Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren
In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....
Mitten, Carolyn; Jacobbe, Tim; Jacobbe, Elizabeth
Formative assessment is so important to inform teachers' planning. A discussion of the benefits of using technology to facilitate formative assessment explains how four primary school teachers adopted three different apps to make their formative assessment more meaningful and useful.
Wagstaff, William Quinn
A study was conducted to develop a technical skills assessment tool for the training and development of challenge course facilitators. Researchers accessed two professional on-line listserves to collect a sample size of twenty-seven currently used technical skills assessment tools. The assessment tools were critically analysed by three independent…
Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; O'Reilly, Daria; Goeree, Ron
The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators influencing the integration of ethical considerations in health technology assessment (HTA). The study consisted of two complementary approaches: (a) a systematic review of the literature; and (b) an eighteen-item online survey that was distributed to fifty-six HTA agencies affiliated with the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. The review identified twenty-six relevant articles. The most often cited barriers in the literature were: scarcity, heterogeneity and complexity of ethical analysis methods; challenges in translating ethical analysis results into knowledge that is useful for decision makers; and lack of organizational support in terms of required expertise, time and financial resources. The most frequently cited facilitators included: usage of value-based appraisal methods, stakeholder and public engagement, enhancement of practice guidelines, ethical expertise, and educational interventions. Representatives of twenty-six (46.5 percent) agencies from nineteen countries completed the survey. A median of 10 percent (interquartile range, 5 percent to 50 percent) of the HTA products produced by the agencies was reported to include an assessment of ethical aspects. The most commonly perceived barriers were: limited ethical knowledge and expertise, insufficient time and resources, and difficulties in finding ethical evidence or using ethical guidelines. Educational interventions, demand by policy makers, and involvement of ethicists in HTA were the most commonly perceived facilitators. Our results emphasize the importance of simplification of ethics methodology and development of good practice guidelines in HTA, as well as capacity building for engaging HTA practitioners in ethical analyses.
Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.
Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.
Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan
This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
This study of an adolescent with multiple disabilities, including moderate mental retardation, who was reported to engage in validated facilitated communication (FC) found he did not engage in validated FC; performance was equivalent whether food or nonfood reinforcers were used; and the Picture Exchange Communication System was a valid and…
Full Text Available All experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI result in a progressive loss of brain tissue. The extent of tissue loss reflects the injury severity and can be measured to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of experimental treatments. Quantitation of tissue volumes is commonly performed using evenly spaced brain sections stained using routine histochemical methods and digitally captured. The brain tissue areas are then measured and the corresponding volumes are calculated using the distance between the sections. Measurements of areas are usually performed using a general purpose image analysis software and the results are then transferred to another program for volume calculations. To facilitate the measurement of brain tissue loss we developed novel algorithms which automatically separate the areas of brain tissue from the surrounding image background and identify the ventricles. We implemented these new algorithms by creating a new computer program (SectionToVolume which also has functions for image organization, image adjustments and volume calculations. We analyzed brain sections from mice subjected to severe focal TBI using both SectionToVolume and ImageJ, a commonly used image analysis program. The volume measurements made by the two programs were highly correlated and analysis using SectionToVolume required considerably less time. The inter-rater reliability was high. Given the extensive use of brain tissue loss measurements in TBI research, SectionToVolume will likely be a useful tool for TBI research. We therefore provide both the source code and the program as attachments to this article.
Wang, Shirley V.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Berger, Marc L.; Brown, Jeffrey; de Vries, Frank; Douglas, Ian; Gagne, Joshua J.; Gini, Rosa; Klungel, Olaf; Mullins, C. Daniel; Nguyen, Michael D.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Smeeth, Liam; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M
Purpose: Defining a study population and creating an analytic dataset from longitudinal healthcare databases involves many decisions. Our objective was to catalogue scientific decisions underpinning study execution that should be reported to facilitate replication and enable assessment of validity
Wang, Shirley V.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Berger, Marc L.; Brown, Jeffrey; de Vries, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303546670; Douglas, Ian; Gagne, Joshua J.; Gini, Rosa; Klungel, Olaf|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649; Mullins, C. Daniel; Nguyen, Michael D.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Smeeth, Liam; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M
Purpose Defining a study population and creating an analytic dataset from longitudinal healthcare databases involves many decisions. Our objective was to catalogue scientific decisions underpinning study execution that should be reported to facilitate replication and enable assessment of validity of
Presseau, Justin; Tait, Richard I; Johnston, Derek W; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F
To test whether perceptions of conflicting and facilitating personal goals, and actual daily time spent in their pursuit, predict accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). A prospective multilevel design with a daily accelerometer-based assessment of PA over 1 week was used (N = 106). Participants' personal goals were elicited using personal projects analysis. Participants then rated their personal goals in terms of how they were perceived to facilitate and conflict with their regular PA. Items assessing PA-specific intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were also embedded within the baseline measures. For the subsequent 7 consecutive days, participants completed a daily diary based on the day reconstruction method, indicating the time spent in daily episodes involving each of their personal goals, and wore an RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. The main outcome was accelerometer-assessed daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Random intercept multilevel models indicated that perceived goal facilitation, but not perceived goal conflict, predicted MVPA over and above intention and PBC. Daily time pursuing conflicting goals negatively predicted MVPA when subsequently added to the model and in so doing, attenuated the association between perceived goal facilitation and MVPA. Perceived goal facilitation predicts objectively measured PA over and above intention and PBC, but daily time spent in pursuit of conflicting personal goals provides a better account of how alternative goals relate to engaging in regular PA.
Liaupsin, Carl J.; Scott, Terry M.; Nelson, C. Michael
This user's manual and facilitator's guide is intended for use with an accompanying interactive CD-ROM to provide a complete training program in conducting functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) as required under the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapter 1 provides general information for users, such as…
Donat, D C
The relatively enduring and persistent nature of personality traits means that they will likely continue to impact the course of psychiatric recovery after Axis I symptoms are stabilized. These traits can significantly impact the choices that recovering persons make and the quality of interpersonal relationships with care providers who are trying to facilitate the recovery process. Despite this, they are often inadequately assessed and considered in providing psychiatric care. This manuscript reviews the common combinations of personality traits that have emerged across a variety of clinical samples. The implications of these personality features for the provision of care in an inpatient setting to facilitate recovery are discussed.
Shi, Xunpeng; Liu, Xiying; Yao, Lixia
Renewable off-grid solution plays a critical role in supporting rural electrification. However, off-grid Renewable Energy (OGRE) project financing faces significant challenges due to limited financing access, low affordability of consumers, high transactions costs and etc. Various supporting instruments have been implemented to facilitate OGRE investment. This study assesses the effectiveness of those instruments with a framework consists of three dimensions: feasibility, sustainability and replicability. The weights of each dimension in the framework and the scores of each instrument are assessed by expert surveys based on the Delphi method. It is suggested that all the three dimensions should be taken into consideration while assessing the instruments, among which feasibility and sustainability are considered as the most important dimensions in the assessment framework. Furthermore, the top-5 most effective instruments in facilitating OGRE investment are local engagement in operation and maintenance, loan guarantee, start-up grant, end user financing, and concessional finance. Developing countries that need to increase electrification, such as most of the ASEAN member states, could use these top scored instruments despite of their limited amount of public finance. - Highlights: •Assess the effectiveness of instruments for promoting financing for OGRE projects. •A three-dimension assessment framework: feasibility, sustainability, replicability. •Use online surveys and the Delphi method to collect experts’ assessment. •The most effective instruments: local engagement, loan guarantee, and start-up grant.
Chagam Manjunatha Reddy
Full Text Available Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics has been practising for longer periods, but a novel approach of a periapical incision to make horizontal cuts 5 mm above the apex of the maxillary anteriors along with vertical cuts requires a detailed investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of skeletal cases with spacing in the anteriors using a novel method of modified surgical approach utilizing the corticotomy facilitated orthodontics. Patients for this study were randomly selected from a very intensive screening in the Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, out of which seven patients were selected for this procedure. The patients were subjected for corticotomy procedure under local anesthesia after the leveling and aligning stage (0.019" × 0.025" stainless steel wire, and the retraction was continued still the space was closed. AutoCAD and palatal rugae assessment programs were used to assess the orthodontic tooth movement. The results of the study demonstrated that when compared to conventional orthodontics alone, the corticotomy facilitated approach produced faster tooth movements in all the seven patients reducing the overall treatment time by 60%. The use of this modified technique of labial, palatal and apical cuts could be beneficial for adult patients with difficult surgical access from the lingual side.
Mohan, Chandra; Assassi, Shervin
Serological and proteomic biomarkers can help clinicians diagnose rheumatic diseases earlier and assess disease activity more accurately. These markers have been incorporated into the recently revised classification criteria of several diseases to enable early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment. Furthermore, they also facilitate more accurate subclassification and more focused monitoring for the detection of certain disease manifestations, such as lung and renal involvement. These biomarkers can also make the assessment of disease activity and treatment response more reliable. Simultaneously, several new serological and proteomic biomarkers have become available in the routine clinical setting--for example, a protein biomarker panel for rheumatoid arthritis and a myositis antibody panel for dermatomyositis and polymyositis. This review will focus on commercially available antibody and proteomic biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), dermatomyositis and polymyositis, and axial spondyloarthritis (including ankylosing spondylitis). It will discuss how these markers can facilitate early diagnosis as well as more accurate subclassification and assessment of disease activity in the clinical setting. The ultimate goal of current and future biomarkers in rheumatic diseases is to enable early detection of these diseases and their clinical manifestations, and to provide effective monitoring and treatment regimens that are tailored to each patient's needs and prognosis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2015.
Tsulukidze, Maka; Grande, Stuart W; Gionfriddo, Michael R
To assess the feasibility of Option Grids(®)for facilitating shared decision making (SDM) in simulated clinical consultations and explore clinicians' views on their practicability. We used mixed methods approach to analyze clinical consultations using the Observer OPTION instrument and thematic analysis for follow-up interviews with clinicians. Clinicians achieved high scores on information sharing and low scores on preference elicitation and integration. Four themes were identified: (1) Barriers affect practicability of Option Grids(®); (2) Option Grids(®) facilitate the SDM process; (3) Clinicians are aware of the gaps in their practice of SDM; (4) Training and ongoing feedback on the optimal use of Option Grids(®) are necessary. Use of Option Grids(®) by clinicians with background knowledge in SDM did not facilitate optimal levels of competency on the SDM core concepts of preference elicitation and integration. Future research must evaluate the impact of training on the use of Option Grids(®), and explore how best to help clinicians bridge the gap between knowledge and action. Clinicians proficiently imparting information in simulations struggled to elicit and integrate patient preferences - understanding this gap and developing strategies to close it are the next steps for implementing SDM into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schill, Melissa T.; And Others
Assesses protocol for conducting a functional analysis of maintaining variables for children with selective mutism. A parent was trained in and later applied various behavior strategies designed to increase speech in an eight-year-old girl with selective mutism. Parent and child ratings of treatment were positive. Presents implications for future…
Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.
Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.
Nemeth, Lynne S.; Jenkins, Carolyn; Jauch, Edward C.; Conway, Sharon; Pearlman, Adam; Spruill, Ida J.; Brown, Lynette J.; Linnen, Joyce; Linnen, Florene; Andrews, Jeannette O.
Treatment for acute ischemic stroke must be initiated within hours of stroke symptom onset, and the sooner it is administered, the better. In South Carolina, 76% of the population can access expert stroke care, and rural hospitals may provide specialized treatment using telemedicine, but many stroke sufferers seek care too late to achieve full benefit. Using a community-engaged approach in a southern rural community, we explored barriers and facilitators to early stroke care and implications for improvement. The Community-Engaged Assessment to facilitate Stroke Elimination (CEASE) study was guided by a community advisory group to ensure community centeredness and local relevance. In a qualitative descriptive study, eight focus groups were conducted including 52 individuals: recent stroke survivors, family members, emergency medical personnel, hospital emergency department staff, primary care providers, and community leaders. From analysis of focus group transcripts came six themes: lack of trust in healthcare system and providers; weak relationships fueled by poor communication; low health literacy; financial limitations related to health care; community-based education; and faith as a message of hope. A hierarchy model for improving early community-based stroke care was developed through consensus dialogue by community representatives and the research team. This model can be used to inform a community-partnered, stake-holder-informed intervention to improve stroke care in a rural southern community with the goal of improving stroke education, care, and outcome. PMID:27545591
Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE in humans is a parasitic disease characterized by severe damage to the liver and occasionally other organs. AE is caused by infection with the metacestode (larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, usually infecting small rodents as natural intermediate hosts. Conventionally, human AE is chemotherapeutically treated with mebendazole or albendazole. There is, however still the need for improved chemotherapeutical options. Primary in vivo studies on drugs of interest are commonly performed in small laboratory animals such as mice and Mongolian jirds, and in most cases, a secondary infection model is used, whereby E. multilocularis metacestodes are directly injected into the peritoneal cavity or into the liver. Disadvantages of this methodological approach include risk of injury to organs during the inoculation and, most notably, a limitation in the macroscopic (visible assessment of treatment efficacy. Thus, in order to monitor the efficacy of chemotherapeutical treatment, animals have to be euthanized and the parasite tissue dissected. In the present study, mice were infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes through the subcutaneous route and were then subjected to chemotherapy employing albendazole. Serological responses to infection were comparatively assessed in mice infected by the conventional intraperitoneal route. We demonstrate that the subcutaneous infection model for secondary AE facilitates the assessment of the progress of infection and drug treatment in the live animal.
Full Text Available The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red – IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO, Area of Occupancy (AOO, mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red - IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO), Area of Occupancy (AOO), mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments.
Embo, M.; Driessen, E.; Valcke, M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
BACKGROUND: Self-directed learning is an educational concept that has received increasing attention. The recent workplace literature, however, reports problems with the facilitation of self-directed learning in clinical practice. We developed the Midwifery Assessment and Feedback Instrument (MAFI)
Hamad Mostafa A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepaticojejunostomy (HJ is the classical reconstruction for benign biliary stricture. Endoscopic management of anastomotic complications after hepaticojejunostomy is extremely difficult. In this work we assess a modified biliary reconstruction in the form of bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG regarding the feasibility of endoscopic access to HJ and management of its stenosis if encountered. Methods From October 2008 till February 2011 all patients presented to the authors with benign biliary stricture who needed bilio-enteric shunt were considered. For each patient bilio-entero-gastrostomy (BEG of either type I, II or III was constructed. In the fourth week postoperatively, endoscopy was performed to explore the possibility to access the biliary anastomosis and perform cholangiography. Results BEG shunt was performed for seventeen patients, one of whom, with BEG type I, died due to myocardial infarction leaving sixteen patients with a diagnosis of postcholecystectomy biliary injury (9, inflammatory stricture with or without choledocholithiasis (5 and strictured biliary shunt (2. BEG shunts were either type I (3, type II (3 or type III (10. Endoscopic follow up revealed successful access to the anastomosis in 14 patients (87.5%, while the access failed in one type I and one type II BEG (12.5%. Mean time needed to access the anastomosis was 12.6 min (2-55 min. On a scale from 1–5, mean endoscopic difficulty score was 1.7. One patient (6.25%, with BEG type I, developed anastomotic stricture after 18 months that was successfully treated endoscopically by stenting. These preliminary results showed that, in relation to the other types, type III BEG demonstrated the tendency to be surgically simpler to perform, endoscopicall faster to access, easier and with no failure. Conclusions BEG, which is a modified biliary reconstruction, facilitates endoscopic access of the biliary anastomosis, offers management option for its
Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Blankson, Faustina; Kempland, Monica; Schaefer, Courtney
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of web-facilitated and hybrid course delivery formats on student learning outcomes for four sections of an undergraduate Personal Health course at a public institution. This is a quasi-experimental study. Two sections were taught as hybrid classes and two sections were taught as webfacilitated classes.…
Full Text Available Introduction. Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age are more likely to carry a cancer predisposing genetic mutation. Per the current NCCN recommendations, women diagnosed under age 50 should be referred to cancer genetic counseling for further risk evaluation. This study seeks to assess patient-reported barriers and facilitators to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among a community-based population of young breast cancer survivors (YBCS. Methods. Through the Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program, a state-based cancer registry, 488 women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50 in 2006-2007 were identified. They received a mail survey regarding family history and facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment. Results. Responses were received from 289 women (59.2%. One hundred twenty-two (42.2% reported having received cancer genetic counseling. The most frequent reason identified for receiving services was to benefit their family's future. The top reasons for not attending were “no one recommended it” and “medical insurance coverage issues.” Discussion. This study is the first published report using a state cancer registry to determine facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among YBCS. These findings demonstrate the need for additional awareness and education about appropriate indications for genetic services.
Anderson, B.; McLosky, J.; Wasilevich, E.; Callo, S. L.; Duquette, D.; Copeland, G.
Introduction. Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age are more likely to carry a cancer predisposing genetic mutation. Per the current NCCN recommendations, women diagnosed under age 50 should be referred to cancer genetic counseling for further risk evaluation. This study seeks to assess patient-reported barriers and facilitators to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among a community-based population of young breast cancer survivors (YBCS). Methods. Through the Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program, a state-based cancer registry, 488 women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50 in 2006-2007 were identified. They received a mail survey regarding family history and facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment. Results. Responses were received from 289 women (59.2%). One hundred twenty-two (42.2%) reported having received cancer genetic counseling. The most frequent reason identified for receiving services was to benefit their family's future. The top reasons for not attending were “no one recommended it” and “medical insurance coverage issues.” Discussion. This study is the first published report using a state cancer registry to determine facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among YBCS. These findings demonstrate the need for additional awareness and education about appropriate indications for genetic services.
Godwin, Hilary; Nameth, Catherine; Avery, David; Bergeson, Lynn L; Bernard, Daniel; Beryt, Elizabeth; Boyes, William; Brown, Scott; Clippinger, Amy J; Cohen, Yoram; Doa, Maria; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Holden, Patricia; Houck, Keith; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kodas, Toivo; Landsiedel, Robert; Lynch, Iseult; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Muller, Julie; Oberdorster, Gunter; Petersen, Elijah J; Pleus, Richard C; Sayre, Philip; Stone, Vicki; Sullivan, Kristie M; Tentschert, Jutta; Wallis, Philip; Nel, Andre E
For nanotechnology to meet its potential as a game-changing and sustainable technology, it is important to ensure that the engineered nanomaterials and nanoenabled products that gain entry to the marketplace are safe and effective. Tools and methods are needed for regulatory purposes to allow rapid material categorization according to human health and environmental risk potential, so that materials of high concern can be targeted for additional scrutiny, while material categories that pose the least risk can receive expedited review. Using carbon nanotubes as an example, we discuss how data from alternative testing strategies can be used to facilitate engineered nanomaterial categorization according to risk potential and how such an approach could facilitate regulatory decision-making in the future.
Kathleen B. Cartmell
Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to investigate how state level strategies in South Carolina could maximize HPV vaccine uptake. Design: An environmental scan identified barriers, facilitators, and strategies for improving HPV vaccination in South Carolina. Interviews were conducted with state leaders from relevant organizations such as public health agencies, medical associations, K-12 schools, universities, insurers, and cancer advocacy organizations. A thematic content analysis design was used. Digital interview files were transcribed, a data dictionary was created and data were coded using the data dictionary. Results: Thirty four interviews were conducted with state leaders. Barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of HPV awareness, lack of provider recommendation, HPV vaccine concerns, lack of access and practice-level barriers. Facilitators included momentum for improving HPV vaccination, school-entry Tdap requirement, pharmacy-based HPV vaccination, state immunization registry, HEDIS measures and HPV vaccine funding. Strategies for improving HPV vaccination fell into three categories: 1 addressing lack of awareness about the importance of HPV vaccination among the public and providers; 2 advocating for policy changes around HPV vaccine coverage, vaccine education, and pharmacy-based vaccination; and 3 coordination of efforts. Discussion: A statewide environmental scan generated a blueprint for action to be used to improve HPV vaccination in the state. Keywords: HPV, HPV vaccines, Cervical cancer, Prevention, Health systems, Barriers, Facilitators, Strategies, South Carolina
Feig, Chiara; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M A A; Simon, Judit; Mayer, Susanne
Although Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is increasingly used to support evidence-based decision-making in health care, several barriers and facilitators for the use of HTA have been identified. This best-worst scaling (BWS) study aims to assess the relative importance of selected barriers and facilitators of the uptake of HTA studies in Austria. A BWS object case survey was conducted among 37 experts in Austria to assess the relative importance of HTA barriers and facilitators. Hierarchical Bayes estimation was applied, with the best-worst count analysis as sensitivity analysis. Subgroup analyses were also performed on professional role and HTA experience. The most important barriers were 'lack of transparency in the decision-making process', 'fragmentation', 'absence of appropriate incentives', 'no explicit framework for decision-making process', and 'insufficient legal support'. The most important facilitators were 'transparency in the decision-making process', 'availability of relevant HTA research for policy makers', 'availability of explicit framework for decision-making process', 'sufficient legal support', and 'appropriate incentives'. This study suggests that HTA barriers and facilitators related to the context of decision makers, especially 'policy characteristics' and 'organization and resources' are the most important in Austria. A transparent and participatory decision-making process could improve the adoption of HTA evidence.
Gulikers, Judith T. M.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Biemans, Harm J. A.
Schools are held more responsible for evaluating, quality assuring and improving their student assessments. Teachers' lack of understanding of new, competence-based assessments as well as the lack of key stakeholders' involvement, hamper effective and efficient self-evaluations by teachers of innovative, competence-based assessments (CBAs). While…
Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul
This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: ► Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. ► Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. ► Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. ► HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.
Oberdan Müller M. das Flores
distance from the center of the conglomerate to the plots and between them. Results showed that the size of 0.10 ha plot, the distance of 50 m between plots, and cross-structure with 8 subplots are efficient for estimating the parameters.
Ockey, Gary J.; Gu, Lin; Keehner, Madeleine
A growing number of stakeholders argue for the use of second language (L2) speaking assessments that measure the ability to orally communicate in real time. A Web-based virtual environment (VE) that allows live voice communication among individuals may have potential for aiding in delivering such assessments. While off-the-shelf voice…
Gulikers, J.T.M.; Baartman, L.K.J.; Biemans, H.
Schools are held more responsible for evaluating, quality assuring and improving their student assessments. Teachers’ lack of understanding of new, competence-based assessments as well as the lack of key stakeholders’ involvement, hamper effective and efficient self-evaluations by teachers of
Gulikers, J.T.M.; Baartman, L.; Biemans, H.J.A.
Schools are held more responsible for evaluating, quality assuring and improving their student assessments. Teachers’ lack of understanding of new, competence-based assessments as well as the lack of key stakeholders’ involvement, hamper effective and efficient self-evaluations by teachers of
Parsons, Thomas D; McMahan, Timothy; Kane, Robert
Clinical neuropsychologists have long underutilized computer technologies for neuropsychological assessment. Given the rapid advances in technology (e.g. virtual reality; tablets; iPhones) and the increased accessibility in the past decade, there is an on-going need to identify optimal specifications for advanced technologies while minimizing potential sources of error. Herein, we discuss concerns raised by a joint American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology/National Academy of Neuropsychology position paper. Moreover, we proffer parameters for the development and use of advanced technologies in neuropsychological assessments. We aim to first describe software and hardware configurations that can impact a computerized neuropsychological assessment. This is followed by a description of best practices for developers and practicing neuropsychologists to minimize error in neuropsychological assessments using advanced technologies. We also discuss the relevance of weighing potential computer error in light of possible errors associated with traditional testing. Throughout there is an emphasis on the need for developers to provide bench test results for their software's performance on various devices and minimum specifications (documented in manuals) for the hardware (e.g. computer, monitor, input devices) in the neuropsychologist's practice. Advances in computerized assessment platforms offer both opportunities and challenges. The challenges can appear daunting but are a manageable and require informed consumers who can appreciate the issues and ask pertinent questions in evaluating their options.
Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Tools are provided to assess the health status of managed honeybee colonies by facilitating further harmonisation of data collection and reporting, design of field surveys across the European Union (EU) and analysis of data on bee health. The toolbox is based on characteristics of a healthy managed...... is very important when assessing its health status, but tools are currently lacking that could be used at apiary level in field surveys across the EU. Data on ‘beekeeping management practices’ and ‘environmental drivers’ can be collected via questionnaires and available databases, respectively....... Integrating multiple attributes of honeybee health, for instance, via a Health Status Index, is required to support a holistic assessment. Examples are provided on how the toolbox could be used by different stakeholders. Continued interaction between the Member State organisations, the EU Reference Laboratory...
Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Devendeville, Agnès; Godefroy, Olivier
We explored the value of a battery of socioemotional tasks for differentiating between frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with FTLD (n = 13) or AD (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 26) underwent a neuropsychological assessment and the socioemotional battery (an empathy questionnaire, an emotion recognition task, and theory of mind tasks). Socioemotional processes were markedly impaired in FTLD but relatively unaffected in mild AD. The computed Socioemotional Index discriminated more accurately between FTLD from AD than behavioral and executive assessments did. Furthermore, impairments in socioemotional processes were correlated with indifference to others.
Ogourtsova, Tatiana; Archambault, Philippe S; Lamontagne, Anouk
Hemineglect, defined as a failure to attend to the contralesional side of space, is a prevalent and disabling post-stroke deficit. Conventional hemineglect assessments lack sensitivity as they contain mainly non-functional tasks performed in near-extrapersonal space, using static, two-dimensional methods. This is of concern given that hemineglect is a strong predictor for functional deterioration, limited post-stroke recovery, and difficulty in community reintegration. With the emerging field of virtual reality, several virtual tools have been proposed and have reported better sensitivity in neglect-related deficits detection than conventional methods. However, these and future virtual reality-based tools are yet to be implemented in clinical practice. The present study aimed to explore the barriers/facilitators perceived by clinicians in the use of virtual reality for hemineglect assessment; and to identify features of an optimal virtual assessment. A qualitative descriptive process, in the form of focus groups, self-administered questionnaire and individual interviews was used. Two focus groups (n = 11 clinicians) were conducted and experts in the field (n = 3) were individually interviewed. Several barriers and facilitators, including personal, institutional, client suitability, and equipment factors, were identified. Clinicians and experts in the field reported numerous features for the virtual tool optimization. Factors identified through this study lay the foundation for the development of a knowledge translation initiative towards an implementation of a virtual assessment for hemineglect. Addressing the identified barriers/facilitators during implementation and incorporating the optimal features in the design of the virtual assessment could assist and promote its eventual adoption in clinical settings. Implications for rehabilitation A multimodal and active knowledge translation intervention built on the presently identified modifiable factors is
Reimus, Paul William; Zavarin, Mavrik; Wang, Yifeng
This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.
Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.
Cameron, Colleen; Ghosh, Sebanti; Eaton, Susan L.
Reducing health inequities and improving the health of communities require an informed public that is aware of the social determinants of health and how policies and programs have an impact on the health of their communities. People Assessing Their Health (PATH) is a process that uses community-driven health impact assessment to build the capacity of people to become active participants in the decisions that affect the well-being of their community. The PATH process is both a health promotion and a community development approach that builds people's ability to bring critical analysis to a situation and to engage in effective social action to bring about desired change. Because it increases analytical skills and provides communities with their own unique tool to assess the potential impact of projects, programs or policies on the health and well-being of their community it is an empowering process. PATH was originally used in three communities in northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada in 1996 when the Canadian health care system was being restructured to a more decentralized system. Since then it has been used in other communities in Nova Scotia and India. This paper will describe the PATH process and the use of the community health impact assessment as well as the methodology used in the PATH process. The lessons learned from PATH's experiences of building capacity among the community in Canada and India will be presented.
Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.
Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren
The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.
Full Text Available Most adults dying from falciparum malaria will die within 48 hours of their hospitalisation. An essential component of early supportive care is the rapid identification of patients at greatest risk. In resource-poor settings, where most patients with falciparum malaria are managed, decisions regarding patient care must frequently be made using clinical evaluation alone.We retrospectively analysed 4 studies of 1801 adults with severe falciparum malaria to determine whether the presence of simple clinical findings might assist patient triage.If present on admission, shock, oligo-anuria, hypo- or hyperglycaemia, an increased respiratory rate, a decreased Glasgow Coma Score and an absence of fever were independently predictive of death. The variables were used to construct a simple clinical algorithm. When applied to the 1801 patients, this algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 99.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 97.8-99.9 and for survival to discharge 96.9% (95% CI 94.3-98.5. In the 712 patients receiving artesunate, the algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 100% (95% CI 97.3-100 and to discharge was 98.5% (95% CI 94.8-99.8.Simple clinical findings are closely linked to the pathophysiology of severe falciparum malaria in adults. A basic algorithm employing these indices can facilitate the triage of patients in settings where intensive care services are limited. Patients classified as low-risk by this algorithm can be safely managed initially on a general ward whilst awaiting senior clinical review and laboratory data.
Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris
The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burr, S A; Chatterjee, A; Gibson, S; Coombes, L; Wilkinson, S
There are strong pedagogical arguments in favor of adopting computer-based assessment. The risks of technical failure can be managed and are offset by improvements in cost-effectiveness and quality assurance capability. Academic, administrative, and technical leads at an appropriately senior level within an institution need to be identified, so that they can act as effective advocates. All stakeholder groups need to be represented in undertaking a detailed appraisal of requirements and shortlisting software based on core functionality, summative assessment life cycle needs, external compatibility, security, and usability. Any software that is a candidate for adoption should be trialed under simulated summative conditions, with all stakeholders having a voice in agreeing the optimum solution. Transfer to a new system should be carefully planned and communicated, with a programme of training established to maximize the success of adoption.
Full Text Available There are strong pedagogical arguments in favor of adopting computer-based assessment. The risks of technical failure can be managed and are offset by improvements in cost-effectiveness and quality assurance capability. Academic, administrative, and technical leads at an appropriately senior level within an institution need to be identified, so that they can act as effective advocates. All stakeholder groups need to be represented in undertaking a detailed appraisal of requirements and shortlisting software based on core functionality, summative assessment life cycle needs, external compatibility, security, and usability. Any software that is a candidate for adoption should be trialed under simulated summative conditions, with all stakeholders having a voice in agreeing the optimum solution. Transfer to a new system should be carefully planned and communicated, with a programme of training established to maximize the success of adoption.
