informative and pleasing images are buried in an avalanche of visual rubbish, constantly streaming into our physical and virtual worlds. Time-based media has the ability to expand and contract movement, thus directing the way viewers experience and spend their time. This investigation presupposes that editing moving images via increments of time determined by the golden ratio may streamline messages, isolating what is most symbolic and effectively communicative within a mathematical framework. A physiological and psychological benefit is created for viewers; there is no wasted time or space. Image-makers and visual communicators have a responsibility to create only that which is useful and/or aesthetically pleasing. An investigation into the temporal structure of time-based media, using

  1. The Gas to Dust Ratio in Three Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Z. P.; Jiang, B. W.; Li, J.

    2017-03-01

    Gas to Dust Ratio (GDR) is the mass ratio of interstellar gas to dust. It is widely adopted that gas to dust mass ratio in our Galaxy has a value of about 100-150. We choose three typical star forming regions to study gas to dust ratio: the Orion molecular cloud -- a massive star forming region, the Taurus molecular cloud -- a low-mass star forming region, and the Polaris molecular cloud -- little or no star forming region. The mass of gas only takes into account the neutral gas because the amount of ionized gas is very small in molecular clouds, i.e. only atomic and molecular hydrogen. The column density of hydrogen is taken from the high-resolution, high-sensitivity all-sky survey EBHIS (Effelsberg-Bonn HI survey). The CO J=1→0 line is used to trace the molecular hydrogen, since the spectral lines of molecular hydrogen which can be detected are rare. The intensity of CO J=1→0 line is taken from the Planck all-sky survey. The mass of dust is traced by interstellar extinction based on the 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric database in the direction of anti-Galactic center. Adopting a constant conversion coefficient from the integrated intensity of CO line to the column density of molecular hydrogen, X_{CO}=2.0×10^{20} cm^{-2}\\cdot (K \\cdot km/s)^{-1}, the gas to dust ratio N(H)/A_{V} is calculated, which is 25×10^{20}, 38×10^{20}, and 55×10^{20} cm^{-2}\\cdot mag^{-1} for Orion, Taurus, and Polaris molecular clouds, respectively. These values are significantly higher than previously obtained for the average situation of the Galaxy. Adopting the interstellar dust model with the ratio of total to selective extinction at V R_{V}=3.1 by WD01, the derived gas to dust mass ratio is 160, 243, and 354 for the Orion, Taurus, and Polaris molecular clouds, respectively, which is apparently higher than 100-150 for the diffuse interstellar medium. On the other hand, the high N(H)/A_{V} value may be explained by the growth of dust in molecular clouds because

  2. Shear modulus reconstruction by ultrasonically measured strain ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Matsuzawa, Hidenori

    2007-12-01

    In addition to a description of our three previously developed one-dimensional (1D) methods from the viewpoint of shear modulus reconstruction using the strain ratio, two new methods for stabilizing the 1D methods are described, together with their limitations. As confirmed using human in vivo breast tissues, method 1 for evaluating the strain ratio itself is useful when the measurement accuracy of the strain distribution is high. However, because tissues having high shear moduli, such as scirrhous carcinoma, often form singular points/regions, both methods 2 and 3 using the strain ratio (initial estimate) and a regularization method are effective for realizing a unique, stable, useful shear modulus reconstruction. Because method 3 carries out implicit integration only at singular points/regions, whereas method 2 carries out implicit integration throughout the region of interest (ROI), the smaller number of singular points enables more rapid shear modulus reconstruction by method 3 than by method 2. Like method 1, method 3 is also useful when the measurement accuracy of the strain distribution is high. However, when evaluating strain distribution in an ROI with a high spatial resolution to obtain a shear modulus reconstruction having a high spatial resolution, shear modulus reconstructions obtained by methods 1, 2, and 3 often become laterally unstable due to the instability and low accuracy of the strains in the reference regions (reference strains), i.e., regularization in methods 2 and 3 cannot reduce the instability in the initial estimate. To cope with this instability, (i) the reconstruction obtained by calculating the strain ratio should be low-pass filtered; for breast tissues, in particular, the reconstruction of the inverse shear modulus should be low-pass filtered, not the reconstruction of the shear modulus. (ii) Otherwise, when using homogeneous regions as a reference, such as a block of reference material, fatty tissue, or parenchyma, evaluation of

  3. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMENGARUHI RATIO NON PERFORMING LOAN (NPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyaningsih Setiyaningsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research has the aim to analyze the factors which give impact in ratio of NPL (Non Performing Loan in XYZ Bank Jakarta. NPL can be caused by the internal factors such as policies, human capitals, etc., and can be caused by external factors through macro-economic changes such as loan-outstanding, BI rate, and foreign exchange (Indonesia Rupiah to US Dollar. This research is a descriptive research with direct approach to the primary and secondary data. The analysis method was using the multiple linear regression method with data time series from June 2008 to June 2014. The multiple linear regression method was used to see the impacts of volume of loan-outstanding, BI rate, and foreign exchange to NPL ratio, and testing differences between level of NPL before and after the separation of RM (Relationship Manager and CA (Credit Analyst function in Bank XYZ Jakarta.  All of data processing steps in this research use software Eviews Version 6.0. The result of this research are Loan-outstanding or number of lending, foreign exchange and the dummy of RM and CA separation function have impact to NPL Ratio. The BI-rate change which was happened along the research gives no impact to NPL Ratio. The NPL Ratio is relatively better and it is not affected of the increasing of BI rate.  It is not only because of performing loans but also caused by the existing write-off portfolios. Keywords: NPL, loan-outstanding, BI rate, foreign exchange, the separation of RM, credit analystABSTRAKPenelitian ini memiliki tujuan menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ratio NPL pada Bank XYZ Jakarta. NPL (Non Performing Loan dapat disebabkan oleh faktor internal seperti kebijakan, SDM, dan lainnya ataupun faktor eksternal melalui perubahan faktor makroekonomi, seperti variabel loans outstanding, BI Rate, dan nilai tukar Rupiah terhadap Dollar. Jenis penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif dengan pengamatan langsung terhadap data sekunder dan data primer

  4. A continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry method for high precision determination of dissolved gas ratios and isotopic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charoenpong, C. N.; Bristow, L. A.; Altabet, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved gas ratios and isotopic compositions provide essential information about the biological and physical mechanisms influencing N-2, O-2, and Ar in aquatic systems. Current methods available are either limited by overall cost, labor-intensive sample collection and analysis, or insufficient...... precision. Here, we present a new highly accurate and robust method for sample collection and subsequent simultaneous measurement of the dissolved gas ratios (N-2/Ar and O-2/Ar) and isotopic compositions (delta N-15(2) and delta O-18(2)) in seawater. The relatively simple sampling procedure using low cost...

  5. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  6. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Appenzeller

    Full Text Available Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.

  7. Derivation of sideband gain ratio for Herschel/HIFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Do; Higgins, Ronan; Teyssier, David

    2017-03-01

    Context. Heterodyne mixers are commonly used for high-resolution spectroscopy at radio telescopes. When used as a double sideband system, the accurate flux calibration of spectral lines acquired by those detectors is highly dependent on the system gains in the respective mixer sidebands via the so-called sideband gain ratio (SBR). As such, the SBR was one of the main contributors to the calibration uncertainty budget of the Herschel/HIFI instrument. Aims: We want to determine the HIFI instrument sideband gain ratio for all bands on a fine frequency grid and within an accuracy of a few percent. Methods: We introduce a novel technique involving in-orbit HIFI data that is bootstrapped onto standard methods involving laboratory data measurements of the SBR. We deconvolved the astronomical data to provide a proxy of the expected signal at every frequency channel, and extracted the sideband gain ratios from the residuals of that process. Results: We determine the HIFI sideband gain ratio to an accuracy varying between 1 and 4%, with degraded accuracy in higher frequency ranges, and at places where the reliability of the technique is lower. These figures were incorporated into the HIFI data processing pipeline and improved the overall flux uncertainty of the legacy data from this instrument. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a modified sideband deconvolution algorithm, using astronomical data in combination with gas cell measurements, can be used to generate an accurate and fine-granularity picture of the sideband gain ratio behaviour of a heterodyne receiver. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. Classification of nine malathion emulsion samples by using carbon isotope ratios and the ratio of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Nana; Kawashima, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    The compound specific isotope analysis is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental and forensics field. On November 2013, Aqli Foods Corporation in Japan dealt with complaints about stench from frozen foods produced. Subsequently, very high concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide as malathion, ethylbenzene and xylene were detected in recovered frozen foods. In particular case, we present the method to measure the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) to identify the source. The δ13C values of malathion ranged from -30.6‰ to -29.5‰. Because malathion used in all malathion emulsions sold in Japan is imported from the same overseas company, Cheminova, Denmark. The δ13C values of ethylbenzene ranged from -28.2‰ to -20.8‰ and those of m,p-xylene from -28.7‰ to -25.2‰. The differences in the δ13C values may be because of the material itself and chemical processing. We also determined the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene and finally categorized the nine malathion samples into five groups on the basis of this ratio and the δ13C values of ethylbenzene and m,p-xylene. The results of isotopic fractionation during volatilization (refrigerate, room temperature and incubator) was negligible small. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of La/W ratio on electrical conductivity of lanthanum tungstate with high La/W ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Gen; Shono, Yohei; Ushiyama, Hiroshi; Oshima, Yoshito; Otomo, Junichiro

    2017-04-01

    The proton-conducting properties of lanthanum tungstates (LWOs) with high La/W ratios were investigated using electrochemical measurements and quantum chemical calculations. Single phases of LWOs with high La/W ratios (6.3≤La/W≤6.7) were synthesized by high-temperature sintering at around 1700 °C. The electrical conductivity of LWO increased with increasing La/W ratio in the single-phase region. The LWO synthesized at the optimum sintering temperature and time, and with the optimum La/W ratio gave the maximum conductivity, i.e., 2.7×10-3 S cm-1 with La/W=6.7 at 500 °C. Density functional theory calculations, using the nudged elastic band method, were performed to investigate the proton diffusion barrier. The results suggest that the proton diffusion paths around La sites have the lowest proton diffusion barrier. These findings improve our understanding of LWO synthesis and the proton-conducting mechanism and provide a strategy for improving proton conduction in LWOs.

  10. Impact of glyphosate-resistant corn, glyphosate applications and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities and nutrient acquisition ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael B; Locke, Martin A; Reddy, Krishna N; McChesney, Daniel S; Steinriede, R Wade

    2017-01-01

    We report results of the last two years of a 7 year field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis: applications of glyphosate on glyphosate-resistant (GR) and non-resistant (non-GR) corn (Zea mays L.) under conventional tillage and no-till would have no effect on soil exoenzymes and microbial activity. Bulk soil (BS) and rhizosphere soil (RS) macronutrient ratios were not affected by either GR or non-GR corn, or glyphosate applications. Differences observed between exoenzyme activities were associated with tillage rather than glyphosate applications. In 2013, nutrient acquisition ratios for bulk and rhizosphere soils indicated P limitations, but sufficient assimilable N. In 2014, P limitations were observed for bulk and rhizosphere soils, in contrast to balanced C and N acquisition ratios in rhizosphere soils. Stoichiometric relationships indicated few differences between glyphosate and non-glyphosate treatments. Negative correlations between C:P and N:P nutrient ratios and nutrient acquisition ratios underscored the inverse relation between soil nutrient status and microbial community exoenzyme activities. Inconsistent relationships between microbial community metabolic activity and exoenzyme activity indicated an ephemeral effect of glyphosate on BS exoenzyme activity. Except for ephemeral effects, glyphosate applications appeared not to affect the function of the BS and RS exoenzymes under conventional tillage or no-till. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Ratio-scaling of listener preference of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian

    2005-01-01

    -trivial assumption in the case of complex spatial sounds. In the present study the Bradley-Terry-Luce (BTL) model was employed to investigate the unidimensionality of preference judgments made by 40 listeners on multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts played back in eight reproduction modes (mono...... music). As a main result, the BTL model was found to predict the choice frequencies well. This implies that listeners were able to integrate the complex nature of the sounds into a unidimensional preference judgment. It further implies the existence of a preference scale on which the reproduction modes...... can not only be ordered, but also their ratios are meaningful. There were significant differences between the reproduction modes (some ratios exceeding ten). Also the programme material was found to have a significant effect on the listener preferences. It is concluded that the BTL scaling may be more...

