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Sample records for subpleural ground-glass opacities

  1. [Multiple ground-glass opacities nodules].

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    Moreau, D; Gazaille, V; Allou, N; Fernandez, C; André, V; André, M

    2017-06-01

    Ground-glass opacities nodules are frequently detected with the advances of radiological imaging. These can be preinvasive lesions such as atypical adenomatous hyperplasia but also invasive lesions. It leads to question in patients with lung cancer about treatment strategy and follow up. We report the case of a 72 years-old woman followed for a lung adenocarcinoma with an EGFR mutation of the right upper lobe stage IIb. The CT scan shows multiple pure ground-glass opacities in the same lobe of the primitive tumor but also in the other lobe. On the piece of lobectomy, histopathology of two ground-glass opacities showed atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Ground-glass opacities nodules could be found in patients with an operable lung cancer. These can be multiple and match with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia but also carcinomas lesions. The radiological surveillance is still the standard. The strategy for surgical resection has to be defined especially in case of multiple lesions which can require repeated surgical resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgery for Pulmonary Multiple Ground Glass Opacities

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    Qun WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pulmonary ground glass opacity (GGO has been increasing in recent years, with a great number of patients having multiple GGOs. Unfortunately, the management of multiple GGOs is still controversial. Pulmonary GGO is a radiological term, consisting of different pathological types. Some of the GGOs are early-staged lung cancer. GGO is an indolent nodule, only a small proportion of GGOs change during observation, which does not influence the efficacy of surgery. . The timing of surgery for multiple GGOs mainly depends on the predominant nodule and surgery is recommended if the solid component of the predominant nodule >5 mm. Either lobectomy or sub-lobectomy is feasible. GGOs other than the predominant nodule can be left unresected. Multiple GGOs with high risk factors need mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling.

  3. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

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    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure cor...

  4. [A case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis presenting with miniscule ground-glass opacity in the apex of the left lung].

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    Matsushima, Sayomi; Yokomura, Koushi; Matsui, Takashi; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-07-01

    A 66-year-old man was found to have a very small ground-glass opacity in the apex of the left lung. Because the ground-glass opacity had slightly enlarged after 2 years, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) biopsy was performed. The histological findings showed the alveolar spaces to be filled with PAS-positive granular materials, so pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was diagnosed. Although his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) did not have a milky appearance, his serum and BALF GM-CSF autoantibody and serum KL-6 levels were elevated. Asymptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may appear as very small ground-grass opacities.

  5. The relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity: A retrospective cohort

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    Hewitt, Michael G., E-mail: Mike_hewitt@me.com; Miller, Wallace T., E-mail: Wallace.miller@uphs.upenn.edu; Reilly, Thomas J., E-mail: thomasjreilly@comcast.net; Simpson, Scott, E-mail: Simpson80@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The most common cause of widespread ground-glass opacities is hydrostatic pulmonary edema. • Associated findings such as air-trapping and centrilobular nodules are highly specific for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. • The clinical setting (outpatient versus inpatient) will alter the order of the differential diagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of our study was to determine the relative frequencies of causes of widespread ground-glass opacity (GGO) in an unselected, consecutive patient population and to identify any associated imaging findings that can narrow or reorganize the differential. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the center's IRB and is HIPPA compliant. Cases with widespread GGO in the radiology report were identified by searching the Radiology Information System. Medical records and CT scan examinations were reviewed for the causes of widespread GGO. Associations between a less dominant imaging finding and a particular diagnosis were analyzed with the chi square test. Our study group consisted of 234 examinations with 124 women and 110 men and a mean age of 53.7 years. Results: A cause was established in 204 (87.2%) cases. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was most common with 131 cases (56%). Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) were the next most common, most often hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (n = 12, 5%) and connective tissue disease related ILD (n = 7, 3%). Infection accounted for 5% (12 cases). A few miscellaneous diseases accounted for 5 cases (2.1%). The combination of septal thickening and pleural effusions had a specificity of 0.91 for hydrostatic pulmonary edema (P < .001) while centrilobular nodules and air trapping had a specificity of 1.0 for HP. In 24 (10.2%) patients, increased opacification from expiration was incorrectly interpreted as representing widespread ground glass opacity. The relative frequency of disease dramatically changed according to the setting. In the inpatient setting, diffuse

  6. Preoperative computed tomography-guided percutaneous localization of ground glass pulmonary opacity with polylactic acid injection.

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    Hu, Mu; Zhi, Xiuyi; Zhang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Localization of a ground glass nodule is a difficult challenge for thoracic surgeons, especially for ground glass opacities (GGOs) less than 10 mm in diameter. In this study we implement a new method for preoperative localization of pulmonary (GGOs). From October 2013 to December 2014, computed tomography-guided percutaneous polylactic acid injection localizations were performed for five pulmonary nodules in five patients (2 men and 3 women; mean age, 59.8 years; range, 54-65 years). The injection was feasible in all patients and the localization effect was excellent. The total procedure duration was 12.6 minutes (range; 10-15) and the volume of polylactic acid injected was 0.38 mL. The wedge resections were easily and successfully performed in all five cases. The cutting margin was no less than 2 cm from the lesion. This technique is promising for the determination of GGO location in thoracoscopic surgery for wedge resection.

  7. CT characteristics of resolving ground-glass opacities in a lung cancer screening programme

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    Felix, L.; Serra-Tosio, G. [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Universite Grenoble I, CHU Grenoble (France); Lantuejoul, S. [Departement d' anatomie Pathologique, Universite Grenoble I, CHU Grenoble (France); INSERM U823, A Bonniot Institute, La Tronche (France); Timsit, J.F. [INSERM U823, A Bonniot Institute, La Tronche (France); Moro-Sibilot, D.; Brambilla, C. [INSERM U823, A Bonniot Institute, La Tronche (France); Clinique Universitaire Pneumologique, Universite Grenoble I, CHU Grenoble (France); Ferretti, G.R., E-mail: gferretti@chu-grenoble.fr [Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, Universite Grenoble I, CHU Grenoble (France); INSERM U823, A Bonniot Institute, La Tronche (France)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: This study aimed at evaluating the computed tomography (CT) characteristics of resolving localized ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in a screening programme for lung cancer. Material and methods: 280 patients at high-risk for lung cancer (221 men, 59 women; mean age, 58.6 years), divided into four groups (lung cancer history (n = 83), head and neck cancer history (n = 63), symptomatic (n = 88) and asymptomatic (n = 46) cigarette smokers), were included in a prospective trial with annual low-dose CT for lung cancer screening. We retrospectively reviewed all localized GGOs, analyzed the CT characteristics on initial CT scans and changes during follow-up (median 29.1 months). Variables associated with resolution of GGOs were tested using chi-square or Mann-Whitney tests. Results: A total of 75 GGOs were detected in 37 patients; 54.7% were present at baseline and 45.3% appeared on annual CT. During follow-up, 56.2% persisted and 43.8% disappeared. The resolving localized GGOs were significantly more often lobular GGOs (p = 0.006), polygonal in shape (p = 0.02), mixed (p = 0.003) and larger (p < 0.0001) than non-resolving localized GGOs. Conclusion: Localized GGOs are frequent and many disappeared on follow-up. CT characteristics of resolving GGOs show significant differences compared to persistent ones. This study emphasizes the importance of short-term CT follow-up in subjects with localized GGOs.

  8. Prognostic value of the ratio of ground glass opacity on computed tomography in small lung adenocarcinoma: A meta-analysis

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    Miao, Xiao-Hui; Yao, Yan-Wen; Yuan, Dong-Mei; Lv, Yan-Ling; Zhan, Ping; Lv, Tang-Feng; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated death. In many countries, adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type in lung cancer. Previously, few factors are identified to be prognostic indicators for the patients with small lung adenocarcinoma. Recently, the ground glass opacity (GGO) area found on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning was identified as a prognostic indicator in some studies. But no clear consensus has been defined. Methods The PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library and SpringerLink electronic databases were searched for articles related to ground glass opacity on computed tomography in patients with small lung adenocarcinoma. Data was extracted and analyzed independently by two investigators. An estimate of the hazard ratio (HR) for comparing high GGO ratio with low GGO ratio was extracted. The respective HRs was combined into a pooled HR, and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each study. The publication heterogeneity was assessed graphically using performing Beggs’ funnel plot. All the statistical tests used in our meta-analysis were performed with STATA version 11. Results Thirteen studies, encompassing 2,027 patients, were included in our meta-analysis. Ten of these studies revealed that the GGO ratio in small lung adenocarcinoma is a good prognostic indicator. Seven studies were combined in a meta-analysis using overall survival (OS) as the end point of interest. The weighted HR of 7 studies was 0.85, with relative 95% CI ranging from 0.78 to 0.93 (P=0.009). For the surgical patient population, the primary endpoint of relapse-free survival (RFS) was superior with high GGO area on computed tomography (The combined HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.90; P=0.007). Conclusions The result of our meta-analysis suggested that the GGO area measured on HRCT had a prognostic value of overall survival and relapse-free survival in small lung adenocarcinoma. The GGO ratio may be an independent prognostic

  9. [The correlation study of ground glass opacity and lepidic growth pattern component in stage I lung invasive adenocarcinoma].

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    Zhang, L; Wu, N; Li, M; Sun, W; Lyu, L; Hou, D H; Lin, D M

    2017-04-23

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) component proportion and quantitative classification of lepidic growth pattern in pathological stage Ⅰpulmonary adenocarcinoma. Methods: Pathological and HRCT data of 183 stage Ⅰ invasive adenocarcinoma patients from January 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The proportion of GGO was calculated from diameter and volume.The correlation between GGO component proportion and lepidic growth pattern in pathological were analyzed by Spearman correlation. Results: Among 183 patients, the proportion of GGO component calculated by maximum diameter method and three-dimensional computerized quantification was 0.43±0.35 and 0.20±0.18, respectively. The percentage of lepidic growth pattern component using semi-quantitative analysis of pathological sections was 0.29±0.25.The proportion of GGO by diameter and three-dimensional computerized quantification was significantly correlated with the percentage of lepidic growth pattern component (r=0.599, Ppattern and the content of GGO in the small adenocarcinoma. Three-dimensional computerized quantification was a better method in preoperational evaluation.

  10. A novel approach of computer-aided detection of focal ground-glass opacity in 2D lung CT images

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    Li, Song; Liu, Xiabi; Yang, Ali; Pang, Kunpeng; Zhou, Chunwu; Zhao, Xinming; Zhao, Yanfeng

    2013-02-01

    Focal Ground-Glass Opacity (fGGO) plays an important role in diagnose of lung cancers. This paper proposes a novel approach for detecting fGGOs in 2D lung CT images. The approach consists of two stages: extracting regions of interests (ROIs) and labeling each ROI as fGGO or non-fGGO. In the first stage, we use the techniques of Otsu thresholding and mathematical morphology to segment lung parenchyma from lung CT images and extract ROIs in lung parenchyma. In the second stage, a Bayesian classifier is constructed based on the Gaussian mixture Modeling (GMM) of the distribution of visual features of fGGOs to fulfill ROI identification. The parameters in the classifier are estimated from training data by the discriminative learning method of Max-Min posterior Pseudo-probabilities (MMP). A genetic algorithm is further developed to select compact and discriminative features for the classifier. We evaluated the proposed fGGO detection approach through 5-fold cross-validation experiments on a set of 69 lung CT scans that contain 70 fGGOs. The proposed approach achieves the detection sensitivity of 85.7% at the false positive rate of 2.5 per scan, which proves its effectiveness. We also demonstrate the usefulness of our genetic algorithm based feature selection method and MMP discriminative learning method through comparing them with without-selection strategy and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), respectively, in the experiments.

  11. Imaging-guided thoracoscopic resection of a ground-glass opacity lesion in a hybrid operating room equipped with a robotic C-arm CT system.

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    Hsieh, Chen-Ping; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Fang, Hsin-Yueh; Chao, Yin-Kai

    2017-05-01

    The intraoperative identification of small pulmonary nodules through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery remains challenging. Although preoperative CT-guided nodule localization is commonly used to detect tumors during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), this approach carries inherent risks. We report the case of a patient with stage I lung cancer presenting as an area of ground-glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper pulmonary lobe. He successfully underwent a single-stage, CT-guided localization and removal of the pulmonary nodule within a hybrid operating room (OR) equipped with a robotic C-arm.