Sabus, Carla; Sabata, Dory; Antonacci, David
Technology has become a ubiquitous part of our society and is largely embedded in today's educational system. 3D virtual reality technology can be used to simulate environments and activities and may be used as an instructional technology. The purpose of this research was to better understand the utility of a web-based virtual environment as a teaching tool to represent clinical assessment and interventions in the home environment. Specifically, students' learning outcomes related to interprofessional collaboration, patient-centered decision-making, and appreciation of the environmental and social context of functional mobility and occupational performance will be described through descriptive analysis. Thirty-four physical therapist students and 35 occupational therapist students participated in an instructor-guided virtual assessment of a client's function in a home environment utilizing a virtual environment, Second Life®. Teams formulated task-specific, functional client goals and home modification recommendations. Students revisited a solution virtual environment to view and evaluate recommendations in a follow-up instructor-guided tour. Students completed a web-based survey capturing student perception of the experience. Team assignments were analyzed based on a rubric representing learning objectives. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the survey. Assignment analysis revealed contextual and client-centered recommendations. Student surveys revealed that students found the virtual environment supportive of learning. Student surveys and reflection statements were supportive of the interprofessional collaboration. Use of a virtual environment in instruction allows an authentic means of representing interprofessional home assessment. The virtual environment allowed a temporal depiction of home environment issues and solutions providing the unique opportunity for students to evaluate home recommendations.
Toews, Ingrid; Booth, Andrew; Berg, Rigmor C; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Noyes, Jane; Schroter, Sara; Meerpohl, Joerg J
To conceptualise and discuss dissemination bias in qualitative research. It is likely that the mechanisms leading to dissemination bias in quantitative research, including time lag, language, gray literature, and truncation bias also contribute to dissemination bias in qualitative research. These conceptual considerations have informed the development of a research agenda. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research is needed, including the extent of non-dissemination and related dissemination bias, and how to assess dissemination bias within qualitative evidence syntheses. We also need to consider the mechanisms through which dissemination bias in qualitative research could occur to explore approaches for reducing it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linzalone, Nunzia; Ballarini, Adele; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Viliani, Francesca; Bianchi, Fabrizio
A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based methodology that includes health promotion and protection goals in decision-making. HIA has been introduced and/or institutionalized to various extents in different countries. In order to promote HIA and preventive health assessments in Italy, a research methodology was followed to identify specific obstacles or facilitators. The experiences of various countries reported in the literature were analyzed in terms of facilitating or hindering the introduction and institutionalization of HIA. A consultation with the proponents of projects and plans in Italy was carried out with a multi-approach methodology in order to characterize the national context. A general implementation plan was drawn up from the international experiences. In Italy this is not yet in place. Specific areas of intervention need to be addressed, including: 1) data availability; 2) tools and methods; 3) engagement of stakeholders; 4) capacity building. The research suggests that the institutionalization of HIA in Italy rests on the government's commitment to providing specific legislation regarding HIA so that skills, intersectoral coordination and dedicated budgets can be built and maintained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: In 2014 I received the Richard Tompkins Nurse Development Scholarship, granted through the Foundation of Nursing Studies and including attendance at a five-day International Practice Development Collaborative practice development school, followed by a year’s mentorship. The scholarship aims to foster the delivery of person-centred care, which I hoped to achieve by enhancing holistic nursing assessment on a hospice inpatient ward. Aims: This article is a critical reflection on my learning through the scholarship, specifically related to staff engagement and my role as a practice development facilitator. Conclusions: While the project has not yet reached its conclusion, the learning has been invaluable. I have deepened my understanding of the need for collaboration, inclusion and participation to foster engagement and cultural change. More fundamentally, understanding how different aspects of my role enable change has proved both challenging and constructive, resulting in greater self-awareness and confidence. I remain committed to refining holistic nursing assessment to allow a greater degree of person-centred care in the hospice. Implications for practice: Practice development combines a variety of approaches to realise a shared vision; collaboration, inclusion and participation are central to fostering engagement Balancing different elements of a role (for instance, leader-manager-facilitator has the potential to be confusing and contradictory; awareness of how these elements interrelate promotes effectiveness when introducing change Individuals in a practice development role must ensure they have good sources of support
David A. Bergman
Full Text Available Research has shown that access to an asthma specialist improves asthma outcomes. We hypothesized that we could improve access to expert asthma care through a telemedicine link between an asthma specialist and a school-based asthma program. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 3 urban schools to ascertain the feasibility of using an asthma-focused telemedicine solution. Each subject was seen by an asthma expert at 0, 8, and 32 weeks. The assessment and recommendations for care were sent to the primary care physician (PCP and parents were told to contact their physician for follow-up care. Eighty three subjects participated in the study. Subjects experienced improvement (P<.05 in family social activities and the number of asthma attacks. Ninety four percent of subjects rated the program as good or excellent. This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptance of a school-based asthma program using a telemedicine link to an asthma specialist.
Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; de Vries, Rob B. M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Leeflang, Mariska M.; IntHout, Joanna; Wever, Kimberley E.; Hooft, Lotty; de Beer, Hans; Kuijpers, Ton; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Sena, Emily S.; ter Riet, Gerben; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Rooney, Andrew A.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Schünemann, Holger J.
Laboratory animal studies are used in a wide range of human health related research areas, such as basic biomedical research, drug research, experimental surgery and environmental health. The results of these studies can be used to inform decisions regarding clinical research in humans, for example the decision to proceed to clinical trials. If the research question relates to potential harms with no expectation of benefit (e.g., toxicology), studies in experimental animals may provide the only relevant or controlled data and directly inform clinical management decisions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are important tools to provide robust and informative evidence summaries of these animal studies. Rating how certain we are about the evidence could provide important information about the translational probability of findings in experimental animal studies to clinical practice and probably improve it. Evidence summaries and certainty in the evidence ratings could also be used (1) to support selection of interventions with best therapeutic potential to be tested in clinical trials, (2) to justify a regulatory decision limiting human exposure (to drug or toxin), or to (3) support decisions on the utility of further animal experiments. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach is the most widely used framework to rate the certainty in the evidence and strength of health care recommendations. Here we present how the GRADE approach could be used to rate the certainty in the evidence of preclinical animal studies in the context of therapeutic interventions. We also discuss the methodological challenges that we identified, and for which further work is needed. Examples are defining the importance of consistency within and across animal species and using GRADE’s indirectness domain as a tool to predict translation from animal models to humans. PMID:29324741
Hooijmans, Carlijn R; de Vries, Rob B M; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M; Leeflang, Mariska M; IntHout, Joanna; Wever, Kimberley E; Hooft, Lotty; de Beer, Hans; Kuijpers, Ton; Macleod, Malcolm R; Sena, Emily S; Ter Riet, Gerben; Morgan, Rebecca L; Thayer, Kristina A; Rooney, Andrew A; Guyatt, Gordon H; Schünemann, Holger J; Langendam, Miranda W
Laboratory animal studies are used in a wide range of human health related research areas, such as basic biomedical research, drug research, experimental surgery and environmental health. The results of these studies can be used to inform decisions regarding clinical research in humans, for example the decision to proceed to clinical trials. If the research question relates to potential harms with no expectation of benefit (e.g., toxicology), studies in experimental animals may provide the only relevant or controlled data and directly inform clinical management decisions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are important tools to provide robust and informative evidence summaries of these animal studies. Rating how certain we are about the evidence could provide important information about the translational probability of findings in experimental animal studies to clinical practice and probably improve it. Evidence summaries and certainty in the evidence ratings could also be used (1) to support selection of interventions with best therapeutic potential to be tested in clinical trials, (2) to justify a regulatory decision limiting human exposure (to drug or toxin), or to (3) support decisions on the utility of further animal experiments. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach is the most widely used framework to rate the certainty in the evidence and strength of health care recommendations. Here we present how the GRADE approach could be used to rate the certainty in the evidence of preclinical animal studies in the context of therapeutic interventions. We also discuss the methodological challenges that we identified, and for which further work is needed. Examples are defining the importance of consistency within and across animal species and using GRADE's indirectness domain as a tool to predict translation from animal models to humans.
Kjær, Poul F.
Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....
Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida
Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.
This paper set out to explore teachers' narratives in order to understand some of the facilitators and constraints which promote or inhibit good formative assessment practices in schools. A "responsive interview" approach was used to probe a small sample of lower and middle school teachers' perceptions of formative assessment.…
Poder, Thomas G
The aim of this study was to present the experience of a Canadian hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) unit that performed the traditional functions of the HTA process along with many other activities to facilitate the choice of smart pumps. A rapid literature review was initiated, but little evidence was found. Moreover, the evidence provided was too far from our hospital context. To help our decision makers, we offered them a list of various services based on the skills of our HTA unit staff. To involve our HTA unit in the choice of the new smart pumps led to a strong collaboration between hospital services. After a rapid review on smart pumps, we proceeded to establish the clinical needs, followed by an evaluation of technical features. To ascertain clinical needs, we participated in the establishment of a conformity list for the tender, a failure and mode-effect analysis, an audit on the use of actual smart pumps, and simulation exercises with nurses and doctors to evaluate the ease of use and ergonomics. With regard to technical tests, these were mainly conducted to identify potential dysfunction and to assess the efficiency of the pump. This experience with smart pumps was useful for evidence-based procurement and led to the formulation of a nine-step process to guide future work. HTA units and agencies are faced with rapid development of new technologies that may not be supported by sufficient amount of pertinent published evidence. Under these circumstances, approaches other than evidence-based selection might provide useful information. Because these activities may be different from those related to classic HTA, this widens the scope of what can be done in HTA to support decision making.
Full Text Available Each individual has a heterogeneous pool of NK cells consisting of cells that may be specialized towards specific functional responses such as secretion of cytokines or killing of tumor cells. Many conventional methods are not fit to characterize heterogeneous populations as they measure the average response of all cells. Thus, there is a need for experimental platforms that provide single cell resolution. In addition, there are also transient and stochastic variations in functional responses at the single cell level, calling for methods that allow studies of many events over extended times. This paper presents a versatile microchip platform enabling long-term microscopic studies of individual NK cells interacting with target cells. Each microchip contains an array of microwells, optimized for medium or high-resolution time-lapse imaging of single or multiple NK and target cells, or for screening of thousands of isolated NK-target cell interactions. Individual NK cells confined with target cells in small microwells is a suitable setup for high-content screening and rapid assessment of heterogeneity within populations, while microwells of larger dimensions are appropriate for studies of NK cell migration and sequential interactions with multiple target cells. By combining the chip technology with ultrasonic manipulation, NK and target cells can be forced to interact and positioned with high spatial accuracy within individual microwells. This setup effectively and synchronously creates NK-target conjugates at hundreds of parallel positions in the microchip. Thus, this facilitates assessment of temporal aspects of NK-target cell interactions, e.g. conjugation, immune synapse formation and cytotoxic events. The microchip platform presented here can be used to effectively address questions related to fundamental functions of NK cells that can lead to better understanding of how the behavior of individual cells add up to give a functional response at
Xie, Anping; Woods-Hill, Charlotte Z; King, Anne F; Enos-Graves, Heather; Ascenzi, Judy; Gurses, Ayse P; Klaus, Sybil A; Fackler, James C; Milstone, Aaron M
Work system assessments can facilitate successful implementation of quality improvement programs. Using a human factors engineering approach, we conducted a work system assessment to facilitate the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use in pediatric intensive care units at 2 hospitals. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with clinicians from Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital and University of Virginia Medical Center. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Blood culture-ordering practices are influenced by various work system factors, including people, tasks, tools and technologies, the physical environment, organizational conditions, and the external environment. A clinical decision-support tool could facilitate implementation by (1) standardizing blood culture-ordering practices, (2) ensuring that prescribing clinicians review the patient's condition before ordering a blood culture, (3) facilitating critical thinking, and (4) empowering nurses to communicate with physicians and advocate for adherence to blood culture-ordering guidelines. The success of interventions for optimizing blood culture use relies heavily on the local context. A work system analysis using a human factors engineering approach can identify key areas to be addressed for the successful dissemination of quality improvement interventions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bruggeman, C.; Martens, E.; Maes, N.; Jacops, E.; Van Gompel, M.; Van Ravestyn, L.
independent study on the migration of natural organic matter was used to extract migration parameters. This independent study relied on both lab-scale and in situ large-scale migration experiments with 14 C-labelled NOM which were performed over a period of 15 years. A classic diffusion-advection equation, including a colloid filtration term and/or non-linear sorption, simulated the experimental data quite well and could also account for the anisotropy of the Boom Clay formation. By using information from independent experiments on processes that were assumed to occur upon transport of Tc through the Boom Clay formation, the degree of freedom of the model was seriously constrained. All parameters used in the reactive transport model (Tc solubility, complexation with inorganic ligands, stability constant for the 'colloid-colloid' interaction process, solid-solution distribution coefficient of aqueous inorganic Tc species) were either taken from established thermodynamic data sources, or from published data of batch experiments. Only the first-order kinetic rate that accounted for slow decoupling of the Tc colloid and the organic matter colloids was fitted. An accurate model simulation could be obtained both for the Tc concentration in the outflowing solution, and the Tc tracer profile across the clay cores used in the setup. The good accuracy between the reactive transport model, batch experimental data and the experimental percolation data shows that the conceptual model is strong enough to handle different types of experimental setups, and allows to make interpolations for different geochemical conditions. Moreover, the model was adapted to make predictions of Tc migration as a NOM-associated colloid over the entire height of the overlying formation. Based on these predictions, we are now able to assess the potential for colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides by dissolved NOM in Boom Clay. (authors)
In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...
Kjær, Poul F.
to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...
Rydzewski, J; Nowak, W
In this work we propose an application of a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method to represent the high-dimensional configuration space of the ligand-protein dissociation process in a manner facilitating interpretation. Rugged ligand expulsion paths are mapped into 2-dimensional space. The mapping retains the main structural changes occurring during the dissociation. The topological similarity of the reduced paths may be easily studied using the Fréchet distances, and we show that this measure facilitates machine learning classification of the diffusion pathways. Further, low-dimensional configuration space allows for identification of residues active in transport during the ligand diffusion from a protein. The utility of this approach is illustrated by examination of the configuration space of cytochrome P450cam involved in expulsing camphor by means of enhanced all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The expulsion trajectories are sampled and constructed on-the-fly during molecular dynamics simulations using the recently developed memetic algorithms [ Rydzewski, J.; Nowak, W. J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 143 ( 12 ), 124101 ]. We show that the memetic algorithms are effective for enforcing the ligand diffusion and cavity exploration in the P450cam-camphor complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that machine learning techniques are helpful in inspecting ligand diffusion landscapes and provide useful tools to examine structural changes accompanying rare events.
Blok, Sebastiaan; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Slebus, Frans G.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Depressive disorder (DD) is a complex disease, and the assessment of work ability in patients with DD is also complicated. The checklist depression (CDp) has recently been developed to support such work ability assessments and has been recommended for implementation in insurance medicine, starting
the resulting need for a redefinition of library competence. In doing this, I primarily address the first two questions from Chapter 1 and how they relate to the public’s informal, leisure-time activities in a networked society. In particular, I focus on the skills of reflexive self-perception and informed...... opinion formation. Further, I point out the significance which these informal leisure-time activities have for public library staff’s cultural dissemination skills. In this way, I take on the question of the skills required for facilitating the learning of a participatory public (cf. Chapter 1......), exemplifying with the competence required of library staff. My discussion will proceed by way of a literature review. In the next section, I shall explain how and what sources were chosen and section three and four present the theoretical framework and how the applied theories are related. In the fifth section...
Brown, T.J.; Cochran, J.R.; Gallegos, D.P.
This paper presents an approach for treating uncertainty in the performance assessment process to efficiently address regulatory performance objectives for radioactive waste disposal and discusses the application of the approach at the Greater Confinement Disposal site. In this approach, the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk assessment concepts to guide effective decisions about site characterization activities and provides a path toward reasonable assurance regarding regulatory compliance decisions. Although the approach is particularly amenable to requirements that are probabilistic in nature, the approach is also applicable to deterministic standards such as the dose-based and concentration-based requirements
Karlsson, Mikael R.; Erlandson, Peter
This is part of a larger ethnographical study concerning how school development in a local educational context sets cultural and social life in motion. The main data "in this article" consists of semi-structural interviews with teachers (facilitators) who have the responsibility of carrying out a project about formative assessment in…
Hull, Louise; Arora, Sonal; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Sevdalis, Nick
Effective teamwork is critical to safety in the operating room; however, implementation of phase III of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) Curriculum that focuses on team-based skills remains worryingly low. Training and assessing the complexities of teamwork is challenging. The objective of this study was to establish guidelines and recommendations for training faculty in assessing/debriefing team skills. A multistage survey-based consensus study was completed by 108 experts responsible for training and assessing surgical residents from the ACS Accredited Educational Institutes. Experts agreed that a program to teach faculty to assess team-based skills should include training in the recognition of teamwork skills, practice rating these skills, and training in the provision of feedback/debriefing. Agreement was reached that faculty responsible for conducting team-based skills assessment should be revalidated every 2 years and stringent proficiency criteria should be met. Faculty development is critical to ensure high-quality, standardized training and assessment. Training faculty to assess team-based skills has the potential to facilitate the effective implementation of phase III of the ACS and APDS Curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Transportation is the major contributor of ever-increasing CO2 and Greenhouse Gas emissions in cities. The ever-increasing hazardous emissions of transportation and energy consumption have persuaded transportation and urban planners to motivate people to non-motorized mode of travel, especially walking. Currently, there are several urban walkability assessment models; however, coping with a limited range of walkability assessment variables make these models not fully able to promote inclusive walkable urban neighborhoods. In this regard, this study develops the path walkability assessment (PWA index model which evaluates and analyzes path walkability in association with the pedestrian’s decision-tree-making (DTM. The model converts the pedestrian’s DTM qualitative data to quantifiable values. This model involves ninety-two (92 physical and environmental walkability assessment variables clustered into three layers of DTM (Layer 1: features; Layer 2: Criteria; and Layer 3: Sub-Criteria, and scoped to shopping and retail type of walking. The PWA model as a global decision support tool can be applied in any neighborhood in the world, and this study implements it at Taman Universiti neighborhood in Skudai, Malaysia. The PWA model has established the walkability score index which determines the grading rate of walkability accomplishment for each walkability variable of the under-survey neighborhood. Using the PWA grading index enables urban designers to manage properly the financial resource allocation for inspiring walkability in the targeted neighborhood.
Anker, Stefan D. t; Schroeder, Stefan; Atar, Dan; Bax, Jeroen J.; Ceconi, Claudio; Cowie, Martin R.; AdamCrisp,; Dominjon, Fabienne; Ford, Ian; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Gropper, Savion; Hindricks, Gerhard; Hlatky, Mark A.; Holcomb, Richard; Honarpour, Narimon; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kim, Albert M.; Kunz, Michael; Lefkowitz, Martin; Le Floch, Chantal; Landmesser, Ulf; McDonagh, Theresa A.; McMurray, John J.; Merkely, Bela; Packer, Milton; Prasad, Krishna; Revkin, James; Rosano, Giuseppe M. C.; Somaratne, Ransi; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Voors, Adriaan A.; Ruschitzka, Frank
Composite endpoints are commonly used as the primary measure of efficacy in heart failure clinical trials to assess the overall treatment effect and to increase the efficiency of trials. Clinical trials still must enrol large numbers of patients to accrue a sufficient number of outcome events and
O'Reilly, Pauline; Lee, Siew Hwa; O'Sullivan, Madeleine; Cullen, Walter; Kennedy, Catriona; MacFarlane, Anne
Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps. An integrative review following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Following a search of 10 international databases, 8,827 titles were screened for relevance and 49 met the criteria. Quality of evidence was appraised using predetermined criteria. Data were analysed following the principles of framework analysis using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), which has four constructs: sense making, enrolment, enactment, and appraisal. The literature is dominated by a focus on interdisciplinary working between physicians and nurses. There is a dearth of evidence about all NPT constructs apart from enactment. Physicians play a key role in encouraging the enrolment of others in primary care team working and in enabling effective divisions of labour in the team. The experience of interdisciplinary working emerged as a lever for its implementation, particularly where communication and respect were strong between professionals. A key lever for interdisciplinary team working in primary care is to get professionals working together and to learn from each other in practice. However, the evidence base is limited as it does not reflect the experiences of all primary care professionals and it is primarily about the enactment of team working. We need to know much more about the experiences of the full network of primary care professionals regarding all aspects of implementation work. International
O’Reilly, Pauline; Lee, Siew Hwa; O’Sullivan, Madeleine; Cullen, Walter; Kennedy, Catriona; MacFarlane, Anne
Background Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps. Methods and findings An integrative review following the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Following a search of 10 international databases, 8,827 titles were screened for relevance and 49 met the criteria. Quality of evidence was appraised using predetermined criteria. Data were analysed following the principles of framework analysis using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), which has four constructs: sense making, enrolment, enactment, and appraisal. The literature is dominated by a focus on interdisciplinary working between physicians and nurses. There is a dearth of evidence about all NPT constructs apart from enactment. Physicians play a key role in encouraging the enrolment of others in primary care team working and in enabling effective divisions of labour in the team. The experience of interdisciplinary working emerged as a lever for its implementation, particularly where communication and respect were strong between professionals. Conclusion A key lever for interdisciplinary team working in primary care is to get professionals working together and to learn from each other in practice. However, the evidence base is limited as it does not reflect the experiences of all primary care professionals and it is primarily about the enactment of team working. We need to know much more about the experiences of the full network of primary care professionals regarding all aspects
Dickerson, M.H.; Foster, K.T.
One of the most important uses of dose assessment models in response to accidents at nuclear facilities is to help provide guidance to emergency response managers for identifying, and mitigating, the consequences of an accident once the accident has been terminated. By combining results from assessment models with radiological measurements, a qualitative methodology can be developed to aid emergency response managers in determining the total dose received by the population and to minimize future doses through the use of mitigation procedures. To illustrate the methodology, this discussion focuses on the use of models to estimate the dose delivered to the public both during and after a nuclear accident. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab
Full Text Available Many ideas flow into the innovation funnel but only 1 out 3000 becomes a successful new product. There are many variables that interact in this complex process and investors decisions are often based on experience and feeling rather than a comprehensive evaluation of the social, economic and technological factors. The innovation potential, the innovator capability, the accessibility of the technology as well as the social acceptance and the chosen business model are the some of the critical factors of a successful innovation strategy. In the broad sense, a business model is the approach of doing business through which a company can sustain itself and generate profits in the long term. Digital platforms can help manage and facilitate the complexity of value propositions and provide an immediate feedback to the entrepreneur. Creating value is necessary, but not sufficient, for an organization to profit from its business model. It is important to see the whole picture of the business that is why the business models are so important for a good start of the business. However, innovation assessment and business model development sometimes are not an easy task and ICT can make this process easier. Then, the aim of this paper is to explore the role of digital platforms as facilitators for the techno-socio-economic impact assessment and the development of sustainable business models through the analysis of a case study from the EU Horizon 2020 “i3 project”.
Wikander, Lolita; Bouchoucha, Stéphane L
Adapting a course from face to face to blended delivery necessitates that assessments are modified accordingly. In Australia the Objective Structured Clinical Assessment tool, as a derivative from the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, has been used in the face-to-face delivery mode as a formative or summative assessment tool in medicine and nursing since 1990. The Objective Structured Clinical Assessment has been used at Charles Darwin University to assess nursing students' simulated clinical skills prior to the commencement of their clinical placements since 2008. Although the majority of the course is delivered online, students attend a one-week intensive clinical simulation block yearly, prior to attending clinical placements. Initially, the Objective Structured Clinical Assessment was introduced as a lecturer assessed summative assessment, over time it was adapted to better suit the blended learning environment. The modification of the tool from an academic to peer assessed assessment tool, was based on the empirical literature, student feedback and a cross-sectional, qualitative study exploring academics' perceptions of the Objective Structured Clinical Assessment (Bouchoucha et al., 2013a, b). This paper presents an overview of the process leading to the successful adaptation of the Objective Structured Clinical Assessment to suit the requirements of a preregistration nursing course delivered through blended learning. This is significant as many universities are moving their curriculum to fully online or blended delivery, yet little attention has been paid to adapting the assessment of simulated clinical skills. The aim is to identify the benefits and drawbacks of using the peer assessed Objective Structured Clinical Assessment and share recommendations for successful implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, J.E.; Alfonso, B.; Avila, R.; Beresford, N.A.; Copplestone, D.; Hosseini, A.
A new version of the ERICA Tool (version 1.2) was released in November 2014; this constitutes the first major update of the Tool since release in 2007. The key features of the update are presented in this article. Of particular note are new transfer databases extracted from an international compilation of concentration ratios (CR_w_o_-_m_e_d_i_a) and the modification of ‘extrapolation’ approaches used to select transfer data in cases where information is not available. Bayesian updating approaches have been used in some cases to draw on relevant information that would otherwise have been excluded in the process of deriving CR_w_o_-_m_e_d_i_a statistics. All of these efforts have in turn led to the requirement to update Environmental Media Concentration Limits (EMCLs) used in Tier 1 assessments. Some of the significant changes with regard to EMCLs are highlighted. - Highlights: • The ERICA Tool for performing environmental risk assessment has been updated. • The new version is underpinned by an internationally supported transfer database. • The Tool provides coverage for many organism groups and radioisotopes. • New calculations were required to derive environmental media concentration limits. • Modified approaches to deriving missing transfer parameters are elaborated.
Brown, J E; Alfonso, B; Avila, R; Beresford, N A; Copplestone, D; Hosseini, A
A new version of the ERICA Tool (version 1.2) was released in November 2014; this constitutes the first major update of the Tool since release in 2007. The key features of the update are presented in this article. Of particular note are new transfer databases extracted from an international compilation of concentration ratios (CRwo-media) and the modification of 'extrapolation' approaches used to select transfer data in cases where information is not available. Bayesian updating approaches have been used in some cases to draw on relevant information that would otherwise have been excluded in the process of deriving CRwo-media statistics. All of these efforts have in turn led to the requirement to update Environmental Media Concentration Limits (EMCLs) used in Tier 1 assessments. Some of the significant changes with regard to EMCLs are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jing Jing, Ma
One of the key aims of formative assessment in higher education is to enable students to become self-regulated learners (Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006). Based on Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick's (2006) framework, this exploratory study investigates which formative assessment practices proposed by them were used by one college EFL writing teacher to…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, together with histology, is widely used to diagnose and to monitor treatment in oncology. Spatial correspondence between these modalities provides information about the ability of MRI to characterize cancerous tissue. However, registration is complicated by deformations during pathological processing, and differences in scale and information content. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a methodology for establishing an accurate 3D relation between histological sections and high resolution in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are: 1 standardized acquisition and processing, 2 use of an intermediate ex vivo MRI, 3 use of a reference cutting plane, 4 dense histological sampling, 5 elastic registration, and 6 use of complete 3D data sets. Five rat pancreatic tumors imaged by T2*-w MRI were used to evaluate the proposed methodology. The registration accuracy was assessed by root mean squared (RMS distances between manually annotated landmark points in both modalities. After elastic registration the average RMS distance decreased from 1.4 to 0.7 mm. The intermediate ex vivo MRI and the reference cutting plane shared by all three 3D images (in vivo MRI, ex vivo MRI, and 3D histology data were found to be crucial for the accurate co-registration between the 3D histological data set and in vivo MRI. The MR intensity in necrotic regions, as manually annotated in 3D histology, was significantly different from other histologically confirmed regions (i.e., viable and hemorrhagic. However, the viable and the hemorrhagic regions showed a large overlap in T2(*-w MRI signal intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The established 3D correspondence between tumor histology and in vivo MRI enables extraction of MRI characteristics for histologically confirmed regions. The proposed methodology allows the creation of a tumor database of spatially registered multi-spectral MR images and multi-stained 3D
Jacobs Jeanne ME
Full Text Available Abstract Background The recovery of high performing transgenic lines in clonal crops is limited by the occurrence of somaclonal variation during the tissue culture phase of transformation. This is usually circumvented by developing large populations of transgenic lines, each derived from the first shoot to regenerate from each transformation event. This study investigates a new strategy of assessing multiple shoots independently regenerated from different transformed cell colonies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. Results A modified cry9Aa2 gene, under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was transformed into four potato cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer using a nptII gene conferring kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker gene. Following gene transfer, 291 transgenic lines were grown in greenhouse experiments to assess somaclonal variation and resistance to potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller. Independently regenerated lines were recovered from many transformed cell colonies and Southern analysis confirmed whether they were derived from the same transformed cell. Multiple lines regenerated from the same transformed cell exhibited a similar response to PTM, but frequently exhibited a markedly different spectrum of somaclonal variation. Conclusions A new strategy for the genetic improvement of clonal crops involves the regeneration and evaluation of multiple shoots from each transformation event to facilitate the recovery of phenotypically normal transgenic lines. Most importantly, regenerated lines exhibiting the phenotypic appearance most similar to the parental cultivar are not necessarily derived from the first shoot regenerated from a transformed cell colony, but can frequently be a later regeneration event.
Corner, Evelyn J; Handy, Jonathan M; Brett, Stephen J
To evaluate the efficacy of eLearning in the widespread standardised teaching, distribution and implementation of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment (CPAx) tool-a validated tool to assess physical function in critically ill patients. Prospective educational study. An eLearning module was developed through a conceptual framework, using the four-stage technique for skills teaching to teach clinicians how to use the CPAx. Example and test video case studies of CPAx assessments were embedded within the module. The CPAx scores for the test case studies and demographic data were recorded in a secure area of the website. Data were analysed for inter-rater reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to see if an eLearning educational package facilitated consistent use of the tool. A utility and content validity questionnaire was distributed after 1 year to eLearning module registrants (n=971). This was to evaluate uptake of the CPAx in clinical practice and content validity of the CPAx from the perspective of clinical users. The module was distributed for use via professional forums (n=2) and direct contacts (n=95). Critical care clinicians. ICC of the test case studies. Between July and October 2014, 421 candidates from 15 countries registered for the eLearning module. The ICC for case one was 0.996 (95% CI 0.990 to 0.999; n=207). The ICC for case two was 0.988 (0.996 to 1.000; n=184). The CPAx has a strong total scale content validity index (s-CVI) of 0.94 and is well used. eLearning is a useful and reliable way of teaching psychomotor skills, such as the CPAx. The CPAx is a well-used measure with high content validity rated by clinicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education.
Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy; Reventlow, Susanne; Hempler, Nana Folmann
Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currently, assessing professionals' skills in conducting group-based, person-centered diabetes education primarily focus on experts measuring and coding skills on various scales. However, learner-centered approaches such as adequate self-reflective tools have been shown to emphasize professional autonomy and promote engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. The study entails of two components: 1) Field observations of five different educational settings including 49 persons with diabetes and 13 healthcare professionals, followed by interviews with 5 healthcare professionals and 28 persons with type 2 diabetes. 2) One professional development workshop involving 14 healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals were asked to assess their person-centered communication skills using a self-assessment tool based on challenges and skills related to four educator roles: Embracer, Facilitator, Translator, and Initiator. Data were analyzed by hermeneutic analysis. Theories derived from theoretical model 'The Health Education Juggler' and techniques from 'Motivational Interviewing in Groups' were used as a framework to analyze data. Subsequently, the analysis from the field notes and interview transcript were compared with healthcare professionals' self-assessments of strengths and areas in need to effectively facilitate group-based, person-centered diabetes education. Healthcare professionals self-assessed the Translator and the Embracer to be the two most skilled roles whereas
Scherer, Demian; Wentura, Dirk
Recent theories assume a mutual facilitation in case of semantic overlap for concepts being activated simultaneously. We provide evidence for this claim using a semantic priming paradigm. To test for mutual facilitation of related concepts, a perceptual identification task was employed, presenting prime-target pairs briefly and masked, with an SOA of 0 ms (i.e., prime and target were presented concurrently, one above the other). Participants were instructed to identify the target. In Experiment 1, a cue defining the target was presented at stimulus onset, whereas in Experiment 2 the cue was not presented before the offset of stimuli. Accordingly, in Experiment 2, a post-cue task was merged with the perceptual identification task. We obtained significant semantic priming effects in both experiments. This result is compatible with the view that two concepts can both be activated in parallel and can mutually facilitate each other if they are related.
Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie
This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.
Palus, Charles J
Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne
This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....
Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi
: are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...
Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian
At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...
Dufour, Sarah; Lessard, Danielle; Chamberland, Claire
As part of an implementation evaluation, this study aims to identify the conditions of practice that facilitated or hindered implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation to support collaboration between partners involved with vulnerable children. Evaluators conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 36 respondents (19 practitioners and 17 managers) who participated in the AIDES initiative trial. Respondents were chosen to include all participating organisations (child protection services, prevention social services). Participants' comments were submitted to descriptive content analysis. Conditions facilitating or hindering implementation of the initiative included the following dimensions: (1) implementation quality; (2) organisational elements (organisational functioning, cooperation between organisations); (3) socio-political issues; and (4) personal and professional characteristics. The study highlights critical elements to consider in implementing and maintaining significant changes in practice in organisations providing assistance to vulnerable children and their families. Social innovations that do not consider such elements are likely to compromise their implementation and sustainability. We must prevent promising social changes from being considered unrealistic or inappropriate due to contextual barriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Julious, Steven A; Todd, Susan; Nicholl, Jonathan P; Boote, Jonathan
Appropriately conducted adaptive designs (ADs) offer many potential advantages over conventional trials. They make better use of accruing data, potentially saving time, trial participants, and limited resources compared to conventional, fixed sample size designs. However, one can argue that ADs are not implemented as often as they should be, particularly in publicly funded confirmatory trials. This study explored barriers, concerns, and potential facilitators to the appropriate use of ADs in confirmatory trials among key stakeholders. We conducted three cross-sectional, online parallel surveys between November 2014 and January 2015. The surveys were based upon findings drawn from in-depth interviews of key research stakeholders, predominantly in the UK, and targeted Clinical Trials Units (CTUs), public funders, and private sector organisations. Response rates were as follows: 30(55 %) UK CTUs, 17(68 %) private sector, and 86(41 %) public funders. A Rating Scale Model was used to rank barriers and concerns in order of perceived importance for prioritisation. Top-ranked barriers included the lack of bridge funding accessible to UK CTUs to support the design of ADs, limited practical implementation knowledge, preference for traditional mainstream designs, difficulties in marketing ADs to key stakeholders, time constraints to support ADs relative to competing priorities, lack of applied training, and insufficient access to case studies of undertaken ADs to facilitate practical learning and successful implementation. Associated practical complexities and inadequate data management infrastructure to support ADs were reported as more pronounced in the private sector. For funders of public research, the inadequate description of the rationale, scope, and decision-making criteria to guide the planned AD in grant proposals by researchers were all viewed as major obstacles. There are still persistent and important perceptions of individual and organisational obstacles
Proietti, Riccardo; Rivera, Santiago; Dussault, Charles; Essebag, Vidal; Bernier, Martin L; Ayala-Paredes, Felix; Badra-Verdu, Mariano; Roux, Jean-François
Ventricular arrhythmias (VA) originating from a papillary muscle (PM) have recently been described as a distinct clinical entity with peculiar features that make its treatment with catheter ablation challenging. Here, we report our experience using an intracardiac echo-facilitated 3D electroanatomical mapping approach in a case series of patients undergoing ablation for PM VA. Sixteen patients who underwent catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia (VT) or symptomatic premature ventricular contractions originating from left ventricular PMs were included in the study. A total of 24 procedures (mean 1.5 per patient) were performed: 15 using a retrograde aortic approach and 9 using a transseptal approach. Integrated intracardiac ultrasound for 3D electroanatomical mapping was used in 15 of the 24 procedures. The posteromedial PM was the most frequent culprit for the clinical arrhythmia, and the body was the part of the PM most likely to be the successful site for ablation. The site of ablation was identified based on the best pace map matching the clinical arrhythmia and the site of earliest the activation. At a mean follow-up of 10.5 ± 7 months, only two patients had recurrent arrhythmias following a repeat ablation procedure. An echo-facilitated 3D electroanatomical mapping allows for real-time creation of precise geometries of cardiac chambers and endocavitary structures. This is useful during procedures such as catheter ablation of VAs originating from PMs, which require detailed representation of anatomical landmarks. Routine adoption of this technique should be considered to improve outcomes of PM VA ablation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Baucom, Brian R W; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Bryan, Craig J; Garland, Eric L; Leifker, Feea; May, Alexis; Wong, Alexander; Narayanan, Shrikanth S
Suicide was the 10th leading cause of death for Americans in 2015 and rates have been steadily climbing over the last 25 years. Rates are particularly high amongst U.S. military personnel. Suicide prevention efforts in the military are significantly hampered by the lack of: (1) assessment tools for measuring baseline risk and (2) methods to detect periods of particularly heightened risk. Two specific barriers to assessing suicide risk in military personnel that call for innovation are: (1) the geographic dispersion of military personnel from healthcare settings, particularly amongst components like the Reserves; and (2) professional and social disincentives to acknowledging psychological distress. The primary aim of this paper is to describe recent technological developments that could contribute to risk assessment tools that are not subject to the limitations mentioned above. More specifically, Behavioral Signal Processing can be used to assess behaviors during interaction and conversation that likely indicate increased risk for suicide, and computer-administered, cognitive performance tasks can be used to assess activation of the suicidal mode. These novel methods can be used remotely and do not require direct disclosure or endorsement of psychological distress, solving two challenges to suicide risk assessment in military and other sensitive settings. We present an introduction to these technologies, describe how they can specifically be applied to assessing behavioral and cognitive risk for suicide, and close with recommendations for future research.
Brian R. W. Baucom
Full Text Available Suicide was the 10th leading cause of death for Americans in 2015 and rates have been steadily climbing over the last 25 years. Rates are particularly high amongst U.S. military personnel. Suicide prevention efforts in the military are significantly hampered by the lack of: (1 assessment tools for measuring baseline risk and (2 methods to detect periods of particularly heightened risk. Two specific barriers to assessing suicide risk in military personnel that call for innovation are: (1 the geographic dispersion of military personnel from healthcare settings, particularly amongst components like the Reserves; and (2 professional and social disincentives to acknowledging psychological distress. The primary aim of this paper is to describe recent technological developments that could contribute to risk assessment tools that are not subject to the limitations mentioned above. More specifically, Behavioral Signal Processing can be used to assess behaviors during interaction and conversation that likely indicate increased risk for suicide, and computer-administered, cognitive performance tasks can be used to assess activation of the suicidal mode. These novel methods can be used remotely and do not require direct disclosure or endorsement of psychological distress, solving two challenges to suicide risk assessment in military and other sensitive settings. We present an introduction to these technologies, describe how they can specifically be applied to assessing behavioral and cognitive risk for suicide, and close with recommendations for future research.
Elwyn, Glyn; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Tapp, Laura; Edwards, Adrian; Newcombe, Robert; Eriksson, Tina; Braspenning, Jozé; Kuch, Christine; Adzic, Zlata Ozvacic; Ayankogbe, Olayinka; Cvetko, Tatjana; In 't Veld, Kees; Karotsis, Antonis; Kersnik, Janko; Lefebvre, Luc; Mecini, Ilir; Petricek, Goranka; Pisco, Luis; Thesen, Janecke; Turón, José María; van Rossen, Edward; Grol, Richard
Well-organised practices deliver higher-quality care. Yet there has been very little effort so far to help primary care organisations achieve higher levels of team performance and to help them identify and prioritise areas where quality improvement efforts should be concentrated. No attempt at all has been made to achieve a method which would be capable of providing comparisons--and the stimulus for further improvement--at an international level. The development of the International Family Practice Maturity Matrix took place in three phases: (1) selection and refinement of organisational dimensions; (2) development of incremental scales based on a recognised theoretical framework; and (3) testing the feasibility of the approach on an international basis, including generation of an automated web-based benchmarking system. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of developing an organisational assessment tool for primary care organisations that is sufficiently generic to cross international borders and is applicable across a diverse range of health settings, from state-organised systems to insurer-based health economies. It proved possible to introduce this assessment method in 11 countries in Europe and one in Africa, and to generate comparison benchmarks based on the data collected. The evaluation of the assessment process was uniformly positive with the view that the approach efficiently enables the identification of priorities for organisational development and quality improvement at the same time as motivating change by virtue of the group dynamics. We are not aware of any other organisational assessment method for primary care which has been 'born international,' and that has involved attention to theory, dimension selection and item refinement. The principal aims were to achieve an organisational assessment which gains added value by using interaction, engagement comparative benchmarks: aims which have been achieved. The next step is to achieve wider
The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education
Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy
engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals’ strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. Methods: The study entails of two components......: 1) Field observations of five different educational settings including 49 persons with diabetes and 13 healthcare professionals, followed by interviews with 5 healthcare professionals and 28 persons with type 2 diabetes. 2) One professional development workshop involving 14 healthcare professionals...
There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself
Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, A.J.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Zwaan, B.J.; Schoustra, S.E.
Understanding the occurrence and spread of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is crucial for public health. It has been hypothesized that asexual sporulation, which is abundant in nature, is essential for phenotypic expression of azole resistance mutations in A. fumigatus facilitating
Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…
de Graaff, Erik
A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...
so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...
Qiu, Yuchen; Lu, Xianglan; Tan, Maxine; Li, Shibo; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin
The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying automatic interphase FISH cells analysis method for detecting the residual malignancy of post chemotherapy leukemia patients. In the experiment, two clinical specimens with translocation between chromosome No. 9 and 22 or No. 11 and 14 were selected from the patients underwent leukemia diagnosis and treatment. The entire slide of each specimen was first digitalized by a commercial fluorescent microscope using a 40× objective lens. Then, the scanned images were processed by a computer-aided detecting (CAD) scheme to identify the analyzable FISH cells, which is accomplished by applying a series of features including the region size, Brenner gradient and maximum intensity. For each identified cell, the scheme detected and counted the number of the FISH signal dots inside the nucleus, using the adaptive threshold of the region size and distance of the labeled FISH dots. The results showed that the new CAD scheme detected 8093 and 6675 suspicious regions of interest (ROI) in two specimens, among which 4546 and 3807 ROI contain analyzable interphase FISH cell. In these analyzable ROIs, CAD selected 334 and 405 residual malignant cancer cells, which is substantially more than those visually detected in a cytogenetic laboratory of our medical center (334 vs. 122, 405 vs. 160). This investigation indicates that an automatic interphase FISH cell scanning and CAD method has the potential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the prognostic assessment for leukemia and other genetic related cancer patients in the future.
Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.
Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen
The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon
In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...
Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.
This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....
Implementation of the Kids-CAT in clinical settings: a newly developed computer-adaptive test to facilitate the assessment of patient-reported outcomes of children and adolescents in clinical practice in Germany.
Barthel, D; Fischer, K I; Nolte, S; Otto, C; Meyrose, A-K; Reisinger, S; Dabs, M; Thyen, U; Klein, M; Muehlan, H; Ankermann, T; Walter, O; Rose, M; Ravens-Sieberer, U
To describe the implementation process of a computer-adaptive test (CAT) for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents in two pediatric clinics in Germany. The study focuses on the feasibility and user experience with the Kids-CAT, particularly the patients' experience with the tool and the pediatricians' experience with the Kids-CAT Report. The Kids-CAT was completed by 312 children and adolescents with asthma, diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The test was applied during four clinical visits over a 1-year period. A feedback report with the test results was made available to the pediatricians. To assess both feasibility and acceptability, a multimethod research design was used. To assess the patients' experience with the tool, the children and adolescents completed a questionnaire. To assess the clinicians' experience, two focus groups were conducted with eight pediatricians. The children and adolescents indicated that the Kids-CAT was easy to complete. All pediatricians reported that the Kids-CAT was straightforward and easy to understand and integrate into clinical practice; they also expressed that routine implementation of the tool would be desirable and that the report was a valuable source of information, facilitating the assessment of self-reported HRQoL of their patients. The Kids-CAT was considered an efficient and valuable tool for assessing HRQoL in children and adolescents. The Kids-CAT Report promises to be a useful adjunct to standard clinical care with the potential to improve patient-physician communication, enabling pediatricians to evaluate and monitor their young patients' self-reported HRQoL.
Holdt Christensen, Peter
knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...
Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos
, and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.
Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”
Assessment and management of adult cancer pain: a systematic review and synthesis of recent qualitative studies aimed at developing insights for managing barriers and optimizing facilitators within a comprehensive framework of patient care.
Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Green, Anna; Boyle, Frances; Stubbs, John; Lovell, Melanie
Cancer pain is a common, burdensome problem, which is not well managed despite evidence-based guidelines. To develop insights for managing barriers and optimizing facilitators to adult cancer pain assessment and management within a comprehensive framework of patient care. We undertook a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies. Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts were searched from May 20 to 26, 2011. To be included, the articles had to be published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000; written in English; and report original qualitative studies on the perspectives of patients, their significant others, or health care providers. Article quality was rated using the checklist of Kitto et al. Thematic synthesis followed a three-stage approach using Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre-Reviewer 4 software: 1) free line-by-line coding of "Results," 2) organization into "descriptive" themes, and 3) development of "analytical" themes informative to our objective. At Stage 3, a conceptual framework was selected from the peer-reviewed literature according to prima facie "fit" for descriptive themes. Of 659 articles screened, 70 met the criteria, reporting 65 studies with 48 patient, 19 caregiver, and 21 health care provider samples. Authors rarely reported reflexivity or negative cases. Mead and Bower's model of patient-centered care accommodated 85% of the descriptive themes; 12% more related to the caregiver and service/system factors. Three themes could not be accommodated. Findings highlight the need to integrate patient/family education within improved communication, individualize care, use more nonpharmacological strategies, empower patients/families to self-manage pain, and reorganize multidisciplinary roles around patient-centered care and outcomes. These conclusions require validation via consensus and intervention trials. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published
Yuri da Cunha Ferreira
Full Text Available Global operations are subject to considerable uncertainties. Due to the Trade Facilitation Agreement that became effective in February 2017, the study of measures to streamline customs controls is urgent. This study aims to assess the impact of trade facilitation measures on import flows. An experimental study was performed in the largest cargo airport in South America through discrete-event simulation and design of experiments. Operation impacts of three trade facilitation measures are assessed on import flow by air. We shed light in the following trade facilitation measures: the use of X-ray equipment for physical inspection; increase of the number of qualified companies in the trade facilitation program; performance targets for customs officials. All trade facilitation measures used indicated potential to provide more predictability, cost savings, time reduction, and increase in security in international supply chain.
Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate
An experiment investigated whether exposure to orthography facilitates oral vocabulary learning. A total of 58 typically developing children aged 8-9 years were taught 12 nonwords. Children were trained to associate novel phonological forms with pictures of novel objects. Pictures were used as referents to represent novel word meanings. For half of the nonwords children were additionally exposed to orthography, although they were not alerted to its presence, nor were they instructed to use it. After this training phase a nonword-picture matching posttest was used to assess learning of nonword meaning, and a spelling posttest was used to assess learning of nonword orthography. Children showed robust learning for novel spelling patterns after incidental exposure to orthography. Further, we observed stronger learning for nonword-referent pairings trained with orthography. The degree of orthographic facilitation observed in posttests was related to children's reading levels, with more advanced readers showing more benefit from the presence of orthography.
Todd M. Super
Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.
Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi
We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...
Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.
of root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...... nitrogen transfer between legumes and non-leguminous plants, exploitation of the soil via mycorrhizal fungi and soil-plant processes which alter the mobilisation of plant growth resources such as through exudation of amino acids, extra-cellular enzymes, acidification, competition-induced modification......Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...
Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...
O'Shea, Anne; Matheson, Laura
Session summary: Brainstorming, problem-solving, team-building and group communication – all of these things can be made easier through facilitation! Come to this fun, interactive workshop to learn techniques and exercises to boost your group meetings. Taught by two information professionals with formal facilitation training and experience, this workshop will give you theory, hands-on practice time and feedback. What participants will learn: Participants will learn techniques to he...
Moore, Susan; And Others
The ability of eight adults with mental retardation (and in some cases cerebral palsy) to communicate using facilitated communication was assessed by a multidisciplinary team. Not one of the subjects demonstrated an ability to communicate using the technique. (JDD)
The Downside of Relying on Research Outputs to Assess Business Faculty Performance: Comments from Down Under regarding "Facilitating and Creating Synergies between Teaching and Research: The Role of the Academic Administrator"
Chapman, Ross L.
This commentary presents an Australian perspective on Balkin and Mello's "Facilitating and Creating Synergies between Teaching and Research: The Role of the Academic Administrator." It addresses one particularly important aspect of the separation of teaching and research in business schools; namely, the increasing dominance of…
Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M
The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners. The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees. The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training. The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning. With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.
Maria do Carmo de Lima Bezerra
Full Text Available The article discusses the relevance of the architectural space as a facilitator of teaching and learning processes. It adopts an analytical methodology based on the architecture and pedagogy literature to know the view of these areas on the subject, and identifies relevant spatial attributes to facilitate education. Research has shown that there are recurrences pointing disciplinary fields of environmental comfort, ergonomics and environmental psychology, which were the subject of this conceptual research about the positive and negative impacts on the school design facility by each attribute of these disciplines. As result, it presents a framework of attributes, characteristics and relevance to teaching and learning to be used as support to the space needs assessment, ie: during the first stage of an architectural design process.
Kliman, Gilbert; And Others
This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon
Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...
Madsen, Mona Toft
-based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...
Ouyang, Long; Boroditsky, Lera; Frank, Michael C
Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words' linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that "postman" and "mailman" are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words (e.g., they both tend to occur with words like "deliver," "truck," "package"). In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, whereas real language learners encounter input that contains some known words that are semantically organized. In three experiments, we show that (a) the presence of familiar semantic reference points facilitates distributional learning and (b) this effect crucially depends both on the presence of known words and the adherence of these known words to some semantic organization. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru
In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.
Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch
facilitation visits in 13 practice settings and had interviews and focus groups with facilitators. We applied an explorative approach in data collection and analysis, and conducted an inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The facilitators mainly enacted four facilitator roles: teacher, super user, peer...
Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch
facilitation visits in 13 practice settings and had interviews and focus groups with facilitators. We applied an explorative approach in data collection and analysis, and conducted an inductive thematic analysis. Results: The facilitators mainly enacted four facilitator roles: teacher, super user, peer...
von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats
Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator
Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early
Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.
on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...
Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.
Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude
Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.
Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew
Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.
Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy' Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara
The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for in situ mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment
A Case Study Application of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Frameworks to Facilitate the Integration of Human Health and Ecological End Points for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)
Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...
This thesis contributes an identification of a key mechanism and its constituent qualities, for facilitating shared understandings of risk. Globalisation and the pace of technological change increases the uncertainties of decision making within many design and innovation practices. Accordingly......, the focus of participatory workshops has expanded towards addressing broader questions of strategy, business models and other organizational and inter-organisational issues. To develop effective partnerships across the boundaries separating companies, I argue that is necessary for those involved to gain...... or proxy for absent others, 4) an incomplete comic with which children could contribute sketched ideas to a design process 5) a table top tool kits for discussing business relationship issues and 5) a number of bespoke interactive sculpture-like artifacts for provoking insights concerning business dilemmas...
Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V
The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.
Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander
will also lead to a high rewards. According to postmodern consumerism theory, consumers are intrinsically motivated to participate (Arnould et al., 2006; Borghini & Caru, 2008; Etgar, 2008; Fisher & Smith, 2011), but may also be extrinsic motivated by, for instance, appraisal and 'autonomy' (Etgar, 2008......). Therefore, for instance, being part of the process is a key incentive for consumers. Postmodern consumers' search for unique experiences calls for individualization, personalization, etc. Although Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004), Karpen et al. (2008), and Karpen et al. (2011) have presented S-D Logic...... as a middle range theory it is still difficult for organizations to operationalize their co-creation efforts. This paper argues that postmodern consumerism can be used to guide the operationalization of the co-creation process by identifying the key facilitators of co-creation for the postmodern consumer...
Hardy, E; Duarte, G A; Osis, M J; Arce, X E; Possan, M
A multi-centered qualitative study was conducted in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to assess the acceptability of emergency contraception both among potential users and possible providers, authorities, and opinion-makers, and to identify (according to participants' perceptions) factors facilitating or hindering the method's use and the most appropriate strategies to disseminate information and provide the method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, group interviews, and discussion groups, which were tape-recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis of this material was conducted. Acceptability of emergency contraception was high among participants, who also felt that there were no barriers towards its acceptance by the population. Participants felt that the method's acceptability would be greater if it were included in reproductive health programs, emphasizing its prescription for emergency situations. Participants highlighted that strategic components in Brazil would be training of providers and inclusion of the method in family planning services.
Moore, E.B. Jr.
Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given
Evans, Sherryn Maree; Ward, Catherine; Reeves, Scott
The use of online media to deliver interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming more prevalent across health professions education settings. Facilitation of IPE activities is known to be critical to the effective delivery of IPE, however, specifics about the nature of online IPE facilitation remains unclear. To explore the health professions education literature to understand the extent, range and nature of research on online IPE facilitation. Scoping review methodology was used to guide a search of four electronic databases for relevant papers. Of the 2095 abstracts initially identified, after screening of both abstracts and full-text papers, 10 studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Following abstraction of key information from each study, a thematic analysis was undertaken. Three key themes emerged to describe the nature of the IPE facilitation literature: (1) types of online IPE facilitation contributions, (2) the experience of online IPE facilitation and (3) personal outcomes of online IPE facilitation. These IPE facilitation themes were particularly focused on facilitation of interprofessional student teams on an asynchronous basis. While the included studies provide some insight into the nature of online IPE facilitation, future research is needed to better understand facilitator contributions, and the facilitation experience and associated outcomes, both relating to synchronous and asynchronous online environments.
Geralyn E Stephens
Full Text Available Demonstrating the ability to collaborate effectively is essential for students moving into 21st century workplaces. Employers are expecting new hires to already possess group-work skills and will seek evidence of their ability to cooperate, collaborate, and complete projects with colleagues, including remotely or at a distance. Instructional activities and assignments that provide students with a variety of ways to engage each other have a direct and immediate effect on their academic performance. This paper shares the Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups (FCOG instructional planning strategy. The strategy is designed for faculty use and familiarizes students with the process and technology necessary to collaborate effectively in online classroom groups. The strategy utilizes proven teaching techniques to maximize student-student and student-content relationships. Each of the four (4 sequential phases in the FCOG instructional planning strategy are discussed: 1 Creating Groups, 2 Establishing Expectations, 3 Communication Tools, and 4 Assignments and Activities. The discussion also contains implementation suggestions as well as examples of instructional assignments and activities that provide students with a variety of ways to collaborate to reach the learning outcomes.
Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth
We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…
Single-center, noninterventional clinical trial to assess the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of a dimeticone-based medical device in facilitating the removal of scales after topical application in patients with psoriasis corporis or psoriasis capitis
Full Text Available Ulrich R Hengge,1 Kristina Röschmann,2 Henning Candler3 1Skin Center, Düsseldorf, 2Department of Clinical Research, 3Department of Medical Affairs, G. Pohl‑Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, Hohenlockstedt, Germany Introduction: Psoriasis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease affecting ~2%–3% of the population in western countries. Scaling of the psoriatic lesions is the most impairing symptom in patients with psoriasis. In contrast to conventional keratolytic treatment concepts containing salicylic acid or urea, a dimeticone-based medical device (Loyon® removes scales in a physical way without any pharmacological effect.Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a dimeticone-based medical device in removal of scales in patients with psoriasis corporis/capitis under real-life conditions.Methods: Forty patients with psoriasis capitis or corporis were included and received once-daily treatments for 7 days. Clinical assessment of the psoriasis area severity index score (psoriasis corporis and the psoriasis scalp severity index score (psoriasis capitis was performed and evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of treatment. Baseline scaling scores and redness scores were calculated for two target lesions of the scalp or the body on a 5-point scale each.Results: For the primary efficacy variable scaling score, a statistically significant decrease was observed after treatment, with a relative reduction in scaling of 36.8% after 7 days of treatment within patients affected by psoriasis capitis. Treatment success was achieved in 76.8% of patients with psoriasis capitis, and time to treatment success was evaluated to be 4.14 days for these patients and 4.33 days for patients suffering from psoriasis corporis.Conclusion: In conclusion, this trial demonstrated that the dimeticone-based medical device is a safe, well-tolerated, practicable, and efficient keratolytic compound, which can be well implemented in and recommended for standard therapy
Presseau, Justin; Boyd, Emily; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F
Theories often consider behaviors in isolation of conflicting and facilitating personal goals. We conducted interviews with 13 people in cardiac rehabilitation, investigating whether eliciting physical activity (PA) control beliefs sufficiently captures goal conflict and goal facilitation. We assessed PA, intention, and control beliefs using standard elicitation methods and then assessed goal conflict and goal facilitation. Twelve participants described conflicting, and all described facilitating, personal goals. Most goal facilitation (94%) and conflict (82%) beliefs were identified beyond the control belief elicitation. Goal facilitation and conflict are not captured in a standard control belief elicitation and may supplement single-behavior models to understand PA.
The goal of planning risk management is to make everyone involved in a program aware that risk should be a consideration in the design, development, and fielding of a system. Risk planning is a tool to assess and mitigate events that might adversely impact the program. Therefore, risk management increases the probability/likelihood of program success and can help to avoid program crisis management and improve problem solving by managing risk early in the acquisition cycle.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...
... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge...
Ohta, Kunio; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Shiima, Yuko; Ikeyama, Takanari; Scott, James; Hayes, Scott; Gould, Michael; Buchanan, Newton; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nishisaki, Akira
To assess the effectiveness of pediatric simulation by remote facilitation. We hypothesized that simulation by remote facilitation is more effective compared to simulation by an on-site facilitator. We defined remote facilitation as a facilitator remotely (1) introduces simulation-based learning and simulation environment, (2) runs scenarios, and (3) performs debriefing with an on-site facilitator. A remote simulation program for medical students during pediatric rotation was implemented. Groups were allocated to either remote or on-site facilitation depending on the availability of telemedicine technology. Both groups had identical 1-hour simulation sessions with 2 scenarios and debriefing. Their team performance was assessed with behavioral assessment tool by a trained rater. Perception by students was evaluated with Likert scale (1-7). Fifteen groups with 89 students participated in a simulation by remote facilitation, and 8 groups with 47 students participated in a simulation by on-site facilitation. Participant demographics and previous simulation experience were similar. Both groups improved their performance from first to second scenario: groups by remote simulation (first [8.5 ± 4.2] vs second [13.2 ± 6.2], P = 0.003), and groups by on-site simulation (first [6.9 ± 4.1] vs second [12.4 ± 6.4], P = 0.056). The performance improvement was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.94). Faculty evaluation by students was equally high in both groups (7 vs 7; P = 0.65). A pediatric acute care simulation by remote facilitation significantly improved students' performance. In this pilot study, remote facilitation seems as effective as a traditional, locally facilitated simulation. The remote simulation can be a strong alternative method, especially where experienced facilitators are limited.
Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha
This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…
Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn
In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…
Full Text Available The article discussed the idea of skilled helping in relation to what has been put forward as practical theological facilitation. It has been argued that various helping relationships, amongst which the author refers to coaching, facilitation, and therapy has more in common than what differentiates them if epistemology is viewed as a unifying concept. As such the scope of practical theology in terms of the contexts and themes in which it might be involved is said to widen. The public dimension of the organisational context, more so than the congregational context, has been put forward as an important habitus of practical-theological facilitation. The organisational involvement of the practical-theological facilitator in terms of professional-vocational skilled helping takes on an actual role through facilitation and other helping modalities.
Long, Lingfeng; Tian, Dong; Hu, Jinguang; Wang, Fei; Saddler, Jack
Although biological pretreatment of cellulosic fiber based on endoglucanases has shown some promise to facilitate cellulose nanofibrillation, its efficacy is still limited. In this study, a xylanase-aided endoglucanase pretreatment was assessed on the bleached hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps to facilitate the downstream cellulose nanofibrillation. Four commercial xylanase preparations were compared and the changes of major fiber physicochemical characteristics such as cellulose/hemicellulose content, gross fiber properties, fiber morphologies, cellulose accessibility/degree of polymerization (DP)/crystallinity were systematically evaluated before and after enzymatic pretreatment. It showed that the synergistic cooperation between endoglucanase and certain xylanase (Biobrite) could efficiently "open up" the hardwood Kraft pulp with limited carbohydrates degradation (cellulose nanofibrillation during mild sonication process (90Wh) with more uniform disintegrated nanofibril products (50-150nm, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eden, Karen B; Totten, Annette M; Kassakian, Steven Z; Gorman, Paul N; McDonagh, Marian S; Devine, Beth; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Woods, Susan; Hersh, William R
We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing facilitators and barriers to use of health information exchange (HIE). We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases between January 1990 and February 2015 using terms related to HIE. English-language studies that identified barriers and facilitators of actual HIE were included. Data on study design, risk of bias, setting, geographic location, characteristics of the HIE, perceived barriers and facilitators to use were extracted and confirmed. Ten cross-sectional, seven multiple-site case studies, and two before-after studies that included data from several sources (surveys, interviews, focus groups, and observations of users) evaluated perceived barriers and facilitators to HIE use. The most commonly cited barriers to HIE use were incomplete information, inefficient workflow, and reports that the exchanged information that did not meet the needs of users. The review identified several facilitators to use. Incomplete patient information was consistently mentioned in the studies conducted in the US but not mentioned in the few studies conducted outside of the US that take a collective approach toward healthcare. Individual patients and practices in the US may exercise the right to participate (or not) in HIE which effects the completeness of patient information available to be exchanged. Workflow structure and user roles are key but understudied. We identified several facilitators in the studies that showed promise in promoting electronic health data exchange: obtaining more complete patient information; thoughtful workflow that folds in HIE; and inclusion of users early in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Widder-Prewett, Rebecca; Draime, Juanita A; Cameron, Ginger; Anderson, Douglas; Pinkerton, Mark; Chen, Aleda M H
Objective. To determine the impact of student or faculty facilitation on student self-assessed attitudes, confidence, and competence in motivational interviewing (MI) skills; actual competence; and evaluation of facilitator performance. Methods. Second-year pharmacy (P2) students were randomly assigned to a student or faculty facilitator for a four-hour, small-group practice of MI skills. MI skills were assessed in a simulated patient encounter with the mMITI (modified Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity) tool. Students completed a pre-post, 6-point, Likert-type assessment addressing the research objectives. Differences were assessed using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results. Student (N=44) post-test attitudes, confidence, perceived or actual competence, and evaluations of facilitator performance were not different for faculty- and student-facilitated groups. Conclusion. Using pharmacy students as small-group facilitators did not affect student performance and were viewed as equally favorable. Using pharmacy students as facilitators can lessen faculty workload and provide an outlet for students to develop communication and facilitation skills that will be needed in future practice.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
In 2008 University of Aarhus, Denmark, issued a report concerning student experience with the study environment. Among the university's eight faculties, the Danish School of Education (DPU) held the sad record of having the lowest student well-being. This led to an action research project...... 'Facilitating study environment' at one of DPU's educations in spring 2009. The pilot project consisted of three elements: Facilitated study groups, a student bar with facilitated activities, and academic identity events. Subsequently, we have studied students' experiences with the project. This paper outlines...... the preliminary results from the facilitated study groups. After one term (February-May), student satisfaction with both the social and the disciplinary environment had increased. The project shows how academic and social integration can be achieved with minimum faculty member involvement. This is done by relying...
Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.
The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data
Newton, Jennifer M
Effective facilitation has been identified in the literature as one of three elements, along with context and evidence, that have a dynamic and coexisting relationship to enable the successful uptake of evidence into practice. This paper presents an overview of the concept of facilitation within the context of practice development, ahead of a personal and professional reflective account of a 'developing facilitator'. In the summer of 2001, the author was instrumental in organising the first Practice Development School in Melbourne. Thrown in at the deep end, she found herself co-facilitating with an experienced practice developer from the United Kingdom. Having never facilitated in the arena of an action learning group, nor worked in the field of practice development, there was initially a sense of impending overload and drowning in the new knowledge and skills that needed to be acquired. Drawing upon the work of narrative inquiry the author shares her experiences in the anticipation that in telling her story it will assist others in their journey of becoming a facilitator.
Full Text Available Compared to the vast literature linking competitive interactions and speciation, attempts to understand the role of facilitation for evolutionary diversification remain scarce. Yet, community ecologists now recognize the importance of positive interactions within plant communities. Here, we examine how facilitation may interfere with the mechanisms of ecological speciation. We argue that facilitation is likely to (1 maintain gene flow among incipient species by enabling cooccurrence of adapted and maladapted forms in marginal habitats and (2 increase fitness of introgressed forms and limit reinforcement in secondary contact zones. Alternatively, we present how facilitation may favour colonization of marginal habitats and thus enhance local adaptation and ecological speciation. Therefore, facilitation may impede or pave the way for ecological speciation. Using a simple spatially and genetically explicit modelling framework, we illustrate and propose some first testable ideas about how, when, and where facilitation may act as a cohesive force for ecological speciation. These hypotheses and the modelling framework proposed should stimulate further empirical and theoretical research examining the role of both competitive and positive interactions in the formation of incipient species.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline
Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Welch, Laura; Barnidge, Ellen; Weaver, Nancy; Evanoff, Bradley A.
Background Rates of musculoskeletal disorders in construction remain high. Few studies have described barriers and facilitators to the use of available ergonomic solutions. This paper describes these barriers and facilitators and their relationship to the level of adoption. Methods Three analysts rated 16 proposed ergonomic solutions from a participatory ergonomics study and assessed the level of adoption, six adoption characteristics, and identified the category of adoption from a theoretical model. Results Twelve solutions were always or intermittently used and were rated positively for characteristics of relative advantage, compatibility with existing work processes, and trialability. Locus of control (worker vs. contractor) was not related to adoption. Simple solutions faced fewer barriers to adoption than those rated as complex. Conclusions Specific adoption characteristics can help predict the use of new ergonomic solutions in construction. Adoption of complex solutions must involve multiple stakeholders, more time, and shifts in culture or work systems. PMID:28195660
Dyck, Mary J; Kim, Myoung Jin
The purpose of the study was to determine the continuing education needs for nursing home nurses in rural central Illinois and to determine any potential facilitators or barriers to obtaining continuing education. Data were collected using the Educational Needs Assessment questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine continuing education preferences, facilitators, and barriers among nursing home nurses. Independent samples t tests were used to compare preferences between administrative and staff nurses. The sample included 317 nurses from 34 facilities. The five top needs were related to clinical problems. Administrative nurses had greater needs for professional issues, managerial skills, and quality improvement than staff nurses. Barriers included rural settings, need for vacation time for programs, and inadequate staffing. Continuing education needs of nursing home nurses in Illinois are similar to previous studies conducted in Arizona and North Carolina. Continuing education barriers were mostly organizational, rather than personal. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2018;49(1):26-33. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Lindström, Björn R; Bohlin, Gunilla
The effect of emotional stimulus content on working memory performance has been investigated with conflicting results, as both emotion-dependent facilitation and impairments are reported in the literature. To clarify this issue, 52 adult participants performed a modified visual 2-back task with highly arousing positive stimuli (sexual scenes), highly arousing negative stimuli (violent death) and low-arousal neutral stimuli. Emotional stimulus processing was found to facilitate task performance relative to that of neutral stimuli, both in regards to response accuracy and reaction times. No emotion-dependent differences in false-alarm rates were found. These results indicate that emotional information can have a facilitating effect on working memory maintenance and processing of information.
Caring is a difficult nursing activity that involves a complex nature of a human being in need of complex decision-making and problem solving through the critical thinking process. It is mandatory that critical thinking is facilitated in general and in nursing education particularly in order to render care in diverse multicultural patient care settings. This paper aims to describe how argumentation can be used to facilitate critical thinking in learners. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that is contextual was used. Purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample and Miles and Huberman methodology of qualitative analysis was used to analyse data. Lincoln and Guba's strategies were employed to ensure trustworthiness, while Dhai and McQuoid-Mason's principles of ethical consideration were used. Following data analysis the findings were integrated within literature which culminated into the formulation of guidelines that can be followed when using argumentation as a methodology to facilitate critical thinking.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter
Project management can be seen as a profession, discipline and conceptual framework. It has been developed from different fields, including military engineering, mechanical engineering, social sciences and construction. During recent decades, there has been a number of challenges as to its efficacy...... cooperation, mediated by interconnected and diversified systems, is becoming more and more common. These relatively new forms of interaction imply new demands on skills and methods facilitating project cooperation within and among various organizations. Given the pervasiveness of these demands, project...... managers are frequently finding themselves in situations where using facilitating skills is not an option, but a requirement. Facilitation is to be viewed as a process of ‘obstetric’ aid to meet the challenges of coping with the changing conditions for project management described briefly above...
Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.
We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...
Acklin, M W
The psychoanalytic theory of religion has been seriously limited in its development, largely owing to Freud's emphasis on religion's neurotic elements and an overemphasis on the infantile origins of religious development. This paper offers a conceptual framework and advances the thesis, based on contemporary psychoanalytic, developmental theory, that 1) Erikson's concept of epigenesis has applicability across the life span; 2) that beyond-the-self identity is constituent to human maturation and self-completion; 3) that successful adult maturation requires a mirroring-facilitating environment; and 4) that religious values, meanings, images, and communities play an essential role-as-elements of the facilitating environment of later life.
Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie
This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.
Gan, Lydia L; Frederick, James R
The study identified which of the four facilitators (themselves, agents, insurers, or doctors) consumers are most likely to use when they travel for various medical procedures. A survey conducted between 2011 and 2014 yielded 964 responses. The multinomial logistic regression results showed that being 51-64 years old was positively related to going on their own or using agents to arrange for knee replacements. Having a high school education or less was positively linked to using both agents and insurers to facilitate knee replacements, whereas having a bachelor's degree was negatively associated with going on their own for stem cell therapy.
McHugh, Megan; Brown, Tiffany; Liss, David T; Walunas, Theresa L; Persell, Stephen D
Practice facilitation is a promising approach to helping practices implement quality improvements. Our purpose was to describe practice facilitators' and practice leaders' perspectives on implementation of a practice facilitator-supported quality improvement program and describe where their perspectives aligned and diverged. We conducted interviews with practice leaders and practice facilitators who participated in a program that included 35 improvement strategies aimed at the ABCS of heart health (aspirin use in high-risk individuals, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). Rapid qualitative analysis was used to collect, organize, and analyze the data. We interviewed 17 of the 33 eligible practice leaders, and the 10 practice facilitators assigned to those practices. Practice leaders and practice facilitators both reported value in the program's ability to bring needed, high-quality resources to practices. Practice leaders appreciated being able to set the schedule for facilitation and select among the 35 interventions. According to practice facilitators, however, relying on practice leaders to set the pace of the intervention resulted in a lower level of program intensity than intended. Practice leaders preferred targeted assistance, particularly electronic health record documentation guidance and linkages to state smoking cessation programs. Practice facilitators reported that the easiest interventions were those that did not alter care practices. The dual perspectives of practice leaders and practice facilitators provide a more holistic picture of enablers and barriers to program implementation. There may be greater opportunities to assist small practices through simple, targeted practice facilitator-supported efforts rather than larger, comprehensive quality improvement projects. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory
"This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...
Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip
This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…
Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert
and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...
PACER Center, 2004
To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…
This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner's 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as…
The emerging concept of illicit financial flows has become a crosscutting issue on the international agenda in recent years. This umbrella term refers to money illegally earned, transferred, or used. With the development of digital technologies, the use of information and communications networks as a tool for facilitating illicit financial flows is rising as one of the key challenges in ta...
Baumeister, Alfred A.; Kistler, Doris
This study attempted to determine if white noise (an arousing stimulus), when presented at the time of recall, facilitates performance of second and fifth grade students, and if this effect generalizes across different kinds of learning tasks. Findings indicate that white noise produces improvements in performance in both age groups. (GO)
Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn
This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…
Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and collaborative practice in a health sciences faculty: Student perceptions and experiences. ... It became apparent that students need to be prepared to work in interprofessional groups. The overall intervention was perceived positively, allowing students to become ...
Harkness, John E.
A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…
Barriga, Patricio; And Others
This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…
In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on integrating the teaching of arithmetic and algebra in primary school classrooms. This requires teachers to develop links between arithmetic and algebra and use pedagogical actions that facilitate algebraic reasoning. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper provides an…
Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…
The study ascertained how teachers facilitate the creativity skills of the Pupils as an outcome of professional development. 450 primary school pupils and 50 Basic science teachers in the primary schools were sampled. The study adopted the Solomon four group design. The Torrance Test for Creative thinking (TTCT) and ...
Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin
A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...
Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.
Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…
Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull
Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the mo...
Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.
This book offers advice to facilitators and change agents who wish to build systems-level learning to create knowledge that can be used to gain a competitive advantage. Chapter 1 describes forces driving companies to build, sustain, and effectively use systems-level learning and presents and links a working definition of the learning organization…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…
Claudia Cecilia Pena-Montoya
Full Text Available Industrial solid waste (ISW is increasing in both quantity and complexity and it is a priority to establish strategies to manage it. Reverse Logistics (RL is a strategy that enables material recovery and reuse avoiding the damage that ISW may cause; also RL organizes solid waste management activities and supports other activities such as ISW trading. Most of the research linking ISW and RL in developed countries is related to the electronics subsector because of the negative effects on the environment; however, research oriented towards plastics subsector waste is lower. This is the case in Colombia where the plastics subsector is composed mainly by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs facing diverse constraints for their operation. Main facilitators and barriers that face SMEs in the Colombian plastics subsector to undertake RL programs were identified. An exploratory study was carried out in which business managers assessed the facilitators and barriers identified in the literature. The results showed that the availability of skilled people to perform RL activities is one of the most important internal facilitators and the lack of secondary markets for recovered materials is among the external barriers. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in the field that is still maturing in Colombia.
Full Text Available Background and context: I have been working as a practice developer in the Australian healthcare system for more than 10 years. For the last seven of those I was a lead facilitator for a practice development programme that is being implemented across a large statewide health service. The programme’s purpose is to create person-centred care environments that enable patient and staff empowerment. My role was in a small team that supported facilitators predominantly at local health district and state levels. The intent was to phase out the team over time as capacity increased and local teams gained the required skills and knowledge to continue implementing the programme. During the two-year final transition phase, a strategic plan was implemented to guide the development of systems and capacity that would support the programme once the team had exited. A decision was made to shorten the phasing-out period and during this transition period I found myself facing an unknown and unpredictable future, for the first time in my career promoting something other than my clinical nursing skills. As I transitioned into an independent facilitator role I wanted to consolidate my expertise as a facilitator, to gain further learning in specific areas and to achieve recognition of the facilitation skill set I had honed over time, and which has now become my way of working. Given that my experience was limited to the healthcare context, diverse though it is, I pondered which of my skills would stand me in good stead to enable groups and organisations as an independent professional facilitator and what additional skills I’d need. I was encouraged to become a certified professional facilitator by colleagues who were using process facilitation and person-centredness more broadly. This paper reflects my experience of the preparation, assessment and accreditation process, the feedback I received from my international assessors and how these are influencing my
Hecht, Tracy D; McCarthy, Julie M
Balancing multiple roles is a challenge for individuals in many sectors of the population. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals have dispositional tendencies to experience interrole conflict and facilitation. We also aimed to show that coping styles and life satisfaction are correlates of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies. Two survey studies were conducted with individuals involved in 3 life roles (i.e., employee, student, and family member; Study 1: N = 193; Study 2: N = 284). The hierarchical structure of conflict and facilitation was examined in both studies. Support for the dispositional model was found in both cases through the use of hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2, a longitudinal assessment of the nomological network surrounding conflict and facilitation tendencies was conducted with structural equation modeling analyses; we found that coping styles had synchronous relations with dispositional conflict and facilitation; dispositional conflict had a lagged and negative relation with life satisfaction.
San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran
Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rhydderch, Melody; Edwards, Adrian; Marshall, Martin; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard
The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by practices increases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. Method A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. Results The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. Conclusion This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by
Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment.
This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability
Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan
Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cowie, Martin R.; Blomster, Juuso I.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, J?rg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P.; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis
Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the pr...
Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent
Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...
Donald, L.; Clark, M.
Mentoring has been occurring in organizations for many, many years through a natural pairing process of people wanting to help one another. The numerous benefits of mentoring to both the protege and the mentor are widely known. In this paper we describe a Facilitated Mentoring Pilot Program for engineers, successfully completed in June, 1993. This career development tool can help make ``Every Engineer a Leader.``
ABSTRACT. The doctoral thesis of Ilze Šūmane in pedagogy science, school pedagogy sub-discipline ”Learning environment facilitating educational achievements of teenagers” was worked out in the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Arts, University of Latvia, under the supervision of Dr.paed., professor Rudīte Andersone from2001 till 2011. The topicality of the research determined by the necessity to improve quality learning and education. During an effective study ...
Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew
Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583
Machado, Denis Jacob
The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .
Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan
Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.
Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.
Anatoliy V. Kharkhurin
Full Text Available This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian–English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing, but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals. Bilinguals outperformed their monolingual counterparts on divergent thinking trait of cognitive flexibility, and bilinguals’ performance on this trait could be explained by their TLP effect. Age of second language acquisition and proficiency in this language were found to relate to the TLP effect, and therefore were proposed to influence the directionality and strength of connections in bilingual memory.
Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae
Recently several total system performance assessment (TSPA) programs, called 'template' programs, ready for the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository systems which are conceptually modeled have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. It is generally believed that chelating agents (chelators) that could be disposed of together with radioactive wastes in the repository and natural colloids available in the geological media affect on nuclides by enhancing their transport in the geological media. A simple GoldSim module to evaluate such quantitative effects, by which colloid and chelator-facilitated nuclide release cases could be modeled and evaluated is introduced. Effects of the chelators alone are illustrated with the case associated with well pumping scenario in a hypothetical repository system
Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla; Rasmussen, Maria B
BACKGROUND: Training of healthcare staff in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is time-consuming and costly. It has been suggested to replace instructor facilitated (IF) training with an automated voice advisory manikin (VAM), which increases skill level by continuous verbal feedback during...... individual training. AIMS: To compare a VAM (ResusciAnne CPR skills station, Laerdal Medical A/S, Norway) with IF training in CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) in terms of skills retention after 3 months. METHODS: Forty-three second year medical students were included and CPR performance (ERC Guidelines...... for Resuscitation 2005) was assessed in a 2 min test before randomisation to either IF training in groups of 8 or individual VAM training. Immediately after training and after 3 months, CPR performance was assessed in identical 2 min tests. Laerdal PC Skill Reporting System 2.0 was used to collect data. To quantify...
Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos
There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...... and achieve outcomes. This illustration is based on a micro-level analysis of a transcript from a Viable System Model workshop held in a food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark. Through our findings we identify two distinct script-supported FM behaviours and related script-supported facilitation practices...... that enable novices to (a) acquire skills and competencies; and (b) switch between and combine skills and competencies to successfully manage workshops and achieve outcomes. Our study links micro-level considerations to a meta-level framework that relates the script-supported FM behaviours and practices...
Munch, Anna; Boholt, Marianne
Abstract The topic of this thesis is the relatively new consultancy tool of graphic facilitation (GF). GF is a method that combines hand-drawn images and big picture thinking. A graphic facilitator leads a group through a process that results in visual output such as a poster or pamphlet. Our thesis analyses this management tool from a power perspective in an attempt to determine the power relations inherent in its practice. Our theoretical basis is French philosopher Michel Foucault’s theory...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of conveners and facilitators. 600.752..., by consensus. The facilitator may be the same person as the convener used under paragraph (a) of this... facilitator, the FNP shall select, by consensus, a person to serve as facilitator. A person designated to...
Møller, Laura; Goduscheit, René Chester
facilitation may be employed as a method to support organisational development processes. The article unfolds the concept of facilitation, identifies the processes that merit facilitation and demonstrates how facilitation work may be approached. The first step in the process is acknowledgement of the need...
Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and
Gresham Cathy R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and
Cameron, Kenzie A; Cohen, Elaine R; Hertz, Joelle R; Wayne, Diane B; Mitra, Debi; Barsuk, Jeffrey H
The aims of the study were to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion among healthcare providers and to understand the extent to which an existing Simulation-Based Mastery Learning (SBML) program may address barriers and leverage facilitators. Providers participating in a CVC insertion SBML train-the-trainer program, in addition to intensive care unit nurse managers, were purposively sampled from Veterans Administration Medical Centers located in geographically diverse areas. We conducted semistructured interviews to assess perceptions of barriers and facilitators to CVC insertion. Deidentified transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative method. We subsequently mapped identified barriers and facilitators to our SBML curriculum to determine whether or not the curriculum addresses these factors. We interviewed 28 providers at six Veterans Administration Medical Centers, identifying the following five overarching factors of perceived barriers to CVC insertion: (1) equipment, (2) personnel/staff, (3) setting or organizational context, (4) patient or provider, and (5) time-related barriers. Three overarching factors of facilitators emerged: (1) equipment, (2) personnel, and (3) setting or organizational context facilitators. The SBML curriculum seems to address most identified barriers, while leveraging many facilitators; building on the commonly identified facilitator of nursing staff contribution by expanding the curriculum to explicitly include nurse involvement could improve team efficiency and organizational culture of safety. Many identified facilitators (e.g., ability to use ultrasound, personnel confidence/competence) were also identified as barriers. Evidence-based SBML programs have the potential to amplify these facilitators while addressing the barriers by providing an opportunity to practice and master CVC insertion skills.
Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J
Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.
Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise
Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...
• Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion
Khandelwal, Nita; Benkeser, David; Coe, Norma B; Engelberg, Ruth A; Curtis, J Randall
In the intensive care unit (ICU), complex decision making by clinicians and families requires good communication to ensure that care is consistent with the patients' values and goals. To assess the economic feasibility of staffing ICUs with a communication facilitator. Data were from a randomized trial of an "ICU communication facilitator" linked to hospital financial records; eligible patients (n = 135) were admitted to the ICU at a single hospital with predicted mortality ≥30% and a surrogate decision maker. Adjusted regression analyses assessed differences in ICU total and direct variable costs between intervention and control patients. A bootstrap-based simulation assessed the cost efficiency of a facilitator while varying the full-time equivalent of the facilitator and the ICU mortality risk. Total ICU costs (mean 22.8k; 95% CI, -42.0k to -3.6k; P = 0.02) and average daily ICU costs (mean, -0.38k; 95% CI, -0.65k to -0.11k; P = 0.006)] were reduced significantly with the intervention. Despite more contacts, families of survivors spent less time per encounter with facilitators than did families of decedents (mean, 25 [SD, 11] min vs. 36 [SD, 14] min). Simulation demonstrated maximal weekly savings with a 1.0 full-time equivalent facilitator and a predicted ICU mortality of 15% (total weekly ICU cost savings, $58.4k [95% CI, $57.7k-59.2k]; weekly direct variable savings, $5.7k [95% CI, $5.5k-5.8k]) after incorporating facilitator costs. Adding a full-time trained communication facilitator in the ICU may improve the quality of care while simultaneously reducing short-term (direct variable) and long-term (total) health care costs. This intervention is likely to be more cost effective in a lower-mortality population.
Steen, Lynn Arthur
Assessment not only places value, it also identifies which elements to value. In this era of accountability, the constituents of educational assessment are not just students, faculty, and administrators, but also parents, legislators, journalists, and the public. For these broader audiences, simple numerical indicators of student performance take…
Pattison, Jill; Kline, Theresa
The purpose of this paper is to identify managerial and organizational characteristics and behaviors that facilitate the fostering of a just and trusting culture within the healthcare system. Two studies were conducted. The initial qualitative one was used to identify themes based on interviews with health care workers that facilitate a just and trusting culture. The quantitative one used a policy-capturing design to determine which factors were most likely to predict outcomes of manager and organizational trust. The factors of violation type (ability vs integrity), providing an explanation or not, blame vs no blame by manager, and blame vs no blame by organization were all significant predictors of perceptions of trust. Limitations to the generalizability of findings included both a small and non-representative sample from one health care region. The present findings can be useful in developing training systems for managers and organizational executive teams for managing medical error events in a manner that will help develop a just and trusting culture. A just and trusting culture should enhance the likelihood of reporting medical errors. Improved reporting, in turn, should enhance patient safety. This is the first field study experimentally manipulating aspects of organizational trust within the health care sector. The use of policy-capturing is a unique feature that sheds light into the decision-making of health care workers as to the efficaciousness of particular managerial and organizational characteristics that impact a just and trusting culture.
Spencer, Kevin M; Nestor, Paul G; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W
While attentional functions are usually found to be impaired in schizophrenia, a review of the literature on the orienting of spatial attention in schizophrenia suggested that voluntary attentional orienting in response to a valid cue might be paradoxically enhanced. We tested this hypothesis with orienting tasks involving the cued detection of a laterally presented target stimulus. Subjects were chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) and matched healthy control subjects (HC). In Experiment 1 (15 SZ, 16 HC), cues were endogenous (arrows) and could be valid (100% predictive) or neutral with respect to the subsequent target position. In Experiment 2 (16 SZ, 16 HC), subjects performed a standard orienting task with unpredictive exogenous cues (brightening of the target boxes). In Experiment 1, SZ showed a larger attentional facilitation effect on reaction time than HC. In Experiment 2, no clear sign of enhanced attentional facilitation was found in SZ. The voluntary, facilitatory shifting of spatial attention may be relatively enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy individuals. This effect bears resemblance to other relative enhancements of information processing in schizophrenia such as saccade speed and semantic priming. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P
Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.
Full Text Available Practical skills constitute essential knowledge in occupational therapy. The knowledge is situation- and experience-based, generated from within the situation. In a particular program for educating Palestinian Occupational Therapists in Gaza, facilitating such knowledge proved to be difficult. Due to travel restrictions and an unstable political situation, teachers and students were separated. Educational communication technology (ECT like videoconferences, internet and videos became new and necessary tools. This article is based on results from an action research project which followed the process of using flexible forms of learning and developing an internet based learning programme named Ergonet. The learning process of the students using it was examined with the aim of answering the following research question: How can flexible forms of learning be developed and used to facilitate practical knowledge in Occupational Therapy education? The development and implementation of Ergonet as a supporting device in students’ learning of practical skills is described through the experience of the teachers involved. The results indicate how rote-learning and lack of reflective and critical thinking, firmly established among Palestinian students, have been challenged and changed by the didactic use of Ergonet.
Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R
The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen
When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.
Wu, Q D
Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.
Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J
This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.
Purtzer, Mary Anne; Overstreet, Lindsey
To use transformative learning to investigate what experiences serve as catalysts for mammography screening, the cognitive and affective responses that result from the catalyst, and how screening behavior is impacted. A descriptive qualitative study. Southeastern Wyoming. 25 low-income, rural women aged 40 years and older. Four focus group interviews. Cancer experiences triggered universal responses of fear by screeners and nonscreeners. The manner in which that fear response was interpreted was a critical factor in the facilitation of, or impedance to, screening. Dichotomous interpretations of fear responses provided the context for screening behavior. Immobilizing and isolating experiences were associated with nonscreening behavior, whereas motivation and self-efficacy were associated with screening behavior. Transformative learning theory is a useful framework from which to explain differences in mammography screening behavior. Creating opportunities that facilitate dialogue and critical reflection hold the potential to change immobilizing and isolating frames of reference in nonscreening women. To help women transcend their fear and become self-efficacious, nurses can assess how cancer and the screening experience is viewed and, if indicated, move beyond standard education and offer opportunities for dialogue and critical reflection.
Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li Tang
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland...... were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist...... environmental facilitators (p physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p
Zhou, Bin; Huang, QiuChen; Zheng, Tao; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular joint facilitation on bridging exercises by assessing the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle and thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis. [Subjects] Twelve healthy men. [Methods] Four exercises were evaluated: (a) supine resting, (b) bridging resistance exercise involving posterior pelvic tilting, (c) bridging resistance exercise involving anterior pelvic tilting, and (d) bridging resistance exercise involving neuromuscular joint facilitation. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle and thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis were measured during each exercise. [Results] The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle and thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis were significantly greater in the neuromuscular joint facilitation group than the others. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention improves the function of deep muscles such as the multifidus muscle and musculus transversus abdominis. Therefore, it can be recommended for application in clinical treatments such as that for back pain.
Robinson, Michael D; Meier, Brian P; Tamir, Maya; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Ode, Scott
Approach motivation consists of the active, engaged pursuit of one's goals. The purpose of the present three studies (N = 258) was to examine whether approach motivation could be cognitively modeled, thereby providing process-based insights into personality functioning. Behavioral facilitation was assessed in terms of faster (or facilitated) reaction time with practice. As hypothesized, such tendencies predicted higher levels of approach motivation, higher levels of positive affect, and lower levels of depressive symptoms and did so across cognitive, behavioral, self-reported, and peer-reported outcomes. Tendencies toward behavioral facilitation, on the other hand, did not correlate with self-reported traits (Study 1) and did not predict avoidance motivation or negative affect (all studies). The results indicate a systematic relationship between behavioral facilitation in cognitive tasks and approach motivation in daily life. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits of modeling the cognitive processes hypothesized to underlie individual differences motivation, affect, and depression. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Online education is increasing as a solution to manage ever increasing enrollment numbers at higher education institutions. Intentionally and thoughtfully constructed courses allow students to improve performance through practice and self-assessment and instructors benefit from improving consistency in providing content and assessing process,…
Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles
The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.
Kristian W Sanggaard
Full Text Available Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.
profession, but at the same time it becomes very difficult to identify where and how the design is created since form-giving now becomes a group effort. So as a way to ease the transition from highly framed and facilitated high school learning context to university self-driven learning context a small...... given to two set of students; one set that received the survival kit in 2011 and 2012 and one set that did not. The questionnaire inquires the students’ attitude towards 4 aspects: 1.General level of preparedness for team and problem based project work 2.Level of information of expectations from...... supervisors and programme 3.Reflection of the role in a team, problem based project work 4.The level of information of special expectations from the Industrial Design program towards team and problem based project work. Results indicates that Class receiving the “Survival Kit” improved in the calibration...
Baldwin, Carryl L
Seventeen participants performed a tone-pattern-matching task at different presentation levels while concurrently engaged in a simulated-driving task. Presentation levels of 60, 65, and 70 dBC (SPL) were combined factorially with tone-matching delays of 2, 3, and 4 sec. Intensity had no effect on performance in single-task conditions and short-delay conditions. However, when the participants were engaged concurrently in the driving task, a significant interaction between presentation level and delay was observed. In the longest delay condition, the participants performed the tone-pattern-matching task more efficiently (more quickly and without additional errors) as presentation intensity increased. These findings demonstrate the interaction between sensory and cognitive processes and point to a direct-intensity relationship where intensity affects the persistence of echoic memory. Implications for facilitating auditory processing and improving auditory interfaces in complex systems (i.e., transportation environments), particularly for older and hearing-impaired listeners, are discussed.
Tanasova, Marina; Fedie, Joseph R
Facilitative carbohydrate transporters-Gluts-have received wide attention over decades due to their essential role in nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors directed towards understanding the mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in a multidisciplinary research field spanning protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the molecular interactions behind Glut-mediated sugar uptake, Glut-targeting probes, therapeutics, and inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.
Kierzek, Elzbieta; Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H; Catrina, Irina E
Determining RNA secondary structure is important for understanding structure-function relationships and identifying potential drug targets. This paper reports the use of microarrays with heptamer 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides to probe the secondary structure of an RNA and thereby improve the prediction of that secondary structure. When experimental constraints from hybridization results are added to a free-energy minimization algorithm, the prediction of the secondary structure of Escherichia coli 5S rRNA improves from 27 to 92% of the known canonical base pairs. Optimization of buffer conditions for hybridization and application of 2'-O-methyl-2-thiouridine to enhance binding and improve discrimination between AU and GU pairs are also described. The results suggest that probing RNA with oligonucleotide microarrays can facilitate determination of secondary structure.
Nielsen, Louise Møller
experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...
Rasmussen, Mette Apollo
participants in varied ways come to grasp the meaning of networking. The dissertation draws on insights from the Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic to explain how networks can be seen as spheres for value co-creation. Co-creation as a theoretical construct has evolved from varied streams of service marketing...... of networking. The concept of “imaginative value” (Beckert, 2011) is used to explain the oscillating behaviors observed in the two networks. Imaginative value can be defined as symbolic value that actors ascribe to an object, in this case the network. I argue that the group practices in the networks led......The dissertation investigates through two ethnographic case studies how value co-creation takes place in inter-organizational networks that have been facilitated by a municipality. The contribution of the study to business network research is the emphasis on development phases of networks...