  12. Influence of the compression ratio on Stirling and Otto cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscak-Kolin, S.; Golub, M.; Kolin, I. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia); Naso, V.; Lucentini, M. [Universita degli Studi La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The Stirling engine (1815) is more than half a century older from the Otto engine (1867). Nevertheless, in spite of the considerably longer development period, compression ratio of Stirling engines remains nearly the same as it was in its very beginning. As a contrast to this, compression ratio of Otto engines progressively increases, always reaching higher and higher power. Finally, modern Otto engines are considerably stronger than contemporary Stirling engines of the same size. However, by means of thermodynamical analysis of the old indicator diagrams, the rate of growth could be mathematically expressed in the shape of polytropic equation. In such a way the proper direction for a significant improvement of the Stirling engine could be recognized. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of the Radiative $K_{e3}$ Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Bevan, A; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Hay, B; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Barr, G; Bocquet,; Ceccucci, A; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Mikulec, I; Lacourt, A; Norton, A; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Taureg, H; Velasco, M; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, Vladimir D; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Knowles, I; Martin, V; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Veltri, M; Becker, H G; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Fox, H; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Marouelli, P; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Renk, B; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, L; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Bertanza, L; Carosi, R; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Neuhofer, G; Pernicka, M; Taurok, A; Widhalm, L

    2005-01-01

    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the decay {K}^0 -> pi+-e-+ nu gamma ({K}_e3 gamma) with respect to {K}^0 -> pi+- e-+ nu (gamma) ({k}_e3 + k}_e3 gamma) decay. The result is based on observation of 19 000 {K}_e3 gamma and 5.6 . {10}^6 {K}_e3 decays. The value of branching ratio is Br({K}^0 _e3 gamma{E}^*_gamma > 30 MeV, {theta}^*_e gamma > 20 deg) / Br({K}^0_e3 = (0.964 +- {0.008}^+0.011_0.009)%. This result agrees with the theoretical predictions but is at variance with a recently published result.

  14. Stable Isotope Ratios as Biomarkers of Diet for Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a leading modifiable risk factor for chronic disease, but it remains difficult to measure accurately due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported methods of diet assessment. Consequently, there is a pressing need for more objective biomarkers of diet for use in health research. The stable isotope ratios of light elements are a promising set of candidate biomarkers because they vary naturally and reproducibly among foods, and those variations are captured in molecules and tissues with high fidelity. Recent studies have identified valid isotopic measures of short- and long-term sugar intake, meat intake, and fish intake in specific populations. These studies provide a strong foundation for validating stable isotopic biomarkers in the general US population. Approaches to improve specificity for specific foods are needed; for example, by modeling intake using multiple stable isotope ratios or by isolating and measuring specific molecules linked to foods of interest.

  15. Singing power ratio: quantitative evaluation of singing voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, K; Kacker, A; Carroll, L M; Riley, W D; Blaugrund, S M

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents a parameter for objectively evaluating singing voice quality. Power spectrum of vowel sound /a/ was analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform. The greatest harmonics peak between 2 and 4 kHz and the greatest harmonics peak between 0 and 2 kHz were identified. Power ratio of these peaks, termed singing power ratio (SPR), was calculated in 37 singers and 20 nonsingers. SPR of sung /a/ in singers was significantly greater than in nonsingers. In singers, SPR of sung /a/ was significantly greater than that of spoken /a/. By digital signal processing, power spectrum of sung /a/ was varied, and the processed sounds were perceptually analyzed. SPR had a significant relationship with perceptual scores of "ringing" quality. SPR provides an important quantitative measurement for evaluating singing voice quality for all voice types, including soprano.

  16. Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bey, A.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Matea, I. [Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, Gradignan Cedex (France); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Adimi, N. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, El Alia, B.P. 32, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); France, G. de; Thomas, J.C.; Voltolini, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-05-15

    Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 62}Ga is one of the heavier T{sub z}=0, 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V{sub ud} quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of {sup 62}Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR=99.893(24) %, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed {beta} -decay of {sup 62}Ga. (orig.)

  17. Differential Evolution Algorithm for Gear Ratio Optimization of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Küçükoğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the gear ratio optimization problem for the vehicles is considered to minimize total fuel consumption amount for a given distance and road gradient. The aim of the study is to find best gear ratio values for a gearbox that provide the best consumption value for the vehicle. In order to analyze the fuel consumption changes for a gearbox, fuel consumption formulations, which have a nonlinear structure, are presented based on the total energy requirement of the vehicle. To solve this nonlinear optimization problem, a differential evolution algorithm (DEA is proposed which is one of the popular evolutionary optimization algorithms. In computational studies, the DEA is tested on a vehicle set by considering different road conditions. The results of the experiments show that the proposed DEA is capable to find effective solutions for the problem where an improvement is obtained for each experiment according to the real fuel consumption amount of the vehicles given at their technical reports

  18. Magnetically-charged black branes and viscosity/entropy ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Shan [Institute for Advanced Physics & Mathematics,Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lü, H. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-19

    We consider asymptotically-AdS n-dimensional black brane solutions in a theory of gravity coupled to a set of Np-form field strengths, in which the field strengths carry magnetic charges. For appropriately chosen charges, the metrics are isotropic in the (n−2) transverse directions. However, in general the field strength configurations break the full Euclidean symmetry of the (n−2)-dimensional transverse space, and the shear viscosity tensor in the dual theory is no longer isotropic. We study the linearised equations for transverse traceless metric perturbations in these backgrounds, and by employing the Kubo formula we obtain expressions for the ratios η/S of the shear viscosity components divided by the entropy density. We find that the KSS bound on the ratios η/S is generally violated in these solutions. We also extend the discussion by including a dilatonic scalar field in the theory, leading to solutions that are asymptotically Lifshitz with hyperscaling violation.

  19. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  20. High aspect ratio channels in glass and porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.D. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Dang, Z.Y. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wu, J.F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Kan, J.A. van; Qureshi, S. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ynsa, M.D.; Torres-Costa, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco Edif. 22, Faraday 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Maira, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Venkatesan, T.V. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H., E-mail: phymbhb@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a micromachining process to produce high-aspect-ratio channels and holes in glass and porous silicon. Our process utilizes MeV proton beam irradiation of silicon using direct writing with a focused beam, followed by electrochemical etching. To increase throughput we have also developed another process for large area ion irradiation based on a radiation-resistant gold surface mask, allowing many square inches to be patterned. We present a study of the achievable channel width, depth and period and sidewall verticality for a range of channels which can be over 100 μm deep or 100 nm wide with aspect ratios up to 80. This process overcomes the difficulty of machining glass on a micro- and nanometer scale which has limited many areas of applications in different fields such as microelectronics and microfluidics.

  1. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.; Barbis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution FIR emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier-transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32 deg N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2 deg were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069/cm were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 x 10 to the -11th, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35 percent. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  2. Safeguarding a Lunar Rover with Wald's Sequential Probability Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Dille, Michael; Wong, Uland; Nefian, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The virtual bumper is a safeguarding mechanism for autonomous and remotely operated robots. In this paper we take a new approach to the virtual bumper system by using an old statistical test. By using a modified version of Wald's sequential probability ratio test we demonstrate that we can reduce the number of false positive reported by the virtual bumper, thereby saving valuable mission time. We use the concept of sequential probability ratio to control vehicle speed in the presence of possible obstacles in order to increase certainty about whether or not obstacles are present. Our new algorithm reduces the chances of collision by approximately 98 relative to traditional virtual bumper safeguarding without speed control.

  3. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.

  4. Small, high pressure ratio compressor: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, C. A.; Erwin, J. R.; Perrone, G. L.; Nelson, E. L.; Tu, R. K.; Bosco, A.

    1973-01-01

    The Small, High-Pressure-Ratio Compressor Program was directed toward the analysis, design, and fabrication of a centrifugal compressor providing a 6:1 pressure ratio and an airflow rate of 2.0 pounds per second. The program consists of preliminary design, detailed areodynamic design, mechanical design, and mechanical acceptance tests. The preliminary design evaluate radial- and backward-curved blades, tandem bladed impellers, impeller-and diffuser-passage boundary-layer control, and vane, pipe, and multiple-stage diffusers. Based on this evaluation, a configuration was selected for detailed aerodynamic and mechanical design. Mechanical acceptance test was performed to demonstrate that mechanical design objectives of the research package were met.

  5. Colorimetric determination of ferrous-ferric ratio in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, E W

    1987-02-20

    This memorandum describes a simple, rapid colorimetric procedure that can be used for analysis of vitrified melter feed. This method can replace the Moessbauer spectroscopy method for routine DWPF process control analysis. A colorimetric method has been developed that is recommended as a replacement for Moessbauer spectroscopy for process control measurements of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of melter feed for the DWPF analytical laboratory. The results agree satisfactorily with Moessbauer values. The method is suitable for remote operation and has several advantages. The total time involved is less than 30 minutes. Quantitative measurements of samples, reagents, and dilutions are unnecessary because only the ratio value is required and both Fe(II) and total Fe are measured on the same solution. Small samples (<3 mg total Fe) are required, minimizing radiation exposure, because of the high sensitivity of the colorimetric method. Relative precision and relative accuracy are about {plus minus}5%.

  6. Reactive power optimization strategy considering analytical impedance ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongchao; Shen, Weibing; Liu, Jinming; Guo, Maoran; Zhang, Shoulin; Xu, Keqiang; Wang, Wanjun; Sui, Jinlong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, considering the traditional reactive power optimization cannot realize the continuous voltage adjustment and voltage stability, a dynamic reactive power optimization strategy is proposed in order to achieve both the minimization of network loss and high voltage stability with wind power. Due to the fact that wind power generation is fluctuant and uncertain, electrical equipments such as transformers and shunt capacitors may be operated frequently in order to achieve minimization of network loss, which affect the lives of these devices. In order to solve this problem, this paper introduces the derivation process of analytical impedance ratio based on Thevenin equivalent. Thus, the multiple objective function is proposed to minimize the network loss and analytical impedance ratio. Finally, taking the improved IEEE 33-bus distribution system as example, the result shows that the movement of voltage control equipment has been reduced and network loss increment is controlled at the same time, which proves the applicable value of this strategy.

  7. First measurement of the Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Bourquin, M; Chatelus, Y; Chollet, J C; Degré, A; Froidevaux, D; Fyfe, A R; Gaillard, J M; Gee, C N P; Gibson, W M; Igo-Kemenes, P; Jeffreys, P W; Merkel, B; Morand, R; Plothow, H; Repellin, J P; Saunders, B J; Sauvage, G; Schiby, B; Siebert, H W; Smith, V J; Streit, K P; Strub, R; Thresher, J J; Tovey, Stuart N

    1979-01-01

    In an experiment in the CERN-SPS charged-hyperon beam, the main Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios have been measured to be Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Lambda K/sup -/)/ Gamma (all)=0.686+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/ pi /sup -/)/ Gamma (all) =0.234+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/)/ Gamma (all)=0.080+or-0.008. The relative branching ratio of the two Xi pi modes provides a test of the Delta I=1/2 rule in decuplet-octet transitions. A search has also been made for the rare decay modes Omega /sup -/ to Lambda pi /sup -/, Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ gamma , Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/e/sup -/ nu . (6 refs).

  8. Composite fracture using the normal stress ratio theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuth, J. L., Jr.; Gurdal, Z.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed on center-notched specimens of unidirectional AS4/3501-6 graphite-epoxy subjected to varied far-field loading conditions. Specimens tested include on-axis and off-axis tensile coupons and Iosipescu shear specimens, allowing the study of normal, shear, and combined far-field loading conditions. From the tests, the direction of initial crack extension and the far-field stresses at crack initiation and fracture are obtained. The normal stress ratio theory is subsequently applied within a macroscopic-level homogeneous anisotropic stress solution to predict the direction of crack extension, critical stresses, and other crack growth behavior for the experiments. Comparison between experimental results and theoretical predictions indicates that application of the normal stress ratio theory within a macroscopic-level stress analysis has significant potential as an approach to modeling composite crack growth.