  12. Assessment of 64-slice spiral computed tomography with perfusion weighted imaging in the early diagnosis of ground-glass opacity lung cancer.

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    Lv, Yinggang; Jin, Yurong; Xu, Dianguo; Yan, Qiaohuan; Liu, Guiting; Zhang, Hui; Yuan, Dingling; Bao, Junhui

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the use of the 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) with perfusion-weighted imaging in the early diagnosis of ground-glass opacity lung cancers. 412 patients with ground-glass opacities found by conventional CT scan in our hospital, and deemed highly suspected of being lung cancers, were enrolled in the study between February of 2012 and February of 2015. Sixty four-slice spiral CTs with perfusion-weighted imaging were carried out on all patients, and the latest nodular contrast analysis software, MPR2D, 3D reconstruction technology, MIP technology and perfusion scanning technology were used to analyze lesion types, density, blood supply, peripheral signals, doubling time and tissue perfusion characteristics. This was repeated after one month, and the final pathologic diagnosis was used as a reference. There were 350 (84.95%) patients who were ultimately diagnosed with lung cancer. The main lesion type of lung cancer was quasi-circular, the average CT density was 56.7±5.4 HU, bronchial arterial enhancement increased in the nodule, peripheral signals were mainly irregular burrs, and the average doubling time was 1.2±0.3 s. Comparing these parameters with the ones in the non-cancer group, the differences found were with statistical significance (plung cancer group were all significantly higher than those in non-cancer group (plung cancer early, by taking into account variables such as lesion type, density, blood supply, peripheral signals, doubling time and tissue perfusion characteristics.

  13. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Ground-Glass Opacity Nodules Using Open-Source Software for Quantifying Tumor Heterogeneity.

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    Li, Ming; Narayan, Vivek; Gill, Ritu R; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Barile, Maria F; Gao, Feng; Bueno, Raphael; Jayender, Jagadeesan

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop quantitative imaging biomarkers obtained from high-resolution CTs for classifying ground-glass nodules (GGNs) into atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC); to evaluate the utility of contrast enhancement for differential diagnosis; and to develop and validate a support vector machine (SVM) to predict the GGN type. The heterogeneity of 248 GGNs was quantified using custom software. Statistical analysis with a univariate Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate metrics for significant differences among the four GGN groups. The heterogeneity metrics were used to train a SVM to learn and predict the lesion type. Fifty of 57 and 51 of 57 heterogeneity metrics showed statistically significant differences among the four GGN groups on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans, respectively. The SVM predicted lesion type with greater accuracy than did three expert radiologists. The accuracy of classifying the GGNs into the four groups on the basis of the SVM algorithm was 70.9%, whereas the accuracy of the radiologists was 39.6%. The accuracy of SVM in classifying the AIS and MIA nodules was 73.1%, and the accuracy of the radiologists was 35.7%. For indolent versus invasive lesions, the accuracy of the SVM was 88.1%, and the accuracy of the radiologists was 60.8%. We found that contrast enhancement does not significantly improve the differential diagnosis of GGNs. Compared with the GGN classification done by the three radiologists, the SVM trained regarding all the heterogeneity metrics showed significantly higher accuracy in classifying the lesions into the four groups, differentiating between AIS and MIA and between indolent and invasive lesions. Contrast enhancement did not improve the differential diagnosis of GGNs.

  14. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

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    Jin, Xin; Zhao, Shao-hong; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chong-chong; Chang, Rui-ping; Ju, Hai-yue [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gao, Jie; Wang, Dian-jun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ2-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73 % when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness (P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. (orig.)

  15. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation; Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doencas pulmonares difusas: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

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    Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira; Vianna, Alberto Domingues; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Radiologia; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2003-12-01

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  16. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

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    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jian Li,2 Ransheng Liu,1 Aixu Zhang,1 Zhiyong Yuan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI based on measurements from computed tomography (CT for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs. Methods: Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs, maximum (MAX, average (AVG, and standard deviation (STD of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Results: Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001, with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106. The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001. An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001, respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction

  17. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity.

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    Jin, Xin; Zhao, Shao-hong; Gao, Jie; Wang, Dian-jun; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chong-chong; Chang, Rui-ping; Ju, Hai-yue

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ²-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73% when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness ( P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. • CT characteristics and pathological classification of pGGO lung adenocarcinoma smaller than 3 cm • The optimal cut-off value for discriminating preinvasive from invasive lesions was 10.5 mm • Uniformity was significant difference between histological subtypes and correlated with lesion size • Tumour margin, tumour-lung interface and air bronchogram showed different between histological types • No significant difference in gender, lesion location and density with histological subtypes.

  18. Correlations between pathologic subtypes/immunohistochemical implication and CT characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma ≤ 1 cm with ground-glass opacity.

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    Wu, Fang; Cai, Zu-long; Tian, Shu-ping; Jin, Xin; Jing, Rui; Yang, Yue-qing; Li, Ying-na; Zhao, Shao-hong

    2015-04-01

    To discuss the correlation of pathologic subtypes and immunohistochemical implication with CT features of lung adenocarcinoma 1 cm or less in diameter with focal ground-glass opacity (fGGO). CT appearances of 59 patients who underwent curative resection of lung adenocarcinoma ≤ 1 cm with fGGO were analyzed in terms of lesion location, size, density, shape (round, oval, polygonal, irregular), margin (smooth, lobular, spiculated, lobular and spiculated), bubble-like sign, air bronchogram, pleural tag, and tumor-lung interface. Histopathologic subtypes were classified according to International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/ American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Common molecular markers in immunohistochemical study included human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-1,HER-2,Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and DNA topoisomerase 2Α.Patients' age and lesions' size and density were compared with pathologic subtypes using analysis of variance or nonparametric Wilcoxon tests. Patients' gender, lesion location, shape and margin, bubble-like sign, air bronchogram, pleural tag, and tumor-lung interface were compared with histopathologic subtypes and immunohistochemical implication using ψ² test or Fisher's exact test. The patients' gender, age, lesion location, shape, air bronchogram, pleural tag, and tumor-lung interface were not significantly different among different histopathologic subtypes (P=0.194, 0.126, 0.609, 0.678, 0.091, 0.374, and 0.339, respectively), whereas the lesion size,density,bubble-like sign, and margin showed significant differences (P=0.028, 0.002, 0.003, 0.046, respectively). The expression of Ki-67 significantly differed among nodules with different shapes(P=0.015). Statistically significant difference also existed between tumor-lung interface and HER-1 expression (P=0.019) and between bubble sign and HER-2 expression (P=0.049). Of lung adenocarcinoma ≤ 1 cm

  19. Thin-section computed tomography–histopathologic comparisons of pulmonary focal interstitial fibrosis, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

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    Si, Ming-Jue, E-mail: smjsh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Tao, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: taoxiaofeng1963@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Du, Guang-Ye, E-mail: 715376158@qq.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Cai, Ling-Ling, E-mail: caill_00@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Han, Hong-Xiu, E-mail: hanhongxiu@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Liang, Xi-Zi, E-mail: liangxizish@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China); Zhao, Jiang-Min, E-mail: zhaojiangmin1962@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 280, Mohe Road, Shanghai 201999 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: To retrospectively compare focal interstitial fibrosis (FIF), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) with pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) using thin-section computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Sixty pathologically confirmed cases were reviewed including 7 cases of FIF, 17 of AAH, 23of AIS, and 13 of MIA. All nodules kept pure ground glass appearances before surgical resection and their last time of thin-section CT imaging data before operation were collected. Differences of patient demographics and CT features were compared among these four types of lesions. Results: FIF occurred more frequently in males and smokers while the others occurred more frequently in female nonsmokers. Nodule size was significant larger in MIA (P < 0.001, cut-off value = 7.5 mm). Nodule shape (P = 0.045), margin characteristics (P < 0.001), the presence of pleural indentation (P = 0.032), and vascular ingress (P < 0.001) were significant factors that differentiated the 4 groups. A concave margin was only demonstrated in a high proportion of FIF at 85.7% (P = 0.002). There were no significant differences (all P > 0.05) in age, malignant history, attenuation value, location, and presence of bubble-like lucency. Conclusion: A nodule size >7.5 mm increases the possibility of MIA. A concave margin could be useful for differentiation of FIF from the other malignant or pre-malignant GGO nodules. The presence of spiculation or pleural indentation may preclude the diagnosis of AAH.

  20. A non-randomized confirmatory trial of segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-section computed tomography (JCOG1211).

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    Aokage, Keiju; Saji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Mizutani, Tomonori; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shibata, Taro; Watanabe, Syunichi; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-05-01

    Lobectomy has been the standard surgery for even stage I lung cancer since the validity of limited resection for stage I lung cancer was denied by the randomized study reported in 1995. The aim of this non-randomized confirmatory going on since September 2013 is to confirm the efficacy of a segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-slice computed tomography. A total of 390 patients from 42 Japanese institutions are recruited within 4 years. The primary endpoint of this study is a 5-year relapse-free survival in all of the patients who undergo a segmentectomy for a lung nodule. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, annual relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, proportion of local relapse, postoperative pulmonary function, proportion of segmentectomy completion, proportion of R0 resection completion by segmentectomy, adverse events, and serious adverse events. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000011819 ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ ). Patient's accrual has been already finished in November, 2015 and the primary analysis will be performed in 2021. This study is one of the pivotal trial of lung segmentectomy for early lung cancer. The result will provide a clear evidence for our daily clinics and will be possible contribution to preserving pulmonary function for lung cancer patients.

  1. Opacity

    CERN Document Server

    Huebner, Walter F

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of radiation with matter is a fundamental process in the universe; in particular, the absorption and scattering of radiation by matter (the opacity) govern the formation, evolution, and structure of stars and planets.  But opacity is also important in many terrestrial applications in which radiation is the dominant means of energy transfer, such as controlled nuclear-fusion, laser ablation, atmospheric entry and reentry, and the "greenhouse" effect.  This book covers all aspects of opacity and equations of state for plasmas, gases, vapors, and dust and emphasizes the continuous transformation of phases and molecular compositions with changing density and temperature under conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) while preserving the basic abundances of the chemical elements in a mixture.

  2. Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doenças pulmonares difusas: correlação da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução com a anatomopatologia Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia de Oliveira Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Opacidade em vidro fosco é achado freqüentemente visto na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax e se traduz pelo aumento do coeficiente de atenuação dos pulmões, mas sem apagar as marcas broncovasculares. Por sua inespecificidade, a associação com outros achados radiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos deve ser considerada para uma interpretação diagnóstica mais correta. Neste trabalho foram analisados 62 exames tomográficos de pacientes com doenças pulmonares difusas, de 14 etiologias diferentes, em que opacidades em vidro fosco foram o achado único ou predominante, e feita correlação anatomopatológica por meio de biópsias ou necropsias. Na pneumocistose as opacidades em vidro fosco corresponderam, histologicamente, à ocupação alveolar por material espumoso contendo parasitos; no carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar, a espessamento dos septos alveolares e ocupação de sua luz por muco e células tumorais; na paracoccidioidomicose, a espessamento dos septos alveolares, áreas de fibrose e alvéolos contendo exsudato broncopneumônico; na sarcoidose, a fibrose ou a acúmulo de granulomas; na fibrose pulmonar idiopática, a espessamento dos septos alveolares por fibrose; na bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização, a pneumonia intersticial com áreas de organização intra-alveolar. A ocupação alveolar por sangue foi observada nos casos de leptospirose, hemossiderose idiopática, metástases de tumor renal e na aspergilose invasiva; por vacúolos de gordura na pneumonia lipídica; por material protéico e lipoprotéico na silicoproteinose e na proteinose alveolar; e por líquido de edema na insuficiência cardíaca congestiva.Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its unspecificity

  3. Background Opacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, I.; Monier, R.; Smalley, B.; Wahlgren, G.; Stee, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    In NLTE computations of trace elements in stellar atmospheres, background opacities are generally treated in LTE. It is thus important to assess the impact of different methods of including this background opacity on the statistical equilibrium of the trace element and its resulting NLTE abundance.