Berg, Otto G; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan
The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction–diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general. (paper)
Full Text Available Background: Coordination is a critical factor in successful organization and appropriate response to disasters. In this regard, a centralized coordination mechanism is the first step towards an effective, efficient, and sustainable response in order to be ensured of the short- and long-term recovery. Thus, this study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers and facilitators of coordination in disasters. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016. The participants comprised 22 experts in field of disaster. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire according to the analytical hierarchy process approach. For data analysis, we used Expert Choice software. Results: Based on the results, “dominance of organizational approach instead of national points of view when addressing the health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.344 among the barriers. Furthermore, among the facilitators, “having a processive and organizational view in health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.374. Conclusion: To increase the effective coordination in health area, we should develop infrastructure and structural measures, which include bolstering authorities’ belief about the health system’s role in the response to disasters, reinforcing the national approach rather than organizational approach in the field of health at disasters, implementing the coordination requirements, attending sufficiently and specifically to public participation, reducing the organizational friction in the health field for sharing resources and information, raising the level of readiness with a focus on people and training programs, and finally creating an evolutionary process in the health field at disasters.
Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W
Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Karsten Klint; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Gamborg, Christian
Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about...... their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues without the presence of external stakeholders. It reports on the use of a reflection process with scientists working in the area...... of animal disease genomics (mainly drawn from the EADGENE EC Network of Excellence). This reflection process was facilitated by using an ethical engagement framework, a modified version of the Ethical Matrix. As judged by two criteria, a qualitative assessment of the outcomes and the participants' own...
Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C
Facilitating physical activity during the workday may help desk-bound workers reduce risks associated with sedentary behavior. We 1) evaluated the efficacy of a cycling workstation to increase energy expenditure while performing a typing task and 2) fabricated a power measurement system to determine the accuracy and reliability of an exercise cycle. Ten individuals performed 10 min trials of sitting while typing (SIT type) and pedaling while typing (PED type). Expired gases were recorded and typing performance was assessed. Metabolic cost during PED type was ∼ 2.5 × greater compared to SIT type (255 ± 14 vs. 100 ± 11 kcal h(-1), P physical activity without compromising typing performance. The exercise cycle's inaccuracy could be misleading to users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.
This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by
Due, Tina Drud; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Waldorff, Frans Boch
of the visited practices to gain a more detailed understanding of how peer facilitation influenced practices and how they valued the facilitation. METHODS: The facilitation intervention was conducted in general practice in the Capital Region of Denmark with the purpose of supporting the implementation of chronic...... visits had increased their knowledge and skills as well as their motivation and confidence to change. These positive influences were ascribed to a) the facilitation approach b) the credibility and know-how associated with the facilitators' being peers c) the recurring visits providing protected time...... and invoking a sense of commitment. Despite these positive influences, both the facilitation and the change process were impeded by several challenges, e.g. competing priorities, heavy workload, problems with information technology and in some cases inadequate facilitation. CONCLUSION: Practice facilitation...
Eakin, William L.
As Total Quality Management teams work to improve organizational processes, several types of facilitators emerge: the director, the workhorse, and the cheerleader. Experience at the University of Kansas illustrates how different facilitator styles can affect team learning. (MSE)
Full Text Available This conference presentation discusses the authors' duties as the facilitators of the POL-SABINA Natural Products Virtual Research Environment. In summary, they facilitated the use and content population of the Natural Products Virtual Research...
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Vander Vliet, Valerie J.
This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal
Harman, Robert L.
If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)
Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Thorsen, Thorkil
The use of facilitators for quality improvement in general practice has accelerated during the past decade. As general practitioners (GPs) or pharmacists have typically been used as facilitators, there is a lack of knowledge of how other professionals function as facilitators. This article explores...
Corbett, Jennifer E; Melcher, David
Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a tilted target. In "stable" blocks, the mean and/or local sizes of the Gabors were constant over successive displays, whereas in "unstable" baseline blocks they changed from trial to trial. Although there was no relationship between the context and the spatial location of the target, observers found targets faster (as indexed by faster correct responses and fewer saccades) as the global mean size became stable over several displays. Building statistical stability also facilitated scanning the scene, as measured by larger saccadic amplitudes, faster saccadic reaction times, and shorter fixation durations. These findings suggest a central role for peripheral visual information, creating context to free resources for detailed processing of salient targets and maintaining the illusion of visual stability.
Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.
Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T
Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.
Badea Elena Codruta
Full Text Available The classroom is the magic active scenery where many educational things take place simultaneously.Intellectual, emotional, socio-cultural, motivational and curricular factors corroborate their influence onclassroom environments, whether we deal with traditional models of teaching or with the constructivistapproaches. The growing demand for language teachers, English in particular, has determined a new vision oflanguage teaching strategies. The cutting-edge technology has created a fertile ground which successfullyfosters the teacher –student communication, emphasizing the teacher’s role to guide students and to generate achange in their learning approach and in eliciting useable knowledge. This way, the teacher has a larger abilityto convert knowledge into practical information that is of real help and value to students. Students are involvedin a continuous educational scheme and are tested on what they have learned. This ensures they can alwaysenjoy the benefits of active learning from expert teachers. The present paper deals with a brief analysis of therole of teacher as learning facilitator and its importance for student acquisition process, eliciting some strategiesin support of collaborative and student-centered learning.
Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent
Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.
Sandhu, M S; Lee, K Z; Gonzalez-Rothi, E J; Fuller, D D
Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used to treat hypoventilation. Here we investigated whether doxapram could also trigger respiratory neuroplasticity. Specifically, we hypothesized that intermittent delivery of doxapram at low doses would lead to long-lasting increases (i.e., facilitation) of phrenic motor output in anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically-ventilated rats. Doxapram was delivered intravenously in a single bolus (2 or 6mg/kg) or as a series of 3 injections (2mg/kg) at 5min intervals. Control groups received pH-matched saline injections (vehicle) or no treatment (anesthesia time control). Doxapram evoked an immediate increase in phrenic output in all groups, but a persistent increase in burst amplitude only occurred after repeated dosing with 2mg/kg. At 60min following the last injection, phrenic burst amplitude was 168±24% of baseline (%BL) in the group receiving 3 injections (Pphrenic response to doxapram (2mg/kg) was reduced by 68% suggesting that at low doses the drug was acting primarily via the carotid chemoreceptors. We conclude that intermittent application of doxapram can trigger phrenic neuroplasticity, and this approach might be of use in the context of respiratory rehabilitation following neurologic injury. © 2013.
Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Myers, Mark G.
Objective: Expectancies about social outcomes for smoking are relevant to college student smokers, who frequently report "social smoking." A new measure, the Social Facilitation Expectancies (SFE) scale, was developed to assess these beliefs. Participants: The SFE was administered to undergraduate college student smokers ("N" =…
Students on the MSc Physiotherapy (pre-registration) programme at Manchester Metropolitan University work at postgraduate level, whilst studying to become physiotherapists. To facilitate the transition to postgraduate attainment, students participated in two sessions designed to inform them about assessment processes and standards. The hypothesis…
Chabeli, M M
This article seeks to establish whether the poster presentation of a specific theme can facilitate the student's thinking skills in nursing education. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design where twenty students volunteered to take part in the study by signing an informed consent was followed. Descriptive naïve sketches were used for data collection followed by individual interviews to validate the findings. Data was analysed by means of the descriptive method of open coding of Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). DENOSA's ethical standards for research (1998:7) were considered. The findings indicated both positive and negative perceptions. The positive perceptions were: a poster presentation as an evaluation method facilitates creative, critical and reflective thinking skills; group work facilitates student participation; it facilitates problem solving skills; it increases the student's independence and a sense of ownership; and the evaluation is fair. The negative perceptions were that there was a lack of clarity on the student's expectations and that group activity is difficult. Trustworthiness was maintained in accordance with Lincoln and Guba's principles (1985:290-327). It is concluded that a poster presentation, used effectively as an evaluation method, can facilitate the learner's critical and reflective thinking skills. It is recommended that other learner-centred methods of assessment and evaluation be researched for their effective use in facilitating the higher order thinking skills of learners.
James E. Saiers
The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.
Harvey, Gillian; Lynch, Elizabeth
Facilitating the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a complex undertaking. Numerous contextual factors at a local, organizational, and health system level can influence the trajectory and ultimate success of an improvement program. Some of these contextual factors are amenable to modification, others less so. As part of planning and implementing healthcare improvement, it is important to assess and build an understanding of contextual factors that might present barriers to or enablers of implementation. On the basis of this initial diagnosis, it should then be possible to design and implement the improvement intervention in a way that is responsive to contextual barriers and enablers, often described as "tailoring" the implementation approach. Having individuals in the active role of facilitators is proposed as an effective way of delivering a context-sensitive, tailored approach to implementing CQI. This paper presents an overview of the facilitator role in implementing CQI. Drawing on empirical evidence from the use of facilitator roles in healthcare, the type of skills and knowledge required will be considered, along with the type of facilitation strategies that can be employed in the implementation process. Evidence from both case studies and systematic reviews of facilitation will be reviewed and key lessons for developing and studying the role in the future identified.
O'Brien, Michael J; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Armas, Cristina; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Schöb, Christian
The stress-gradient hypothesis predicts a higher frequency of facilitative interactions as resource limitation increases. Under severe resource limitation, it has been suggested that facilitation may revert to competition, and identifying the presence as well as determining the magnitude of this shift is important for predicting the effect of climate change on biodiversity and plant community dynamics. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis to compare temporal differences of species diversity and productivity under a nurse plant ( Retama sphaerocarpa ) with varying annual rainfall quantity to test the effect of water limitation on facilitation. Furthermore, we assess spatial differences in the herbaceous community under nurse plants in situ during a year with below-average rainfall. We found evidence that severe rainfall deficit reduced species diversity and plant productivity under nurse plants relative to open areas. Our results indicate that the switch from facilitation to competition in response to rainfall quantity is nonlinear. The magnitude of this switch depended on the aspect around the nurse plant. Hotter south aspects under nurse plants resulted in negative effects on beneficiary species, while the north aspect still showed facilitation. Combined, these results emphasize the importance of spatial heterogeneity under nurse plants for mediating species loss under reduced precipitation, as predicted by future climate change scenarios. However, the decreased water availability expected under climate change will likely reduce overall facilitation and limit the role of nurse plants as refugia, amplifying biodiversity loss.
Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese Jane; Barr, Megan
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity among children with disability. 10 electronic databases were searched from the earliest time available to September 2010 to identify relevant articles. Articles were included if they examined the barriers or facilitators to physical activity for children with disability and were written in English. Articles were excluded if they included children with an acute, transient or chronic medical condition, examined sedentary leisure activities, or societal participation in general. Two reviewers independently assessed the search yields, extracted the data and assessed trial quality. Data were analysed descriptively. 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. Barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, the child's preferences, fear, parental behaviour, negative attitudes to disability, inadequate facilities, lack of transport, programmes and staff capacity, and cost. Facilitators included the child's desire to be active, practising skills, involvement of peers, family support, accessible facilities, proximity of location, better opportunities, skilled staff and information. Personal, social, environmental, and policy and programme-related barriers and facilitators influence the amount of activity children with disability undertake. The barriers to physical activity have been studied more comprehensively than the facilitators.
Nooijen, Carla F J; Kallings, Lena V; Blom, Victoria; Ekblom, Örjan; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria M
Qualitative studies identified barriers and facilitators associated with work-related sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine common perceived barriers and facilitators among office workers, assess subgroup differences, and describe sedentary behaviour. From two Swedish companies, 547 office workers (41 years (IQR = 35–48), 65% women, 66% highly educated) completed questionnaires on perceived barriers and facilitators, for which subgroup differences in age, gender, education, and workplace sedentary behaviour were assessed. Sedentary behaviour was measured using inclinometers ( n = 311). The most frequently reported barrier was sitting is a habit (67%), which was reported more among women than men (Χ² = 5.14, p = 0.03) and more among highly sedentary office workers (Χ² = 9.26, p < 0.01). The two other most reported barriers were that standing is uncomfortable (29%) and standing is tiring (24%). Facilitators with the most support were the introduction of either standing- or walking-meetings (respectively 33% and 29%) and more possibilities or reminders for breaks (31%). The proportion spent sedentary was 64% at the workplace, 61% on working days, and 57% on non-working days. This study provides a detailed understanding of office workers’ ideas about sitting and means to reduce sitting. We advise to include the supported facilitators and individualized support in interventions to work towards more effective strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour.
Full Text Available Introduction: There are many factors that affect the level of physical activity and body mass index of the elderly. The current study aimed to assess the relationship of physical activity facilitators and body mass index of Kashan elderly. Methods: The cross-sectional study sampled 400 elderly older than 60 referred to 10 healthcare centers in Kashan, 2014, via multistage quota method. Participations were tested under demographic characters, body mass index(BMI level, and exercise benefits part of exercise benefits and barrier scale (persian version for measurig physical activity facilitators. Data were analyzed in SPSS software, descriptive statistic, Spearman correlation test, Chi-Square and Ordinal regression. Results: Of the participations73.6% were overweight or obese. Median and interquartile range (IQR of physical activity facilitators was 75 and 33 respectively. The most prominent physical activity facilitators was" physical activity increases my physical ability, (83.2%. There was a significantly inverse relationship between physical activity facilitators score and BMI of participants (r=-0.233, P=0.001. Ordinal regression evealed that mostly predictor of BMI among physical activity facilitators was "physical activity improves the quality of my work " (OR=8.683, P=0.001. Conclusion: Results identified physical activity facilitators directly is related to improve physical circumstances of the elderly people. Surly poviding physical activity facilitators through educational and interventional programs may improve the health status of aging population.
Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.
The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear
Fleming, Wayne S; Sznajder, Kristin K; Nepps, Margaret; Boktor, Sameh W
This study determined facilitators and barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination perceived by providers of healthcare in the federally funded Pennsylvania Vaccines for Children (PA VFC) program. The cross-sectional study gathered descriptive data through a survey research design. Providers of healthcare were recruited through an email containing a link to an 18-question online survey. The survey was divided into four main sections which assessed the perceived facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination of PA VFC program-eligibles. Survey respondents represented 65 of 66 Pennsylvania counties covered by the PA VFC Program. The study recruited 772 PA VFC participating healthcare facilities for a response rate of 52%. Ninety eight percent of the responding facilities reported that they offered the HPV vaccine. The most common barriers to vaccine administration were the parental belief that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity and parent/patient refusal of the HPV vaccination which together accounted for (44%) of responses. The majority of respondents (75.6%) indicated counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination was a very important factor in HPV vaccination uptake. Healthcare provider facility based training (32%) and web-based training for healthcare providers (22%) were the most recommended avenues for HPV training. The most common barrier to HPV vaccination was identified as the parental misconception that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity. Providers believed that the best way to increase HPV vaccination is through counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination and to correct misconceptions and change attitudes. Providers are desirous of receiving HPV web-based or workplace training.
Full Text Available Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot "see". To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a 'cooperation through competition' networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how to minimize waste in a school setting by reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting waste products. Specifically, the desire was to identify what steps could be taken to decrease waste practices at a Title I elementary school. Through the Washington Green Schools certification process, a Waste and Recycling Assessment and Characterization Audit allowed for the collection of data. The assessment examined how much and what types of waste products were disposed of at the school. Based on the audit, 93% of waste products in the cafeteria were recyclable or compostable. The results provided ways for the students and staff to take action resulting in behavioral changes that taught and modeled environmental conservation. This study can help revolutionize school communities by serving as a prototype for environmental sustainability enhancing an eco-friendly citizenry.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how to minimize waste in a school setting by reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting waste products. Specifically, the desire was to identify what steps could be taken to decrease waste practices at a Title I elementary school. Through the Washington Green Schools certification process, a Waste and Recycling Assessment and Characterization Audit allowed for the collection of data. The assessment examined how much and what types of waste products were disposed of at the school. Based on the audit, 93% of waste products in the cafeteria were recyclable or compostable. The results provided ways for the students and staff to take action resulting in behavioral changes that taught and modeled environmental conservation. This study can help revolutionize school communities by serving as a prototype for environmental sustainability enhancing an eco-friendly citizenry.
Krumberger, J M
Team building does not occur by chance; it involves using techniques to make it easier for members to contribute their expertise while working with others to achieve quality results. Evaluation of team effectiveness involves assessing both the processes (team interactions and work processes) and accomplishment of goals (out-comes; see box). Productivity and quality that could not be accomplished by individual efforts may be enhanced by effectively working teams.
Nam, Hyo Suk; Park, Eunjeong; Heo, Ji Hoe
Information technology and mobile devices may be beneficial and useful in many aspects of stroke management, including recognition of stroke, transport and triage of patients, emergent stroke evaluation at the hospital, and rehabilitation. In this review, we address the contributions of information technology and mobile health to stroke management. Rapid detection and triage are essential for effective thrombolytic treatment. Awareness of stroke warning signs and responses to stroke could be enhanced by using mobile applications. Furthermore, prehospital assessment and notification could be streamlined for use in telemedicine and teleradiology. A mobile telemedicine system for assessing the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores has shown higher correlation and fast assessment comparing with face-to-face method. Because the benefits of thrombolytic treatment are time-dependent, treatment should be initiated as quickly as possible. In-hospital communication between multidisciplinary team members can be enhanced using information technology. A computerized in-hospital alert system using computerized physician-order entry was shown to be effective in reducing the time intervals from hospital arrival to medical evaluations and thrombolytic treatment. Mobile devices can also be used as supplementary tools for neurologic examination and clinical decision-making. In post-stroke rehabilitation, virtual reality and telerehabilitation are helpful. Mobile applications might be useful for public awareness, lifestyle modification, and education/training of healthcare professionals. Information technology and mobile health are useful tools for management of stroke patients from the acute period to rehabilitation. Further improvement of technology will change and enhance stroke prevention and treatment.
Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas
Facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition are often found in chronic pain patients. This study compared clinical pain profiles, pain sensitivity, as well as pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive mechanisms in patients with localized low back pain (n=18), localized neck pain (n=17......), low back and radiating leg pain (n=18), or neck and radiating arm pain (n=17). It was hypothesized that patients with radiating pain had facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition compared with localized pain patients. Cuff algometry was performed on the non-painful lower leg to assess...... threshold (HPT) at the non-painful hand were also assessed. Clinical pain intensity, psychological distress, and disability were assessed with questionnaires. TSP was increased in patients with radiating back pain compared with localized back pain (Ppain or localized low...
Dunleavy, Leah; Preissner, Katharine L; Finlayson, Marcia L
Telehealth refers to the provision of health information and services across a geographical distance. Little is known about the experiences of occupational therapists using this method of service delivery. The study explored the process of facilitating a telehealth intervention from the perspective of occupational therapists. Occupational therapists completed SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan) notes after facilitating group-based, teleconference-delivered fatigue management groups to people with multiple sclerosis. Notes were also documented after therapist team meetings. All SOAP notes and field notes were subjected to thematic analysis. Five major themes were identified. "Managing time" was the central theme and was facilitated by professional foundation and challenged by logistics. Managing time contributed to challenging work, which led to the realization that it can work! Based on study findings, the theory and research on clinical reasoning, professional development, and adult learning are relevant to developing curricula that prepare occupational therapists for using telehealth approaches in practice.
Joshua M. Carlson
Full Text Available Faces provide a platform for non-verbal communication through emotional expression and eye gaze. Fearful facial expressions are salient indicators of potential threat within the environment, which automatically capture observers’ attention. However, the degree to which fearful facial expressions facilitate attention to others’ gaze is unresolved. Given that fearful gaze indicates the location of potential threat, it was hypothesized that fearful gaze facilitates location processing. To test this hypothesis, a gaze cueing study with fearful and neutral faces assessing target localization was conducted. The task consisted of leftward, rightward, and forward/straight gaze trials. The inclusion of forward gaze trials allowed for the isolation of orienting and disengagement components of gaze-directed attention. The results suggest that both neutral and fearful gaze modulates attention through orienting and disengagement components. Fearful gaze, however, resulted in quicker orienting than neutral gaze. Thus, fearful faces enhance gaze cueing of spatial location through facilitated orienting.
Meerkerk, Ingmar; Edelenbos, Jurian
textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and organizational literature on facilitative and servant leadership, we examine two potential conditions: a facilitative project management style and executive support. We conducted survey research among p...
Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A
Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although for more than a decade healthcare systems have attempted to provide evidence-based mental health treatments, the availability and use of psychotherapies remains low. A significant need exists to identify simple but effective implementation strategies to adopt complex practices within complex systems of care. Emerging evidence suggests that facilitation may be an effective integrative implementation strategy for adoption of complex practices. The current pilot examined the use of external facilitation for adoption of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in 20 Department of Veteran Affairs (VA clinics. Methods The 20 clinics were paired on facility characteristics, and 23 clinicians from these were trained in CBT. A clinic in each pair was randomly selected to receive external facilitation. Quantitative methods were used to examine the extent of CBT implementation in 10 clinics that received external facilitation compared with 10 clinics that did not, and to better understand the relationship between individual providers' characteristics and attitudes and their CBT use. Costs of external facilitation were assessed by tracking the time spent by the facilitator and therapists in activities related to implementing CBT. Qualitative methods were used to explore contextual and other factors thought to influence implementation. Results Examination of change scores showed that facilitated therapists averaged an increase of 19% [95% CI: (2, 36] in self-reported CBT use from baseline, while control therapists averaged a 4% [95% CI: (-14, 21] increase. Therapists in the facilitated condition who were not providing CBT at baseline showed the greatest increase (35% compared to a control therapist who was not providing CBT at baseline (10% or to therapists in either condition who were providing CBT at baseline (average 3%. Increased CBT use was unrelated to prior CBT training. Barriers to CBT implementation were therapists' lack of
Giorgi, Robert G; Soong, Grace P; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli
Foveal detection of a Gabor patch (target) is facilitated by collinear, displaced high-contrast flankers. Polat and Sagi reported that the same phenomenon occurred in the periphery, but no data were presented [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91 (1994) 1206]. Others have found no facilitation in a limited number of conditions tested. To resolve this apparent conflict, we measured lateral facilitation in the near-periphery using a range of stimulus parameters. We found facilitation for a range of target-flanker distances for peripheral eccentricities up to 6 degrees , but the magnitude of the effect was less than found in central vision. Facilitation varied across subjects and with spatial frequency. Flanker contrast had no effect over the range evaluated (10-80%). Equal facilitation was found for two global arrangements of the stimulus pattern. Facilitation was found using a temporal, but not a spatial two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, accounting for the different results among previous studies. This finding supports previous indications of the role of attention in altering such facilitation. The value of facilitation from lateral interactions for persons with central vision impairment, who have to shift their attention to a peripheral locus constantly, needs to be examined.
Value Engineering (VE) is a problem solving methodology that has been used in manufacturing and construction industries for fifty years to improve products, systems and projects while reducing unnecessary cost. A Process Waste Assessment (PWA) is a newly developed methodology designed to characterize waste streams and identify opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste generation. The VE and PWA methodologies are compared to show their general similarities and specific differences, and to suggest how VE can be woven into the PWA methodology. Further, the roles of the VE and PWA team leaders and their training are compared; suggestions are made to help enable the PWA team leader to more effectively lead a group-centered creative process. Examples of how VE has been used in hazardous and radioactive waste minimization and pollution prevention projects are presented, also
Becker, Carolyn Black; Wilson, Chantale; Williams, Allison; Kelly, Mackenzie; McDaniel, Leda; Elmquist, Joanna
Research supports the efficacy of both cognitive dissonance (CD) and healthy weight (HW) eating disorders prevention, and indicates that CD can be delivered by peer-facilitators, which facilitates dissemination. This study investigated if peer-facilitators can deliver HW when it is modified for their use and extended follow-up of peer-facilitated CD as compared to previous trials. Based on pilot data, we modified HW (MHW) to facilitate peer delivery, elaborate benefits of the healthy-ideal, and place greater emphasis on consuming nutrient dense foods. Female sorority members (N=106) were randomized to either two 2-h sessions of CD or MHW. Participants completed assessment pre- and post-intervention, and at 8-week, 8-month, and 14-month follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, CD decreased negative affect, thin-ideal internalization, and bulimic pathology to a greater degree post-intervention. Both CD and MHW reduced negative affect, internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic pathology at 14 months. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riby, Leigh M; Law, Anna S; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Murray, Jennifer
Previous research has found that the ingestion of glucose boosts task performance in the memory domain (including tasks tapping episodic, semantic, and working memory). The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that glucose ingestion would enhance performance on a test of prospective memory. In a between-subjects design, 56 adults ranging from 17 to 80 years of age performed a computerized prospective memory task and an attention (filler) task after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness-matched placebo. Blood glucose measurements were also taken to assess the impact of individual differences on glucose regulation. After the drink containing glucose, cognitive facilitation was observed on the prospective memory task after excluding subjects with impaired fasting glucose level. Specifically, subjects receiving glucose were 19% more accurate than subjects receiving a placebo, a trend that was marginally nonsignificant, F₁,₄₁ = 3.4, P = .07, but that had a medium effect size, d = 0.58. Subjects receiving glucose were also significantly faster on the prospective memory task, F₁,₃₅ = 4.8, P glucose (indicative of poor glucose regulation) was associated with slower prospective memory responding, F₁,₃₅ = 4.4, P memory and executive functioning can benefit from the increased provision of glucose to the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maeng, Jennifer L.
This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.
Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.
Full Text Available Equine-facilitated therapy (EFT is a relatively new treatment for trauma and PTSD. EFT as well as animal assisted interventions in general have been introduced and implemented in mental health treatment for children and adults, though the research in support of these interventions has not kept up with practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the use of EFT for clients suffering from trauma/PTSD. Studies were included if PTSD/trauma was assessed and/or was measured as an outcome. A search of relevant databases resulted in nine peer-reviewed studies that met criteria. Studies are summarized and implications for future research are discussed. In general, findings suggest that EFT is a promising intervention for trauma/PTSD. Recommendations include a call for more research that includes veterans as well as for research that explicates the mechanisms by which EFT may be effective. Key words: trauma, PTSD, equine, equine therapy
Lovibond, Peter F; Colagiuri, Ben
Reward-associated cues are known to influence motivation to approach both natural and man-made rewards, such as food and drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To model these processes in the laboratory with humans, we developed an appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedure with a chocolate reward. We used a single unconstrained response that led to an actual rather than symbolic reward to assess the strength of reward motivation. Presentation of a chocolate-paired cue, but not an unpaired cue, markedly enhanced instrumental responding over a 30-s period. The same pattern was observed with 10-s and 30-s cues, showing that close cue-reward contiguity is not necessary for facilitation of reward-directed action. The results confirm that reward-related cues can instigate voluntary action to obtain that reward. The effectiveness of long-duration cues suggests that in clinical settings, attention should be directed to both proximal and distal cues for reward.
Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Husain, Mustafa M; Melton, Tabatha; Buyukdura, Jeylan S; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Kozel, F Andrew; Daskalakis, Zafiris J
Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls. Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms. University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory. Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition. Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.
Gomez, Alice; Rousset, Stéphane; Baciu, Monica
Influential models suggest that spatial processing is essential for episodic memory [O'Keefe, J., & Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. London: Oxford University Press]. However, although several types of spatial relations exist, such as allocentric (i.e. object-to-object relations), egocentric (i.e. static object-to-self relations) or egocentric updated on navigation information (i.e. self-to-environment relations in a dynamic way), usually only allocentric representations are described as potentially subserving episodic memory [Nadel, L., & Moscovitch, M. (1998). Hippocampal contributions to cortical plasticity. Neuropharmacology, 37(4-5), 431-439]. This study proposes to confront the allocentric representation hypothesis with an egocentric updated with self-motion representation hypothesis. In the present study, we explored retrieval performance in relation to these two types of spatial processing levels during learning. Episodic remembering has been assessed through Remember responses in a recall and in a recognition task, combined with a "Remember-Know-Guess" paradigm [Gardiner, J. M. (2001). Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: A first-person approach. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 356(1413), 1351-1361] to assess the autonoetic level of responses. Our results show that retrieval performance was significantly higher when encoding was performed in the egocentric-updated condition. Although egocentric updated with self-motion and allocentric representations are not mutually exclusive, these results suggest that egocentric updating processing facilitates remember responses more than allocentric processing. The results are discussed according to Burgess and colleagues' model of episodic memory [Burgess, N., Becker, S., King, J. A., & O'Keefe, J. (2001). Memory for events and their spatial context: models and experiments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B
van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet
Relatively few cannabis dependent people seek treatment and little is known about determinants of treatment seeking. Treatment determinants were compared among 70 DSM-IV cannabis dependent patients and 241 non-treatment seeking DSM-IV cannabis dependent community subjects. In addition, perceived facilitators for treatment seeking were assessed in patients, whereas perceived barriers were assessed in 160/241 cannabis dependent community subjects not prepared to seek treatment (precluders), of whom 63/160 showed an objective treatment need, and 30/241 showed a subjective treatment need. Compared to non-treatment seekers, patients reported more cannabis use (176.9 versus 82.8 joints monthly), more symptoms of dependence (5.6 versus 4.5), higher perceived lack of social support (70.0% versus 41.1%), more pressure to seek treatment (58.6% versus 21.6%), a more positive attitude to treatment, and more previous treatments. In addition, patients reported more mental health problems (internalising disorders 57.1% versus 24.5%; externalising disorders 52.9% versus 35.3%) and more functional impairments (8.4 versus 4.8 monthly days out of role). Cannabis dependent 'precluders' reported desire for self-reliance (50.0%), preference for informal help (22.5%), and absent treatment need (16.9%) as their main reasons not to seek treatment, whereas cannabis dependent community subjects with a subjective treatment need mainly expressed desire for self-reliance (36.7%), treatment ineffectiveness (16.7%), and avoiding stigma (13.3%). Functional impairment, mental health problems and social pressure are important reasons to seek treatment in people with cannabis dependence. Treatment participation might improve if desire for self-reliance and the preference for informal help are considered, and perceived ineffectiveness of treatment and stigmatisation are publicly addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Karsten Klint; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Gamborg, Christian; Millar, Kate; Sandøe, Peter
Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues without the presence of external stakeholders. It reports on the use of a reflection process with scientists working in the area of animal disease genomics (mainly drawn from the EADGENE EC Network of Excellence). This reflection process was facilitated by using an ethical engagement framework, a modified version of the Ethical Matrix. As judged by two criteria, a qualitative assessment of the outcomes and the participants' own assessment of the process, this independent reflective exercise was deemed to be successful. The discussions demonstrated a high level of complexity and depth, with participants demonstrating a clear perception of uncertainties and the context in which their research operates. Reflection on stakeholder views and values appeared to be embedded within the discussions. The finding from this exercise seems to indicate that even without the involvement of the wider stakeholder community, valuable reflection and worthwhile discourse can be generated from ethical reflection processes involving only scienitific project partners. Hence, the previous assumption that direct stakeholder engagement is necessary for ethical reflection does not appear to hold true in all cases; however, other reasons for involving a broad group of stakeholders relating to governance and social accountability of science remain.
Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J
We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Leff, Alexander P.; Crutch, Sebastian J.
Objective: We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Methods: Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Results: Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%–270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. PMID:26138948
Peay, Holly L; Meiser, Bettina; Kinnett, Kathleen; Tibben, Aad
Care guidelines for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) include recommendations for assessment of caregivers of patients with DBMD followed by proactive psychosocial interventions. To inform clinical assessment, this study described appraisals of psychosocial needs and caregiving facilitators of mothers of individuals with DBMD. Two hundred and five mothers completed an online survey. More than 50% endorsed unmet needs for managing uncertainty about the future and managing DBMD fears. Higher levels of unmet need were associated with less disease progression/earlier stage of DBMD (rho = -0.166 p = 0.02). Twenty-one percent regularly used respite care and 57% worried about allowing others to care for their child. Highly-endorsed care facilitators included partner relationships (63%), child's approach to life (59%), and family relationships (49%). Our findings highlight the importance of psychological and social support for caregivers. Starting when children are young, clinicians should assess caregivers' unmet psychological needs, particularly uncertainty and fear. Exploring needs and facilitators may allow clinics to target and customize interventions that build upon existing strengths and supports. Our findings have implications for efforts to promote early diagnosis and newborn screening, in that increased needs in mothers of younger children should be anticipated and built into counseling. Further research can assess whether and how unmet needs change as new therapies become available.
Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...
Iding, Marie K.
Examines the effectiveness of using questions to facilitate processing of diagrams in science texts. Investigates three different elements in experiments on college students. Finds that questions about illustrations do not facilitate learning. Discusses findings with reference to cognitive load theory, the dual coding perspective, and the…
Stel, Mariëlle; van Dijk, Eric; van Baaren, Rick B.
Although people tend to mimic others automatically, mimicry is facilitated or attenuated depending on the specific context. In the current paper, the authors discuss when mimicry is facilitated and attenuated depending on characteristics of situations, targets, and observers. On the basis of the
The Early Childhood Development Manager in Mpumalanga is faced with the problem of providing evidence-based guidance of the best facilitation approach in the Grade R context. An investigation on the effect of facilitation, i.e. play-based or formal instruction, on Grade R performance scores in English Additional ...
Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.
The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…
The prime objective of this paper is to create awareness on the presence of the handicapped in Nigeria and the need to facilitate creative potentials in handicapped and non-handicapped children. Various factors that could facilitate creativity and other factors that could inhibit creativity were discussed. The implications for ...
This study investigates peer supervision. The criterion used was counselor trainees' growth in facilitative functioning. The study sought to ascertain whether the facilitative counselor trainee was also the effective peer supervisor, to provide information on evaluating peer-supervisory experience, and to shed light on the most effective…
Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric
Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…
Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David
This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…
Arosio, Daniela; Casagrande, Cesare
The research of integrin-targeted anticancer agents has recorded important advancements in ingenious design of delivery systems, based either on the prodrug approach, or on nanoparticle carriers, but for now, none of these has reached a clinical stage of development. Past work in this area has been extensively reviewed by us and others. Thus, the purpose and scope of the present review is to survey the advancement reported in the last 3years, with focus on innovative delivery systems that appear to afford openings for future developments. These systems exploit the labelling with conventional and novel integrin ligands for targeting the interface of cancer cells and of endothelial cells involved in cancer angiogenesis, with the proteins of the extracellular matrix, in the circulation, in tissues, and in tumour stroma, as the site of progression and metastatic evolution of the disease. Furthermore, these systems implement the expertise in the development of nanomedicines to the purpose of achieving preferential biodistribution and uptake in cancer tissues, internalisation in cancer cells, and release of the transported drugs at intracellular sites. The assessment of the value of controlling these factors, and their combination, for future developments requires support of biological testing in appropriate mechanistic models, but also imperatively demand confirmation in therapeutically relevant in vivo models for biodistribution, efficacy, and lack of off-target effects. Thus, among many studies, we have tried to point out the results supported by relevant in vivo studies, and we have emphasised in specific sections those addressing the medical needs of drug delivery to brain tumours, as well as the delivery of oligonucleotides modulating gene-dependent pathological mechanism. The latter could constitute the basis of a promising third branch in the therapeutic armamentarium against cancer, in addition to antibody-based agents and to cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2015
Gastelurrutia, Miguel A; Benrimoj, S I Charlie; Castrillon, Carla C; de Amezua, María J Casado; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Faus, Maria J
To identify and prioritise facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy. Spanish community pharmacies. Qualitative study. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 15) and pharmacy strategists (n = 18), and the results were examined using the content analysis method. In addition, two nominal groups (seven community pharmacists and seven strategists) were formed to identify and prioritise facilitators. Results of both techniques were then triangulated. Facilitators for practice change. Twelve facilitators were identified and grouped into four domains (D1: Pharmacist; D2: Pharmacy as an organisation; D3: Pharmaceutical profession; D4: Miscellaneous). Facilitators identified in D1 include: the need for more clinical education at both pre- and post-graduate levels; the need for clearer and unequivocal messages from professional leaders about the future of the professional practice; and the need for a change in pharmacists' attitudes. Facilitators in D2 are: the need to change the reimbursement system to accommodate cognitive service delivery as well as dispensing; and the need to change the front office of pharmacies. Facilitators identified in D3 are: the need for the Spanish National Professional Association to take a leadership role in the implementation of cognitive services; the need to reduce administrative workload; and the need for universities to reduce the gap between education and research. Other facilitators identified in this study include: the need to increase patients' demand for cognitive services at pharmacies; the need to improve pharmacist-physician relationships; the need for support from health care authorities; and the need for improved marketing of cognitive services and their benefits to society, including physicians and health care authorities. Twelve facilitators were identified. Strategists considered clinical education and pharmacists' attitude as the most important, and
Viswanthan, H.S.; Wolfsberg, A.V.; Reimus, P.W.; Ware, D.; Lu, G.
Colloid-facilitated migration of plutonium in fractured rock has been implicated in both field and laboratory studies. Other reactive radionuclides may also experience enhanced mobility due to groundwater colloids. Model prediction of this process is necessary for assessment of contaminant boundaries in systems for which radionuclides are already in the groundwater and for performance assessment of potential repositories for radioactive waste. Therefore, a reactive transport model is developed and parameterized using results from controlled laboratory fracture column experiments. Silica, montmorillonite and clinoptilolite colloids are used in the experiments along with plutonium and Tritium. The goal of the numerical model is to identify and parameterize the physical and chemical processes that affect the colloid-facilitated transport of plutonium in the fractures. The parameters used in this model are similar in form to those that might be used in a field-scale transport model
Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae
A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated
Gordon, J; Ramsay, R; Treasure, J
A 25-year-old female patient with a 9-year history of bulimia nervosa gave a 2-year history of regularly ingesting up to 24 x 300 mg aspirin tablets to facilitate vomiting after a binge. Awareness of this dangerous practice is important when asking for an eating disorder history. Assessing for the possible physical sequelae of aspirin misuse and educating the patient about the risks would be an important part of the overall treatment.
Smith, Selina A.; Webb, Nancy C.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Willcox, Bobbie; Ballance, Darra; Kinard, Faith; Gates, Madison L.
Background Worldwide, the US accounts for a large proportion of journals related to public health. Although the American Public Health Association (APHA) includes 54 affiliated regional and state associations, little is known about their capacity to support public health scholarship. The aim of this study is to assess barriers and facilitators to operation of state journals for the dissemination of local public health research and practices. Methods A mixed methods approach will be used to co...
Full Text Available Competition and facilitation between tree individuals are two kinds of non-random processes influencing the structure and functioning of forest communities, but how these two plant-plant interactions change along gradient of resources or environments remains very much a matter of debate. We developed a null model to test the size-distance regression, and assessed the effects of competition and facilitation (including interspecific interactions, intraspecific interactions and overall species interactions on each adult tree species assemblage [diameter at breast height (dbh ≥5 cm] across two types of tropical cloud forest with different environmental and resource regimes. The null model test revealed that 17% to 27% tree species had positive dbh-distance correlations while 11% to 19% tree species showed negative dbh-distance correlations within these two forest types, indicating that both competition and facilitation processes existed during the community assembly. The importance of competition for heterospecific species, and the intensity of competition for both heterospecific and overall species increased from high to low resources for all the shared species spanning the two forests. The importance of facilitation for conspecific and overall species, as well as that the intensity of facilitation for both heterospecific and conspecific species increased with increasing low air temperature stress for all the shared species spanning the two forests. Our results show that both competition and facilitation processes simultaneously affect parts of species assemblage in the tropical cloud forests. Moreover, the fact that nearly 50% species assemblage is not detected with our approaches suggest that tree species in these tropical forest systems are assembled with multiple ecological processes, and that there is a need to explore the processes other than the two biotic interactions in further researches.
Leverett, Lindsay D
A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy
Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto
by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive......, the workshop. Drawing on the knowledge-perspective of group communication, we conducted a micro-level analysis of a transcript of a facilitated modelling workshop held with the management team of an Alternative Food Network in the UK. Our analysis suggests that facilitated modelling interactions can take...
Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher
This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitatorsâ€™ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitatorsâ€™ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitatorsâ€™ role into two main categories: driving factors...
Candas, Bernard; Jobin, Gilles; Dubé, Catherine; Tousignant, Mario; Abdeljelil, Anis Ben; Grenier, Sonya; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs may result in quality of care and outcome improvement. However, the implementation of such programs has proven to be very challenging. This mixed methods systematic review identifies barriers and facilitators pertaining to the implementation of CQI programs in colonoscopy services and how they relate to endoscopists, nurses, managers, and patients. We developed a search strategy adapted to 15 databases. Studies had to report on the implementation of a CQI intervention and identified barriers or facilitators relating to any of the four groups of actors directly concerned by the provision of colonoscopies. The quality of the selected studies was assessed and findings were extracted, categorized, and synthesized using a generic extraction grid customized through an iterative process. We extracted 99 findings from the 15 selected publications. Although involving all actors is the most cited factor, the literature mainly focuses on the facilitators and barriers associated with the endoscopists' perspective. The most reported facilitators to CQI implementation are perception of feasibility, adoption of a formative approach, training and education, confidentiality, and assessing a limited number of quality indicators. Receptive attitudes, a sense of ownership and perceptions of positive impacts also facilitate the implementation. Finally, an organizational environment conducive to quality improvement has to be inclusive of all user groups, explicitly supportive, and provide appropriate resources. Our findings corroborate the current models of adoption of innovations. However, a significant knowledge gap remains with respect to barriers and facilitators pertaining to nurses, patients, and managers.
Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P; Larson, Jacqueline C; Armstrong, Laura Marie
Subsequent to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the experiences of military service members (MSVMs) and veterans have garnered increasing attention. A growing body of work has begun to shed light on their reintegration, a process that can bring with it transitions and challenges for service members and their families. Although many families adapt effectively, some have difficulty navigating this process, which can lead to a host of short- and long-term negative consequences for families. The literature to date is not well-developed regarding strategies for supporting successful reintegration of MSVMs and veterans in the context of military families. Guided by the ecological framework, this article summarizes selected evidence regarding factors that influence reintegration and puts forth recommendations for research and practice to promote the wellness of military families. Informed by findings regarding the diverse challenges faced by these families and grounded in the ecological framework, the authors highlight the need to assess both proximal and distal factors related to families' reintegration experiences and the need to intervene at multiple levels and across multiple contexts. Of primary importance, the authors recommend strategies to enhance the capacity of families' natural settings and describe selected capacity- and resource- enhancement approaches for families, neighborhoods, schools, and communities that facilitate resilience and promote wellness. Other recommendations include focusing on the accessibility, integration, and coordination of services; considering the long-view and developing strategies for longer-term support; developing mechanisms for family support; and evaluating efforts to address needs of families and promote family resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available As strategic and systems approaches are becoming more relevant in design education when it concerns collaborative projects with the industry, an explicit systems design methodology is needed to structure collaboration and learning among students, educators, and the Norwegian industry. This article describes three alternative studio projects for teaching strategic and systems design with the involvement of Norwegian companies. Besides this, the approaches and fundamental theories of design thinking and reasoning, which are characteristic of these projects, were reflected against each other. In the undergraduate (year 2 systems thinking design studio, the challenge was to train students to understand how system elements are rationally interconnected with their suprasystems and subsystems based on usability and man-machine interactions. In addition to the challenges pertaining to systems thinking, collaborative learning and designing based on a mentorship learning concept were introduced in the Vertical Design Studio, which involved second- and third-year students. Concerning the postgraduate fourth-year strategic design projects with the industry, the challenge was to involve Norwegian companies in product planning and goal finding as well as in innovation and design activities and to assess how supportive and receptive these companies were towards radical innovation/diversification. The analysis of completed projects shows that the Norwegian industry is supportive of strategic design but is rather conservative and risk averse when it concerns accepting and implementing radical innovation initiatives. Referring to user-centred and context-based innovation, this article also supports the implementation of a systems approach to facilitate social and hierarchical learning across the second-year systems design studio, second- and third-year vertical studios, and fourth-year strategic design studio.
Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina
Hiking trails, which are among the most common forms of infrastructure created for nature-based tourism, can alter key ecological processes. Trails can damage plants that facilitate the establishment and growth of other species leading to changes in community and functional composition. This can be a particular concern in harsh alpine ecosystems where plant communities are often dominated by one or two keystone species that provide shelter to a suite of beneficiary species. We analysed how a hiking trail affects interspecific facilitation by a dominant trampling-sensitive nurse shrub in the highest National Park in Australia. First we assessed the effects of the trail on the abundance, size and density of the nurse shrub at different distances from the trail. We then compared species richness and composition between areas in, and out, of the nurse shrub's canopy at different distances from the trail. To better understand why some species may benefit from facilitation and any effects of the trail on the quality of facilitation we compared functional composition between quadrats using community trait weighted means calculated by combining plant composition with species functional traits (canopy height, leaf area, % dry weight of leaves and specific leaf area). The abundance, size and density of nurse shrubs was lower on the trail edges than further away, particularly on the leeward edge, where there was more bare ground and less shrub cover. There were differences in species richness, cover, composition and functional composition in and outside the nurse shrub canopy. The shrubs appeared to facilitate species with more competitive, but less stress tolerant traits (e.g. taller plants with leaves that were larger, had high specific leaf area and low dry matter content). However, despite reductions in nurse shrubs near the trail, where they do exist, they appear to provide the same 'quality' of facilitation as nurse shrubs further away. However, longer-term effects may
Naber, A.C.; Enserink, B.
Social media are web-based and mobile technologies that facilitate interaction between organizations, communities and individuals. Important characteristics are that the technologies are ubiquitous, communication instantaneous and that they enable the creation and exchange of user-generated content.
It ascertained the perception of the gender groups on the organizational, job related and ... and ensure balanced working conditions for both men and women facilitators in the NFDP III. This will help to ultimately improve their job performance.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller
In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified...... and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. Itwas successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...... that facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation...
Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)
Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W
Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.
Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life orientation programmes: ... strategies of belief and value orientations in a multicultural education system. ... and religious backgrounds of learners represented in participating schools.
Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review. ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2007) > ... critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems.
Brown, Karen M; Rode, Jennifer L
Baccalaureate nursing graduates must possess leadership skills, yet few opportunities exist to cultivate leadership abilities in a clinical environment. Peer-facilitated learning may increase the leadership skills of competence, self-confidence, self-reflection, and role modeling. Facilitating human patient simulation provides opportunities to develop leadership skills. With faculty supervision, senior baccalaureate students led small-group simulation experiences with sophomore and junior peers and then conducted subsequent debriefings. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive data allowed evaluation of students' satisfaction with this teaching innovation and whether the experience affected students' desire to take on leadership roles. Students expressed satisfaction with the peer-facilitated simulation experience and confidence in mastering the content while developing necessary skills for practice. Peer-facilitated simulation provides an opportunity for leadership development and learning. Study results can inform the development of nursing curricula to best develop the leadership skills of nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):53-57.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Mc Goldrick, G. J.
Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.
Landreth, Garry L.
Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)
During 2000 the annual Facilitator Customer Satisfaction Survey was ... the forecasting model is successful concerning the CSI value and a high positive linear ... namely that of human behaviour to incorporate other influences than just the ...
VMMC) among adolescent boys in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa. ... Individual cognitive factors facilitating uptake included the belief that VMMC reduced the risk of HIV infection, led to better hygiene and improvement in sexual desirability and ...
Educational Inequality and Academic Achievement in England and. France. ... the process of symbol learning for young children with disabilities. Introduction ... mains an important issue in facilitating integration and participation in society.
Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed ( n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later ( n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week ( n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators ( p walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.
A. M. Reid
Full Text Available Cushion-forming plant species are found in alpine and polar environments around the world. They modify the microclimate, thereby facilitating other plant species. Similar to the effectiveness of shrubs as a means to study facilitation in arid and semi-arid environments, we explore the potential for cushion plant species to expand the generality of research on this contemporary ecological interaction. A systematic review was conducted to determine the number of publications and citation frequency on relevant ecological topics whilst using shrub literature as a baseline to assess relative importance of cushions as a focal point for future ecological research. Although there are forty times more shrub articles, mean citations per paper is comparable between cushion and shrub literature. Furthermore, the scope of ecological research topics studied using cushions is broad including facilitation, competition, environmental gradients, life history, genetics, reproduction, community, ecosystem and evolution. The preliminary ecological evidence to date also strongly suggests that cushion plants can be keystone species in their ecosystems. Hence, ecological research on net interactions including facilitation and patterns of diversity can be successfully examined using cushion plants, and this is particularly timely given expectations associated with a changing climate in these regions.
This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural devel...
Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.
This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments
Wright, Jeffrey T; Gribben, Paul E
Ecosystem engineers facilitate communities by providing a structural habitat that reduces abiotic stress or predation pressure for associated species. However, disturbance may damage or move the engineer to a more stressful environment, possibly increasing the importance of facilitation for associated communities. In this study, we determined how disturbance to intertidal boulders (i.e., flipping) and the subsequent movement of a structural ecosystem engineer, the tube-forming serpulid worm Galeolaria caespitosa, from the bottom (natural state, low abiotic stress) to the top (disturbed state, high abiotic stress) surface of boulders influenced the importance of facilitation for intertidal communities across two intertidal zones. Theory predicts stronger relative facilitation should occur in the harsher environments of the top of boulders and the high intertidal zone. To test this prediction, we experimentally positioned boulders with the serpulids either face up or face down for 12 months in low and high zones in an intertidal boulder field. There were very different communities associated with the different boulders and serpulids had the strongest facilitative effects on the more stressful top surface of boulders with approximately double the species richness compared to boulders lacking serpulids. Moreover, within the serpulid matrix itself there was also approximately double the species richness (both zones) and abundance (high zone only) of small invertebrates on the top of boulders compared to the bottom. The high relative facilitation on the top of boulders reflected a large reduction in temperature by the serpulid matrix on that surface (up to 10°C) highlighting a key role for modification of the abiotic environment in determining the community-wide facilitation. This study has demonstrated that disturbance and subsequent movement of an ecosystem engineer to a more stressful environment increased the importance of facilitation and allowed species to
Hofmeyr, G J
Tocolytic drugs to relax the uterus as well as other methods have been also used in an attempt to facilitate external cephalic version at term. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of routine tocolysis, fetal acoustic stimulation, epidural or spinal analgesia and transabdominal amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term on successful version and measures of pregnancy outcome. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Date of last search: April 2001. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing routine versus selective tocolysis; fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions versus dummy or no stimulation; epidural or spinal analgesia versus no regional analgesia; or transabdominal amnioinfusion versus no amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by the reviewer. In seven trials, routine tocolysis was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version (relative risk 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.87). There were no significant differences between non-cephalic presentations at birth. Caesarean sections were reduced (relative risk 0.85, confidence interval 0.72-0.99). Fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version at term (relative risk 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.60). With epidural or spinal analgesia, external cephalic version failure, non-cephalic births and caesarean sections were reduced in one trial but not the other. The overall differences were not statistically significant. No randomised trials of transabdominal amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term were located. Routine tocolysis appears to reduce the failure rate of external cephalic version at term. Although promising, there is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal
Dulko, Dorothy; Pace, Claire M; Dittus, Kim L; Sprague, Brian L; Pollack, Lori A; Hawkins, Nikki A; Geller, Berta M
To evaluate the process of survivorship care plan (SCP) completion and to survey oncology staff and primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding challenges of implementing SCPs. Descriptive pilot study. Two facilities in Vermont, an urban academic medical center and a rural community academic cancer center. 17 oncology clinical staff created SCPs, 39 PCPs completed surveys, and 58 patients (breast or colorectal cancer) participated in a telephone survey. Using Journey Forward tools, SCPs were created and presented to patients. PCPs received the SCP with a survey assessing its usefulness and barriers to delivery. Oncology staff were interviewed to assess perceived challenges and benefits of SCPs. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to identify challenges to the development and implementation process as well as patient perceptions of the SCP visit. SCP, healthcare provider perception of barriers to completion and implementation, and patient perception of SCP visit. Oncology staff cited the time required to obtain information for SCPs as a challenge. Completing SCPs 3-6 months after treatment ended was optimal. All participants felt advanced practice professionals should complete and review SCPs with patients. The most common challenge for PCPs to implement SCP recommendations was insufficient knowledge of cancer survivor issues. Most patients found the care plan visit very useful, particularly within six months of diagnosis. Creation time may be a barrier to widespread SCP implementation. Cancer survivors find SCPs useful, but PCPs feel insufficient knowledge of cancer survivor issues is a barrier to providing best follow-up care. Incorporating SCPs in electronic medical records may facilitate patient identification, appropriate staff scheduling, and timely SCP creation. Oncology nurse practitioners are well positioned to create and deliver SCPs, transitioning patients from oncology care to a PCP in a shared-care model of optimal wellness. Institution support for
Dam, W. L.; Pickett, D. A.; Codell, R. B.; Nicholson, T. J.
What hydrogeologic-geochemical-microbial conditions and processes affect migration of radionuclides sorbed onto microparticles or native colloid-sized radionuclide particles? The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for protecting public health, safety, and the environment at numerous nuclear facilities including a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site. To fulfill these obligations, NRC needs to understand the mechanisms controlling radionuclide release and transport and their importance to performance. The current focus of NRC staff reviews and technical interactions dealing with colloid-facilitated transport relates to the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. NRC staff performed bounding calculations to quantify radionuclide releases available for ground-water transport to potential receptors from a Yucca Mountain repository. Preliminary analyses suggest insignificant doses of plutonium and americium colloids could be derived from spent nuclear fuel. Using surface complexation models, NRC staff found that colloids can potentially lower actinide retardation factors by up to several orders of magnitude. Performance assessment calculations, in which colloidal transport of plutonium and americium was simulated by assuming no sorption or matrix diffusion, indicated no effect of colloids on human dose within the 10,000 year compliance period due largely to long waste-package lifetimes. NRC staff have identified information gaps and developed technical agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure sufficient information will be presented in any potential future Yucca Mountain license application. DOE has agreed to identify which radionuclides could be transported via colloids, incorporate uncertainties in colloid formation, release and transport parameters, and conceptual models, and address the applicability of field data using synthetic microspheres as colloid analogs. NRC is currently
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision Boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of health interventions provided to clinicians before they meet the patient, to prepare them to help patients make informed and value-based decisions. Our objective is to explore the barriers and facilitators to using Decision Boxes in clinical practice, more precisely factors stemming from (1 the Decision Boxes themselves, (2 the primary healthcare team (PHT, and (3 the primary care practice environment. Methods/design A two-phase mixed methods study will be conducted. Eight Decision Boxes relevant to primary care, and written in both English and in French, will be hosted on a website together with a tutorial to introduce the Decision Box. The Decision Boxes will be delivered as weekly emails over a span of eight weeks to clinicians of PHTs (family physicians, residents and nurses in five primary care clinics located across two Canadian provinces. Using a web-questionnaire, clinicians will rate each Decision Box with the Information Assessment Method (cognitive impacts, relevance, usefulness, expected benefits and with a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to study the determinants of clinicians’ intention to use what they learned from that Decision Box in their patient encounter (attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control. Web-log data will be used to monitor clinicians’ access to the website. Following the 8-week intervention, we will conduct semi-structured group interviews with clinicians and individual interviews with clinic administrators to explore contextual factors influencing the use of the Decision Boxes. Data collected from questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews will be combined to identify factors potentially influencing implementation of Decision Boxes in clinical practice by clinicians of PHTs. Conclusions This project will allow tailoring of Decision Boxes and their delivery to overcome the
Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne
The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Ferron, Joelle; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Wagner, H. Ryan
Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) statutes presume competence to complete these documents, but the range and dimensions of decisional competence among people who actually complete PADs is unknown. This study examines clinical and neuropsychological correlates of performance on a measure to assess competence to complete PADs and investigates the effects of a facilitated PAD intervention on decisional capacity. N = 469 adults with psychotic disorders were interviewed at baseline and then randomly assigned to either a control group in which they received written materials about PADs or to an intervention group in which they were offered an opportunity to meet individually with a trained facilitator to create a PAD. At baseline, domains on the Decisional Competence Assessment Tool for PADs (DCAT-PAD) were most strongly associated with IQ, verbal memory, abstract thinking, and psychiatric symptoms. At one-month follow-up, participants in the intervention group showed more improvement on the DCAT-PAD than controls, particularly among participants with pre-morbid IQ estimates below the median of 100. The results suggest that PAD facilitation is an effective method to boost competence of cognitively-impaired clients to write PADs and make treatment decisions within PADs, thereby maximizing the chances their advance directives will be valid. PMID:17294136
Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong
It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.
Mayer, Anita P; Blair, Janis E; Ko, Marcia G; Patel, Salma I; Files, Julia A
Mentoring plays an important role in career success of academic medical faculty. New mentoring models such as peer mentoring have emerged. To evaluate the long-term impact of a facilitated peer mentoring program on academic achievements. Women faculty at the instructor or assistant professor rank were recruited to voluntarily participate in a facilitated peer mentoring program. Recruitment occurred over 3.8 years between 2005 and 2009. A 26-item questionnaire to assess academic skill, career satisfaction, and self-efficacy was administered before program participation and again with seven additional questions in 2011. Curriculum vitae were reviewed retrospectively to tally peer-reviewed publications, other academic activities, and promotions. Participants had long-term improvement in their perceived mastery of academic skills. Peer-reviewed publications, book chapters, abstracts, posters, and other academic activities increased when activities before the program were compared to those in the five years after program enrollment. At follow-up, participants reported positive perceptions of the program and 44% continued to work with their original peer mentor groups. Involvement in the facilitated peer mentoring program was associated with increased skills and academic activities for most participants. Future studies are needed to assess its applicability and success among various demographic groups in academic medicine.
Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong
Purpose To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans’ (SAIAs’) engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Methods Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Results Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy–tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers’ or oldest sons’ decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. Clinical Relevance The study’s findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. PMID:28388828
Leroy, Lisa; Rittner, Jessica Levin; Johnson, Karin E; Gerteis, Jessie; Miller, Therese
Collaborative research networks are increasingly used as an effective mechanism for accelerating knowledge transfer into policy and practice. This paper explored the characteristics and collaborative learning approaches of nine health research networks. Semi-structured interviews with representatives from eight diverse US health services research networks conducted between November 2012 and January 2013 and program evaluation data from a ninth. The qualitative analysis assessed each network's purpose, duration, funding sources, governance structure, methods used to foster collaboration, and barriers and facilitators to collaborative learning. The authors reviewed detailed notes from the interviews to distill salient themes. Face-to-face meetings, intentional facilitation and communication, shared vision, trust among members and willingness to work together were key facilitators of collaborative learning. Competing priorities for members, limited funding and lack of long-term support and geographic dispersion were the main barriers to coordination and collaboration across research network members. The findings illustrate the importance of collaborative learning in research networks and the challenges to evaluating the success of research network functionality. Conducting readiness assessments and developing process and outcome evaluation metrics will advance the design and show the impact of collaborative research networks. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.
Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong
To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy-tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers' or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley1,2, Amanda L Snyder1, Joseph P Nimon1, Paul J Arciero1,21Healthy Aging and Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA; 2Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USAAbstract: This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness X time (pre- to post-avatar interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003. Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.Keywords: exercise, aging, virtual reality, competitiveness, social facilitation, exercise intensity
Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Heaman, Maureen; McDonald, Sheila; Lasiuk, Gerri; Sword, Wendy; Giallo, Rebecca; Hegadoren, Kathy; Vermeyden, Lydia; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kingston, Joshua; Jarema, Karly; Biringer, Anne
Access to mental health services during pregnancy is most commonly mobilized through formal mental health screening. However, few studies to date have identified barriers and facilitators that affect pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators that influence pregnant women's responses to the screening process and factors associated with their identification. This multi-site, cross-sectional survey recruited pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English in Alberta, Canada. Main outcomes were barriers and facilitators of mental health screening. Descriptive statistics were generated to identify the most common barriers and facilitators and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to determine factors associated with barriers and facilitators. Study participation rate was 92% (460/500). Women's most common barriers were: significant others normalizing their emotional difficulties; desiring to handle mental health problems on their own; preferring to discuss feelings with significant others; and not knowing what emotions were 'normal'. Women who identified these barriers were more likely not to have been treated previously for mental illness, were primiparous, and could not be completely honest with their provider. Main facilitators were provider characteristics (sensitive, interested), reassurance that mental healthcare is a part of routine prenatal care, hearing that other women have emotional problems during pregnancy and knowing that help was available. The sample comprised largely Caucasian, well-educated, and partnered women, which limits generalizability of the findings. Personal and stigma-related barriers influence pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. Efforts to minimize barriers and enhance facilitators should be explored as potential strategies for optimizing prenatal mental health screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mangena, Agnes; Chabeli, Mary M
This paper seeks to describe strategies that can be used to overcome obstacles in the facilitation of critical thinking in nursing education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used to conduct the research in which fourth year basic comprehensive students and nurse educators volunteered to take part in the study by signing an informed consent. The participants were purposively selected. Focus group interviews were used to collect data from both groups. Tesch's descriptive method of open coding described in (Creswell, J. 1994. Qualitative and quantitative approach. Sage, London.) was used to analyse data. (Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa, 1998. Ethical standards for nurse researchers. Denosa, Pretoria) ethical standards for research were observed to maintain the standard and quality of the research. (Lincoln, Y.S., Guba, E.G. 1985. Naturalistic inquiry. Sage, London.) framework was used to ensure trustworthiness of the study. The following obstacles were identified and recontextualised within the existing literature to be able to describe the strategies to overcome the identified obstacles to the facilitation of critical thinking of students: the educators' lack of knowledge; use of teaching and assessment methods that do not facilitate critical thinking of learners; the negative attitudes of educators and their resistance to change; inappropriate selection process and poor educational background that did not facilitate critical thinking of students; inadequate socialisation, cultural and instructional language incompetence. Findings indicated that there is a need for nurse educators to model critical thinking in all aspects of nursing education. It is recommended that there be a whole paradigm shift in nursing education from the traditional teacher-centred methods to a more learner-centred approach that will facilitate critical thinking of student nurses.