  9. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    according to the date of application for reorganization: the first group of businesses applied for reorganization between 1 and 182 days after the closing of accounts, and the second group between 183 and 365 days after that point. The study findings provide evidence that the financial distress process......The present study adds to our understanding and knowledge of financial distress predictions regarding the usefulness of financial ratios in the late stages of the financial distress process. The study contributes to previous research by generating information concerning: (1) the behavior...... and usefulness of single financial ratios in short-term financial distress prediction when the effect of each different financial distress process stage is considered; (2) the effects of recognition of the financial distress process stage on the financial distress prediction model. The time horizon...

  10. Method for fabricating high aspect ratio structures in perovskite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetrov, Goran T.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Crabtree, George W.; Iavarone, Maria

    2003-10-28

    A method of fabricating high aspect ratio ceramic structures in which a selected portion of perovskite or perovskite-like crystalline material is exposed to a high energy ion beam for a time sufficient to cause the crystalline material contacted by the ion beam to have substantially parallel columnar defects. Then selected portions of the material having substantially parallel columnar defects are etched leaving material with and without substantially parallel columnar defects in a predetermined shape having high aspect ratios of not less than 2 to 1. Etching is accomplished by optical or PMMA lithography. There is also disclosed a structure of a ceramic which is superconducting at a temperature in the range of from about 10.degree. K. to about 90.degree. K. with substantially parallel columnar defects in which the smallest lateral dimension of the structure is less than about 5 microns, and the thickness of the structure is greater than 2 times the smallest lateral dimension of the structure.

  11. Ceruloplasmin/Transferrin Ratio Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Squitti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between iron and Alzheimer's disease (AD has been mainly investigated with a focus on the local accumulation of this metal in specific areas of the brain that are critical for AD. In the present study, we have instead looked at systemic variations of markers of iron metabolism. We measured serum levels of iron, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin and calculated the transferrin saturation and the ceruloplasmin to transferrin ratio (Cp/Tf. Cp/Tf and transferrin saturation increased in AD patients. Cp/Tf ratios also correlated positively with peroxide levels and negatively with serum iron concentrations. Elevated values of ceruloplasmin, peroxides, and Cp/Tf inversely correlated with MMSE scores. Isolated medial temporal lobe atrophy positively correlated with Cp/Tf and negatively with serum iron. All these findings indicate that the local iron accumulation found in brain areas critical for AD should be viewed in the frame of iron systemic alterations.

  12. Development of a Micropyrolyzer for Enhanced Isotope Ratio Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianli; Dagle, Robert A.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Roberts, Benjamin Q.; Alexander, M. L.

    2008-11-19

    This paper presents design, fabrication and testing of a micro scale reactor for the pyrolysis of organic compounds. The reactor system described here is suitable for use in enhanced isotope ratio measurement in a continuous flow mode. A characteristic of such a system is it can be utilized to pyrolyze organic compounds with sample size 20-50 times smaller than conventional. Results have shown that organic compounds, such as 1-butanol, ethanol, and ethanol amine, can be fully decomposed to desired products CO and H2, at temperature of 1200oC, which is 200oC lower than conventionally reported. Undesired products methane and CO2 are eliminated in the pyrolysis process. The proof-of-concept experimental results clearly demonstrate that the micro pyrolyzer can be readily integrated with isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) to differentiate between different sources of the same materials.

  13. Sequential probability ratio tests based on grouped observations

    OpenAIRE

    Eger, Karl-Heinz; Tsoy, Evgeni Borisovich

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with sequential likelihood ratio tests based on grouped observations. It is demonstrated that the method of conjugated parameter pairs known from the non-grouped case can be extended to the grouped case obtaining Waldlike approximations for the OC- and ASN- function. For near hypotheses so-called F-optimal groupings are recommended. As example an SPRT based on grouped observations for the parameter of an exponentially distributed random var...

  14. Determination of fission gas yields from isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a method of calculating the actual fission yield of Kr and Xe in nuclear fuel including the effect of neutron capture reactions and decay. The bases for this calculation are the cumulative yields (ref. 1) of Kr and Xe isotopes (or pairs of isotopes) which are unaffected...... by neutron capture reactions, and measured Kr and Xe isotope ratios. Also the burnup contribution from the different fissile heavy isotopes must be known in order to get accurate fission gas yields....

  15. {Omega}/{Xi} production ratio in S-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatzis, S. [Nuclear Physics Department, Athens University, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Carney, J.N.; de la Cruz, B.; Di Bari, D.; Dufey, J.P.; Davies, J.P.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Lassalle, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Manzari, V.; Narjoux, J.L.; Navach, F.; Quercigh, E.; Rossi, L.; Safarik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Storas, T.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; Federico Antinori/CERN & Genova for WA85 Collaboration

    1995-07-20

    We have measured the ({Omega}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Omega}}{sup +})/({Xi}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Xi}}{sup +}) production ratio in central S-W collisions to be 0.8{plus_minus}0.4 at central rapidity and p{sub T}{gt}1.6 GeV/{ital c}. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...... of ground, is presented. It is shownthat the performance of such wings is generally inferior to that of slender wings, although in ground placement can yield substantial improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency....

  17. Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jae-Wan; Lee, Chan-Bok; Eun, Denny; Jang, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Park, Jung-Min; Cha, Jun-Youl; Cho, Nam-Heung; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Jin, Yong-Yun; Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measur...

  18. The De Ritis Ratio: The Test of Time

    OpenAIRE

    Botros, Mona; Sikaris, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    De Ritis described the ratio between the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) almost 50 years ago. While initially described as a characteristic of acute viral hepatitis where ALT was usually higher than AST, other authors have subsequently found it useful in alcoholic hepatitis, where AST is usually higher than ALT. These interpretations are far too simplistic however as acute viral hepatitis can have AST greater than ALT, and this can be a sign of fulm...

  19. Golden Ratio and the heart: A review of divine aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalta, Kenan; Ozturk, Selcuk; Yetkin, Ertan

    2016-07-01

    In human history, certain mathematical figures or concepts had gained a significant reputation largely due to their occult and esoteric meanings. Among these, Golden Ratio and associated concepts, namely golden proportions, had elicited a tremendous breakthrough in our human awareness and perception regarding mundane and spiritual aspects of physical existence. Golden Ratio or Number (with a numerical value of 1.618) that is also referred to as the Greek letter Phi (φ), has been universally expressed on a line partitioned into two unequal lengths (L, the longer and S, the shorter) in such a manner that L/S=(L+S)/L. Besides, appearing in certain number sequences (Fibonacci Series, etc.), golden proportions, to the consternation of observers, appear to be strikingly prevalent across all levels of physical existence from the innermost structures to the colossal galaxies of the universe potentially labeling these concepts as the measures of divine aesthetics. Accordingly, the human body also serves as an epitome of these mysterious concepts as exemplified by its outward appearance including general stature and extremities along with a variety of inner organ systems. Based on preliminary studies, the human cardiovascular system might also be suggested to serve as a major predilection site of divine aesthetics as measured with Golden Ratio and its allies. This appears to be completely in line with the ancient knowledge associating the human heart with the esoteric and spiritual components of human nature including human soul. Within this context, the present paper primarily aims to discuss human manifestations of divine aesthetics as measured with 'Golden Ratio' and associated indices with a particular and detailed emphasis on their potential link with the human cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring liquidity on stock market: impact on liquidity ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Siniša Bogdan; Suzana Bareša; Saša Ivanović

    2012-01-01

    The purpose – It is important to emphasize that liquidity on Croatian stock market is low, the purpose of this paper is to test empirically and find out which variables make crucial role in decision making process of investing in stocks. Design – This paper explores the impact of various liquidity variables on liquidity ratio since it is still insufficiently researched topic. Methodology –This research uses secondary and primary data available from Croatian stock market. Considering pri...

  1. Peak signal-to-noise ratio revisited: Is simple beautiful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; You, Junyong

    2012-01-01

    Heavy criticism has been directed against using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a full reference quality metric for digitally processed images and video, since many studies have shown a weak correlation between subjective quality scores and the respective PSNR values. In this paper, we show...... quality models known from the literature. Therefore, the use of PSNR may be justified for comparative quality assessment with fixed content....

  2. Root : Shoot Ratios, Optimization and Nitrogen Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    ÅGREN, GÖRAN I.; FRANKLIN, OSKAR

    2003-01-01

    Plants respond to nitrogen availability by changing their root : shoot ratios. One hypothesis used to explain this allocation is that plants optimize their behaviour by maximizing their relative growth rate. The consequences of this hypothesis were investigated by formulating two models for root : shoot allocation, with and without explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration. The models also took into account that relative growth rate is a linear function of plant nitrogen concentration. Th...

  3. Effects of snow ratio on annual runoff within Budyko framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, D; Cong, Z.; G. Ni; Yang, D.; Hu, S

    2015-01-01

    Warmer climate may lead to less winter precipitation falling as snow. Such a switch in the state of precipitation not only alters temporal distribution of intra-annual runoff, but tends to yield less total annual runoff. Long-term water balance for 282 catchments across China is investigated, showing that decreasing snow ratio reduces annual runoff for a given total precipitation. Within the Budyko framework, we develop an equation to quantify the relationsh...

  4. Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis

    2013-01-01

    The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.

  5. Is the Binary Mass Ratio Distribution Separation-Dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent discoveries of planets orbiting retired A-stars on close orbits and young A-stars on very wide orbits have renewed interest in the properties of nearby intermediate-mass stars. Especially interesting are the young stars because directly-imaged planets orbiting them may be bright enough for characterization (e.g. HR 8799, Beta Pictoris, etc). However, intermediate-mass stars and especially young intermediate mass stars are part of multiple systems more often than not. Close stellar companions may affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and the properties of the companions can help constrain the binary formation mechanism. The mass ratio distribution of a population of binary stars, especially if the distribution for close companions is significantly different from that of wide companions, is helpful to distinguish companions that were born in or affected by the circumstellar disk from those which formed through fragmentation of the molecular core. Previous imaging surveys have found that binary systems with A-type primary stars tend to have cool companions with extreme mass ratios. There are hints at a much flatter mass ratio distribution for close companions, but strong completeness effects complicate the picture. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey of ~400 nearby main sequence A- and B-type stars, aimed at detecting stellar companions as late as M4 for all orbital separations <100 AU. We have searched for companions to the stars by cross-correlating the spectra against model templates for F-M type stars; a significant peak in the cross-correlation function indicates a detection. Our cross-correlation technique can detect low-mass companions with orbits that are too wide to detect with radial velocity monitoring and too small to detect with imaging techniques, making it complementary to work already done. We will present results from our survey and compare the mass ratio distribution we measure to the corresponding distribution for

  6. Distorted Sex Ratios: A Window into RNAi-Mediated Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Yun; Araripe, Luciana; Kingan, Sarah B; Ke, Yeyan; Xiao, Hailian; Hartl, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary Mendel's first law of genetics states that two alleles of a heterozygote are transmitted to the next generation at an equal ratio. The cornerstone of population genetics, this law states that the evolutionary fate of genetic variants is solely governed by their contribution to the good of their carriers. However, meiotic drive genes—which skew transmission in their own favor—can evolve under certain circumstances, even though they cause harm to the genome as a whole. Meiotic dr...

  7. Nutrient Composition and Phytate-Zinc Molar Ratio of Prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High calcium foods include kulikuli (871.08mg/100g), akara (296.13mg/100g) and fufu a wet cassava meal (255.31mg/100g). kulikuli was also high in iron and zinc ... Phytate-zinc molar ratios of the prepared dishes were <10 indicating that the bioavailability of zinc consumed in these rural dishes is not likely to be impaired.

  8. Measurement of the π+-->e+ν branching ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, D. I.; Ahmad, S.; Bryman, D. A.; Burnham, R. A.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Kitching, P.; Kuno, Y.; MacDonald, J. A.; Numao, T.; Olin, A.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Dixit, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A measurement of the π+-->e+ν branching ratio gives Rπeν=Γ(π-->eν+π-->eνγ)/Γ(π-->μν +π-->μνγ)=1.2265+/-0.0034(stat)+/-0.0044(sys)×10-4. This result is in agreement with standard model calculations and confirms the hypothesis of electron-muon universality at the 0.2% level.