  4. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie

    2016-01-01

    , the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...... that will yield improvements in both diagnosis and treatment. The standard-of-care surgical treatment of early lung cancer is still minimally invasive lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. However, recent research has shown that some GGO lesions may be treated with sublobar resections; these findings...... may expand the surgical treatment options available in the future....

  5. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler

    2016-01-01

    correct diagnosis and optimal management. Here we present the latest advances in the radiologic imaging and pathology of GGO nodules, demonstrating that radiologic features are increasingly predictive of the pathology of GGO nodules. We review the current guidelines from the Fleischner Society......, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...

  6. Blizzard Sign as a specific endobronchial ultrasound image for ground glass opacity: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sasada, M.D. Ph.D.

    2014-01-01

    On hindsight, it was the aforementioned ultrasound pattern that helped us decide the sampling site for EBUS-GS guided TBB when fluoroscopy was equivocal. We hypothesize that this pattern is specific for GGO and we name it the Blizzard Sign.

  7. Dust Opacities*

    OpenAIRE

    Min Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Dust particles are the dominant source of opacity at (almost) all wavelengths and in (almost) all regions of protoplanetary disks. By this they govern the transport of energy through the disk and thus the thermal structure. Furthermore, their spectral properties determine the low resolution spectral signature observed at infrared wavelengths. The infrared resonances that can be observed using low resolution infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify the composition and size distribution of...

  8. Linear opacities on HRCT in bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.M.; Flower, C.D.R. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Schnyder, P.; Leuenberger, P. [Depts. of Radiology and Medicine, University Hospital, CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland); Verschakelen, J. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances of linear opacities that may occur in isolation or in combination with other changes in bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP). Eleven patients with BOOP and linear opacities on HRCT were identified at three independent teaching hospitals. The HRCT images and clinical course of each patient were reviewed. Two distinct types of linear opacity were identified. The type-1 opacity extended in a radial manner along the line of the bronchi towards the pleura and was usually intimately related to bronchi. The type-2 opacity occurred in a sub-pleural location and bore no relationship to the bronchi. Both types occurred most commonly in the lower lobes, frequently were associated with multi-focal areas of consolidation and usually completely resolved with treatment. There was no associated bronchiectasis, irreversible volume loss or a reticular or honeycomb pattern. In 2 patients linear opacities were the sole abnormality on HRCT. Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia may occur in a pure ''linear form'' or HRCT may demonstrate linear opacities in addition to multi-focal consolidation. (orig.)

  9. Inhaled Carbon Nanotubes Reach the Sub-Pleural Tissue in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Cesta, Mark F.; Brody, Arnold R.; Shipley-Phillips, Jeanette K.; Everitt, Jeffrey; Tewksbury, Earl W.; Moss, Owen R.; Wong, Brian A.; Dodd, Darol E.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bonner, James C

    2009-01-01

    Summary Carbon nanotubes have fibre-like shape1 and stimulate inflammation at the surface of the peritoneum when injected into the abdominal cavity of mice2, raising concerns that inhaled nanotubes3 may cause pleural fibrosis and/or mesothelioma4. Here we show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes reach the sub-pleura in mice after a single inhalation exposure of 30 mg/m3 for 6 hours. Nanotubes were embedded in the sub-pleural wall and within sub-pleural macrophages. Mononuclear cell aggregates ...

  10. Asset Opacity and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenzel, A.; Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We consider a model of private information acquisition in which the cost of information depends on an asset's opacity. The model generates a hump-shaped relationship between opacity and the equilibrium amount of private information. In particular, the incentives to acquire information are

  11. Software performance in segmenting ground-glass and solid components of subsolid nodules in pulmonary adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Julien G; Goo, Jin Mo; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; van Ginneken, Bram; Chung, Doo Hyun; Kim, Young Tae

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of software in segmenting ground-glass and solid components of subsolid nodules in pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Seventy-three pulmonary adenocarcinomas manifesting as subsolid nodules were included. Two radiologists measured the maximal axial diameter of the ground-glass components on lung windows and that of the solid components on lung and mediastinal windows. Nodules were segmented using software by applying five (-850 HU to -650 HU) and nine (-130 HU to -500 HU) attenuation thresholds. We compared the manual and software measurements of ground-glass and solid components with pathology measurements of tumour and invasive components. Segmentation of ground-glass components at a threshold of -750 HU yielded mean differences of +0.06 mm (p = 0.83, 95 % limits of agreement, 4.51 to 4.67) and -2.32 mm (p software (at -350 HU) and pathology measurements and between the manual (lung and mediastinal windows) and pathology measurements were -0.12 mm (p = 0.74, -5.73 to 5.55]), 0.15 mm (p = 0.73, -6.92 to 7.22), and -1.14 mm (p Software segmentation of ground-glass and solid components in subsolid nodules showed no significant difference with pathology. • Software can effectively segment ground-glass and solid components in subsolid nodules. • Software measurements show no significant difference with pathology measurements. • Manual measurements are more accurate on lung windows than on mediastinal windows.

  12. Data on the quantitative assessment pulmonary ground-glass opacification from coronary computed tomography angiography datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Kristensen, Thomas S; Thomsen, Anna F

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the CT attenuation density of the pulmonary tissue adjacent to the heart in patients with acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (J.T. Kuhl, T.S. Kristensen, A.F. Thomsen et al., 2016) [1]. This data was related to the level of ground-glass opacification evaluated by a r...

  13. Computer-Aided Segmentation and Volumetry of Artificial Ground-Glass Nodules at Chest CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.T.; Jacobs, C.; Ginneken, B. van; Willemink, M.J.; Kuhnigk, J.-M.; Ooijen, PM van; Oudkerk, M.; Mali, W.P.Th.; Jong, P.A. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate a new software program for semiautomatic measurement of the volume and mass of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) in a chest phantom and to investigate the influence of CT scanner, reconstruction filter, tube voltage, and tube current. MATERIALS AND

  14. Inhaled Carbon Nanotubes Reach the Sub-Pleural Tissue in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Cesta, Mark F.; Brody, Arnold R.; Shipley-Phillips, Jeanette K.; Everitt, Jeffrey; Tewksbury, Earl W.; Moss, Owen R.; Wong, Brian A.; Dodd, Darol E.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bonner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Carbon nanotubes have fibre-like shape1 and stimulate inflammation at the surface of the peritoneum when injected into the abdominal cavity of mice2, raising concerns that inhaled nanotubes3 may cause pleural fibrosis and/or mesothelioma4. Here we show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes reach the sub-pleura in mice after a single inhalation exposure of 30 mg/m3 for 6 hours. Nanotubes were embedded in the sub-pleural wall and within sub-pleural macrophages. Mononuclear cell aggregates on the pleural surface increased in number and size after 1 day and nanotube-containing macrophages were observed within these foci. Sub-pleural fibrosis increased after 2 and 6 weeks following inhalation. None of these effects were seen in mice that inhaled carbon black nanoparticles or a lower dose of nanotubes (1 mg/m3). This work advances a growing literature on pulmonary toxicology of nanotubes5 and suggests that minimizing inhalation of nanotubes during handling is prudent until further long term assessments are conducted. PMID:19893520

  15. Data on the quantitative assessment pulmonary ground-glass opacification from coronary computed tomography angiography datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tobias Kühl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the CT attenuation density of the pulmonary tissue adjacent to the heart in patients with acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (J.T. Kuhl, T.S. Kristensen, A.F. Thomsen et al., 2016 [1]. This data was related to the level of ground-glass opacification evaluated by a radiologist, and data on the interobserver variability of semi-automated assessment of pulmonary attenuation density was provided.

  16. Data on the quantitative assessment pulmonary ground-glass opacification from coronary computed tomography angiography datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Kristensen, Thomas S; Thomsen, Anna F; Hindsø, Louise; Hansen, Kristoffer L; Nielsen, Olav W; Kelbæk, Henning; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2017-02-01

    We assessed the CT attenuation density of the pulmonary tissue adjacent to the heart in patients with acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (J.T. Kuhl, T.S. Kristensen, A.F. Thomsen et al., 2016) [1]. This data was related to the level of ground-glass opacification evaluated by a radiologist, and data on the interobserver variability of semi-automated assessment of pulmonary attenuation density was provided.

  17. Molecular opacities for exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Peter F

    2014-04-28

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are now possible by transit methods and direct emission. Spectroscopic requirements for exoplanets are reviewed based on existing measurements and model predictions for hot Jupiters and super-Earths. Molecular opacities needed to simulate astronomical observations can be obtained from laboratory measurements, ab initio calculations or a combination of the two approaches. This discussion article focuses mainly on laboratory measurements of hot molecules as needed for exoplanet spectroscopy.

  18. Multiplex hologram representations of space-variant optical systems using ground-glass encoded reference beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M I; Walkup, J F; Hagler, M O

    1982-04-01

    Multiplex holograms can accurately represent 2-D space-variant optical systems if hologram-to-hologram cross talk can be reduced to an acceptable level. In the experiments reported here the combination of ground-glass diffusers with chirped wave front illumination proved to be an effective means of suppressing this cross talk. The residual cross talk distribution and intensity depend both on the signal and the optical system. The experiments also show that overlapping outputs from multiplexed holograms add coherently in amplitude. In addition, an accurate holographic representation of an extremely space-variant system is presented.

  19. Diffuse micronodular pattern of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Jae; Jang, Seung Hun; Min, Kwang Seon; Whang, Im Kyung; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The typical radiographic findings of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) are known to be patchy air-space consolidation that is often subpleural, and with or without ground-glass opacities. However, there are scant radiologic reports about the micronodular pattern of BOOP. We report here on a case of BOOP that manifested as diffusely scattered ill-defined centrilobular micronodules on HRCT.

  20. Computer-aided detection of ground glass nodules in thoracic CT images using shape, intensity and context features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.; Sanchez, C.I.; Saur, S.C.; Twellmann, T.; Jong, P.A. de; Ginneken, B. van

    2011-01-01

    Ground glass nodules (GGNs) occur less frequent in computed tomography (CT) scans than solid nodules but have a much higher chance of being malignant. Accurate detection of these nodules is therefore highly important. A complete system for computer-aided detection of GGNs is presented consisting of

  1. Preoperative Prediction of Ki-67 Labeling Index By Three-dimensional CT Image Parameters for Differential Diagnosis Of Ground-Glass Opacity (GGO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzheng Peng

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict Ki-67 labeling index (LI preoperatively by three-dimensional (3D CT image parameters for pathologic assessment of GGO nodules. Diameter, total volume (TV, the maximum CT number (MAX, average CT number (AVG and standard deviation of CT number within the whole GGO nodule (STD were measured by 3D CT workstation. By detection of immunohistochemistry and Image Software Pro Plus 6.0, different Ki-67 LI were measured and statistically analyzed among preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis with cross-validation were performed to further research a quantitative correlation between Ki-67 labeling index and radiological parameters. Diameter, TV, MAX, AVG and STD increased along with PIA, MIA and IAC significantly and consecutively. In the multiple linear regression model by a stepwise way, we obtained an equation: prediction of Ki-67 LI=0.022*STD+0.001* TV+2.137 (R=0.595, R's square=0.354, p<0.001, which can predict Ki-67 LI as a proliferative marker preoperatively. Diameter, TV, MAX, AVG and STD could discriminate pathologic categories of GGO nodules significantly. Ki-67 LI of early lung adenocarcinoma presenting GGO can be predicted by radiologic parameters based on 3D CT for differential diagnosis.

  2. Management of Opacities in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann; Deery, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Enamel opacities can appear as white, cream, yellow or brown patches. They can result from developmental or acquired conditions. The diagnosis, severity of the opacity and patient's desire for treatment guide the clinician when choosing the correct management option. Microabrasion is indicated for surface opacities, whereas bleaching can treat opacities deep within the tooth. When these techniques have failed to achieve the desired result, camouflaging the opacity with composite resin may be useful. Novel techniques, such as infiltrating or sealing the opacity, can alter enamel's refractive index, offering further treatment choices. CPD/Clinical Relevance: There are many conservative treatments available which can improve the appearance of enamel opacities.