Jobin, Gilles; Gagnon, Marie Pierre; Candas, Bernard; Dubé, Catherine; Ben Abdeljelil, Anis; Grenier, Sonya
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a serious and growing health problem in Canada. Colonoscopy is used for screening and diagnosis of symptomatic or high CRC risk individuals. Although a number of countries are now implementing quality colonoscopy services, knowledge synthesis of barriers and facilitators perceived by healthcare professionals and patients during implementation has not been carried out. In addition, the perspectives of various stakeholders towards the implementation of quality colonoscopy services and the need of an efficient organisation of such services have been reported in the literature but have not been synthesised yet. The present study aims to produce a comprehensive synthesis of actual knowledge on the barriers and facilitators perceived by all stakeholders to the implementation of quality colonoscopy services in Canada. First, we will conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and other published documentation on the barriers and facilitators to implementing quality colonoscopy services. Standardised literature searches and data extraction methods will be used. The quality of the studies and their relevance to informing decisions on colonoscopy services implementation will be assessed. For each group of users identified, barriers and facilitators will be categorised and compiled using narrative synthesis and meta-analytical techniques. The principle factors identified for each group of users will then be validated for its applicability to various Canadian contexts using the Delphi study method. Following this study, a set of strategies will be identified to inform decision makers involved in the implementation of quality colonoscopy services across Canadian jurisdictions. This study will be the first to systematically summarise the barriers and facilitators to implementation of quality colonoscopy services perceived by different groups and to consider the local contexts in order to ensure the applicability of this
Wood, Emily; Ohlsen, Sally; Ricketts, Thomas
Collaborative Care is an evidence-based approach to the management of depression within primary care services recommended within NICE Guidance. However, uptake within the UK has been limited. This review aims to investigate the barriers and facilitators to implementing Collaborative Care. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to uncover what barriers and facilitators have been reported by previous research into Collaborative Care for depression in primary care. The review identified barriers and facilitators to successful implementation of Collaborative Care for depression in 18 studies across a range of settings. A framework analysis was applied using the Collaborative Care definition. The most commonly reported barriers related to the multi-professional approach, such as staff and organisational attitudes to integration, and poor inter-professional communication. Facilitators to successful implementation particularly focussed on improving inter-professional communication through standardised care pathways and case managers with clear role boundaries and key underpinning personal qualities. Not all papers were independent title and abstract screened by multiple reviewers thus limiting the reliability of the selected studies. There are many different frameworks for assessing the quality of qualitative research and little consensus as to which is most appropriate in what circumstances. The use of a quality threshold led to the exclusion of six papers that could have included further information on barriers and facilitators. Although the evidence base for Collaborative Care is strong, and the population within primary care with depression is large, the preferred way to implement the approach has not been identified. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TODORUȚ AMALIA VENERA
Full Text Available In this paper I have analysed a series of facilitators that determine creativity and innovation in teaching learning processes, emphasising the role of assessment, organizational culture and information technologies as relevant and essential elements within this challenging approach to create the conditions for an intelligent development of the educational processes. Also I approached issues related to creative learning and innovative teaching in a society in which knowledge takes more and more intense forms and, they require changes and deep transformations in all educational environments. The fundamental objective was to underline the need to learn creatively and to teach innovatively, given the conditions of the development of information technologies and a deeper and deeper immersion in this information environment, with effects on involving more effectively the students in their own learning approach. Based on scientific researches, observation and comparative analyzes, I identified the facilitators which, along with the technologies, support the creative learning and innovative teaching.
Li, Julia X; James, Karin H
Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.
Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913
Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Mihara, Masahito; Hattori, Noriaki; Hatakenaka, Megumi; Yagura, Hajime; Kawano, Teiji; Miyai, Ichiro; Mochizuki, Hideki
Near-infrared spectroscopy-mediated neurofeedback (NIRS-NFB) is a promising therapeutic intervention for patients with neurological diseases. Studies have shown that NIRS-NFB can facilitate task-related cortical activation and induce task-specific behavioral changes. These findings indicate that the effect of neuromodulation depends on local cortical function. However, when the target cortical region has multiple functions, our understanding of the effects is less clear. This is true in the supplementary motor area (SMA), which is involved both in postural control and upper-limb movement. To address this issue, we investigated the facilitatory effect of NIRS SMA neurofeedback on cortical activity and behavior, without any specific task. Twenty healthy individuals participated in real and sham neurofeedback. Balance and hand dexterity were assessed before and after each NIRS-NFB session. We found a significant interaction between assessment periods (pre/post) and condition (real/sham) with respect to balance as assessed by the center of the pressure path length but not for hand dexterity as assessed by the 9-hole peg test. SMA activity only increased during real neurofeedback. Our findings indicate that NIRS-NFB itself has the potential to modulate focal cortical activation, and we suggest that it be considered a therapy to facilitate the SMA for patients with postural impairment.
A study used public finance theory to evaluate Ontario's matching grants in support of university-industry interaction, which encourage faculty to seek new research and development contracts facilitating technology transfer activities. Results suggest it may not be an effective mechanism. Conceptual and methodological obstacles to assessing these…
Jessica Miesel; P. Goebel; R. Corace; David Hix; Randall Kolka; Brian Palik; David. Mladenoff
Fire-adapted forests of the Lake States region are poorly studied relative to those of the western and southeastern United States and our knowledge base of regional short- and long-term fire effects on soils is limited. We compiled and assessed the body of literature addressing fire effects on soils in Lake States forests to facilitate the re-measurement of previous...
Full Text Available An urgent need exists to develop new antibacterial drugs for children. We conducted research with investigators of pediatric antibacterial drug trials to identify facilitators and barriers in the conduct of these trials. Seventy-three investigators completed an online survey assessing the importance of 15 facilitators (grouped in 5 topical categories and the severity of 36 barriers (grouped in 6 topical categories to implementing pediatric antibacterial drug trials. Analysis focused on the identification of key factors that facilitate the successful implementation of pediatric antibacterial drug trials and the key barriers to implementation. Almost all investigators identified two factors as very important facilitators: having site personnel for enrollment and having adequate funding. Other top factors were related to staffing. Among the barriers, factors related to parent concerns and consent were prominent, particularly obtaining parental consent when there was disagreement between parents, concerns about the number of blood draws, and concerns about the number of invasive procedures. Having overly narrow eligibility criteria was also identified as a major barrier. The survey findings suggest three areas in which to focus efforts to help facilitate ongoing drug development: (1 improving engagement with parents of children who may be eligible to enroll in a pediatric antibacterial drug trial, (2 broadening inclusion criteria to allow more participants to enroll, and (3 ensuring adequate staffing and establishing sustainable financial strategies, such as funding pediatric trial networks. The pediatric antibacterial drug trials enterprise is likely to benefit from focused efforts by all stakeholders to remove barriers and enhance facilitation.
Haro, Juan; Ferré, Pilar
It is not clear whether multiple unrelated meanings inhibit or facilitate word recognition. Some studies have found a disadvantage for words having multiple meanings with respect to unambiguous words in lexical decision tasks (LDT), whereas several others have shown a facilitation for such words. In the present study, we argue that these inconsistent findings may be due to the approach employed to select ambiguous words across studies. To address this issue, we conducted three LDT experiments in which we varied the measure used to classify ambiguous and unambiguous words. The results suggest that multiple unrelated meanings facilitate word recognition. In addition, we observed that the approach employed to select ambiguous words may affect the pattern of experimental results. This evidence has relevant implications for theoretical accounts of ambiguous words processing and representation.
van de Mortel, Thea; Silberberg, Peter; Ahern, Christine
Capacity for teaching in general practice clinics is limited. Shared learning sessions are one form of vertically integrated teaching that may ameliorate capacity constraints. This study sought to understand the perceptions of general practitioner supervisors, learners and practice staff of the facilitators of shared learning in general practice clinics. Using a grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted and analysed to generate a theory about the topic. Thirty-five stakeholders from nine general practices participated. Facilitators of shared learning included enabling factors such as small group facilitation skills, space, administrative support and technological resources; reinforcing factors such as targeted funding, and predisposing factors such as participant attributes. Views from multiple stakeholders suggest that the implementation of shared learning in general practice clinics would be supported by an ecological approach that addresses all these factors.
This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.
Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.
Bang, Anne Louise
This is a report from an ongoing research project and as such it is work in progress. The paper proposes an exploratory approach in order to enable end-users to contribute with their experiences of emotional values of fabrics in use. It is suggested that the textile designer with her repertoire...... of (experiential, implicit and tacit) textile design knowledge should facilitate the articulation process. The paper specifically draws on a series of workshops conducted within the collaborating company inviting all employees to participate. The series of workshops were based on a game-like setting and introduced...... - being a textile designer herself, who functioned as the facilitator. This paper uses two examples from the series of workshops to exemplify a facilitated articulation of implicit knowledge in textile design. From the examples the following themes are synthesised as being important for articulation...
MacWilliams, Kate; Curran, Janet; Racek, Jakub; Cloutier, Paula; Cappelli, Mario
This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the HEADS-ED, a screening tool appropriate for use in the emergency department (ED) that facilitates standardized assessments, discharge planning, charting, and linking pediatric mental health patients to appropriate community resources. A qualitative theory-based design was used to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool. Focus groups were conducted with participants recruited from 6 different ED settings across 2 provinces (Ontario and Nova Scotia). The Theoretical Domains Framework was used as a conceptual framework to guide data collection and to identify themes from focus group discussions. The following themes spanning 12 domains were identified as reflective of participants' beliefs about the barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool: knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities, social professional role and identity, optimism, beliefs about consequences, reinforcement, environmental context and resources, social influences, emotion, behavioral regulation and memory, and attention and decision process. The HEADS-ED has the potential to address the need for better discharge planning, complete charting, and standardized assessments for the increasing population of pediatric mental health patients who present to EDs. This study has identified potential barriers and facilitators, which should be considered when developing an implementation plan for adopting the HEADS-ED tool into practice within EDs.
H. Elmo Pienaar
Full Text Available The article furthered an epistemology of facilitation. It was created through bringing into focus broad movements in Julian M�ller�s theoretical academic development. Rather than explaining at length the epistemological concepts characterising M�ller�s theoretical development � rightly because of the importance of narrative in Julian M�ller�s work � the article sought to link a social psychological dimension of both M�ller and the author to these concepts. Resulting from M�ller�s work, the author regarded a narrative approach, social constructionism and postfoundationalism as important epistemological conversational partners in practical theological facilitation.
Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed
In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.
Watson, Sunnie Lee
This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…
Chan, Tak Cheung; Petrie, Garth
Examines how school design facilitates learning by complementing how the brain learns. How the brain learns is discussed and how an artistic environment, spaciousness in the learning areas, color and lighting, and optimal thermal and acoustical environments aid student learning. School design suggestions conclude the article. (GR)
Shaharum bin Ramli
Nuclear Malaysia level quality manuals need to be shared with all divisions. A manual is usually distributed in the form of an electronic document that contains all procedures. Navigation from one heading or procedure to another should be facilitated by providing bookmarks or similar. This paper shows how to do it for Microsoft Word and PDF documents. (author)
Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Murphy, Karen L.; Mahoney, Sue E.; Chen, Chun-Ying; Mendoza-Diaz, Noemi V.; Yang, Xiaobing
This case study of an online graduate course determines the message characteristics of the instructor, volunteer teaching assistants, and students in online discussions, and proposes a mentoring, coaching, and facilitating model for online discussions. The researchers developed a coding system based on the literature of mentoring, coaching, and…
Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.
The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…
harvestingelectrical power directly from waste and renewable biomass and thus represent a promising technology for sustainable energy production.1−5 Central...cell membrane (Figure 3e), serving as a porous semiconducting “ shell ” to facilitate the charge transport at bacteria/electrode or bacteria/bacteria
The development of a strategy for the facilitation of income-generating projects in rural communities: an insider account. ... helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the ...
Full Text Available As believed by many researchers (Dörnyei & Murphey 2003, Hadfield 1992, classroom climate is strongly determined by the dynamics of the learning group and its development over time. For this reason, the role of the teacher in facilitating group processes seems to be of primary importance since it is the teacher who has long been regarded as the group leader in both teacher-centred and learner-centred classrooms.The presentation focuses not only on positive but also on negative forms of classroom dynamics together with management techniques for dealing with conflicts, educational alienation and psychological defensiveness. This, in turn, leads to the concept of facilitator style based on Heron’s (2006 model of facilitation, which consists of six dimensions and three modes. In the paper particular emphasis is placed on the presentation and comparison of various theories of leadership, namely Heron’s system of facilitation, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational-leadership theory (1982 and Bass and Avolio’s transactional versus transformational leadership theory (1984.
The global prioritisation of the inclusion of learners with disabilities, and of vulnerable young people's resilience, means that teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). To provide such insight, we conducted a secondary data ...
Haberstroh, Shane; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta; Morgan-Fleming, Barbara; Gee, Robert
To address the need for research regarding online counseling, the authors explore the experiences of 4 female and 2 male Caucasian counseling students who facilitated 5 chat-based online counseling sessions. Conducting semistructured interviews based in grounded theory methods, the authors discuss technological barriers, counseling without visual…
This article seeks to publish the results of nurse educators with regard to how reflective thinking of learners can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. The results were obtained through a perception survey using an agenda focus group in the second phase of an original study whose aim was to develop a model to ...
Hollings, Rick; Berghoff, Beth K.
This document presents a workbook and facilitator's notes designed for use with small groups or with individual students in secondary schools to help them cope with troubling events related to the Gulf War. The material contained in the workbook is designed to help students deal with each of seven stages that the mastery model sees individuals…
The facilitation of inherent affective and mental resourcefulness and resilience was the main concept of the model. Step two comprised the definition and classification of central and related concepts. Step three provides a description of the model. The model operates in three phases namely the dependent phase, partially ...
an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.
This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case ...
Heath, C.; Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.
With reports from all major jurisdictions where the responsibility of facilitators and intermediaries for copyright and trade mark infringement have been litigated, this very useful book is the first comprehensive global survey of the liability regime that intermediaries may face when assisting
Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris
Auditory-visual (AV) events often involve a leading visual cue (e.g. auditory-visual speech) that allows the perceiver to generate predictions about the upcoming auditory event. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that when an auditory event is predicted, processing is sped up, i.e., the N1 component of the ERP occurs earlier (N1 facilitation). However, it is not clear (1) whether N1 facilitation is based specifically on predictive rather than multisensory integration and (2) which particular properties of the visual cue it is based on. The current experiment used artificial AV stimuli in which visual cues predicted but did not co-occur with auditory cues. Visual form cues (high and low salience) and the auditory-visual pairing were manipulated so that auditory predictions could be based on form and timing or on timing only. The results showed that N1 facilitation occurred only for combined form and temporal predictions. These results suggest that faster auditory processing (as indicated by N1 facilitation) is based on predictive processing generated by a visual cue that clearly predicts both what and when the auditory stimulus will occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Holmgren, M.; Scheffer, M.
1. The idea that the role of facilitative interactions increases as environmental conditions become more stressful has become a ruling paradigm in ecology. Here, we review three reasons why positive interactions may actually be more prominent than generally thought under moderately stressful rather
This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…
McNair, Simon; Feeney, Aidan
People often struggle when making Bayesian probabilistic estimates on the basis of competing sources of statistical evidence. Recently, Krynski and Tenenbaum (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 430-450, 2007) proposed that a causal Bayesian framework accounts for peoples' errors in Bayesian reasoning and showed that, by clarifying the causal relations among the pieces of evidence, judgments on a classic statistical reasoning problem could be significantly improved. We aimed to understand whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by the causal structure intervention. In Experiment 1, although we observed causal facilitation effects overall, the effect was confined to participants high in numeracy. We did not find an overall facilitation effect in Experiment 2 but did replicate the earlier interaction between numerical ability and the presence or absence of causal content. This effect held when we controlled for general cognitive ability and thinking disposition. Our results suggest that clarifying causal structure facilitates Bayesian judgments, but only for participants with sufficient understanding of basic concepts in probability and statistics.
Mailey, Emily L; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward
The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children's activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home.
Schomaker, J; Meeter, M
Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background: Borderline personality disorder is characterised by a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects and marked impulsivity. Objective: The objective is to define the central concept of “facilitation of self- empowerment”. Method: Analysis and synthesis reasoning methods as indicated by ...
Hord, Shirley M.
Based on a study of change facilitation in eight high schools, this article debunks three common myths concerning administrative organization as an obstacle to managing high school change. Tentative guidelines are provided to help determined managers cure stagnation and thwart bureaucratic intransigency. (MLH)
teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). .... vidual's well-being, it is the individual's responsi- bility to steer towards, and make good use of these .... Formal ID diagnosis; Financial disadvantage (Mother unemployed with ID);.
Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Veenvliet, Karel; Broenink, Johannes F.
As its name implies, the aim of Systems Design and Engineering: Facilitating Multidisciplinary Development Projects is to help systems engineers develop the skills and thought processes needed to successfully develop and implement engineered systems. Such expertise typically does not come through
Lawson, J.M.; Berry, M.; Milligan, V.; Yates, J.
This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by
Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…
Houtsma, A.J.M.; Keuning - van Oirschot, H.; Westwood, J.D.; Haluck, R.S.
This study investigates facilitation of a manual target acquisition task by the application of appropriate force feedback through the control device (e.g., mouse, joystick, trackball). Typical manual movements with these devices were measured, and models of such movements were used to predict an
Kosanovich, Marcia; Jordan, Georgia; Arndt, Elissa; VanSciver, Mary; Wahl, Michelle; Rissman, Lila
This "Facilitator's Guide" has been prepared for presenters of the Reviewing a Reading Program professional development training. It is one of three pieces comprising a suite of materials on reviewing reading programs: this "Guide", the "Reviewing a Reading Program Participant's Guide" and the "Reviewing a Reading Program" Professional Development…
School psychologists' views on challenges in facilitating school development through intersectoral collaboration. ... In the Western Cape, the context of this study, school psychologists are assigned to circuit teams, where they are expected to work collaboratively with other professionals to provide support to schools.
Stones, Thomas P.
This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…
Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco
The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.
The purpose of this study was to formulate guidelines to facilitate the internalisation of professional values in student nurses in order to enable them to become caring registered nurses. To realise this goal, the researcher followed a quantitative, qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual approach. In Phase One of ...
Brian R Silliman
Full Text Available Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation.Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity.These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change.
Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Voydanoff, P.
The study examines whether home life influences inrole and extrarole job performance in positive or negative ways. We hypothesized that home resources would have a direct positive effect on job performance, and an indirect relationship through home-work facilitation (HWF). Home demands were
Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation is a professional journal of the Association of Psychology in Sport and Human Behaviour. It publishes a wide variety of original articles and reports relevant to cultural and sport behaviour, theoretical propositions, research outcomes ...
Ockene, Judith K.; Milner, Robert J.; Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Congdon, John; Cain, Joanna M.
The promotion process is challenging, particularly for non-tenure track faculty in academic medicine. To address this challenge, we implemented a facilitated peer mentoring program that included a structured curriculum with regular meetings, guided by two senior faculty mentors. Participants expressed satisfaction with the program, showed…
Atasoy, P.; Bekker, M.M.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Eggen, J.H.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.
Design and innovation workshops are common practices to match diverse stakeholders to initiate collaboration for innovation. Due to the complex and multi-faceted processes in such a collaboration workshop, not only the toolkits but also the facilitation of the process needs to be taken into account.
Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.
Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.
Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy
While Action Research (AR) is promoted as a powerful route for teachers' professional development, different contextual challenges may arise during the process; teachers may be helped to overcome these challenges with the guidance of external facilitators. Drawing on data from interviews and the teachers' AR reports, this article explores how two…
Stark Education Partnership, 2015
This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…
To accommodate these needs, SANC in line with the SAQA Act, advocated the development of teaching and learning strategies to balance theory and practice opportunities together with an outcome-based, studentcentred approach and appropriate clinical supervision. This resulted in a positive outcome to facilitate the ...
The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey. The area of the ...
Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Maes, Stan; Garnefski, Nadia; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Kraaij, Vivian
In a sample of 1,287 adolescents, it appeared that weekly exercise facilitates a variety of goals; particularly those related to being or remaining healthy, feeling relaxed, not being bored, feeling physically good, not being stressed, and attaining high achievements were endorsed. Sedentary and
Ronald Beckers; Theo van der Voordt
Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of
Beckers, R.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.
Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of
Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard
While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…
Asserts that, although technological advances afford opportunities for reclaiming sexual functioning, even among individuals with chronic illness or devastating injury, they cannot ensure that sexual outlet will facilitate intimacy in a committed relationship. Explains how sex therapy addresses dysfunction in an essential relational context, and…
Dr. J. de Lange; E. Deusing; I.F.M. van Asch; J. Peeters; M. Zwaanswijk; A.M. Pot; A.L. Francke
To obtain insight into facilitating factors for case management in dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 online focus groups (OFGs). Participants were professionals involved in dementia case management (N = 99). We used mind-maps and the method of constant comparison for analysis.
Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.; Leung, D.
The instant messenger (IM) is frequently encountered as a facilitator of communication in both social and working contexts. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the extent to which IMs bring organizational benefits, thereby overcoming interruptions to work. In this study, we focus on how IM tools
Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.
This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…
Harris, Alex H. S.
Uses Kegan's theory of the evolving self as an example of the utility of life-span theories in facilitating career happiness. Suggests how to use culturally appropriate developmental theories to help clients understand their life-stage position and discover ways to achieve self-other balance for life and career satisfaction. (SK)
Zaidi, Zareen; Vyas, Rashmi; Verstegen, Danielle; Morahan, Page; Dornan, Tim
To analyze educators' experiences of facilitating cultural discussions in two global health professions education programs and what these experiences had taught them about critical consciousness. A multicultural research team conducted in-depth interviews with 16 faculty who had extensive experience facilitating cultural discussions. They analyzed transcripts of the interviews thematically, drawing sensitizing insights from Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony. Collaboration and conversation helped the team self-consciously examine their positions toward the data set and be critically reflexive. Participant faculty used their prior experience facilitating cultural discussions to create a "safe space" in which learners could develop critical consciousness. During multicultural interactions they recognized and explicitly addressed issues related to power differentials, racism, implicit bias, and gender bias. They noted the need to be "facile in attending to pain" as learners brought up traumatic experiences and other sensitive issues including racism and the impact of power dynamics. They built relationships with learners by juxtaposing and exploring the sometimes-conflicting norms of different cultures. Participants were reflective about their own understanding and tendency to be biased. They aimed to break free of such biases while role modeling how to have the courage to speak up. Experience had given facilitators in multicultural programs an understanding of their responsibility to promote critical consciousness and social justice. How faculty without prior experience or expertise could develop those values and skills is a topic for future research.
Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather
This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... personal reflection but also prompted discussion. Participation, defined as including both physical interaction with exhibits, and dialogic interaction between visitors, facilitated the sharing of ideas and feelings between visitors. Exhibits with elements of curiosity and challenge were found to attract...
The use of heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation for the treatment of landfill leachate was investigated in this study. The photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out using Zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst and the process was facilitated by ultra violet radiation (UV) from sunlight. Characterisation of the raw ...
Christensen, Dorthe; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah
The paper sets focus on the notion of sustainable development as the challenge of creating self-referential systems that are continually learning how to persist in a complex and ever-changing environment. For this learning to be accomplished, facilitating it with a systemic perspective may...... be an option available to an organisation....
Ritter, S.M.; Ferguson, S.
Creativity can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century. It provides us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The question as to what facilitates creative cognition - the ability to come up
Physics when taught with models, realia and charts. The results also indicated that the facilitating effect of instructional materials on students' attitude towards Physics is not the same at all levels of gender. It is recommended that charts should be used together with models/realia materials for the main lesson, revision and ...
Ma, Yuxin; Williams, Doug; Prejean, Louise
Advocates of electronic educational games often cite the work on motivation to support the use of games in education. However, motivation alone is inadequate to facilitate learning. Many of the educational games that focused their game design solely on the motivational effect failed to be either educational or entertaining. Theory and research is…
The goal of this thesis was to investigate the combination of ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) for intracellular delivery of (model) drugs in vitro. We have focused on clinically approved drugs, i.e. cisplatin, and microbubbles, i.e. SonoVue™, to facilitate clinical translation. In addition, model
Pasternak, T.; Glancy, J.; Goldman, L.; Swartz, J.
Several studies have been performed recently to identify and analyze light water reactor (LWR) features that, if incorporated into the facility design, would facilitate the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. This paper presents results and conclusions of these studies. 2 refs
Vedel, Cathrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Mahmood, Badar
BACKGROUND: Teaching basic clinical skills to student peers and residents by medical students has previously been shown effective. This study examines if medical students can facilitate laparoscopic procedural tasks to residents using a virtual reality simulator. METHODS: This was a retrospective...... practicing on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator....
Everyone takes notes daily for various reasons. Note taking is very popular in school settings and generally recognized as an effective learning strategy. Further, note taking is a complex process because it requires understanding, selection of information and writing. Some new technological tools may facilitate the note taking process. Among such…
The study explores the process of facilitation in professional development for educators. The study relies on discourse analysis of interaction among K-12 teachers and administrators in a Midwestern U.S. state during a semester-long professional development program especially designed for educators working with English language learners (ELLs).…
Martina C. Cornel
Full Text Available More than 15 years after the publication of the sequence of the human genome, the resulting changes in health care have been modest. At the same time, some promising examples in genetic services become visible, which contribute to the prevention of chronic disease such as cancer. These are discussed to identify barriers and facilitating factors for the implementation of genetic services. Examples from oncogenetics illustrate a high risk of serious disease where prevention is possible, especially in relatives. Some 5% of breast cancers and colorectal cancers are attributable to an inherited predisposition. These cancers occur at a relatively young age. DNA testing of relatives of affected patients may facilitate primary and secondary prevention. Training of non-genetic health care workers and health technology assessment are needed, as is translational research in terms of bringing genomics to health care practice while monitoring and evaluating. Stratified screening programs could include cascade screening and risk assessment based on family history. New roles and responsibilities will emerge. A clear assessment of the values implied is needed allowing to balance the pros and cons of interventions to further the responsible innovation of genetic services.
Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G
More than 15 years after the publication of the sequence of the human genome, the resulting changes in health care have been modest. At the same time, some promising examples in genetic services become visible, which contribute to the prevention of chronic disease such as cancer. These are discussed to identify barriers and facilitating factors for the implementation of genetic services. Examples from oncogenetics illustrate a high risk of serious disease where prevention is possible, especially in relatives. Some 5% of breast cancers and colorectal cancers are attributable to an inherited predisposition. These cancers occur at a relatively young age. DNA testing of relatives of affected patients may facilitate primary and secondary prevention. Training of non-genetic health care workers and health technology assessment are needed, as is translational research in terms of bringing genomics to health care practice while monitoring and evaluating. Stratified screening programs could include cascade screening and risk assessment based on family history. New roles and responsibilities will emerge. A clear assessment of the values implied is needed allowing to balance the pros and cons of interventions to further the responsible innovation of genetic services.
Hanson, Alan L; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Demuth, James E
To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the "routine." The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure.
Vera Lúcia Santos de Britto
Full Text Available Introduction: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP can impact the independence and motricity of patients. The aims of this study were to estimate the effects of physiotherapy on the functionality of patients with HAM/TSP during the stable phase of the disease using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF and to compare two methods of treatment delivery. Methods: Fourteen patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (seven patients, PNF was applied by the therapist, facilitating the functional activities of rolling, sitting and standing, walking and climbing and descending stairs. In group II (seven patients, PNF was self-administered using an elastic tube, and the same activities were facilitated. Experiments were conducted for 1h twice per week for 12 weeks. Low-back pain, a modified Ashworth scale, the functional independence measure (FIM and the timed up and go test (TUG were assessed before and after the interventions. Results: In the within-group evaluation, low-back pain was significantly reduced in both groups, the FIM improved in group II, and the results of the TUG improved in group I. In the inter-group analysis, only the tone was lower in group II than in group I. Conclusions: Both PNF protocols were effective in treating patients with HAM/TSP.
Edwards, Laura L; Reis, Janet S; Weber, Kathleen M
We examined HIV-infected parents' conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Eighty-one percent of parents reported "sometimes" or "often" communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one's child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents.
Hackley, Steven A; Ren, Xi; Underwood, Amy; Valle-Inclán, Fernando
If the postauricular reflex (PAR) is to be used effectively in studies of emotion and attention, its sensitivity to basic modulatory effects such as prepulse inhibition and facilitation must be determined. Two experiments were carried out with healthy young adults to assess the effects of transient and sustained visual prestimuli on the pinna-flexion response to trains of startle probes. In the first experiment, participants passively viewed a small white square. It was displayed from 1,000 ms prior to onset of a train of noise bursts until the end of that train. Relative to no-prepulse control trials, PAR amplitude was inhibited, possibly due to the withdrawal of attentional resources from the auditory modality. In the second experiment, participants performed a visual oddball task in which irrelevant trains of startle probes followed most briefly displayed task stimuli (checkerboards). Prepulse inhibition was observed when a transient stimulus preceded the first probe at a lead time of 100 ms. Amplitude facilitation was observed at longer lead times. In addition to documenting the existence of prepulse inhibition and facilitation, the data suggest that the PAR is not elicited by visual stimuli, that temporal expectancy does not influence its amplitude or latency, and that this vestigial microreflex is resistant to habituation. Results are interpreted in light of a recent theory that the human PAR is a highly degraded pinna startle, in which the reflex arc no longer includes the startle center (nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis). © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Wentzell, Jason; Nguyen, Tiffany; Bui, Stephanie; MacDonald, Erika
Health Canada relies on health professionals to voluntarily report adverse reactions to the Canada Vigilance Program. Current rates of reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are inadequate to detect important safety issues. To assess the impact of pharmacy student facilitation of ADR reporting by pharmacists at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Canada. The intervention of interest, implemented at one campus of the hospital, was facilitation of ADR reporting by pharmacy students. The students received training on how to submit ADR reports and presented information sessions on the topic to hospital pharmacists; the pharmacists were then encouraged to report ADRs to a designated student for formal reporting. Frequency of reporting by pharmacists at the intervention campus was compared with reporting at a control campus of the same hospital. Data were collected prospectively over a 6-month pilot period, starting in April 2015. During the pilot period, 27 ADR reports were submitted at the intervention campus, and 3 reports at the control campus. All student participants strongly agreed that they would recommend that responsibility for submitting ADR reports to the Canada Vigilance Program remain with pharmacy students during future rotations. Availability of a pharmacy student to facilitate reporting of ADRs may increase the frequency of ADR reporting and could alleviate pharmacist workload; this activity is also a potentially valuable learning experience for students.