  9. Measurement of the pi. -->. e. nu. branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.A.; Dubois, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Poutissou, J.; Dixit, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    A measurement of the ..pi -->..e..nu.. branching ratio using a NaI(Tl) spectrometer yields a value GAMMA((..pi -->..e..nu..)+(..pi -->..e..nu gamma..))/ GAMMA((..pi --> mu nu..)+(..pi --> mu nu gamma..)) = (1. 218 +- 0.014) x 10/sup -4/. The result is consistent with expectations of the standard electroweak theory incorporating electron-muon universality.

  10. Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The changes in glass structure and redox ratio, (reduced ion to oxidized ion) of Mn2+–Mn3+, Cu+–Cu2+, Cr3+–Cr6+, Ni2+–Ni3+ and Co2+–Co3+ couples and optical absorption due to Mn3+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Ni2+ and Co2+ ions in industrial soda–lime–silica glass were investigated as a function of Na2O concentration in the ...

  11. The Durbin-Watson Ratio Under Infinite Variance Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Peter C.B.; Mico Loretan

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the properties of the von Neumann ratio for time series with infinite variance. The asymptotic theory is developed using recent results on the weak convergence of partial sums of time series with infinite variance to stable processes and of sample serial correlations to functions of stable variables. Our asymptotics cover the null of iid variates and general moving average (MA) alternatives. Regression residuals are also considered. In the static regression model the Durbin...

  12. Precise Measurement of pi+ -> e+ nu Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Frlež, E; Baranov, V A; Bertl, W; Bychkov, M; Bystritsky, Yu M; Khomutov, N V; Korenchenko, A S; Korenchenko, S M; Korolija, M; Kozlovskii, T; Kravchuk, N P; Kuchinskii, N A; Mekterović, D; Mzhavia, D; Palladino, A; Počanić, D; Robmann, P; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sidorkin, V V; Straumann, U; Supek, I; Truöl, P; Van der Schaaf, A; Velicheva, E P; Volnykh, V P

    2008-01-01

    The PEN Collaboration is conducting a new measurement of the pi+ -> e+ nu branching ratio at the Paul Scherrer Institute, with the goal uncertainty of delta B/B(pie2)=5E-4 or lower. At present, the combined accuracy of all published pie2 decay measurements lags behind the theoretical calculation by a factor of 40. In this contribution we report on the PEN detector configuration and its performance during two development runs done in 2007 and 2008.

  13. Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  15. Inverse participation ratio and localization in topological insulator phase transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Calixto, M.; Romera, E.

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of Hamiltonian eigenfunctions, measured by the inverse participation ratio (IPR), turn out to characterize topological-band insulator transitions occurring in 2D Dirac materials like silicene, which is isostructural with graphene but with a strong spin-orbit interaction. Using monotonic properties of the IPR, as a function of a perpendicular electric field (which provides a tunable band gap), we define topological-like quantum numbers that take different values in the topological...

  16. Eccentric utilization ratio: effect of sport and phase of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael R; Doyle, Timothy L A; Newton, Michael; Edwards, Dylan J; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U

    2006-11-01

    The eccentric utilization ratio (EUR), which is the ratio of countermovement jump (CMJ) to static jump (SJ) performance, has been suggested as a useful indicator of power performance in athletes. The purpose of the study was to compare the EUR of athletes from a variety of different sports and during different phases of training. A total of 142 athletes from rugby union, Australian Rules Football, soccer, softball, and field hockey were tested. Subjects performed both CMJ and SJ on a force plate integrated with a position transducer. The EUR was measured as the ratio of CMJ to SJ for jump height and peak power. The rugby union, Australian Rules Football, and hockey athletes were tested during off-season and preseason to provide EUR data during different phases of training. For men, EUR for soccer, Australian Rules Football, and rugby was greater than softball (effect size range, 0.83-0.92). For women, EUR for soccer was greater than field hockey and softball (0.86- 1.0). There was a significant difference between the jump height and peak power method for the Australian Rules Football, rugby, and field hockey tests conducted preseason (p training with the values significantly increasing from off-season to preseason. The EUR provides the practitioner with information about the performance of athletes and appears to be sensitive to changes in the type of training being undertaken.

  17. Instability of low viscosity elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun

    2011-11-01

    In this work an analytical description of capillary instability of liquid elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio is presented. Linear stability analysis in the long wave approximation with negligible gravitational effects is employed. Elliptic cylindrical coordinate system is used and perturbation velocity potential substituted in the Laplace equation to yield Mathieu and Modified Mathieu differential equations. The dispersion relation for elliptical orifices of any aspect ratio is derived and validated for axisymmetric disturbances with m = 0, in the limit of aspect ratio, μ = 1 , i.e. the case of a circular jet. As Mathieu functions and Modified Mathieu function solutions converge to Bessel's functions in this limit the Rayleigh-Plateau instability criterion is met. Also, stability of solutions corresponding to asymmetric disturbances for the kink mode, m = 1 and flute modes corresponding to m >= 2 is discussed. Experimental data from earlier works is used to compare observations made for elliptical orifices with μ ≠ 1 . This novel approach aims at generalizing the results pertaining to cylindrical jets with circular cross section leading to better understanding of breakup in liquid jets of various geometries.

  18. Selection of principal components based on Fisher discriminant ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyan; Naghedolfeizi, Masoud; Arora, Sanjeev; Yousif, Nabil; Aberra, Dawit

    2016-05-01

    Principal component analysis transforms a set of possibly correlated variables into uncorrelated variables, and is widely used as a technique of dimensionality reduction and feature extraction. In some applications of dimensionality reduction, the objective is to use a small number of principal components to represent most variation in the data. On the other hand, the main purpose of feature extraction is to facilitate subsequent pattern recognition and machine learning tasks, such as classification. Selecting principal components for classification tasks aims for more than dimensionality reduction. The capability of distinguishing different classes is another major concern. Components that have larger eigenvalues do not necessarily have better distinguishing capabilities. In this paper, we investigate a strategy of selecting principal components based on the Fisher discriminant ratio. The ratio of between class variance to within class variance is calculated for each component, based on which the principal components are selected. The number of relevant components is determined by the classification accuracy. To alleviate overfitting which is common when there are few training data available, we use a cross-validation procedure to determine the number of principal components. The main objective is to select the components that have large Fisher discriminant ratios so that adequate class separability is obtained. The number of selected components is determined by the classification accuracy of the validation data. The selection method is evaluated by face recognition experiments.

  19. Intensity ratio to improve black hole assessment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adusumilli, Gautam; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Sun, Peng; Lancia, Samantha; Viox, Jeffrey D; Wen, Jie; Naismith, Robert T; Cross, Anne H

    2018-01-01

    Improved imaging methods are critical to assess neurodegeneration and remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Chronic hypointensities observed on T1-weighted brain MRI, "persistent black holes," reflect severe focal tissue damage. Present measures consist of determining persistent black holes numbers and volumes, but do not quantitate severity of individual lesions. Develop a method to differentiate black and gray holes and estimate the severity of individual multiple sclerosis lesions using standard magnetic resonance imaging. 38 multiple sclerosis patients contributed images. Intensities of lesions on T1-weighted scans were assessed relative to cerebrospinal fluid intensity using commercial software. Magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and clinical testing were performed to assess associations with T1w intensity-based measures. Intensity-based assessments of T1w hypointensities were reproducible and achieved > 90% concordance with expert rater determinations of "black" and "gray" holes. Intensity ratio values correlated with magnetization transfer ratios (R = 0.473) and diffusion tensor imaging metrics (R values ranging from 0.283 to -0.531) that have been associated with demyelination and axon loss. Intensity ratio values incorporated into T1w hypointensity volumes correlated with clinical measures of cognition. This method of determining the degree of hypointensity within multiple sclerosis lesions can add information to conventional imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Harmonics to noise ratio in vocal professional voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Luka; Bonetti, Ana; Bolfan Stosic, Natalija

    2002-05-01

    There is no arguing about the importance of voice, especially in groups of vocal professional voices. The question is what characterizes, the most, normal or pathological voice in relation to aspects of human working life. Harmonics to noise ratio, according to findings from the field of voice disorders, is the most representative method to differ normal from pathological voice. In this research significant differences were found in harmonics to noise ratio in relation to the length of the working age of 29 teachers of primary schools in Zagreb. Teachers with the longest working age (40-yr.) showed the most distorted voices. The best quality of voice with great ratio of harmonics to noise was found in the group of teachers with 10 years of professional work. Acoustical analyses were made by EZVOICEPLUSTM version 2.0 and Gram. 2.3. Significant statistical differences were established by the T test of Statistica for Windows, version 4.5. [Work supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of Republic of Croatia.

  1. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M M H; Leber, M; Hogan, A; Warren, D J; Bhandari, R; Negi, S

    2017-04-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures.

  2. Continuous measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stowasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new, field-deployable technique for continuous, high-resolution measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores. The technique is based on a continuous flow analysis system, where ice core samples cut along the long axis of an ice core are melted continuously. The past atmospheric air contained in the ice is separated from the melt water stream via a system for continuous gas extraction. The extracted gas is dehumidified and then analyzed by a Wavelength Scanned-Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer for methane mixing ratios. We assess the performance of the new measurement technique in terms of precision (±0.8 ppbv, 1σ, accuracy (±8 ppbv, temporal (ca. 100 s, and spatial resolution (ca. 5 cm. Using a firn air transport model, we compare the resolution of the measurement technique to the resolution of the atmospheric methane signal as preserved in ice cores in Greenland. We conclude that our measurement technique can resolve all climatically relevant variations as preserved in the ice down to an ice depth of at least 1980 m (66 000 yr before present in the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ice core. Furthermore, we describe the modifications, which are necessary to make a commercially available spectrometer suitable for continuous methane mixing ratio measurements from ice cores.

  3. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  4. Increased Th17/Treg Ratio in Poststroke Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a major debilitating symptom after stroke. The biological mechanisms underlying poststroke fatigue (PFS are unknown. We hypothesized that PSF is associated with an alteration in the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. To test this hypothesis we assessed fatigue in 30 stroke survivors using the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC. Peripheral blood was collected for assessment of Th17 and Treg cell populations and measurement of interleukin-10 (IL-10. Participants were dichotomized into severe fatigue n=14 and low-moderate fatigue n=16 groups by K-mean cluster analysis of FSMC scores. There were no group differences in age, gender, stroke type, stroke severity, or time since stroke. Stroke survivors in the severe fatigue group reported greater anxiety p=0.004 and depression p=0.001 than in the low-moderate fatigue group. The ratio of Th17 to Treg cells was significantly increased in the severe fatigue group relative to the mild-moderate fatigue group p=0.035. Serum levels of IL-10 negatively correlated withTh17/Treg ratio (r=-0.408,  p=0.025. Our preliminary findings suggest that an imbalance in the Th17/Treg ratio is associated with the severity of PSF.

  5. Critical thickness ratio for buckled and wrinkled fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    This work aims at establishing the geometrical constraint for buckled and wrinkled shapes by modeling a fruit/vegetable with exocarp and sarcocarp as a hyperelastic layer-substrate structure subjected to uniaxial compression. A careful analysis on the derived bifurcation condition leads to the finding of a critical thickness ratio which separates the buckling and wrinkling modes, and remarkably, which is independent of the material stiffnesses. More specifically, it is found that if the thickness ratio is smaller than this critical value a fruit/vegetable should be in a buckled shape (under a sufficient stress); if a fruit/vegetable is in a wrinkled shape the thickness ratio is always larger than this critical value. To verify the theoretical prediction, we consider four types of buckled fruits/vegetables and four types of wrinkled fruits/vegetables with three samples in each type. The geometrical parameters for the 24 samples are measured and it is found that indeed all the data fall into the theoretically predicted buckling or wrinkling domains.