  3. Preparation of concrete mixtures with electric arc furnace slag and recycled ground glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rojas, Y.; López, E. Vera; López Rodríguez, M.; Díaz Pita, J.

    2017-12-01

    The present work includes the first advances in the development of investigations that seek to include Ground Grinding Glass (GRR) and the Electric Arc Furnace Slag (EAFS) in the production of mixtures of hydraulic concrete mixing them simultaneously, so that it satisfies the specifications techniques to be used in the construction of rigid pavements. Firstly, we cite the tests carried out on the different materials to obtain their physical, chemical and mechanical characterization and determine their compliance, as well as the measurement of certain characteristics that may be somewhat empirical to standardize their control. Technique such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XFR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) have been used. Once the results of the characterization tests and their correspondence with the Colombian technical standards have been obtained, it has become possible to select the use of the Transparent Recycled Ground Glass (TRGG) as the most suitable for the replacement of the sand in the dosage of new mixtures modified concrete.

  4. Lung transthoracic ultrasound elastography imaging and guided biopsies of subpleural cancer: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandeo, Marco; Trovato, Francesca M; Dimitri, Lucia; Catalano, Daniela; Simeone, Anna; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Piscitelli, Angela Pamela; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2015-07-01

    Despite the usefulness of elastography in assessing the stiffness/elasticity of tissues, and its proven diagnostic accuracy in thyroid, breast, and prostate cancers, among others, it is not yet applied in transthoracic ultrasound (TUS) scans to investigate lung nodules. To investigate the potential clinical utility of TUS elastography in diagnosing lung cancer proven by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). TUS elastography was performed in 95 consecutive patients (71 men, 24 women; age, 62.84 ± 7.37 years) with lesions suspected of involving the chest wall or the pleura detected on chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT). Patients with pleural effusions were not enrolled, but were further evaluated by pleural fluid cytology. Patients were excluded from the study if a diagnosis had already been made based on sputum cytology and/or bronchoscopic histology (making TUS biopsy unnecessary) or if their lung lesions could not be visualized under standard US. Under FNAB, 34 consolidations were ascribed to pneumonia and 65 to cancer. Under TUS, tissue stiffness, detected using a convex multifrequency 2-8-mHz probe and a MyLab™Twice - ElaXto, was scored from 1 (greatest elasticity) to 5 (no elasticity). Subpleural solid masses (2-5 cm) were initially detected by TUS and subsequently assessed by FNAB. Histological diagnoses were: small cell lung cancer (4/61), adenocarcinoma (29/61), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (12/61), large cell lung carcinoma (12/61), and lymphomas (4/61). Patients' age and mass sizes (3.06 ± 0.88 cm) were not significantly associated with any histological type. A significant lower elasticity of SCC (4.67 ± 0.492) was observed versus other types of lung cancer (P < 0.005), and versus pneumonia (2.35 ± 0.48). Since only squamous cell lung carcinoma displays the feature of significantly reduced elasticity, and since no clear-cut diagnostic key is yet available, the clinical usefulness of TUS elastography is currently limited

  5. Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namati, Eman; Warger, William C; Unglert, Carolin I; Eckert, Jocelyn E; Hostens, Jeroen; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveoli have been studied for many years, yet no unifying hypothesis exists for their dynamic mechanics during respiration due to their miniature size (100-300 μm dimater in humans) and constant motion, which prevent standard imaging techniques from visualizing four-dimensional dynamics of individual alveoli in vivo. Here we report a new platform to image the first layer of air-filled subpleural alveoli through the use of a lightweight optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) probe that can be placed upon the pleura to move with the lung over the complete range of respiratory motion. This device enables in-vivo acquisition of four-dimensional microscopic images of alveolar airspaces (alveoli and ducts), within the same field of view, during continuous ventilation without restricting the motion or modifying the structure of the alveoli. Results from an exploratory study including three live swine suggest that subpleural alveolar air spaces are best fit with a uniform expansion (r (2) = 0.98) over a recruitment model (r (2) = 0.72). Simultaneously, however, the percentage change in volume shows heterogeneous alveolar expansion within just a 1 mm x 1 mm field of view. These results signify the importance of four-dimensional imaging tools, such as the device presented here. Quantification of the dynamic response of the lung during ventilation may help create more accurate modeling techniques and move toward a more complete understanding of alveolar mechanics.

  6. Step-by-step guide to reduce spatial coherence of laser light using a rotating ground glass diffuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangner, Tim; Zhang, Hanqing; Dahlberg, Tobias; Wiklund, Krister; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-07-01

    Wide field-of-view imaging of fast processes in a microscope requires high light intensities motivating the use of lasers as light sources. However, due to their long spatial coherence length, lasers are inappropriate for such applications, as they produce coherent noise and parasitic reflections, such as speckle, degrading image quality. Therefore, we provide a step-by-step guide for constructing a speckle-free and high-contrast laser illumination setup using a rotating ground glass diffuser driven by a stepper motor. The setup is easy to build, cheap, and allows a significant light throughput of 48%, which is 40% higher in comparison to a single lens collector commonly used in reported setups. This is achieved by using only one objective to collect the scattered light from the ground glass diffuser. We validate our setup in terms of image quality, speckle contrast, motor-induced vibrations, and light throughput. To highlight the latter, we record Brownian motion of micro-particles using a 100× oil immersion objective and a high-speed camera operating at 2000 Hz with a laser output power of only 22 mW. Moreover, by reducing the objective magnification to 50×, sampling rates up to 10,000 Hz are realized. To help readers with basic or advanced optics knowledge realize this setup, we provide a full component list, 3D-printing CAD files, setup protocol, and the code for running the stepper motor.

  7. Artificial pneumothorax: a safe and simple method to relieve pain during microwave ablation of subpleural lung malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaowei; Zhuang, Xingjun; Zhang, Haiwen; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yuanxin

    2017-08-01

    Microwave ablation has been extensively used for eliminating pulmonary tumors; however, it is usually associated with severe pain under local anesthesia. Decreasing the power and shortening the ablation time can help to relieve the pain; however, this leads to incomplete ablation and an increasing recurrence rate. This research aims to employ an artificial pneumothorax to increase both the curative effect and pain relief during the ablation procedure. From July 2013 to January 2015, nine patients presenting with 10 subpleural lung tumors (age: 44-78 years) with a high possibility of severe pain underwent the artificial pneumothorax during microwave ablation. The pain assessment scores and complications induced by the artificial pneumothorax were recorded and analyzed by a CT scan follow-up. The tumors of the nine patients were eliminated successfully using microwave ablation with artificial pneumothorax under local anesthesia. The pain caused by the ablation was relieved to a great extent with an average rate of 94.66% (range: 63.3%-100%) and all tumors were ablated completely. No severe complications occurred after the operation. The artificial pneumothorax is a reliable therapy to improve the curative effect of microwave ablation under local anesthesia by relieving the pain of the patients.

  8. Validation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of subpleural alveolar size parameters by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglert, Carolin I; Warger, William C; Hostens, Jeroen; Namati, Eman; Birngruber, Reginald; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2012-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly used for imaging pulmonary alveoli. Only a few studies, however, have quantified individual alveolar areas, and the validity of alveolar volumes represented within OCT images has not been shown. To validate quantitative measurements of alveoli from OCT images, we compared the cross-sectional area, perimeter, volume, and surface area of matched subpleural alveoli from microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and OCT images of fixed air-filled swine samples. The relative change in size between different alveoli was extremely well correlated (r>0.9, P<0.0001), but OCT images underestimated absolute sizes compared to micro-CT by 27% (area), 7% (perimeter), 46% (volume), and 25% (surface area) on average. We hypothesized that the differences resulted from refraction at the tissue-air interfaces and developed a ray-tracing model that approximates the reconstructed alveolar size within OCT images. Using this model and OCT measurements of the refractive index for lung tissue (1.41 for fresh, 1.53 for fixed), we derived equations to obtain absolute size measurements of superellipse and circular alveoli with the use of predictive correction factors. These methods and results should enable the quantification of alveolar sizes from OCT images in vivo.

  9. Unusual cystic hamartomatous lung lesion with clinical manifestation of subpleural bullae in a woman of reproductive age: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Kenji; Ayabe, Takanori; Chosa, Eiichi; Uchino, Noriko; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Nakatani, Yukio; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary hamartoma is a common benign lung disorder, and most cases show solid nodules. Here, we documented the clinicopathological features of a growing, bulla-like, multilocular hamartomatous lung lesion in a woman of reproductive age. To the best of our knowledge, this disorder has not been reported in the literature to date. An asymptomatic 29-year-old Japanese woman with no significant past medical history was referred to our institution for surgical treatment of a bullous lesion in the right upper lobe because the pulmonary lesion had enlarged to multilocular cysts, including a giant bulla, within 1 year, leading to compression of the right lung. The bullous lesion, which was projected from the apex of the lung via a narrow stalk, showed nonemphysematous, multiloculated tissue. The wall mimicked a bronchiolar structure with ciliated, nonatypical epithelium and layers of nonatypical spindle cells that were positive for smooth muscle markers and sex steroid hormone receptors. No cartilage was included in the lesion. We believe that this may be a novel form of hamartoma. This disorder may be included in a differential diagnosis of subpleural bullous diseases in women of reproductive age. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The neutrino opacity of neutron rich matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcain, P.N., E-mail: pabloalcain@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, UBA and IFIBA, Conicet, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA-CONICET (Argentina); Dorso, C.O. [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, UBA and IFIBA, Conicet, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA-CONICET (Argentina)

    2017-05-15

    The study of neutron rich matter, present in neutron star, proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, can lead to further understanding of the behavior of nuclear matter in highly asymmetric nuclei. Heterogeneous structures are expected to exist in these systems, often referred to as nuclear pasta. We have carried out a systematic study of neutrino opacity for different thermodynamic conditions in order to assess the impact that the structure has on it. We studied the dynamics of the neutrino opacity of the heterogeneous matter at different thermodynamic conditions with semiclassical molecular dynamics model already used to study nuclear multifragmentation. For different densities, proton fractions and temperature, we calculate the very long range opacity and the cluster distribution. The neutrino opacity is of crucial importance for the evolution of the core-collapse supernovae and the neutrino scattering.

  11. Summary of Fe opacity measurement platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, Taisuke

    2016-05-01

    This powerpoint presentation goes over the Fe opacity measurement platform, including how the experiment works, what can be gathered from the measurements, what can be gathered from the simulations, and the limitations of the experiment.

  12. Opacity Issues in Games with Imperfect Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Maubert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We study in depth the class of games with opacity condition, which are two-player games with imperfect information in which one of the players only has imperfect information, and where the winning condition relies on the information he has along the play. Those games are relevant for security aspects of computing systems: a play is opaque whenever the player who has imperfect information never "knows" for sure that the current position is one of the distinguished "secret" positions. We study the problems of deciding the existence of a winning strategy for each player, and we call them the opacity-violate problem and the opacity-guarantee problem. Focusing on the player with perfect information is new in the field of games with imperfect-information because when considering classical winning conditions it amounts to solving the underlying perfect-information game. We establish the EXPTIME-completeness of both above-mentioned problems, showing that our winning condition brings a gap of complexity for the player with perfect information, and we exhibit the relevant opacity-verify problem, which noticeably generalizes approaches considered in the literature for opacity analysis in discrete-event systems. In the case of blindfold games, this problem relates to the two initial ones, yielding the determinacy of blindfold games with opacity condition and the PSPACE-completeness of the three problems.

  13. Detailed Opacity Calculations for Astrophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several opacity codes are able to provide data for stellar structure models, but the computed opacities may show significant differences. In this work, we present state-of-the-art precise spectral opacity calculations, illustrated by stellar applications. The essential role of laboratory experiments to check the quality of the computed data is underlined. We review some X-ray and XUV laser and Z-pinch photo-absorption measurements as well as X-ray emission spectroscopy experiments involving hot dense plasmas produced by ultra-high-intensity laser irradiation. The measured spectra are systematically compared with the fine-structure opacity code SCO-RCG. The focus is on iron, due to its crucial role in understanding asteroseismic observations of β Cephei-type and Slowly Pulsating B stars, as well as of the Sun. For instance, in β Cephei-type stars, the iron-group opacity peak excites acoustic modes through the “kappa-mechanism”. Particular attention is paid to the higher-than-predicted iron opacity measured at the Sandia Z-machine at solar interior conditions. We discuss some theoretical aspects such as density effects, photo-ionization, autoionization or the “filling-the-gap” effect of highly excited states.