Full Text Available Role plays have served an instrumental role in social work education by providing opportunities for students to acquire interaction skills. This project tested various online video conferencing tools to facilitate role plays for students who live in different locations and who are unable to be at the same place at the same time. Key features of the technology included the ability to facilitate real-time interaction, compatibility with laptops and Wi-Fi connections, and the ability to record sessions for later viewing and feedback. Method: Case study design. Results: Students were able to use the videoconferencing software with minimal support. Video quality was not always ideal with contributing factors being the time of day students used the software. There were no distinguishable time and effort demands associated with the online video conferencing compared to classroom role plays. Some students found use of the technology caused them to feel disconnected from their peers compared to face-to-face encounters, while other students found the encounter more intimate in that the pressure to perform in front of others was not felt. Implications: Video conferencing is a promising tool to facilitate social work role plays. Future research needs to assess the acquisition of specific skills compared to traditional classroom students.
Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.
Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents. PMID:23763390
Smeraglia, Luca; Billi, Andrea; Carminati, Eugenio; Cavallo, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Spagnuolo, Elena; Zorzi, Federico
Many earthquakes propagate up to the Earth's surface producing surface ruptures. Seismic slip propagation is facilitated by along-fault low dynamic frictional resistance, which is controlled by a number of physico-chemical lubrication mechanisms. In particular, rotary shear experiments conducted at seismic slip rates (1 ms -1 ) show that phyllosilicates can facilitate co-seismic slip along faults during earthquakes. This evidence is crucial for hazard assessment along oceanic subduction zones, where pelagic clays participate in seismic slip propagation. Conversely, the reason why, in continental domains, co-seismic slip along faults can propagate up to the Earth's surface is still poorly understood. We document the occurrence of micrometer-thick phyllosilicate-bearing layers along a carbonate-hosted seismogenic extensional fault in the central Apennines, Italy. Using friction experiments, we demonstrate that, at seismic slip rates (1 ms -1 ), similar calcite gouges with pre-existing phyllosilicate-bearing (clay content ≤3 wt.%) micro-layers weaken faster than calcite gouges or mixed calcite-phyllosilicate gouges. We thus propose that, within calcite gouge, ultra-low clay content (≤3 wt.%) localized along micrometer-thick layers can facilitate seismic slip propagation during earthquakes in continental domains, possibly enhancing surface displacement.
Cajita, Maan Isabella; Hodgson, Nancy A; Lam, Katherine Wai; Yoo, Sera; Han, Hae-Ra
The purpose of this descriptive, exploratory study was to assess the perceptions of older adults with heart failure regarding the use of mobile technology and to identify potential facilitators of and barriers to mHealth adoption. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that older adults do not base their intention to use mHealth solely on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, as outlined in the Technology Acceptance Model. The following themes emerged from the content analysis: facilitators included previous experience with mobile technology, willingness to learn mHealth, ease of use, presence of useful features, adequate training, free equipment, and doctor's recommendation; barriers included lack of knowledge regarding how to use mHealth, decreased sensory perception, lack of need for technology, poorly designed interface, cost of technology, and limited/fixed income. Overall, the findings suggest that older adults are willing to use mobile health technology, albeit with reservations. Future researchers who seek to implement mHealth-based interventions should address person-related, technology-related, and contextual barriers, and simultaneously capitalize on the influence of potential facilitators, such as a physician's recommendation, to promote mHealth adoption.
Galang, Carl Michael; Naish, Katherine R; Arbabi, Keon; Obhi, Sukhvinder S
Excitability in the motor cortex is modulated when we observe other people receiving a painful stimulus (Avenanti et al., Nat Neurosci 8(7):955-960, 2005). However, the task dependency of this modulation is not well understood, as different paradigms have yielded seemingly different results. Previous neurophysiological work employing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggests that watching another person's hand being pierced by a needle leads to a muscle specific inhibition, assessed via motor evoked potentials. Results from previous behavioural studies suggest that overt behavioural responses are facilitated due to pain observation (Morrison et al., Cereb Cortex 17:2214-2222, 2007b; Morrison et al., Cognition 104:407-416, 2007a). There are several paradigmatic differences both between typical TMS studies and behavioural studies, and within behavioural studies themselves, that limit our overall understanding of how pain observation affects the motor system. In the current study, we combine elements of typical TMS experimental designs in a behavioural assessment of how pain observation affects overt behavioural responding. Specifically, we examined the muscle specificity, timing, and direction of modulation of motor responses due to pain observation. To assess muscle specificity, we employed pain and non-pain videos from previous TMS studies in a Go/No-Go task in which participants responded by either pressing a key with their index finger or with their foot. To assess timing, we examined response times for Go signals presented at 0 or 500 ms after the video. Results indicate that observation of another individual receiving a painful stimulus leads to a non-effector specific, temporally extended response facilitation (e.g., finger and foot facilitation present at 0 and 500 ms delays), compared to observation of non-pain videos. This behavioural facilitation effect differs from the typical motor inhibition seen in TMS studies, and we argue that the effects of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment to randomized controlled trials is known to be challenging. It is important to understand and identify predictors of good or poor accrual to a clinical trial so that appropriate strategies can be put in place to overcome these problems and facilitate successful trial completion. We have developed a survey tool to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams regarding facilitators and barriers to recruitment in a clinical trial and describe herein the method of developing the questionnaire. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify studies that have explored facilitators and barriers to recruitment, and a list of potential factors affecting recruitment to a clinical trial was generated. These factors were categorized in terms relating to the (i trial, (ii site, (iii patient, (iv clinical team, (v information and consent and (vi study team. A list was provided for responders to grade these factors as weak, intermediate or strong facilitators or barriers to recruitment. Results A web-based survey questionnaire was developed. This survey was designed to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams with regard to the perceived facilitators and barriers to recruitment, to identify strategies applied to overcome these problems, and to obtain suggestions for change in the organization of future trials. The survey tool can be used to assess the recruitment experience of clinical teams in a single/multicenter trial in any clinical setting or speciality involving adults or children either in an ongoing trial or at trial completion. The questionnaire is short, easy to administer and to complete, with an estimated completion time of 11 minutes. Conclusions We have presented a robust methodology for developing this survey tool that provides an evidence-based list of potential factors that can affect recruitment to a clinical trial. We recommend that all clinical trialists should consider using
Saccone, Patrick; Pagès, Jean-Philippe; Girel, Jacky; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Michalet, Richard
*Here, we analysed the role of direct and indirect plant interactions in the invasion process of Acer negundo along a natural successional gradient in the Middle Rhone floodplain (France). We addressed two questions: What are the responses of the invasive Acer seedlings to native communities' effects along the successional gradient? What are the effects of the invasive Acer adult trees on the native communities? *In the three communities (Salix, Acer and Fraxinus stands) we transplanted juveniles of the invasive and juveniles of the natives within the forest and in experimental gaps, and with and without the herb layer. We also quantified changes in understory functional composition, light, nitrogen and moisture among treatments. *Acer seedlings were directly facilitated for survival in the Salix and Acer communities and indirectly facilitated for growth by adult Acer through the reduction of the abundance of highly competitive herbaceous competitors. *We conclude that direct facilitation by the tree canopy of the native pioneer Salix is very likely the main biotic process that induced colonization of the invasive Acer in the floodplain and that indirect facilitation by adult conspecifics contributed to population establishment.
Petursdottir, Unnur; Arnadottir, Solveig A; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur
Evidence indicates that regular exercise improves the well-being of individuals with osteoarthritis (OA). However, these individuals seem to exercise less frequently than the general population and seem to have limited adherence to exercising. The purposes of this study were: (1) to increase knowledge and understanding of the experience of exercising among individuals with OA and (2) to determine what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to exercising. This study used a qualitative method, based on the Vancouver School of doing phenomenology, involving purposive sampling of 12 individuals and 16 interviews. The participants, 9 women and 3 men, were 50 to 82 years of age. Extended information on exercise behavior among people with OA is presented in a model in which internal and external facilitators and barriers to exercising are delineated. Based on this model, a checklist is proposed for physical therapists' assessment of these factors. Internal factors include individual attributes and personal experience of exercising, whereas external factors include the social and physical environment. The participants expressed how each of these internal and external factors could act both as a facilitator and a barrier to exercise participation and the pattern of exercising; for example, the presence of pain was an important aspect concerning internal barriers to exercising, whereas the hope of less pain was one of the main facilitators. Increased knowledge and understanding of the factors influencing exercise behavior in people with OA can help physical therapists and other health care professionals support them in initiating and maintaining a healthy exercise routine and, consequently, achieving a better quality of life.
Weir, Charlene; Brunker, Cherie; Butler, Jorie; Supiano, Mark A
This paper evaluates the role of facilitation in the successful implementation of Computerized Decision Support (CDS). Facilitation processes include education, specialized computerized decision support, and work process reengineering. These techniques, as well as modeling and feedback enhance self-efficacy, which we propose is one of the factors that mediate the effectiveness of any CDS. In this study, outpatient clinics implemented quality improvement (QI) projects focused on improving geriatric care. Quality Improvement is the systematic process of improving quality through continuous measurement and targeted actions. The program, entitled "Advancing Geriatric Education through Quality Improvement" (AGE QI), consisted of a 6-month, QI based, intervention: (1) 2h didactic session, (2) 1h QI planning session, (3) computerized decision support design and implementation, (4) QI facilitation activities, (5) outcome feedback, and (6) 20h of CME. Specifically, we examined the impact of the QI based program on clinician's perceived self-efficacy in caring for older adults and the relationship of implementation support and facilitation on perceived success. The intervention was implemented at 3 institutions, 27 community healthcare system clinics, and 134 providers. This study reports the results of pre/post surveys for the forty-nine clinicians who completed the full CME program. Self-efficacy ratings for specific clinical behaviors related to care of older adults were assessed using a Likert based instrument. Self-ratings of efficacy improved across the following domains (depression, falls, end-of-life, functional status and medication management) and specifically in QI targeted domains and were associated with overall clinic improvements. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In academic medicine, women physicians lag behind their male counterparts in advancement and promotion to leadership positions. Lack of mentoring, among other factors, has been reported to contribute to this disparity. Peer mentoring has been reported as a successful alternative to the dyadic mentoring model for women interested in improving their academic productivity. We describe a facilitated peer mentoring program in our institution's department of medicine. Methods Nineteen women enrolled in the program were divided into 5 groups. Each group had an assigned facilitator. Members of the respective groups met together with their facilitators at regular intervals during the 12 months of the project. A pre- and post-program evaluation consisting of a 25-item self-assessment of academic skills, self-efficacy, and academic career satisfaction was administered to each participant. Results At the end of 12 months, a total of 9 manuscripts were submitted to peer-reviewed journals, 6 of which are in press or have been published, and another 2 of which have been invited to be revised and resubmitted. At the end of the program, participants reported an increase in their satisfaction with academic achievement (mean score increase, 2.32 to 3.63; P = 0.0001, improvement in skills necessary to effectively search the medical literature (mean score increase, 3.32 to 4.05; P = 0.0009, an improvement in their ability to write a comprehensive review article (mean score increase, 2.89 to 3.63; P = 0.0017, and an improvement in their ability to critically evaluate the medical literature (mean score increased from 3.11 to 3.89; P = 0.0008. Conclusions This facilitated peer mentoring program demonstrated a positive impact on the academic skills and manuscript writing for junior women faculty. This 1-year program required minimal institutional resources, and suggests a need for further study of this and other mentoring programs for women faculty.
Varkey, Prathibha; Jatoi, Aminah; Williams, Amy; Mayer, Anita; Ko, Marcia; Files, Julia; Blair, Janis; Hayes, Sharonne
In academic medicine, women physicians lag behind their male counterparts in advancement and promotion to leadership positions. Lack of mentoring, among other factors, has been reported to contribute to this disparity. Peer mentoring has been reported as a successful alternative to the dyadic mentoring model for women interested in improving their academic productivity. We describe a facilitated peer mentoring program in our institution's department of medicine. Nineteen women enrolled in the program were divided into 5 groups. Each group had an assigned facilitator. Members of the respective groups met together with their facilitators at regular intervals during the 12 months of the project. A pre- and post-program evaluation consisting of a 25-item self-assessment of academic skills, self-efficacy, and academic career satisfaction was administered to each participant. At the end of 12 months, a total of 9 manuscripts were submitted to peer-reviewed journals, 6 of which are in press or have been published, and another 2 of which have been invited to be revised and resubmitted. At the end of the program, participants reported an increase in their satisfaction with academic achievement (mean score increase, 2.32 to 3.63; P = 0.0001), improvement in skills necessary to effectively search the medical literature (mean score increase, 3.32 to 4.05; P = 0.0009), an improvement in their ability to write a comprehensive review article (mean score increase, 2.89 to 3.63; P = 0.0017), and an improvement in their ability to critically evaluate the medical literature (mean score increased from 3.11 to 3.89; P = 0.0008). This facilitated peer mentoring program demonstrated a positive impact on the academic skills and manuscript writing for junior women faculty. This 1-year program required minimal institutional resources, and suggests a need for further study of this and other mentoring programs for women faculty.
Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision
Cuttone, Andrea; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg
In this paper we discuss how to facilitate the process of reflection in Personal Informatics and Quantified Self systems through interactive data visualizations. Four heuristics for the design and evaluation of such systems have been identified through analysis of self-tracking devices and apps....... Dashboard interface paradigms in specific self-tracking devices (Fitbit and Basis) are discussed as representative examples of state of the art in feedback and reflection support. By relating to existing work in other domains, such as event related representation of time series multivariate data...... in financial analytics, it is discussed how the heuristics could guide designs that would further facilitate reflection in self-tracking personal informatics systems....
Faebo Larsen, Rikke; Ravnholt, Mette Moesgård; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi
Aim: To discuss the potentials and barriers of establishing a course in facilitating journal clubs among non-medical health professionals (NMHP). Background: NMHPs and managers had a wish to offer journal clubs. To accomplish this, there was a need of enhancingcompetences among NMHPs...... with developmental responsibility, both by education and practice in order to establish journalclub in their own department. Methods: A journal club facilitation course was offered to hospital employed NMHPs. Participants were asked to fill outquestionnaires prior to, at midterm, 4 months, and 18 months after......, course participation. At the 18-month follow-up, theirmanagers were asked to fill out questionnaires. Results are discussed in an analytic framework inspired from research onconducting journal clubs and learning transfer. Findings: After 18 months, only three journal clubs were established. Participants...
Snyder, Cyndy R; Frogner, Bianca K; Skillman, Susan M
Racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce can facilitate access to healthcare for underserved populations and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. In this study, we explored 1) changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and 2) evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggest that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations. Promising practices to help facilitate diversity in the health professions were identified in the literature, namely comprehensive programs that integrated multiple interventions and strategies. While some efforts have been found to be promising in increasing the interest, application, and enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities into health profession schools, there is still a missing link in understanding persistence, graduation, and careers.
Full Text Available In several papers, Gentner has shown that relational language facilitates spatial analogical reasoning tasks. In this work we set this question in the context of the development of cognitive flexibility, understood not just as at the representation level, but also at the executive one. To this extent, we modify the design by Ratterman & Gentner (1988 by including order of presentation of the elements as a variable, to increase the executive demands of the task so that the elements to be mentally ordered, which also allows to exclude that the successful answer is based on perceptual appearance. Our results confirm the facilitatory effect of relational language on the development of cognitive flexibility. They also point that a disordered presentation also facilitates correct responses.
Full Text Available Sensory integration and the ability to discriminate target objects from distractors are critical to survival, yet the developmental trajectories of these abilities are unknown. This study investigated developmental changes in 9- (n=18 and 11-year-old (n=20 children, adolescents (n=19 and adults (n=22 using an audiovisual object discrimination task with uni- and multisensory distractors. Reaction times (RTs were slower with visual/audiovisual distractors, and although all groups demonstrated facilitation of multisensory RTs in these conditions, children’s and adolescents’ responses corresponded to fewer race model violations than adults’, suggesting protracted maturation of multisensory processes. Multisensory facilitation could not be explained by changes in RT variability, suggesting that tests of race model violations may still have theoretical value at least for familiar multisensory stimuli.
Kelley, Matthew R; Parihar, Sushmeena A
The present study explored the influence of part-set cues in semantic memory using tests of "free" recall, reconstruction of order, and serial recall. Nine distinct categories of information were used (e.g., Zodiac signs, Harry Potter books, Star Wars films, planets). The results showed part-set cueing impairment for all three "free" recall sets, whereas part-set cueing facilitation was evident for five of the six ordered sets. Generally, the present results parallel those often observed across episodic tasks, which could indicate that similar mechanisms contribute to part-set cueing effects in both episodic and semantic memory. A novel anchoring explanation of part-set cueing facilitation in order and spatial tasks is provided.
Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo
by subconscious (subliminal) augmented visual feedback on motor performance. To test this, 45 subjects participated in the experiment, which involved learning of a ballistic task. The task was to execute simple ankle plantar flexion movements as quickly as possible within 200 ms and to continuously improve...... by the learner, indeed facilitated ballistic motor learning. This effect likely relates to multiple (conscious versus unconscious) processing of visual feedback and to the specific neural circuitries involved in optimization of ballistic motor performance.......). It is a well- described phenomenon that we may respond to features of our surroundings without being aware of them. It is also a well-known principle, that learning is reinforced by augmented feedback on motor performance. In the present experiment we hypothesized that motor learning may be facilitated...
H. Elmo Pienaar
Full Text Available Since the 1970s along with the resurgence in practical philosophy new possibilities opened up in our understanding of the place for and purpose of practical theology. The repositioning of practical theology as a fully worthy discipline was important to find its voice amongst theological peer disciplines. Against this background, it was argued that the full measure of what the discipline can contribute, especially outside of the ministry context, has not yet been fully developed or practiced. Towards this end the presentation’s main contention was put forward, in that it is vital for the practical theologian to take up a role of an inscribed facilitator. It signifies a shift from practical theology to practical theologian and is exemplified by the practice of a facilitative approach in, and to practical theology.
Meroz, Yasmine; Klafter, Joseph; Eliazar, Iddo
Facilitated diffusion is a fundamental search process used to describe the problem of a searcher protein finding a specific target site over a very large DNA strand. In recent years macromolecular crowding has been recognized to affect this search process. In this paper, we bridge between two different modelling methodologies of facilitated diffusion: the physics-oriented kinetic approach, which yields the reaction rate of the search process, and the probability-oriented stochastic approach, which yields the probability distribution of the search duration. We translate the former approach to the latter, ascertaining that the two approaches yield coinciding results, both with and without macromolecular crowding. We further show that the stochastic approach markedly generalizes the kinetic approach by accommodating a vast array of search mechanisms, including mechanisms having no reaction rates, and thus being beyond the realm of the kinetic approach.
Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A
Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.
Brooks, Katherine C; Maia, Rafael; Duffy, J Emmett; Hultgren, Kristin M; Rubenstein, Dustin R
Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
-based intervention effort to improve organisational meetings. It reconceptualises classical meeting management, offering instead the practice of ‘meeting facilitation’: a more active and supportive approach, in which the manager-as-facilitator guides and directs conversations in meetings towards a positive goal...... showed that in the employees’ judgement, there were significant improvements in their managers’ competencies in both new meeting facilitation and classical meeting management, whereas other meeting outcomes resisted change.......Meetings in organisations are a common object of popular frustration. They are often run by managers who picked up their meeting skills from their superiors a generation previously, thus perpetuating obsolescent practices unsuited to today’s world of work. This paper reports on a research...
Buffart, Laurien M; Westendorp, Tessa; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; Stam, Henk J; Roebroeck, Marij E
To explore the main barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities. Qualitative study using focus groups. Sixteen persons (12 men and 4 women) aged 22.4 (standard deviation 3.4) years, of whom 50% were wheelchair-dependent, participated in the study. Eight were diagnosed with myelomeningocele, 4 with cerebral palsy, 2 with acquired brain injury and 2 with rheumatoid arthritis. Three focus group sessions of 1.5 h were conducted using a semi-structured question route to assess perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and content analysed. According to the Physical Activity for People with a Physical Disability model, barriers and facilitators were subdivided into personal factors and environmental factors. Participants reported several barriers related to attitude and motivation. In addition, lack of energy, existing injury or fear of developing injuries or complications, limited physical activity facilities, and lack of information and knowledge, appeared to be barriers to physical activity. Fun and social contacts were mentioned as facilitators of engaging in physical activity, as well as improved health and fitness. Young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities perceived various personal and environmental factors as barriers to or facilitators of physical activity. These should be taken into account when developing interventions to promote physical activity in this population.
McNicoll, Gabrielle; Corsini-Munt, Serena; O Rosen, Natalie; McDuff, Pierre; Bergeron, Sophie
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent idiopathic vulvo-vaginal pain associated with negative sexual and psychological consequences. Facilitative partner responses to pain are currently receiving empirical attention because they are positively associated with women's sexual outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which facilitative responses to pain are associated with these outcomes have not been examined. One potential mechanism is sexual assertiveness, which has been found to be associated with better sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The present study examined whether women's sexual assertiveness mediated the association between women's perception of facilitative partner responses and women's sexual function and satisfaction. Women (N = 140) with PVD symptomatology completed self-reported questionnaires evaluating their perception of their partners' facilitative responses, and their own sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index and sexual satisfaction assessed by the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that women's higher sexual assertiveness mediated the association between their greater perceived facilitative partner responses and their improved sexual function and satisfaction. Findings suggest a potential mechanism through which partner responses may be associated with women's sexual outcomes.
Pedersen, Anders Bro; Hauksson, Einar Bragi; Andersen, Peter Bach
As the power system evolves into a smarter and more flexible state, so must the communication technologies that support it. A key requirement for facilitating the distributed production of future grids is that communication and information are standardized to ensure interoperability. The IEC 61850...... a server using these technologies can be used to interface with DERs as diverse as Electric Vehicles (EVs) and micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) units....
Boukezzi, Sarah; Silva, Catarina; Nazarian, Bruno; Rousseau, Pierre-François; Guedj, Eric; Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Camila; Khalfa, Stéphanie
Disruption of fear conditioning, its extinction and its retrieval are at the core of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such deficits, especially fear extinction delay, disappear after alternating bilateral stimulations (BLS) during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. An animal model of fear recovery, based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, recently showed that BLS facilitate fear extinction and fear extinction retrieval. Our goal was to ...
Ferron, Lucas; Tremblay, François
In recent years, mental practice strategies have drawn much interest in the field of rehabilitation. One form of mental practice particularly advocated involves judging the laterality of images depicting body parts. Such laterality judgments are thought to rely on implicit motor imagery via mental rotation of one own's limb. In this study, we sought to further characterize the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in hand laterality judgments (HLJ) as performed in the context of an application designed for rehabilitation. To this end, we measured variations in corticospinal excitability in both hemispheres with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) while participants (n = 18, young adults) performed either HLJ or a mental counting task. A third condition (foot observation) provided additional control. We hypothesized that HLJ would lead to a selective MEP facilitation when compared to the other tasks and that this facilitation would be greater on the right than the left hemisphere. Contrary to our predictions, we found no evidence of task effects and hemispheric effects for the HLJ task. Significant task-related MEP facilitation was detected only for the mental counting task. A secondary experiment performed in a subset of participants (n = 6) to further test modulation during HLJ yielded the same results. We interpret the lack of facilitation with HLJ in the light of evidence that participants may rely on alternative strategies when asked to judge laterality when viewing depictions of body parts. The use of visual strategies notably would reduce the need to engage in mental rotation, thus reducing M1 involvement. These results have implications for applications of laterality tasks in the context of the rehabilitation program.
Rey-Salmon, C; Pépin, G
Drug-facilitated crime in sexual assault situations remains insufficiently recognized by physicians. In the possible context of an assault and in front of recent neuropsychicological disturbances in a child, such an issue has to be considered. The quality of sampling, the use of ultra-sensitive and specific toxicologic methods and a clinical-biological collaboration allow to recognize this form of delinquency whose consequences are both medical and legal.
Full Text Available Background Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.
Written for executive coaches, teachers, and other development professionals, the book explores the seven roles or "Voices" that coaches assume while working with a client. The "Voices" are: Master, Partner, Investigator, Reflector, Teacher, Guide and Contractor. Silsbee illuminates the dynamic relationship between these roles, and integrates them in an intelligent roadmap for any coaching conversation. This book offers a helpful resource for internal and external executive coaches as well as leader coaches, consultants, trainers, teachers, and facilitators.
Baloh, Jure; Zhu, Xi; Vaughn, Tom; MacKinney, A Clinton; Mueller, Keith J; Ullrich, Fred; Nattinger, Matthew
This Policy Brief presents characteristics contributing to the formation of four accountable care organizations (ACOs) that serve rural Medicare beneficiaries. Doing so provides considerations for provider organizations contemplating creating rural-based ACOs. Key Findings. (1) Previous organizational integration and risk-sharing experience facilitated ACO formation. (2) Use of an electronic health record system fostered core ACO capabilities, including care coordination and population health management. (3) Partnerships across the care continuum supported utilization of local health care resources.
Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L
Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ?ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were ...
Cao, Mingliang; Li, Yi; Guo, Yueping; Yao, Lei; Pan, Zhigeng
A successful high-performance sportswear design that considers human factors should result in a significant increase in thermal comfort and reduce energy loss. The authors describe a body-mapping approach that facilitates the effective ergonomic design of sportswear. Their general framework can be customized based on the functional requirements of various sports and sportswear, the desired combination and selection of mapping areas for the human body, and customized quantitative data distribution of target physiological indicators.
Full Text Available The Internet has changed the way consumers gather information and shop. An increasingly competitive market calls for new marketing approaches to attract customers to the companies’ online stores. The aim of the present article is to understand what facilitates and what creates barriers to prioritizing repeat customers. Further, the article discusses repurchasing among young female online fashion shoppers and how these consumers can be retained. Two research questions are addressed: 1. What facilitates repurchasing among online fashion consumers, and why? 2. What creates barriers to re-purchasing among online fashion consumers, and why? In order to gain deeper knowledge of how e-tailers work with customer retention, we conducted a pilot study that included representatives from two clothing companies, as well as an expert interview with an analyst at the company Stroede Ralto. Then two focus groups consisting of young female online shoppers were formed. Results from the focus groups show that several companies use frequent e-mail advertising and targeted advertising on other websites to retain customers and facilitate re-purchasing. All participants found these features annoying rather than helpful. Moreover, the help functions provided in an online store played a major role in facilitating the purchasing, and shopping carts were appreciated as they enable customers to easily view and add items and obtain price information. We discovered that the consumers did most of their shopping on websites they found esthetically appealing and inspiring and that they would often return to these websites for inspiration or to browse. The article further provides advice to managers regarding how to retain customers.
Becan, Jennifer Edwards; Knight, Danica K.; Flynn, Patrick M.
One of the unique contributions of the current study is a glimpse into the process by which counselors decide to try new innovations in their clinical work. Data were collected from 421 counseling staff from 71 outpatient treatment programs in 4 US regions. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results reveal that the propensity to adopt workshop-based interventions is facilitated by two important mechanisms (1) an innovative organization with creative leadership and (2) change-oriented staff a...
Hisschemoller, M.; Cuppen, E.; Leemans, R.; Dunn, W.N.
Dit onderzoek betreft het ontwikkelen en toetsen van een methode voor participatieve verkenningen op het gebied van klimaat en energie, waarbij partijen met een verschillende expertise zijn betrokken. De methode die het onderzoek heeft opgeleverd is Constructive Conflict Methodology genoemd.
Hoekman, Bernard; Nicita, Alessandro
This paper compares the predicted trade impacts of a successful Doha Round with the trade effects of actions aimed at reducing domestic trade costs for traders in developing countries and the world as a whole. We show that a relatively small reduction in trade costs will generate trade impacts that are larger than what is likely to emerge even from a relatively ambitious Doha Round market access outcome. This illustrates the importance of complementing market access commitments with measures ...
Carnegie Mellon University) Mike Byrne (Rice University) Christian Lebiere (Carnegie Mellon University) Scott Douglass (711th HPW/RHAC) David Meyer...coordinated performance. 51 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 19. Stevens, R., Galloway , T., Berka, C., & Behneman... Galloway , T., Berka, C., & Sprang, M. (2009) Can neurophysiologic synchronies provide a platform for adapting team performance? Lecture Notes in
Robinson, Paula D; Dupuis, Lee L; Tomlinson, George; Phillips, Bob; Greenberg, Mark; Sung, Lillian
By conducting a systematic review, we describe strategies to actively disseminate knowledge or facilitate practice change among healthcare providers caring for children with cancer and we evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies. We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO. Fully published primary studies were included if they evaluated one or more professional intervention strategies to actively disseminate knowledge or facilitate practice change in pediatric cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Data extracted included study characteristics and strategies evaluated. In studies with a quantitative analysis of patient outcomes, the relationship between study-level characteristics and statistically significant primary analyses was evaluated. Of 20 644 titles and abstracts screened, 146 studies were retrieved in full and 60 were included. In 20 studies, quantitative evaluation of patient outcomes was examined and a primary outcome was stated. Eighteen studies were 'before and after' design; there were no randomized studies. All studies were at risk for bias. Interrupted time series was never the primary analytic approach. No specific strategy type was successful at improving patient outcomes. Literature describing strategies to facilitate practice change in pediatric cancer is emerging. However, major methodological limitations exist. Studies with robust designs are required to identify effective strategies to effect practice change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew; Finnegan, Yvonne; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I
Glucose facilitation of cognitive function has been widely reported in previous studies (including our own). However, several studies have also failed to detect glucose facilitation. There is sparsity of research examining the factors that modify the effect of glucose on cognition. The aims of the present study were to (1) demonstrate the previously observed enhancement of cognition through glucose administration and (2) investigate some of the factors that may exert moderating roles on the behavioural response to glucose, including glucose regulation, body composition (BC) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response. A total of twenty-four participants took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, repeated-measures study, which examined the effect of 25 and 60 g glucose compared with placebo on cognitive function. At 1 week before the study commencement, all participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose facilitated performance on tasks of numeric and spatial working memory, verbal declarative memory and speed of recognition. Moderating variables were examined using several indices of glucoregulation and BC. Poorer glucoregulation predicted improved immediate word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. Those with better glucoregulation showed performance decrements on word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. These findings are in line with accumulating evidence that glucose load may preferentially enhance cognition in those with poorer glucoregulation. Furthermore, the finding that individuals with better glucoregulation may suffer impaired performance following a glucose load is novel and requires further substantiation.