  6. High-aspect ratio magnetic nanocomposite polymer cilium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, M.; Tseng, H. Y.; Gray, B. L.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new fabrication technique to achieve ultra high-aspect ratio artificial cilia micro-patterned from flexible highly magnetic rare earth nanoparticle-doped polymers. We have developed a simple, inexpensive and scalable fabrication method to create cilia structures that can be actuated by miniature electromagnets, that are suitable to be used for lab-on-a chip (LOC) and micro-total-analysis-system (μ-TAS) applications such as mixers and flow-control elements. The magnetic cilia are fabricated and magnetically polarized directly in microfluidic channels or reaction chambers, allowing for easy integration with complex microfluidic systems. These cilia structures can be combined on a single chip with other microfluidic components employing the same permanently magnetic nano-composite polymer (MNCP), such as valves or pumps. Rare earth permanent magnetic powder, (Nd0.7Ce0.3)10.5Fe83.9B5.6, is used to dope polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), resulting in a highly flexible M-NCP of much higher magnetization and remanence [1] than ferromagnetic polymers typically employed in magnetic microfluidics. Sacrificial poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) is used to mold the highly magnetic polymer into ultra high-aspect ratio artificial cilia. Cilia structures with aspect ratio exceeding 8:0.13 can be easily fabricated using this technique and are actuated using miniature electromagnets to achieve a high range of motion/vibration.

  7. Digit Ratios, Finger Length, and Basic Musical Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Voracek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among elite orchestra musicians (predominantly men, a lower (masculinised second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D, a putative marker of prenatal testosterone levels, has been shown to be associated with higher musical-ability rankings (Sluming & Manning, 2000. Seeking to extend this evidence, this study examined associations of digit ratios (2D:4D and other and absolute finger length (a putative marker of pubertal-adolescent testosterone levels with basic musical abilities (Seashore battery in a sample of 124 adult non-musicians. Among women better pitch discrimination corresponded to lower (masculinised digit ratios and longer (masculinised fingers, whilst among men directionally opposite and thus not theory compliant correlations of rhythm and time discrimination with finger-length measures emerged. Similarly, although men exceeded women on most of the Seashore tasks, these sex differences were negligible, with the exception of timbre discrimination. On the whole, significant associations between the study variables were sparse and yielded little support for the assumption that prenatal or pubertal-adolescent androgen effects may partly influence within-sex individual variation in basic musical abilities among adult non-musicians.

  8. Suburbanization, estrogen contamination, and sex ratio in wild amphibian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R.; Giller, Geoffrey S. J.; Barber, Larry B.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Skelly, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Research on endocrine disruption in frog populations, such as shifts in sex ratios and feminization of males, has predominantly focused on agricultural pesticides. Recent evidence suggests that suburban landscapes harbor amphibian populations exhibiting similar levels of endocrine disruption; however the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) sources are unknown. Here, we show that sex ratios of metamorphosing frogs become increasingly female-dominated along a suburbanization gradient. We further show that suburban ponds are frequently contaminated by the classical estrogen estrone and a variety of EDCs produced by plants (phytoestrogens), and that the diversity of organic EDCs is correlated with the extent of developed land use and cultivated lawn and gardens around a pond. Our work also raises the possibility that trace-element contamination associated with human land use around suburban ponds may be contributing to the estrogenic load within suburban freshwaters and constitutes another source of estrogenic exposure for wildlife. These data suggest novel, unexplored pathways of EDC contamination in human-altered environments. In particular, we propose that vegetation changes associated with suburban neighborhoods (e.g., from forests to lawns and ornamental plants) increase the distribution of phytoestrogens in surface waters. The result of frog sex ratios varying as a function of human land use implicates a role for environmental modulation of sexual differentiation in amphibians, which are assumed to only have genetic sex determination. Overall, we show that endocrine disruption is widespread in suburban frog populations and that the causes are likely diverse.

  9. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  10. Edge-ratio network clustering by Variable Neighborhood Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafieri, Sonia; Hansen, Pierre; Mladenović, Nenad

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of networks and in particular the identification of communities, or clusters, is a topic of active research with applications arising in many domains. Several models were proposed for this problem. In reference [S. Cafieri, P. Hansen, L. Liberti, Phys. Rev. E 81, 026105 (2010)], a criterion is proposed for a graph bipartition to be optimal: one seeks to maximize the minimum for both classes of the bipartition of the ratio of inner edges to cut edges ( edge-ratio), and it is used in a hierarchical divisive algorithm for community identification in networks. In this paper, we develop a VNS-based heuristic for hierarchical divisive edge-ratio network clustering. A k-neighborhood is defined as move of k entities, i.e., k entities change their membership from one to another cluster. A local search is based on 1-changes and k-changes are used for shaking the incumbent solution. Computational results on datasets from the literature validate the proposed approach.

  11. Alternative Observers for SI Engine Air/Fuel Ratio Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Poulsen, Jannik; Olsen, Mads Bruun

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work it has been shown that a nonlinear observer based on the use of the manifold pressure state equation and a nonlinear fuel film compensator can maintain accurate A/F ratio control during both steady state and transient operation. This observer may be called a manifold absolute pres...... engine control system designer with a variety of robust control systems which can easily be made redundant in order to satisfy newer engine emissions and diagnosis requirements and legislation......In earlier work it has been shown that a nonlinear observer based on the use of the manifold pressure state equation and a nonlinear fuel film compensator can maintain accurate A/F ratio control during both steady state and transient operation. This observer may be called a manifold absolute...... sensors other than a MAP sensor. In this paper it is shown that it is possible to construct a family of alternative nonlinear observers which “naturally” allow the use of any given air mass flow related sensor or a combination of them for A/F ratio control. This new family of observers provides the SI...

  12. Population sex ratios: another consideration in the reintroduction - reinforcement debate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available Reintroduction or reinforcement (RorR of wild populations is a common conservation strategy. Many conservation projects involve the release of individuals of poorly studied species. This may lead to inefficient results or negative impacts on the conservation efforts. Here, we provide new insights into the conservation implications and potential consequences of a skew in the sex ratio of released birds and of the number of birds supplemented for the demography of a long-lived dimorphic bird species, the Andean condor (Vulturgryphus. We demonstrate that a RorR conservation program may be less effective in conserving a species if the sex ratios of the releases and the recipient populations are not considered. We also show that releases can reduce population declines but only if carried out over long periods (i.e., several decades. This can mean high costs for release programs and the added challenge of maintaining programs over time. If RorR programs are to be implemented, bearing in mind the importance of properly assessing their effectiveness, we urge conservation researchers and managers to consider the implications of sex ratio biases for wild populations, and particularly for dimorphic species with sexually despotic behaviour.

  13. ESCAPE FROM SD ASSOCIATED WITH FIXED-RATIO REINFORCEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMPSON, D M

    1964-01-01

    Throughout ascending and descending fixed-ratio (FR) sequences, rats were allowed to terminate the FR stimulus control by pressing a time-out (TO) lever. To minimize chance or accidental responses on this second lever, three presses were required to produce the 30-sec S(Delta) period. As FR performance became more "strained," there was an increased predisposition to escape from the time-in stimulus complex. The generality of this finding was extended by obtaining recoverability (independent of the direction of stimulus change) of the FR-TO function in the descending series. Typically, escapes were produced only during the post-reinforcement pause; however, under a mixed FR FR schedule, their occurrence shifted to a point within the inter-reinforcement interval corresponding to the unreinforced completion of the lower ratio component. It appears that the point where the rat can discriminate the size of the ratio requirement will be the place where TOs are imposed. This inference was supported by a substantial increase in TO frequency accompanying a shift from CRF to extinction on the FR lever. Finally, the escape lever was placed on a progressively increasing FR schedule and later extinguished to demonstrate that the TO condition was in fact reinforcing.

  14. Greece's high dentist to population ratio: comparisons, causes, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Papaioannou, William; Stefaniotis, Theodoros

    2011-11-01

    Reaching the optimal dentist to population ratio is a common health policy challenge around the world, but while many countries have too few dentists for their populations, Greece is facing the opposite problem. This study was designed to describe and analyze trends in the number and distribution of dentists in Greece over the last thirty years and compare the Greek dentist to population ratio with that of the other twenty-six European Union (EU) countries. Demographic data for Greece were obtained from the Hellenic Dental Association and the National Statistical Service of Greece and were analyzed using nonparametric statistical tests. Data for the other EU countries were derived from various authoritative sources. In Greece, the number of dentists per 10,000 inhabitants increased significantly (pdentists during the decade 1979-88 (30.4 percent) was significant (pdentists practiced in the Attica Prefecture (Athens) (55.2 percent and 52.6 percent, respectively), but this situation changed significantly in 2007 (pdentists remained almost the same from 1982 until 2007, but female dentists' location of practice changed significantly (pdentist to population ratio, Greece has significant oral health access problems.

  15. Lattice Metamaterials with Mechanically Tunable Poisson's Ratio for Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Li, Tiantian; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Wang, Lifeng

    2017-02-01

    Metamaterials with artificially designed architectures are increasingly considered as new paradigmatic material systems with unusual physical properties. Here, we report a class of architected lattice metamaterials with mechanically tunable negative Poisson's ratios and vibration-mitigation capability. The proposed lattice metamaterials are built by replacing regular straight beams with sinusoidally shaped ones, which are highly stretchable under uniaxial tension. Our experimental and numerical results indicate that the proposed lattices exhibit extreme Poisson's-ratio variations between -0.7 and 0.5 over large tensile deformations up to 50%. This large variation of Poisson's-ratio values is attributed to the deformation pattern switching from bending to stretching within the sinusoidally shaped beams. The interplay between the multiscale (ligament and cell) architecture and wave propagation also enables remarkable broadband vibration-mitigation capability of the lattice metamaterials, which can be dynamically tuned by an external mechanical stimulus. The material design strategy provides insights into the development of classes of architected metamaterials with potential applications including energy absorption, tunable acoustics, vibration control, responsive devices, soft robotics, and stretchable electronics.

  16. Spatially Resolved Emission Line Ratios for Nuclear AGN Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Differentiating between AGN activity and star formation in z 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods such as line ratio diagnostics change with redshift, while multiwavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra, quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/HBeta line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we have shown that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies low-mass and obscured AGN well beyond the limits of classic methods. In the course of this archival program, we will extend the current simulations beyond stellar mass, star formation rate, and AGN accretion, additionally modeling the effects of different galaxy sizes and morphologies. We will then use the two-orbit 3D-HST G141 grism observations and 12- and 40-orbit G102 grism observations from FIGS and CLEAR in the CANDELS fields of several thousand 0.6 grism is the ideal tool for this work because its unique spatial abilities applied to such a large dataset are unparalleled. Our simulations of spatially resolved AGN+galaxy emission lines will inform many related studies of resolved galaxy properties, such dust, star formation rate, metallicity.

  17. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdas, D. A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Cristea, G., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Bot, A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Mirel, V., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ{sup 13}C between batches from −29.7 to −31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between −31.3 to −34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  18. [Collagen types ratio in prediction of postoperative ventral hernias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarenko, V A; Ivanov, S V; Ivanov, I S; Rosberg, E P; Tsukanov, A V; Popova, L P; Tarabrin, D V; Obyedkov, E G

    To analyze collagen types ratio in skin and aponeurosis in order to predict postoperative ventral hernias. The trial included 141 patients for the period 2012-2015. Group I (n=65) of patients without ventral hernias was divided into subgroup AI (primary operation, n=41) and BI (re-operation, n=24). Group II consisted of 76 patients with ventral hernias. We performed histological examination of skin and aponeurosis to define the collagen structure of connective tissue. There were significant differences between collagen type I/III ratio in skin (2.81±0.52 in group I vs. 1.13±0.48 in group II) and aponeurosis (2.69±0.41 vs. 1.09±0.21, respectively, p≤0.05). We revealed strong direct correlation (r=+0.92) between aponeurosis and skin specimens in one group. Collagen type I level was 73.81±2.74% in subgroup AI and 72.03±2.47% in subgroup BI. Collagen type I was predominant (p≤0.05). In patients with ventral hernias collagen type I/III ratio in skin is 2.54 times lower than in patients without hernias. Significant correlation of collagen types in skin and aponeurosis (r= +0.92) allows to predict the risk of postoperative ventral hernias on basis of skin fragment.