  14. Comparison of strength and durability characteristics of a geopolymer produced from fly ash, ground glass fiber and glass powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rashidian-Dezfouli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Strength and durability characteristics of geopolymers produced using three precursors, consisting of fly ash, Ground Glass Fiber (GGF, and glass-powder were studied. Combinations of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as the activator solutions, and the effect of different sodium and silica content of the activators on the workability and compressive strength of geopolymers was investigated. The parameters used in this study were the mass ratio of Na2O-to-binder (for sodium content, and SiO2-to-Na2O of the activator (for silica content. Geopolymer mixtures that achieved the highest compressive strength from each precursor were assessed for their resistance to alkali-silica reaction and compared against the performance of portland cement mixtures. Test results revealed that GGF and fly ash-based geopolymers performed better than glass-powder-based geopolymer mixtures. The resistance of GGF-based and fly ash-based geopolymers to alkali-silica reaction was superior to that of portland cement mixtures, while glass-powder-based geopolymer showed inferior performance.

  15. CT and histopathologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass nodules 10 mm or less in diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing (China); Tian, Shu-ping [Navy General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Jin, Xin; Jing, Rui; Yang, Yue-qing; Jin, Mei; Zhao, Shao-hong [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate CT and histopathologic features of lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass nodule (pGGN) ≤10 mm in diameter. CT appearances of 148 patients (150 lesions) who underwent curative resection of lung adenocarcinoma with pGGN ≤10 mm (25 atypical adenomatous hyperplasias, 42 adenocarcinoma in situs, 38 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas, and 45 invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas) were analyzed for lesion size, density, bubble-like sign, air bronchogram, vessel changes, margin, and tumour-lung interface. CT characteristics were compared among different histopathologic subtypes. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to assess the relationship between CT characteristics of pGGN and lesion invasiveness, respectively. There were statistically significant differences among histopathologic subtypes in lesion size, vessel changes, and tumour-lung interface (P<0.05). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences of vessel changes, margin and tumour-lung interface between preinvasive and invasive lesions (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the vessel changes, unsmooth margin and clear tumour-lung interface were significant predictive factors for lesion invasiveness, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 2.57 (1.17-5.62), 1.83 (1.25-2.68) and 4.25 (1.78-10.14), respectively. Invasive lesions are found in 55.3% of subcentimeter pGGNs in our cohort. Vessel changes, unsmooth margin, and clear lung-tumour interface may indicate the invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma with subcentimeter pGGN. (orig.)

  16. Multi-detector spiral CT study of the relationships between pulmonary ground-glass nodules and blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Li, Ming; Ge, Xiaojun; Ren, Qingguo; Hua, Yanqing [Huadong Hospital Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Xiangpeng [Huadong Hospital Fudan University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yan [Huadong Hospital Fudan University, Department of Pathology, Shanghai (China); Lv, Fangzhen [Huadong Hospital Fudan University, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai (China)

    2013-12-15

    To investigate the relationships between pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGN) and blood vessels and their diagnostic values in differentiating GGNs. Multi-detector spiral CT imaging of 108 GGNs was retrospectively reviewed. The spatial relationships between GGNs and supplying blood vessels were categorized into four types: I, vessels passing by GGNs; II, intact vessels passing through GGNs; III, distorted, dilated or tortuous vessels seen within GGNs; IV, more complicated vasculature other than described above. Relationship types were correlated to pathologic and/or clinical findings of GGNs. Of 108 GGNs, 10 were benign, 24 preinvasive nodules and 74 adenocarcinomas that were pathologically proven. Types I, II, III and IV vascular relationships were observed in 9, 58, 21 and 20 GGNs, respectively. Type II relationship was the dominating relationship for each GGN group, but significant differences were shown among them. Correlation analysis showed strong correlation between invasive adenocarcinoma and type III and IV relationships. Subgroup analysis indicated that type III was more commonly seen in IAC with comparison to type IV more likely seen in MIA. Different GGNs have different relationships with vessels. Understanding and recognising characteristic GGN-vessel relationships may help identify which GGNs are more likely to be malignant. (orig.)

  17. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation......The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... of the otolith sections. The otolith carbonate deposited during the experimental period was generally opaque compared to the more translucent otolith material deposited prior to and after the experimental period, when the fish were kept in a pond and in sea-cages at higher temperatures. Large variations...

  18. Design of the opacity spectrometer for opacity measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Ahmed, M. F.; Dodd, E.; Huffman, E. J.; Liedahl, D. A.; King, J. A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Schneider, M. B.; Perry, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratory Z facility have called into question models used in calculating opacity, of importance for modeling stellar interiors. An effort is being made to reproduce these results at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments require a new X-ray opacity spectrometer (OpSpec) spanning 540 eV-2100 eV with a resolving power E/ΔE > 700. The design of the OpSpec is presented. Photometric calculations based on expected opacity data are also presented. First use on NIF is expected in September 2016.

  19. Hydro-dissection and posterior capsule opacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows2G

    whose refracted vision was less then optimal. Conclusion: Hydrodissection is associated with a marginal reduction in post-operative posterior capsule opacity formation following ECCE-IOL surgery. It may however be associated with early post operative complications such as cornea striae, epithelial oedema and iritis due ...

  20. Radiologic Predictors for Clinical Stage IA Lung Adenocarcinoma with Ground Glass Components: A Multi-Center Study of Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Ye, Bo; Bao, Minwei; Xu, Binbin; Chen, Qinyi; Liu, Sida; Han, Yudong; Peng, Mingzhen; Lin, Zhifeng; Li, Jingpei; Zhu, Wenzhuo; Lin, Qiang; Xiong, Liwen

    2015-01-01

    This study was to define preoperative predictors from radiologic findings for the pathologic risk groups based on long-term surgical outcomes, in the aim to help guide individualized patient management. We retrospectively reviewed 321 consecutive patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass component on computed tomography (CT) scanning. Pathologic diagnosis for resection specimens was based on the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Patients were classified into different pathologic risk grading groups based on their lymph node status, local regional recurrence and overall survival. Radiologic characteristics of the pulmonary nodules were re-evaluated by reconstructed three-dimension CT (3D-CT). Univariate and multivariate analysis identifies independent radiologic predictors from tumor diameter, total volume (TV), average CT value (AVG), and solid-to-tumor (S/T) ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) studies were carried out to determine the cutoff value(s) for the predictor(s). Univariate cox regression model was used to determine the clinical significance of the above findings. A total of 321 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass components were included in our study. Patients were classified into two pathologic low- and high- risk groups based on their distinguished surgical outcomes. A total of 134 patients fell into the low-risk group. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified AVG (HR: 32.210, 95% CI: 3.020-79.689, Plung adenocarcinoma. Statistical significance of 5-year OS and RFS was noted among clinical low-, moderate- and high-risk groups (log-rank, p = 0.024 and 0.010). The AVG and the S/T ratio by reconstructed 3D-CT are important preoperative radiologic predictors for pathologic risk grading. The two cutoff values of AVG and S/T ratio are recommended in decision-making for patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass components.

  1. Resistance of ground glass hepatocytes to oral antivirals in chronic hepatitis B patients and implication for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Hung-Wen; Lin, Yih-Jyh; Wu, Han-Chieh; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Wu, I-Chin; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Yen, Chia-Jui; Chan, Shih-Huang; Huang, Wenya; Su, Ih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) have been shown to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Type I GGH and type II GGH harbor hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S1 and pre-S2 deletion mutants, respectively. Whether anti-HBV therapy can inhibit the expression of GGHs and potentially reduce HCC development is explored in this study. Two sets of liver specimens were included: the first contained 31 paired biopsy specimens obtained from chronic HBV patients receiving oral nucleos(t)ide...

  2. Revitalizing the Library OPAC: Interface, Searching, and Display Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Mi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of academic library users has drastically changed in recent years. Internet search engines have become the preferred tool over the library online public access catalog (OPAC for finding information. Libraries are losing ground to online search engines. In this paper, two aspects of OPAC use are studied: (1 the current OPAC interface and searching capabilities, and (2 the OPAC bibliographic display. The purpose of the study is to find answers to the following questions: Why is the current OPAC ineffective? What can libraries and librarians do to deliver an OPAC that is as good as search engines to better serve our users? Revitalizing the library OPAC is one of the pressing issues that has to be accomplished.

  3. Biochemical factors in the lens opacities. Case-control study. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, M C; Wu, S Y; Hyman, L; Sperduto, R; Underwood, B; Chylack, L T; Milton, R C; Srivastava, S; Ansari, N

    1995-09-01

    To evaluate associations with biochemical indicators of nutritional and other risk factors in the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study. Case-control study. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study determined risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular opacities among 1380 participants aged 40 to 79 years. Vitamin E, selenium, and biochemistry profile determinations were performed on all patients; red blood cell enzymes and amino acids were measured in systematic samples of about 25% of the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study population. Laboratory test values in cases and controls were compared and expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In polychotomous logistic regression analyses controlling for age and sex, the risk of opacities was reduced to less than one half in persons with higher levels of vitamin E (odds ratio, 0.44 for nuclear opacities), albumin-globulin ratio (odds ratio, 0.41 for mixed opacities), or iron (odds ratio, 0.43 for cortical opacities); higher uric acid levels increased risk (odds ratio, 1.74 for mixed opacities). Persons with opacities were twice as likely to have high glutathione reductase activity (with flavin adenine dinucleotide), which suggests low riboflavin status (odds ratio, 2.13). Most odds ratios for amino acids were under unity and were significantly decreased for glycine (0.36) and aspartic acid (0.31). Lens opacities were associated with lower levels of riboflavin, vitamin E, iron, and protein nutritional status. Higher levels of uric acid increased risk of mixed opacities. The findings for riboflavin, vitamin E, iron, and uric acid are compatible with the dietary intake and medical history results of the Lens Opacities Case-Control Study.

  4. Nodular opacities in pulmonary paragonimiasis: Radiologic pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Min; Jeong, Su Hyun; Kang, Myung Jae; Chung, Gyung Ho; Sohn, Myung Hee; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    The CT findings of pulmonary paragonimiasis are well known. However, the pathologic findings of nodular opacity have not been studied sufficiently. To clarify the nature of nodular opacity on CT in patient with paragonimiasis, we reviewed CT scans of 9 patients retrospectively. Five of them were compared with pathologic findings of the resected specimen. Other four patients were confirmed by needle aspiration biopsy. CT scans showed nodular opacities of 5 to 30 mm in diameter which were accompanied with perinodular air-space consolidations in all patients. The usual location of nodular opacities were peripheral zone of the lung. Correlation with pathologic findings demonstrated that the nodular opacity on CT scans corresponded to the parasitic granuloma with central ova and intracystic worm. The most frequent CT findings of pulmonary paragonimiasis was nodular opacities with perinodular air-space consolidations caused by parasitic granuloma or intracystic worm.

  5. SOLAR OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING THE SUPER-TRANSITION-ARRAY METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D., E-mail: menahem.krief@mail.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-04-10

    A new opacity model has been developed based on the Super-Transition-Array (STA) method for the calculation of monochromatic opacities of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atomic code, named STAR (STA-Revised), is described and used to calculate spectral opacities for a solar model implementing the recent AGSS09 composition. Calculations are carried out throughout the solar radiative zone. The relative contributions of different chemical elements and atomic processes to the total Rosseland mean opacity are analyzed in detail. Monochromatic opacities and charge-state distributions are compared with the widely used Opacity Project (OP) code, for several elements near the radiation–convection interface. STAR Rosseland opacities for the solar mixture show a very good agreement with OP and the OPAL opacity code throughout the radiation zone. Finally, an explicit STA calculation was performed of the full AGSS09 photospheric mixture, including all heavy metals. It was shown that, due to their extremely low abundance, and despite being very good photon absorbers, the heavy elements do not affect the Rosseland opacity.

  6. Radiologic Predictors for Clinical Stage IA Lung Adenocarcinoma with Ground Glass Components: A Multi-Center Study of Long-Term Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Li

    Full Text Available This study was to define preoperative predictors from radiologic findings for the pathologic risk groups based on long-term surgical outcomes, in the aim to help guide individualized patient management.We retrospectively reviewed 321 consecutive patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass component on computed tomography (CT scanning. Pathologic diagnosis for resection specimens was based on the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Patients were classified into different pathologic risk grading groups based on their lymph node status, local regional recurrence and overall survival. Radiologic characteristics of the pulmonary nodules were re-evaluated by reconstructed three-dimension CT (3D-CT. Univariate and multivariate analysis identifies independent radiologic predictors from tumor diameter, total volume (TV, average CT value (AVG, and solid-to-tumor (S/T ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC studies were carried out to determine the cutoff value(s for the predictor(s. Univariate cox regression model was used to determine the clinical significance of the above findings.A total of 321 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass components were included in our study. Patients were classified into two pathologic low- and high- risk groups based on their distinguished surgical outcomes. A total of 134 patients fell into the low-risk group. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified AVG (HR: 32.210, 95% CI: 3.020-79.689, P<0.001 and S/T ratio (HR: 12.212, 95% CI: 5.441-27.408, P<0.001 as independent predictors for pathologic risk grading. ROC curves studies suggested the optimal cut-off values for AVG and S/T ratio were-198 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.921, 2.9 (AUC 0.996 and 54% (AUC 0.907, respectively. The tumor diameter and TV were excluded for the low AUCs (0.778 and 0.767. Both the cutoff values of AVG and S/T ratio were correlated with pathologic

  7. Replicating the Z iron opacity experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, T. S.; Heeter, R. F.; Opachich, Y. P.; Ross, P. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Sherrill, M. E.; Dodd, E. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Cardenas, T.; Archuleta, T. N.; Craxton, R. S.; Zhang, R.; McKenty, P. W.; Garcia, E. M.; Huffman, E. J.; King, J. A.; Ahmed, M. F.; Emig, J. A.; Ayers, S. L.; Barrios, M. A.; May, M. J.; Schneider, M. B.; Liedahl, D. A.; Wilson, B. G.; Urbatsch, T. J.; Iglesias, C. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    X-ray opacity is a crucial factor of all radiation-hydrodynamics calculations, yet it is one of the least validated of the material properties in the simulation codes. Recent opacity experiments at the Sandia Z-machine have shown up to factors of two discrepancies between theory and experiment, casting doubt on the validity of the opacity models. Therefore, a new experimental opacity platform is being developed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) not only to verify the Z-machine experimental results but also to extend the experiments to other temperatures and densities. The first experiments will be directed towards measuring the opacity of iron at a temperature of ∼160 eV and an electron density of ∼7 × 1021 cm-3. Preliminary experiments on NIF have demonstrated the ability to create a sufficiently bright point backlighter using an imploding plastic capsule and also a hohlraum that can heat the opacity sample to the desired conditions. The first of these iron opacity experiments is expected to be performed in 2017.

  8. Computing NLTE Opacities -- Node Level Parallel Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-11

    Presentation. The goal: to produce a robust library capable of computing reasonably accurate opacities inline with the assumption of LTE relaxed (non-LTE). Near term: demonstrate acceleration of non-LTE opacity computation. Far term (if funded): connect to application codes with in-line capability and compute opacities. Study science problems. Use efficient algorithms that expose many levels of parallelism and utilize good memory access patterns for use on advanced architectures. Portability to multiple types of hardware including multicore processors, manycore processors such as KNL, GPUs, etc. Easily coupled to radiation hydrodynamics and thermal radiative transfer codes.

  9. Exome Array Analysis of Nuclear Lens Opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Stephanie J; Klein, Alison P; Lee, Kristine E; Chen, Fei; Bomotti, Samantha; Truitt, Barbara; Iyengar, Sudha K; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Duggal, Priya

    2017-11-28

    Nuclear cataract is the most common subtype of age-related cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide. It results from advanced nuclear sclerosis, or opacity in the center of the optic lens, and is affected by both genetic and environmental risk factors, including smoking. We sought to understand the genetic factors associated with nuclear sclerosis through interrogation of rare and low frequency coding variants using exome array data. We analyzed Illumina Human Exome Array data for 1,488 participants of European ancestry in the Beaver Dam Eye Study who were without cataract surgery for association with nuclear sclerosis grade, controlling for age and sex. We performed single-variant regression analysis for 32,138 variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.003. In addition, gene-based analysis of 11,844 genes containing at least two variants with MAF nuclear sclerosis, the possible association with the RNF149 gene highlights a potential candidate gene for future studies that aim to understand the genetic architecture of nuclear sclerosis.

  10. Ground-glass nodule on thin-section CT: Differentiation among adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and lepidic predominant invasive adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ho; Ryu, Dae Shick; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Jae Hong; Choi, Soo Jung; Gang, Gil Hyeon; Yoo, Dong Gon; Shin, Dong Rock [Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To investigate different computed tomography (CT) features among adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and lepidic predominant invasive adenocarcinoma (LPA) that appeared as ground-glass nodules (GGN). We also analyzed different CT findings between Group A (AIS and MIA) and Group B (LPA). We evaluated 19 AIS, 4 MIA, and 9 LPA images that were histologically confirmed and manifested as GGN on thin-section CT scans. CT scans were assessed for lesion characteristics: size, shape, solid portion, internal air density, marginal irregularity and pleural tag. CT findings of Group A and Group B were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher's exact test. A significant statistical difference was seen between AIS and LPA for lesion characteristics (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between AIS and MIA. Round or polygonal shape with smooth margin was significantly associated with Group A, and complex shape with marginal irregularity was associated with Group B. Group A (AIS and MIA) could be distinguished from Group B (LPA) by smaller lesion size, round or polygonal shape, smaller solid portion and smooth margin.

  11. Resistance of ground glass hepatocytes to oral antivirals in chronic hepatitis B patients and implication for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Wen; Lin, Yih-Jyh; Wu, Han-Chieh; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Wu, I-Chin; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Yen, Chia-Jui; Chan, Shih-Huang; Huang, Wenya; Su, Ih-Jen

    2016-05-10

    Ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) have been shown to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Type I GGH and type II GGH harbor hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S1 and pre-S2 deletion mutants, respectively. Whether anti-HBV therapy can inhibit the expression of GGHs and potentially reduce HCC development is explored in this study. Two sets of liver specimens were included: the first contained 31 paired biopsy specimens obtained from chronic HBV patients receiving oral nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment; the second contained 186 resected liver tissues obtained from HBV-related HCC patients receiving surgery: 82 received NA before surgery and 104 did not. Compared with the baseline biopsy specimens, type I (P=0.527) and type II GGH (P=0.077) were not significantly decreased after 48 weeks of NA treatment in the first set of patients. In the second set, despite suppression of viral load (Passociated with decreased local recurrence-free survival of HCC (P=0.019) as in non-treated patients (P=0.001). In conclusion, the persistence of GGHs could explain the residual risk of HCC development under anti-HBV treatment. Therefore, intrahepatic GGHs and pre-S mutant are potential additional targets for HCC prevention in patients already receiving anti-HBV treatment.

  12. High-resolution computed tomography to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases with predominant ground-glass pattern using logical analysis of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire G-SCOP, Grenoble (France); Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Pneumology, Bobigny (France); Brillet, Pierre-Yves [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Hopital Avicenne, Service de Radiologie, Bobigny Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15

    We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity ({>=}64%) and specificity ({>=}78%) and a high negative predictive value ({>=}93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity ({>=}78%) and specificity ({>=}89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)

  13. SONUBHAU BASWANT COLLEGE OF ARTS AND COMMERCE LIBRARY’S SOUL OPAC AND WEB OPAC

    OpenAIRE

    Waghmode, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    “Save the time of the reader” it is the 4th Law of S.R. Ranganathan’s Five Laws of Library Science (1931). It is a challenge to ask whether the printed Library catalogues precisely do this for its library users. There is a common understanding that the evolution of OPAC should be in line with the evolution of technology and its services. Users are should be satisfied from library services. Online Public Access Catalogue should not be a complex matrix for the users. There is no doubt that Libr...

  14. Opacity data for stellar models and its uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James; Nagayama, T.; Loisel, G. P.; Rochau, G. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Colgan, J.; Fontes, C. J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Sherrill, M.; Golovkin, I.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Iglesias, C. A.; Wilson, B.; Kurzweil, Y.; Hazak, G.; Mancini, R. C.; More, R. M.; Nahar, S. N.; Orban, C.; Pradhan, A., K.

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory experiments have found iron opacity predictions are notably different from measurements performed at conditions similar to the boundary between the solar radiation and convection zone. The measurements help resolve discrepancies between helioseismology and solar models. However, it is essential to understand the difference between opacity predictions and measurements. New measurements with chromium, iron, and nickel are providing a systematic study of how opacity changes with temperature, density, and atomic number. This helps further evaluate experiment error possibilities and constrain hypotheses for opacity model refinements. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  15. Is Seeing Believing? Consumer Responses to Opacity of Product Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sucharita Chandran; Rishtee Kumar Batra; Benjamin Lawrence

    2009-01-01

      Prior studies have shown that product and packaging design influences consumer reactions and purchase behaviors, however, research has neglected to examine a package's opacity or lack of transparency...

  16. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Mussack, Katie; Orban, Chris; Colgan, James; Ducret, Jean-Eric; Fontes, Christopher J.; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Heeter, Robert F.; Kilcrease, Dave; Le Pennec, Maelle; Mancini, Roberto; Perry, Ted; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Trantham, Matt

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. This discrepancy has led to an investigation of opacities through laboratory experiments and improved opacity models for many of the larger contributors to the sun’s opacity, including iron and oxygen. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al, 2015]. Although these results are still controversial, repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for C, O and Fe to address the solar abundance issue [Colgan, 2013]. Armstrong et al [2014] have also implemented changes in the ATOMIC code for low-Z elements. However, no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions.This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDPLP, grant No. DE-NA0001840, and the NLUF Program, grant No. DE-NA0000850, and through LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  17. Phototherapeutic Keratectomy Outcomes in Superficial Corneal Opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Arfaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Compare the effectiveness of Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK in treatment corneal dystrophies versus superficial corneal scars: visual outcomes, recurrence rate and safety profile. Methods PTK was performed in 51 eyes of 51 patients. Data regarding the indications for PTK, ablation depth, symptomatic relief, pre-and postoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, spherical equivalent changes, recurrence and complications were analyzed. The indications for PTK in our study were classified into two categories – group A: patients with corneal dystrophies (n = 23 and the other group B (n = 28 with other indications. Results The average age of the patients was 47 years (±16.4. The mean follow up period was 15.16 months (±10.01 months. Post operatively, there were no significant complications. While the overall BSCVA in the patients improved from 20/41 (0.484 to 20/32 (0.645, group A showed improvement from 20/35 (0.561 to 20/29 (0.687, as compared to group B in which BSCVA improved from 20/47 (0.421 to 20/33 (0.611. The most common indication in group A was granular corneal dystrophy (n = 10 and the most common indication in group B was post traumatic/infectious corneal scar or opacity (n = 10. Eighty-six percent (n = 44 of all patients had alleviation of symptoms. Recurrence of symptoms was seen in 3 eyes of recurrent corneal erosions which required retreatment. Conclusion PTK is a safe and effective procedure. The outcome of this study suggests that PTK improves BSCVA. PTK appears to improve ocular surface health. Furthermore, PTK can be recommended to most patients with corneal dystrophies as a treatment modality prior to other more invasive procedure (viz. penetrating keratoplasty.