  19. Score-based likelihood ratios for handwriting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Amanda B; Saunders, Christopher P; Davis, Linda J; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2012-06-10

    Score-based approaches for computing forensic likelihood ratios are becoming more prevalent in the forensic literature. When two items of evidential value are entangled via a scorefunction, several nuances arise when attempting to model the score behavior under the competing source-level propositions. Specific assumptions must be made in order to appropriately model the numerator and denominator probability distributions. This process is fairly straightforward for the numerator of the score-based likelihood ratio, entailing the generation of a database of scores obtained by pairing items of evidence from the same source. However, this process presents ambiguities for the denominator database generation - in particular, how best to generate a database of scores between two items of different sources. Many alternatives have appeared in the literature, three of which we will consider in detail. They differ in their approach to generating denominator databases, by pairing (1) the item of known source with randomly selected items from a relevant database; (2) the item of unknown source with randomly generated items from a relevant database; or (3) two randomly generated items. When the two items differ in type, perhaps one having higher information content, these three alternatives can produce very different denominator databases. While each of these alternatives has appeared in the literature, the decision of how to generate the denominator database is often made without calling attention to the subjective nature of this process. In this paper, we compare each of the three methods (and the resulting score-based likelihood ratios), which can be thought of as three distinct interpretations of the denominator proposition. Our goal in performing these comparisons is to illustrate the effect that subtle modifications of these propositions can have on inferences drawn from the evidence evaluation procedure. The study was performed using a data set composed of cursive writing

  20. Air/fuel ratio visualization in a diesel spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabell, Kevin David

    1993-01-01

    To investigate some features of high pressure diesel spray ignition, we have applied a newly developed planar imaging system to a spray in an engine-fed combustion bomb. The bomb is designed to give flow characteristics similar to those in a direct injection diesel engine yet provide nearly unlimited optical access. A high pressure electronic unit injector system with on-line manually adjustable main and pilot injection features was used. The primary scalar of interest was the local air/fuel ratio, particularly near the spray plumes. To make this measurement quantitative, we have developed a calibration LIF technique. The development of this technique is the key contribution of this dissertation. The air/fuel ratio measurement was made using biacetyl as a seed in the air inlet to the engine. When probed by a tripled Nd:YAG laser the biacetyl fluoresces, with a signal proportional to the local biacetyl concentration. This feature of biacetyl enables the fluorescent signal to be used as as indicator of local fuel vapor concentration. The biacetyl partial pressure was carefully controlled, enabling estimates of the local concentration of air and the approximate local stoichiometry in the fuel spray. The results indicate that the image quality generated with this method is sufficient for generating air/fuel ratio contours. The processes during the ignition delay have a marked effect on ignition and the subsequent burn. These processes, vaporization and pre-flame kinetics, very much depend on the mixing of the air and fuel. This study has shown that poor mixing and over-mixing of the air and fuel will directly affect the type of ignition. An optimal mixing arrangement exists and depends on the swirl ratio in the engine, the number of holes in the fuel injector and the distribution of fuel into a pilot and main injection. If a short delay and a diffusion burn is desired, the best mixing parameters among those surveyed would be a high swirl ratio, a 4-hole nozzle and a

  1. Amino Acid Enantiomeric Ratios in Biogeochemistry: Complications and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, G. D.; Sun, H. J.; Tsapin, A. I.

    2003-12-01

    Amino acid enantiomeric ratios have been used for many years as an indicator of the process of racemization, and thus as a method to determine the age of biological samples such as bones, shells, and teeth. Dating biological samples by this method relies on an accurate knowledge of the environmental temperatures the sample has experienced, and the racemization kinetic parameters in the sample matrix. In some environments, where an independent dating method such as radiocarbon is available, the observed amino acid D/L ratios are found to be either higher or lower than those expected due to racemization alone. The observed D/L ratios in these cases can be clues to biogeochemical processes operating in addition to, or in place of, chemical racemization. In Siberian permafrost (Brinton et al. 2002, Astrobiology 2, 77) we have found D/L ratios lower than expected, which we have interpreted as evidence for low-level D-amino acid metabolism and recycling in microorganisms previously thought to be metabolically dormant. In microbially-colonized Antarctic Dry Valley sandstones (McDonald and Sun 2002, Eos Trans. AGU 83, Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract B11A-0720) we have found D/L ratios higher than can be accounted for by racemization alone, most likely due to the accumulation of D-amino-acid-containing peptidoglycan material from multiple bacterial generations. D/L profiles in polar ices and in ice-covered lakes (Tsapin et al. 2002, Astrobiology 2, 632) can be used to indicate the sources and histories of water or ice samples. Multiple biological and biogeochemical processes may complicate the interpretation of amino acid enantiomeric excesses in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples; however, amino acid racemization remains a useful tool in biogeochemistry and astrobiology. With a good knowledge of the environmental history of samples, amino acid D/L profiles can be used as a window into processes such as molecular repair and biomass turnover that are difficult to

  2. The Microtremor H/V Spectral Ratio and Lateral Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, T.; Matsushima, S.; Kawase, H.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Pérez Gavilán, J. J.; Suarez, M.; Salinas, V.

    2010-12-01

    The average cross correlation of the ground motion fluctuations due to microtremors at pairs of given receivers, in the frequency domain, is linked to the imaginary part of Green function for such locations. For a single recording point, the average autocorrelation measures energy density and the Green function side of the equation is proportional to the power injected into the medium by a unit harmonic load at that point. This is the pseudo reflection response of the site. The problem has been dealt with recently for a horizontal stack of layers over a half-space which seems to be appropriate to study cases when ground motion is horizontally isotropic. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios of microtremors have been traditionally interpreted as representing either directly the S wave amplification or the Rayleigh wave ellipticity for a horizontal stack of layers. However, based on the diffuse field theory the microtremor H/V spectral ratio corresponds to the square root of the ratio of the imaginary part of horizontal displacement for a horizontally applied unit harmonic load, Imag.[G11], to the imaginary part of vertical displacement for a vertically applied unit load, Imag.[G33]. Both the loads and receivers are at the free surface. Therefore, we can invert the underground structure below a site if we observe microtremors there by using theoretical point source solution. For a sufficiently flat, horizontal stack of layers underneath a site we can easily calculate the theoretical Green function for that 1-D model. On the other hand, for a laterally heterogeneous underground structure, the horizontal reflection responses are different and in order to interpret microtremor H/V spectral ratios a numerical approach is needed. We can use the 3-D Finite Difference Method or the Indirect Boundary Element Method to study a model of a laterally heterogeneous elastic layer over a half-space. As observational evidence of 3-D microtremor H/V spectral ratios, we show

  3. PtRu/Ti anodes with varying Pt ratio: Ru ratio prepared by electrodeposition for the direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Zhu, Fuyun; Lin, Wen-Feng; Christensen, Paul A; Zhang, Huamin

    2006-06-21

    PtRu/Ti anodes with varying Pt ratio Ru ratio were prepared by electrodeposition of a thin PtRu catalyst layer onto Ti mesh for a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The morphology and structure of the catalyst layers were analyzed by SEM, EDX and XRD. The catalyst coating layer shows an alloy character. The relative activities of the PtRu/Ti electrodes were assessed and compared in half cell and single DMFC experiments. The results show that these electrodes are very active for the methanol oxidation and that the optimum Ru surface coverage was ca. 9 at.% for DMFC operating at 20 degrees C and 11 at.% at 60 degrees C. The PtRu/Ti anode shows a performance comparable to that of the conventional carbon-based anode in a DMFC operating with 0.25 M or 0.5 M methanol solution and atmosphere oxygen gas at 90 degrees C.

  4. Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2011-01-01

    To minimize confusion in the expression of measurement results of stable isotope and gas-ratio measurements, recommendations based on publications of the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are presented. Whenever feasible, entries are consistent with the Système International d'Unités, the SI (known in English as the International System of Units), and the third edition of the International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (VIM, 3rd edition). The recommendations presented herein are approved by the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights and are designed to clarify expression of quantities related to measurement of isotope and gas ratios to ensure that quantity equations instead of numerical value equations are used for quantity definitions. Examples of column headings consistent with quantity calculus (also called the algebra of quantities) and examples of various deprecated usages connected with the terms recommended are presented.

  5. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg-1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg-1 VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Loan To Deposit Ratio pada Bank Pembangunan Daerah di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Christin Juniarta S.

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of the problem in this research is "Do Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, and Operating Efficiency Ratio influence and significant on Loan to Deposit Ratio at Regional Development Bank in Indonesia?''. The purpose of this research is to analyse about the effect of Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, and Operating efficiency ratio on Loan to Deposit Ratio at Regional Development Bank in Indonesia. The hypothesis in this research is Capital Adequacy Ratio, ...

  7. The Methane to Carbon Dioxide Ratio Produced during Peatland Decomposition and a Simple Approach for Distinguishing This Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanton, J.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Cooper, W. T.; Glaser, P. H.; Corbett, J. E.; Crill, P. M.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.; Holmes, B.; Hines, M. E.; Tfaily, M.; Kostka, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Peatland organic matter is cellulose-like with an oxidation state of approximately zero. When this material decomposes by fermentation, stoichiometry dictates that CH4 and CO2 should be produced in a ratio approaching one. While this is generally the case in temperate zones, this production ratio is often departed from in boreal peatlands, where the ratio of belowground CH4/CO2 production varies between 0.1 and 1, indicating CO2 production by a mechanism in addition to fermentation. The in situ CO2/CH4 production ratio may be ascertained by analysis of the 13C isotopic composition of these products, because CO2 production unaccompanied by methane production produces CO2 with an isotopic composition similar to the parent organic matter while methanogenesis produces 13C depleted methane and 13C enriched CO2. The 13C enrichment in the subsurface CO2 pool is directly related to the amount of if formed from methane production and the isotopic composition of the methane itself. Excess CO2 production is associated with more acidic conditions, Sphagnum vegetation, high and low latitudes, methane production dominated by hydrogenotrophic methane production, 13C depleted methane, and generally, more nutrient depleted conditions. Three theories have been offered to explain these observations— 1) inhibition of acetate utilization, acetate build-up and diffusion to the surface and eventual aerobic oxidation, 2) the use of humic acids as electron acceptors, and the 3) utilization of organic oxygen to produce CO2. In support of #3, we find that 13C-NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FT IR) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) clearly show the evolution of polysaccharides and cellulose towards more decomposed humified alkyl compounds stripped of organic oxygen utilized to form CO2. Such decomposition results in more negative carbon oxidation states varying from -1 to -2. Coincident with this reduction in oxidation state, is the

  8. Study of improving signal-noise ratio for fluorescence channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Li, Xin; Lou, Yue; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Ran; Yan, Debao; Zhao, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence(LIFS), which is one of most effective discrimination methods to identify the material at the molecular level by inducing fluorescence spectrum, has been popularized for its fast and accurate probe's results. According to the research, violet laser or ultraviolet laser is always used as excitation light source. While, There is no atmospheric window for violet laser and ultraviolet laser, causing laser attenuation along its propagation path. What's worse, as the laser reaching sample, part of the light is reflected. That is, excitation laser really react on sample to produce fluorescence is very poor, leading to weak fluorescence mingled with the background light collected by LIFS' processing unit, when it used outdoor. In order to spread LIFS to remote probing under the complex background, study of improving signal-noise ratio for fluorescence channel is a meaningful work. Enhancing the fluorescence intensity and inhibiting background light both can improve fluorescence' signal-noise ratio. In this article, three different approaches of inhibiting background light are discussed to improve the signal-noise ratio of LIFS. The first method is increasing fluorescence excitation area in the proportion of LIFS' collecting field by expanding laser beam, if the collecting filed is fixed. The second one is changing field angle base to accommodate laser divergence angle. The third one is setting a very narrow gating circuit to control acquisition circuit, which is shortly open only when fluorescence arriving. At some level, these methods all can reduce the background light. But after discussion, the third one is best with adding gating acquisition circuit to acquisition circuit instead of changing light path, which is effective and economic.