  18. Broadening effects on opacity calculation of CH plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Seyed Alaeddin; Mahdavi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Opacity is a function of the temperature and electron density of plasma. The plasma density can be determined by measurements of Stark-broadened K-shell spectral lines. The purpose of this work is to obtain a more detailed structure of opacity with regard to broadening effects. For this aim, the opacity frequency dependency and mean opacity of mixed plasmas are calculated under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The LTE state in inertial confinement fusion occurs when the collisional deexcitation rate from the upper level to the lower level greatly exceeds the spontaneous decay rate. Since the thermal radiation can be absorbed by the CH-ablator, by studying the behavior of the CH Polystyrene opacity, one can obtain the temperature and density of the plasma in investigations of matter found in stellar interiors, inertial fusion implosions, and Z pinches as a diagnostic technique. The main aspect of diagnostic application is spectrum broadening. The final results show that the Stark-broadened line shape is dependent on the density. Also, it is shown that the resonance peak and spectrum broadening of the opacity spectrum of a mixed plasma such as the CH-plasma is larger than a single atom plasma such as Carbon.

  19. Ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty for the management of corneal opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, N; Melengas, S; Garap, J A

    1999-02-01

    Penetrating keratoplasty is the logical solution for the management of corneal opacities. In situations such as in Papua New Guinea, where donor corneal tissue is scarce and corneal opacities are plenty, an alternative procedure for the management of corneal opacities in the form of ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty was considered. In the present prospective study, ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty was performed in 17 eyes over a 2 year period in a general hospital. The patient's cornea was trephined eccentrically and the corneal opacity was dialed out of the visual axis and was replaced by clear peripheral cornea. Most opacities were leucomata (76.4%). The average size of the opacity was 5.1 mm and the corneal button size was 7 mm.A final visual acuity of 6/18 or better was obtained in 64.7% of cases (at 12 months). No significant postoperative complications were encountered. No complex formula was needed to calculate the size of the button and, by simply adding 3 mm to the pupillary diameter in standard illumination, one could make an estimation of the graft diameter. Rotational autokeratoplasty has a definite role in places where donor corneal tissue is scarce, in patients in whom long-term steroids are a risk or in situations where follow up of patients is difficult. Rejection is a theoretical impossibility, but late endothelial failure could occur, requiring regrafting. Rotational autokeratoplasty should be seriously considered as an alternative to conventional penetrating keratoplasty.

  20. Computational design of short pulse laser driven iron opacity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. E.; London, R. A.; Goluoglu, S.; Whitley, H. D.

    2017-02-01

    The resolution of current disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations would benefit from the experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Iron's complex ionic structure and large contribution to the opacity in the radiative zone of the sun make iron a good candidate for validation. Short pulse lasers can be used to heat buried layer targets to plasma conditions comparable to the radiative zone of the sun, and the frequency dependent opacity can be inferred from the target's measured x-ray emission. Target and laser parameters must be optimized to reach specific plasma conditions and meet x-ray emission requirements. The HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code is used to investigate the effects of modifying laser irradiance and target dimensions on the plasma conditions, x-ray emission, and inferred opacity of iron and iron-magnesium buried layer targets. It was determined that plasma conditions are dominantly controlled by the laser energy and the tamper thickness. The accuracy of the inferred opacity is sensitive to tamper emission and optical depth effects. Experiments at conditions relevant to the radiative zone of the sun would investigate the validity of opacity theories important to resolving disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations.

  1. Opacity spectra of silicon and carbon in ICF plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benredjem, D.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Gilleron, F.; Mondet, G.; Pain, J.-C.

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge of opacity is very important when one investigates the radiative properties of ICF and astrophysical plasmas. Germanium and silicon are good candidates as dopants in the ablator of some ICF schemes (LMJ in France, NIF at Livermore). In this work we calculate the opacity spectra of silicon and carbon mixtures. Two competitive methods were used. The first one is based on a detailed line calculation in which the atomic database is provided by the MCDF code. A lineshape code based on a fast algorithm was then adapted to the calculation of opacity profiles. All major line broadening mechanisms, including Zeeman splitting and Stark effect, are taken into account. This approach provides accurate opacity spectra but becomes rapidly prohibitive when the number of lines is large. To account for systems involving many ionic stages and thousands of lines, a second approach combines detailed line calculations and statistical calculations. This approach necessitates much smaller calculation times than the first one and is then more appropriate for extensive calculations. The monochromatic opacity and the Rosseland and Planck mean opacities are calculated for relevant densities and temperatures.

  2. Changes in quantitative CT image features of ground-glass nodules in differentiating invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma from benign and in situ lesions: histopathological comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Heuvelmans, M A; Zhang, H; Oudkerk, M; Zhang, G X; Xie, X Q

    2018-01-09

    To evaluate progressive changes in quantitative CT features of the non-solid component of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) from baseline to follow-up to differentiate invasive (minimally invasive adenocarcinoma [MIA] and invasive adenocarcinoma [IA]) GGNs from benign or pre-invasive (adenocarcinoma in situ [AIS]) lesions. Patients with a GGN detected at baseline and follow-up computed tomography (CT), examined by tissue sampling were included in the study. The diameter and mean, maximum, minimum CT density and density deviation from the non-solid component of whole GGNs were measured. Progression of these features over time was analysed by linear regression analysis. Multivariate receiver operating characteristics analyses of combined measures created by a logistic regression model were performed to evaluate diagnostic performance for invasive GGNs. Sixty-one patients (24 males) with 70 GGNs were included. Fifteen GGNs were benign, six AIS, 38 MIA, and 11 IA. The mean diameter of all histological subtypes increased from baseline to follow-up, the largest increase was found in the MIA group (pminimum density, and density deviation had a positive correlation over time, whilst benign and pre-invasive GGNs showed a negative correlation for these features. A diagnostic model based on three GGN features (increasing in diameter, mean density, and density deviation) identified invasive GGNs with a sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 83.7%, 61.9%, and 0.786, respectively (pinvasive GGNs significantly increased. Additional analysis of mean density and density deviation in the non-solid component may help to identify invasive GGNs. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Volumetric measurement of artificial pure ground-glass nodules at low-dose CT: Comparisons between hybrid iterative reconstruction and filtered back projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Noriyuki; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Kondo, Masatoshi; Kojima, Tsukasa; Nagatomo, Kazuya; Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Masato; Nagao, Michinobu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    To compare hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) with filtered back projection (FBP) in the volumetry of artificial pure ground-glass nodules (GGNs) with low-dose computed tomography (CT). Artificial GGNs (10 mm-diameter, 523.6 mm(3), -660 HU) in an anthropomorphic chest phantom were scanned by a 256-row multi-slice CT with three dose levels (10, 30, 100 mAs). Each scan was repeated six times. Each set was reconstructed by FBP and HIR at 0.625-mm thickness. The volumes of artificial GGNs placed at the lung apex and middle lung field of the chest phantom were measured by two observers. Semi-automated measurements were performed by clicking the cursor in the center of GGNs, and manual measurements were performed by tracing GGNs on axial section. Modification of the trace was added on a sagittal or coronal section if necessary. Measurement errors were calculated for both the FBP and HIR at each dose level. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to identify any significant difference between the measurement errors of the FBP and HIR. Inter-observer, intra-observer, and inter-scan variabilities were evaluated by Bland Altman analysis with limits of agreements given by 95% confidence intervals. There were significant differences in measurement errors only at the lung apex between FBP and HIR with 10 mAs in both the semi-automated (observer 1, -37% vs. 7.2%; observer 2, -39% vs. 1.9%) and manual methods (observer 1, -29% vs. 7.5%; observer 2, -30% vs. 1.1%), respectively (Plung apex with low-dose CT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Model-independent Constraints on Cosmic Curvature and Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Jian; Wei, Jun-Jie; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xia, Jun-Qing; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose to estimate the spatial curvature of the universe and the cosmic opacity in a model-independent way with expansion rate measurements, H(z), and type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). On the one hand, using a nonparametric smoothing method Gaussian process, we reconstruct a function H(z) from opacity-free expansion rate measurements. Then, we integrate the H(z) to obtain distance modulus μ H, which is dependent on the cosmic curvature. On the other hand, distances of SNe Ia can be determined by their photometric observations and thus are opacity-dependent. In our analysis, by confronting distance moduli μ H with those obtained from SNe Ia, we achieve estimations for both the spatial curvature and the cosmic opacity without any assumptions for the cosmological model. Here, it should be noted that light curve fitting parameters, accounting for the distance estimation of SNe Ia, are determined in a global fit together with the cosmic opacity and spatial curvature to get rid of the dependence of these parameters on cosmology. In addition, we also investigate whether the inclusion of different priors for the present expansion rate (H 0: global estimation, 67.74 ± 0.46 km s-1 Mpc-1, and local measurement, 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1) exert influence on the reconstructed H(z) and the following estimations of the spatial curvature and cosmic opacity. Results show that, in general, a spatially flat and transparent universe is preferred by the observations. Moreover, it is suggested that priors for H 0 matter a lot. Finally, we find that there is a strong degeneracy between the curvature and the opacity.

  5. X-Ray Opacity Measurements of Solid Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Justin; Preston, Thomas; Ciricosta, Orlando; Vinko, Sam; Hollebon, Patrick; Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Burian, Thomas; Chalupsky, Jaromir; Vozda, Vojtech; Hall, Frank; Spindloe, Christopher; Zastrau, Ulf; Dakovski, Georgi; Minitti, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Accurate opacity measurements of dense plasmas are scarce, in part owing to the difficulty in creating samples that are uniform in density and temperature, and the associated undertaking of an opacity measurement on a time-scale short compared with disassembly. Here we demonstrate that x-ray opacity information can be obtained from emissivity measurements of solid-density targets of varying but known thickness, irradiated by a sub-100-fsec x-ray pulse from LCLS. As the emission is generated by the creation of core-holes created by the FEL, and they are rapidly filled on a femtosecond time-scale, information is gleaned before any hydrodynamic motion. Comparision with simulations based on the SCFLY atomic-kinetics code reveal that the time-integrated emission data can provide a strong constraint on the opacity under well-defined conditions of density and temperature, and further demonstrate that the technique is relatively insensitive to x-ray pulse-length and spatial distribution. As an example we present measurements of the K-shell opacity of a solid-density magnesium plasma for all ion stages up to helium-like.

  6. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Butler, Hannah; Trantham, Matt; Mussack, Katie; Colgan, James; Fontes, Chris; Guzik, Joyce; Kilcrease, David; Perry, Ted; Orban, Chris; Ducret, Jean-Eric; La Pennec, Maelle; Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Mancini, Roberto; Heeter, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al., 2015]. Repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for low-Z elements [Colgan, 2013, Armstrong 2014], however no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDLP, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through the LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under No. DE-NA0001944.

  7. Medical image of teh week: idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The patient is a 40 year-old man who was diagnosed with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis (IPH at the age of three. He has recurrent episodes of hemoptysis several times a year that are controlled with increased doses of prednisone. He is chronically on 10 mg daily which usually control his symptoms. A HRCT scan of the chest shows predominantly upper lung cystic changes both subpleural and clustered with a honeycomb appearance superimposed on a background of diffuse ground glass opacification. Typical HRCT findings include patchy scattered areas of ground glass opacity and consolidation that usually involve the perihilar and lower aspects of the lungs. However, case reports of rare findings of multiple honeycomb cystic changes have been reported that are thought to be a result of progressive fibrotic changes from hemosiderin deposition in the interstitium (1. These honeycomb cysts may represent sites of more severe and recurrent alveolar hemorrhage in adults ...

  8. ATLAS9: Model atmosphere program with opacity distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Robert L.

    2017-10-01

    ATLAS9 computes model atmospheres using a fixed set of pretabulated opacities, allowing one to work on huge numbers of stars and interpolate in large grids of models to determine parameters quickly. The code works with two different sets of opacity distribution functions (ODFs), one with “big” wavelength intervals covering the whole spectrum and the other with 1221 “little” wavelength intervals covering the whole spectrum. The ODFs use a 12-step representation; the radiation field is computed starting with the highest step and working down. If a lower step does not matter because the line opacity is small relative to the continuum at all depths, all the lower steps are lumped together and not computed to save time.