  9. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Koho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific. The local bottom water oxygen (BWO gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS, allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  10. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  11. Aspect ratio dependent cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kamla; Agarwal, Shweta; Tyagi, Aakriti; Verma, Anita K; Bohidar, H B

    2014-10-01

    Nanoclays may enter human body through various routes such as through the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, skin, blood, etc. There is dearth of such studies evaluating the interaction of clay nanoparticles with human cells. In particular, the interaction of proteins and nucleic acids with nanoparticles of different aspect ratio remains a domain that is very poorly probed and understood. In the present study, we address the issue of cytotoxicity and antimicrobial attributes of two distinct nanoclay platelets namely, laponite (diameter = 25 nm and thickness = 1 nm) and montmorillonite (MMT, diameter = 300 nm and thickness = 1 nm), having different aspect ratio (25:1 vs 300:1). Cytotoxicity was assessed in both prokatyotes: Escherichia coli, eukaryotes-human embryonic kidney (HEK), and cervical cancer SiHa cell lines, and a comparative size-based analysis of the toxicity were made at different exposure time points by MTT assay. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoclays was evaluated by disc diffusion method (Kirbey-Bauer protocol). Laponite exhibited maximum efficacy as an antimicrobial agent against E. coli. Comparatively smaller size laponite could preferentially enter the cells, leading to relatively wider or larger zone of inhibition. On contradictory; laponite showed 74.67 % survival while MMT showed 89.02 % survival in eukaryotic cells at 0.00001 % (w/v) concentration. In summary, both MMT and laponite indicated cytotoxicity at 0.05 % concentration within 24 h of exposure on HEK and cervical cancer (SiHa) cell lines. The toxicity was possibly dependent on size, aspect ratio, and concentration.

  12. Blood Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Shi, Hongbin; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunlei; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a significant global public health challenge. Low-grade inflammation is known to facilitate the development of essential hypertension and target-organ hypertensive damage. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple and reliable indicator of inflammation that may also be useful in the prediction of hypertension. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University's General Hospital-Health Management Centre. A total of 28,850 initially hypertension-free subjects were followed from 2007 to 2013. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between NLR categories and incidence of hypertension. During the ~6-year follow-up period (median duration of follow-up (interquartile range): 2.63 (2.58-2.68)), 1,824 subjects developed hypertension. The hazard ratios of hypertension incidence were evaluated in increasing NLR quintiles. Compared with participants with the lowest NLR levels, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of hypertension were related to increasing NLR quintiles and were as follows: 1.08 (0.92, 1.26), 0.97 (0.83, 1.14), 1.10 (0.94, 1.28), and 1.23 (1.06, 1.43), respectively (P for trend blood cell and neutrophil counts, but not lymphocyte counts. The study is the first to show the elevated NLR levels significantly correlate with an increased risk of developing hypertension. This result may be useful in elucidating the mechanism underlying the development of hypertension. New therapeutic approaches aimed at inflammation might be proposed to control hypertension and hypertensive damage. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Choice with frequently changing food rates and food ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In studies of operant choice, when one schedule of a concurrent pair is varied while the other is held constant, the constancy of the constant schedule may exert discriminative control over performance. In our earlier experiments, schedules varied reciprocally across components within sessions, so that while food ratio varied food rate remained constant. In the present experiment, we held one variable-interval (VI) schedule constant while varying the concurrent VI schedule within sessions. We studied five conditions, each with a different constant left VI schedule. On the right key, seven different VI schedules were presented in seven different unsignaled components. We analyzed performances at several different time scales. At the longest time scale, across conditions, behavior ratios varied with food ratios as would be expected from the generalized matching law. At shorter time scales, effects due to holding the left VI constant became more and more apparent, the shorter the time scale. In choice relations across components, preference for the left key leveled off as the right key became leaner. Interfood choice approximated strict matching for the varied right key, whereas interfood choice hardly varied at all for the constant left key. At the shortest time scale, visit patterns differed for the left and right keys. Much evidence indicated the development of a fix-and-sample pattern. In sum, the procedural difference made a large difference to performance, except for choice at the longest time scale and the fix-and-sample pattern at the shortest time scale. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Sequential boundaries approach in clinical trials with unequal allocation ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatollahi Seyyed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD, however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequal randomization, the power of the trial will decrease, whereas with sequential analysis the power will always remain constant. Our aim was to compare sequential boundaries approach with the SSD when the allocation ratio (R was not equal. Methods We evaluated the influence of R, the ratio of the patients in experimental group to the standard group, on the statistical properties of two-sided tests, including the two-sided single triangular test (TT, double triangular test (DTT and SSD by multiple simulations. The average sample size numbers (ASNs and power (1-β were evaluated for all tests. Results Our simulation study showed that choosing R = 2 instead of R = 1 increases the sample size of SSD by 12% and the ASN of the TT and DTT by the same proportion. Moreover, when R = 2, compared to the adjusted SSD, using the TT or DTT allows to retrieve the well known reductions of ASN observed when R = 1, compared to SSD. In addition, when R = 2, compared to SSD, using the TT and DTT allows to obtain smaller reductions of ASN than when R = 1, but maintains the power of the test to its planned value. Conclusion This study indicates that when the allocation ratio is not equal among the treatment groups, sequential analysis could indeed serve as a compromise between ethicists, economists and statisticians.

  15. Measuring the signal-to-noise ratio of a neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czanner, Gabriela; Sarma, Sridevi V; Ba, Demba; Eden, Uri T; Wu, Wei; Eskandar, Emad; Lim, Hubert H; Temereanca, Simona; Suzuki, Wendy A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-06-09

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a commonly used measure of fidelity in physical systems, is defined as the ratio of the squared amplitude or variance of a signal relative to the variance of the noise. This definition is not appropriate for neural systems in which spiking activity is more accurately represented as point processes. We show that the SNR estimates a ratio of expected prediction errors and extend the standard definition to one appropriate for single neurons by representing neural spiking activity using point process generalized linear models (PP-GLM). We estimate the prediction errors using the residual deviances from the PP-GLM fits. Because the deviance is an approximate χ(2) random variable, we compute a bias-corrected SNR estimate appropriate for single-neuron analysis and use the bootstrap to assess its uncertainty. In the analyses of four systems neuroscience experiments, we show that the SNRs are -10 dB to -3 dB for guinea pig auditory cortex neurons, -18 dB to -7 dB for rat thalamic neurons, -28 dB to -14 dB for monkey hippocampal neurons, and -29 dB to -20 dB for human subthalamic neurons. The new SNR definition makes explicit in the measure commonly used for physical systems the often-quoted observation that single neurons have low SNRs. The neuron's spiking history is frequently a more informative covariate for predicting spiking propensity than the applied stimulus. Our new SNR definition extends to any GLM system in which the factors modulating the response can be expressed as separate components of a likelihood function.

  16. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  17. Crank drive for variable compression ratio; Kurbeltrieb fuer variable Verdichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollig, C. [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Aachen (Germany); Habermann, K.; Marckwardt, H.; Yapici, K.I. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Thermodynamik (LAT)

    1997-11-01

    In a research project at the Institute of Applied Thermodynamics (LAT) of the University of Aachen (RWTH) between April 1995 and October 1996, a variable compression ratio was realised on a specially prepared FEV Single Cylinder Research Engine and investigated in terms of combustion and tribological behaviour. On the basis of an invention by the FEV Motorentechnik, the variable compression ratio was realised with a variable crankdrive. This technology allows a variable compression ratio across a wide range. In combination with High Pressure Supercharging, F.E. concept for S.I. engines results in a fuel saving potential of up to 30%. Equipped with well-known Three-Way-Catalyst (TWC) technology, it is capable of meeting future low emission standards. To achieve a weight-optimised design of the conrod, FEM analyses have been conducted. The primary goal of the test bench investigation was to obtain information about the influence of the unconventional piston movement during combustion as well as about the tribological behaviour of the variable crankdrive. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb eines Forschungsprojektes am Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Thermodynamik der RWTH-Aachen (LAT) wurde im Zeitraum April 1995 bis Oktober 1996 ein variables Verdichtungsverhaeltnis an einem speziell praeparierten FEV-Einzylinder-Ottomotor umgesetzt und brennverfahrenstechnisch wie auch tribologisch im Pruefstandsbetrieb untersucht. Basierend auf einer Erfindung der FEV Motorentechnik wurde das veraenderliche Verdichtungsverhaeltnis mit einem variablen Kurbeltrieb realisiert. Diese Technik ermoeglicht eine Variabilitaet der Verdichtung in einem grossen Bereich. In Verbindung mit Hochaufladung kann so ein ottomotorisches Verbrauchskonzept mit einem Einsparpotential von bis zu 30% dargestellt werden, das unter Beibehaltung der {lambda}=1-Technik zukuenftige Abgasnormen erfuellen kann. Die Eignung des variablen Kurbeltriebs zur Realisierung einer veraenderlichen Verdichtung konnte in der

  18. A Measurement of the Tau Hadronic Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; DeMaria, N.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkachev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2006-01-01

    The exclusive and semi-exclusive branching ratios of the tau lepton hadronic decay modes (h- v_t, h- pi0 v_t, h- pi0 pi0 v_t, h- \\geq 2pi0 v_t, h- \\geq 3pi0 v_t, 2h- h+ v_t, 2h- h+ pi0 v_t, 2h- h+ \\geq 2pi0 v_t, 3h- 2h+ v_t and 3h- 2h+ \\geq 1pi0 v_t) were measured with data from the DELPHI detector at LEP.

  19. Black hole fusion in the extreme mass ratio limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina; Zilhão, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple, general, and accurate construction of the event horizons for the fusion of two neutral, rotating black holes with arbitrary orientation and values of their spins, in the extreme mass ratio limit where one black hole is much larger than the other. We compute several parameters that characterize the fusion and investigate their dependence on the black hole spin and orientation axis. We also exhibit and study the appearance of transient toroidal topology of the horizon. An earlier conjecture about universal critical exponents before and after an axisymmetric pinch is proven.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Organotin Containing Copolymers: Reactivity Ratio Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin monomers containing dibutyltin groups – dibutyltin citraconate (DBTC as a new monomer and dibutyltin maleate (DBTM – were synthesized. Free radical copolymerizations of the organotin monomers with styrene (ST and butyl acrylate (BA were performed. The overall conversion was kept low (≤15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymers composition was determined from tin analysis using the Gillman and Rosenberg method. The reactivity ratios were calculated from the copolymer composition using the Fineman-Ross (FR method. The synthesized monomers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-, 13C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Simulation of the HPMT/VPT Light Collection Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, David; McLeod, Elaine Mary

    2003-01-01

    The ray tracing Monte Carlo, RAGE, is used to determine the amount of light expected to be collected by 20mm VPTs as used in the 1999 test-beam configuration, compared to the amount collected by HPMTs used in Lab-27 to view unwrapped crystals. This ratio will be used elsewhere to determine the performance of the VPTs and electronics chain during the test beam run. The ray-tracing simulations demonstrate the importance of the beveled crystal edges and show that the illumination of the rear-face of the crystal is uniform. However, it is shown that the amount of light collected does not scale simply with the detector size.

  2. Hadron ratios chiral symmetry restoration vs. nonequilibrium quark dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Paech, Kerstin; Scherer, S; Zschiesche, D; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W

    2001-01-01

    Hadron production in recent nucleus-nucleus collisions experiments at the SPS and at RHIC have been analyzed in various thermal model fits. Here it is shown that the fit cannot be unique: the chemical freeze- out close to the phase transition to a QGP should be accompanied by shifting baryon masses in the medium, which can yield considerably smaller break-up temperatures. Also a simple microscopic quark molecular dynamics model yields hadron ratios in nice agreement with those data. Hence, additional information, e.g. from HBT, is needed to determine the freeze-out parameters from data. (24 refs).

  3. Tuberculosis disease mapping in Kedah using standardized morbidity ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diah, Ijlal Mohd; Aziz, Nazrina; Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of relative risk estimation that applied to TB data in Kedah using the most common approach, Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). Disease mapping has been recognized as one of the methods that can be used by government and public health in order to control diseases since it can give a clear picture of the risk areas. To get good disease mapping, relative risk estimation is an important issue that need to be considered. TB risk areas will be recognized through the map. From the result, Kulim shows the lowest risk areas of contracting TB while Kota Setar has the highest risk area.

  4. Stable isotope ratio analysis for authentication of lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasentier, E; Valusso, R; Camin, F; Versini, G

    2003-07-01

    The effectiveness of the analysis of stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) in fractions of lamb meat, measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, was evaluated as a method of feeding and geographical origin authentication. Analyses were carried out on meat from 12 lamb types, produced in couples in six European countries (country of origin, CO) and divided in three groups according to the feeding regime during their finishing period: suckled milk only, pasture without any solid supplementation and supplementation containing maize grain (feeding regime, FR). These analyses were made on two samples of longissimus thoracis muscle, taken from the 13th rib section of the left side of two different lambs, randomly chosen between the 120 selected to represent each lamb type. δ(13)C values varied significantly in different meat fractions, the difference being higher in protein than in fat (average difference 5.0‰). However, the pairs δ(13)C values of crude fat and protein were highly correlated (r=0.976) and affected by lamb type in a similar fashion, mainly reflecting animals' feeding regime. Even δ(15)N values of meat protein fraction showed significant differences between lamb types, not dependant on the feeding regime. In fact, lambs fed on similar diets, but in different countries, gave meat with different (15)N relative abundances. These findings provide the possibility of discriminating lamb types within the same feeding regime. Canonical discriminant analysis was carried out to evaluate whether lamb meat from different CO or FR or CO×FR interaction could be mathematically distinguished by its stable isotope ratios. On the basis of CO, the corrected empirical allocation of 79.2% of the initial observations and the corrected cross-validation of two thirds of the individual meat samples was obtained. FR gave better results: 91.7% of the individual meat samples was both correctly allocated and cross-validated, indicating the high potential of

  5. Adjusting Permittivity by Blending Varying Ratios of SWNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Stephenson, Jason J.; Higginbotham, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    A new composite material of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) displays radio frequency (0 to 1 GHz) permittivity properties that can be adjusted based upon the nanotube composition. When varying ratios of raw to functionalized SWNTs are blended into the silicone elastomer matrix at a total loading of 0.5 percent by weight, a target real permittivity value can be obtained between 70 and 3. This has particular use for designing materials for microwave lenses, microstrips, filters, resonators, high-strength/low-weight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antennas, waveguides, and low-loss magneto-dielectric products for applications like radome construction.

  6. Fission rate ratios in the FTR engineering mockup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughtry, J.W.; Dobbin, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate neutron flux calculational methods, fission rates were measured in the FTR Engineering Mockup Critical (EMC) assembly, and calculated fission rates were obtained for comparison. Several variations of the analytical methods were used to investigate their suitability and calculation-versus-experiment (C/E) bias factors were obtained which can be used to adjust calculated fission rate ratios in the FTR. A brief description is given of the EMC configuration, the experiment, and the results of the experiments. The analytical methods are described, the calculated results are given, and comparisons are made between the experimental and analytical results.

  7. Bare market: campus sex ratios, romantic relationships, and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Regnerus, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of college women, we evaluate the effect of campus sex ratios on women's relationship attitudes and behaviors. Our results suggest that women on campuses where they comprise a higher proportion of the student body give more negative appraisals of campus men and relationships, go on fewer traditional dates, are less likely to have had a college boyfriend, and are more likely to be sexually active. These effects appear to stem both from decreased dyadic power among women on campuses where they are more numerous and from their increased difficulty locating a partner on such campuses.

  8. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2010-01-01

    When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's

  9. Deriving Light Interception and Biomass from Spectral Reflectance Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Goudriaan, J.

    1993-01-01

    Light interception and reflection in different cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) were measured in a field experiment and used to verify a theoretical relation between the fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) and the relative vegetation index (RVI). The RVI...... was calculated as the ratio between infrared (790–810 nm) and red (640–660 nm) reflectance. The cultivars form a different canopy structure. However, a regression analysis did not show any cultivar effect on the relation between RVI and fPAR The predicted fPAR from frequently measured RVI was used to calculate...

  10. Cure-dependent Viscoelastic Poisson’s Ratio of Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-26

    Poisson’s ratio in creep and stress relaxation of EPON 828 epoxy cured with tri- ethylenetriamine using geometric moiré with gratings of 20 lines per...cure kinetics [23] and cure-dependent viscoelastic properties [24] of this material. A second system was also investigated, EPON 828 /3274, a bisphenol...Table 1. The EPON 828 /3274 specimens were cured for 48 h at room temperature followed by 10 h at 75◦C to ensure the material was fully reacted. After

  11. Metallization of high aspect ratio, out of plane structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    This work is dedicated to developing a novel three dimensional structure for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The final prototype will allow not only for the study and culture on chip of neuronal cells, but also of brain tissue. The use of out-of-plane electrodes instead of planar...... ones increases the sensitivity of the system and increases the signal-to-noise ratio in the recorded signals, due to the higher availability of surface area. The main bottleneck of the out-of-plane electrode fabrication lies in the metallization process for transforming them into active electrodes...

  12. Spin Rate and Deflection Ratio of a Ping Pong Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Joon Ahn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a spherical object’s spin rate on the curvature of its flight, Ping Pong balls, of varying spin rates, were hit horizontally and recorded from above with a high-speed camera. It was shown that there was a proportional relationship between the ball’s spin rate and deflection ratio. Additionally, using the results of the analyzed data, a coefficient of skin friction of the Ping Pong ball was found to be approximately 0.2 under the specific conditions of this investigation.

  13. Application of cross-ratio in traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T W; Tao, C H; Cheng, Y K; Wong, K H; Tam, C N

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, video recording devices such as CCTV, digital cameras, mobile phones and car video recorders are ubiquitous. It becomes more and more frequent that traffic accident scenarios are captured by such video recording devices in one form or another. The present study focuses on the direct extraction of vehicle speeds from video footages by cross-ratio, a well known invariant under specific conditions in projective geometry. The minimum requirements for an accurate and direct determination of vehicle speed by cross-ratio are 2 image frames of the video footage containing the subject vehicle which by and large moves along a straight path from one frame to the other and the time lapsed between the 2 image frames are known. With the aid of a calibrated Doppler radar, a control study has been carried out to validate the method and determine the baseline uncertainty. The validated method has been applied to a small number of real world cases and the results are promising. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to extend its application in speed determination by a car camera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High (36)Cl/Cl ratios in Chernobyl groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Céline; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Simonucci, Caroline; Van Meir, Nathalie; Fifield, L Keith; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Simler, Roland; Bugai, Dmitri; Kashparov, Valery; Lancelot, Joël

    2014-12-01

    After the explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in April 1986, contaminated material was buried in shallow trenches within the exclusion zone. A (90)Sr plume was evidenced downgradient of one of these trenches, trench T22. Due to its conservative properties, (36)Cl is investigated here as a potential tracer to determine the maximal extent of the contamination plume from the trench in groundwater. (36)Cl/Cl ratios measured in groundwater, trench soil water and leaf leachates are 1-5 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural (36)Cl/Cl ratio. This contamination occurred after the Chernobyl explosion and currently persists. Trench T22 acts as an obvious modern point source of (36)Cl, however other sources have to be involved to explain such contamination. (36)Cl contamination of groundwater can be explained by dilution of trench soil water by uncontaminated water (rainwater or deep groundwater). With a plume extending further than that of (90)Sr, radionuclide which is impacted by retention and decay processes, (36)Cl can be considered as a suitable tracer of contamination from the trench in groundwater provided that modern release processes of (36)Cl from trench soil are better characterized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative lithographic methods for variable aspect ratio vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Anthony R.

    The foundation of semiconductor industry has historically been driven by scaling. Device size reduction is enabled by increased pattern density, enhancing functionality and effectively reducing cost per chip. Aggressive reductions in memory cell size have resulted in systems with diminishing area between parallel bit/word lines. This affords an even greater challenge in the patterning of contact level features that are inherently difficult to resolve because of their relatively small area, a product of their two domain critical dimension image. To accommodate these trends there has been a shift toward the implementation of elliptical contact features. This empowers designers to maximize the use of free space between bit/word lines and gate stacks while preserving contact area; effectively reducing the minor via axis dimension while maintaining a patternable threshold in increasingly dense circuitry. It is therefore critical to provide methods that enhance the resolving capacity of varying aspect ratio vias for implementation in electronic design systems. This work separately investigates two unique, non-traditional lithographic techniques in the integration of an optical vortex mask as well as a polymer assembly system as means to augment ellipticity while facilitating contact feature scaling. This document affords a fundamental overview of imaging theory, details previous literature as to the technological trends enabling the resolving of contact features and demonstrates simulated & empirical evidence that the described methods have great potential to extend the resolution of variable aspect ratio vias using lithographic technologies.

  16. Flaxseed Ingestion Alters Ratio of Enterolactone Enantiomers in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina M. Saarinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterolactone (EL is an enterolignan found in human subjects. In this pilot study, the enantiomeric ratios of serum EL were determined in serum from healthy adults during consumption of habitual diet, and after an 8-day supplementation with flaxseed (25 g/day. (−EL dominated in all serum samples collected during habitual diet consumption. However, the ratio of (−EL and (+EL enantiomers differed markedly between individuals. Flaxseed ingestion increased significantly the proportion of (+EL in all subjects. Moreover, a small but significant increase in serum (−EL concentration was measured. After flaxseed ingestion, (−EL concentrations correlated with those of (+EL suggesting that the stereochemistry of the parent plant lignan in flaxseed is not a major determinant of EL formation in human subjects. Comparison of EL concentrations obtained with the validated chromatographic methods (HPLC-MS/MS, HPLC-CEAD, and GC-MS and the time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA revealed that the immunoassay method underestimates human serum EL concentrations after the flaxseed ingestion.

  17. Thermal convection in colloidal suspensions with negative separation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskin, Andrey; Pleiner, Harald

    2005-05-01

    Thermal convection in colloidal suspensions of nanosized particles is investigated. Representative examples for such materials are ferrofluids, but since we do not imply any external magnetic field, the description applies to nonmagnetic suspensions as well. With the grain size being large on molecular length scales, the particle mobility is extremely small, allowing to disregard the concentration dynamics in most cases. However, due to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, this cannot be done when thermal convection is under consideration. Here we consider the case when the separation ratio (the Soret coefficient) is negative. This case reveals a much richer variety of phenomena than that of positive separation ratio. In particular, for heating from below we find a linear oscillatory instability, whose amplitude, however, relaxes to zero on the long turn and is thus transient only and, at higher Rayleigh numbers, a finite amplitude stationary instability coexistent with the linearly stable convection-free state. By heating from above short-length-scale convective structures occur, whose wavelength depends on the Rayleigh number.

  18. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Aerosol penetration ratio: a new index of ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirr, S.A.; Elliott, G.R.; Regelmann, W.E.; Juenemann, P.J.; Morin, R.L.; Boudreau, R.J.; Warwick, W.J.; Loken, M.K.

    1986-08-01

    Superimposition of nuclear medicine scintigrams and standard radiographs provides a unique opportunity for merging functional information intrinsic to nuclear medicine images with the high resolution anatomic detail of radiographs. A newly developed image processing system allows the merging of two separate films of greatly varying sizes to form a single composite image. Subsequent quantitative analysis of the composite image may be performed. Using the superimposition technique, (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol ventilation scans (4.5 X 4.5 cm) were superimposed upon chest radiographs (35.6 X 43.2 cm) in 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Subsequent quantification of the area of nuclear scan ventilation and the radiographic lung area was then performed. A new quantitative radiologic index of ventilation, the aerosol penetration ratio (APR), was defined. Linear correlation of aerosol penetration ratio with residual volume (RV) as percent of total lung capacity (TLC) measured by body plethysmography was good. We conclude that the APR has validity as a physiologic parameter which localized regional excessive residual volume and correlates well with RV/TLC, the gold standard pulmonary function index of obstructive airway disease.

  20. Cosmic ray muon charge ratio in the MINOS far detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Erik B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The MINOS Far Detector is a 5.4 kiloton (5.2 kt steel plus 0.2 kt scintillator plus aluminum skin) magnetized tracking calorimeter located 710 meters underground in the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota. MINOS is the first large, deep underground detector with a magnetic field and thus capable of making measurements of the momentum and charge of cosmic ray muons. Despite encountering unexpected anomalies in distributions of the charge ratio (N{sub μ+/Nμ-) of cosmic muons, a method of canceling systematic errors is proposed and demonstrated. The result is Reff = 1.346 ± 0.002 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) for the averaged charge ratio, and a result for a rising fit to slant depth of R(X) = 1.300 ± 0.008 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) + (1.8 ± 0.3) x 10-5 x X, valid over the range of slant depths from 2000 < X < 6000 MWE. This slant depth range corresponds to minimum surface muon energies between 750 GeV and 5 TeV.