  9. Verification of Opacity and Diagnosability for Pushdown Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In control theory of discrete event systems (DESs, one of the challenging topics is the extension of theory of finite-state DESs to that of infinite-state DESs. In this paper, we discuss verification of opacity and diagnosability for infinite-state DESs modeled by pushdown automata (called here pushdown systems. First, we discuss opacity of pushdown systems and prove that opacity of pushdown systems is in general undecidable. In addition, a decidable class is clarified. Next, in diagnosability, we prove that under a certain assumption, which is different from the assumption in the existing result, diagnosability of pushdown systems is decidable. Furthermore, a necessary condition and a sufficient condition using finite-state approximations are derived. Finally, as one of the applications, we consider data integration using XML (Extensible Markup Language. The obtained result is useful for developing control theory of infinite-state DESs.

  10. An Assessment of Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Assessment of Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) Utilization in Two Selected University Libraries in Lagos State, Nigeria. ... It was found out that the computerized catalogue is a very important service for any library system, because this has helped the users in their information seeking. Some problems faced with ...

  11. 40 CFR 75.14 - Specific provisions for monitoring opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calendar year. (d) Diesel-fired units and dual-fuel reciprocating engine units. The owner or operator of an affected diesel-fired unit or a dual-fuel reciprocating engine unit is exempt from the opacity monitoring... performance specifications in Performance Specification 1 in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter. Any...

  12. EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SUBMILLIMETER DUST OPACITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter G.; Roy, Arabindo; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Bontemps, Sylvain [Observatoire de Bordeaux, BP 89, F-33270 Floirac (France); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Carol Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 (Italy); Patanchon, Guillaume [Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet F-75205 Paris (France); and others

    2012-05-20

    The submillimeter opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the Galactic plane has been quantified using a pixel-by-pixel correlation of images of continuum emission with a proxy for column density. We used multi-wavelength continuum data: three Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope bands at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m and one IRAS band at 100 {mu}m. The proxy is the near-infrared color excess, E(J - K{sub s}), obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Based on observations of stars, we show how well this color excess is correlated with the total hydrogen column density for regions of moderate extinction. The ratio of emission to column density, the emissivity, is then known from the correlations, as a function of frequency. The spectral distribution of this emissivity can be fit by a modified blackbody, whence the characteristic dust temperature T and the desired opacity {sigma}{sub e}(1200) at 1200 GHz or 250 {mu}m can be obtained. We have analyzed 14 regions near the Galactic plane toward the Vela molecular cloud, mostly selected to avoid regions of high column density (N{sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) and small enough to ensure a uniform dust temperature. We find {sigma}{sub e}(1200) is typically (2-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} H{sup -1} and thus about 2-4 times larger than the average value in the local high Galactic latitude diffuse atomic ISM. This is strong evidence for grain evolution. There is a range in total power per H nucleon absorbed (and re-radiated) by the dust, reflecting changes in the strength of the interstellar radiation field and/or the dust absorption opacity. These changes in emission opacity and power affect the equilibrium T, which is typically 15 K, colder than at high latitudes. Our analysis extends, to higher opacity and lower temperature, the trend of increasing {sigma}{sub e}(1200) with decreasing T that was found at high latitudes. The recognition of changes in the emission opacity

  13. [Glycosaminoglycans in subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, K; Gotoh, T; Ishikawa, T; Kanai, A

    1996-05-01

    We evaluated histochemically the characteristics of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the corneal subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy on rabbit corneas. We also performed the same evaluations on the cornea after mechanical keratectomy. Twenty days after the operations, the area immediately subjacent to the epithelium showed strong staining with toluidine blue, alcian blue, and colloidal iron. However, after treatment with chondroitinase ABC or chondroitinase AC, alcian blue staining in this area decreased dramatically. Antilarge proteoglycan antibody also reacted strongly in this area. Histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of the cornea where mechanical keratectomy was done showed basically similar findings with the cornea of excimer laser keratectomy. These results suggest that large-molecula proteoglycans with chondroitine sulfate side chains become localized in the subepithelial area after two different kinds of keratectomies. We presume from histochemical and immunohistochemical observations that the subepithelial opacity observed after excimer laser keratectomy is not a special reaction to excimer laser but simply a corneal scar formed after stromal resection.

  14. Lightweight, high-opacity Bible paper by fiber loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus Doelle; Oliver Heise; John H. Klungness; Said M. AbuBakr

    2000-01-01

    This paper has been prepared in order to discuss Fiber Loading™ for lightweight, high-opacity bible paper. Incorporating fillers within pulp fibers has been subject to research since 1960 (Green et al. 1962, Scallan et al. 1985, Allen et al. 1992). Fiber Loading™ is a method for manufacturing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) directly within the pulp processing...

  15. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural groundglass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus.

  16. Enforcement of opacity security properties for ship information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the cybersecurity issue of ship information system (SIS from a new perspective which is called opacity. For a SIS, its confidential information (named as “secret” may be leaked through the working behaviors of each Distributed Control Unit (DCU from an outside observer called an “intruder” which is able to determine ship's mission state by detecting the source of each data flow from the corresponding DCUs in SIS. Therefore we proposed a dual layer mechanism to enforce opacity by activating non-essential DCU during secret mission. This mechanism is calculated by two types of insertion functions: Safety-assured insertion function (fIS and Admissibility-assured insertion function (fIA. Due to different objectives, fIS is designed to confuse intruder by constructing a non-secret behaviors from a unsafe one, and the division of fIA is to polish the modified output behaviors back to normal. We define the property of “I2–Enforceability” that dual layer insertion functions has the ability to enforce opacity. By a given mission map of SIS and the marked secret missions, we propose an algorithm to select fIS and compute its matchable fIA and then the DCUs which should be activated to release non-essential data flow in each step is calculable.

  17. Spectrally resolved opacities and Rosseland and Planck mean opacities of lowly ionized gold plasmas: a detailed level-accounting investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2007-08-01

    Calculation details of radiative opacity for lowly ionized gold plasmas by using our developed fully relativistic detailed level-accounting approach are presented to show the importance of accurate atomic data for a quantitative reproduction of the experimental observations. Even though a huge number of transition lines are involved in the radiative absorption of high- Z plasmas so that one believes that statistical models can often give a reasonable description of their opacities, we first show in detail that an adequate treatment of physical effects, in particular the configuration interaction (including the core-valence electron correlation), is essential to produce atomic data of bound-bound and bound-free processes for gold plasmas, which are accurate enough to correctly explain the relative intensity of two strong absorption peaks experimentally observed located near photon energy of 70 and 80 eV. A detailed study is also carried out for gold plasmas of an average ionization degree sequence of 10, for both spectrally resolved opacities and Rosseland and Planck means. For comparison, results obtained by using an average atom model are also given to show that even for a relatively higher density of matter, correlation effects are also important to predict the correct positions of absorption peaks of transition arrays.

  18. Radiation attenuation and opacity in smoke and water sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Gilles; Boulet, Pascal; Morlon, Romain; Blanchard, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Radiation attenuation through sprays, smoke and mixings of both media was studied in the infrared and in the visible range, by conducting real scale experiments in a corridor. The effect of water injection by a water mist nozzle and a sprinkler device was investigated. Radiation attenuation in the infrared range and opacity in the visible range were measured, by using a FTIR spectrometer and a dedicated opacimetry device especially designed for the present application. Experiments were done using either a blackbody source for attenuation characterization, or a heptane pool fire aimed at producing smoke for opacity measurements. For tests with smoke, the difficulties raised by the harsh environment involving a hot mixing of gas plus soot and vapor carrying water droplets were circumvented with an original device involving an optical fiber network. Mean infrared transmission was found equal to 12% for the water mist (with a 25 L/min water flowrate) and 37% for the sprinkler (with a 91 L/min water flowrate). Fitting the infrared transmission spectra with results obtained using a Monte Carlo simulation provided an estimation of the water volumetric fraction in the spray. It was shown that the better attenuation capability of the water mist is due to two factors: (1) a higher extinction coefficient of the water mist for a given water volumetric fraction due to the small size of the injected droplets and (2) a higher water volumetric fraction. Opacity measurements in the visible range yielded a measured extinction coefficient in good agreement with an estimation obtained with the Mie theory and the identified water volumetric fraction. Moreover, the water sprays (sprinkler or water mist) was seen to lead to a quick de-stratification of the smoke layer. When the spraying operation was stopped, the visibility re-increased in two main steps: a first step of fast increase and a second step of slow increase needing a few tens of seconds to get again a fully stratified smoke

  19. The Epidemiology of Cosmetic Treatments for Corneal Opacities in a Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ki Cheol; Kwon, Ji-Won; Han, Young Keun; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe etiologies and clinical characteristics of corneal opacities leading patients to seek cosmetic treatments. Methods The medical records of 401 patients who presented for cosmetic improvement in corneal opacities between May 2004 and July 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The following parameters were analyzed: age, gender, cause of corneal opacity, time course of the corneal disease, associated diseases, prior and current cosmetic treatments, visual acuity, location and d...

  20. Light element opacities of astrophysical interest from ATOMIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H. Jr.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Sherrill, M. E. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Hakel, P. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-11

    We present new calculations of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) light element opacities from the Los Alamos ATOMIC code for systems of astrophysical interest. ATOMIC is a multi-purpose code that can generate LTE or non-LTE quantities of interest at various levels of approximation. Our calculations, which include fine-structure detail, represent a systematic improvement over previous Los Alamos opacity calculations using the LEDCOP legacy code. The ATOMIC code uses ab-initio atomic structure data computed from the CATS code, which is based on Cowan's atomic structure codes, and photoionization cross section data computed from the Los Alamos ionization code GIPPER. ATOMIC also incorporates a new equation-of-state (EOS) model based on the chemical picture. ATOMIC incorporates some physics packages from LEDCOP and also includes additional physical processes, such as improved free-free cross sections and additional scattering mechanisms. Our new calculations are made for elements of astrophysical interest and for a wide range of temperatures and densities.

  1. Mars dust and cloud opacities and scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently completed an analysis of the visible emission-phase function (EPF) sequences obtained with the solar-band channel of the Infrared Thermal Mapping (IRTM) instrument onboard the two Viking Orbiters. Roughly 100 of these EPF sequences were gathered during the 1977-1980 period, in which the total broadband (.3-3.0 microns) reflectances of the atmosphere/surface above specific locations on Mars were measured versus emission angle as the spacecraft passed overhead. A multiple scattering radiative transfer program was employed to model the EPF observations in terms of the optical depths of dust/clouds, their single scattering albedos and phase functions, and the Lambert albedos and phase coefficient of the underlying surfaces. Due to the predominance of atmospheric scattering at large atmospheric pathlengths and/or large dust opacities, we were able to obtain strong constraints on the scattering properties of dust/clouds and their opacities for a wide range of latitudes, longitudes, and seasons on Mars.

  2. Systematic measurements of opacity dependence on temperature, density, and atomic number at stellar interior conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Taisuke

    2017-10-01

    Model predictions for iron opacity are notably different from measurements performed at matter conditions similar to the boundary between the solar radiation and convection zones. The calculated iron opacities have narrower spectral lines, weaker quasi-continuum at short wavelength, and deeper opacity windows than the measurements. If correct, these measurements help resolve a decade old problem in solar physics. A key question is therefore: What is responsible for the model-data discrepancy? The answer is complex because the experiments are challenging and opacity theories depend on multiple entangled physical processes such as the influence of completeness and accuracy of atomic states, line broadening, contributions from myriad transitions from excited states, and multi-photon absorption processes. To help determine the cause of this discrepancy, a systematic study of opacity variation with temperature, density, and atomic number is underway. Measurements of chromium, iron, and nickel opacities have been performed at two different temperatures and densities. The collection of measured opacities provides constraints on hypotheses to explain the discrepancy. We will discuss implications of measured opacities, experimental errors, and possible opacity model refinements. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  3. Microcomputer programs for particulate control: section failure; baghouse; plume opacity prediction; and in-stack opacity calculator. Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, L.E.

    1985-09-01

    IBM-PC usable versions of several computer models useful in particulate control are provided. The models were originally written for the TRS-80 Model I-III series of microcomputers and have been translated to run on the IBM-PC. The documentation for the TRS-80 versions applies to the IBM-PC versions. The programs are written in FORTRAN and are provided in both source (FORTRAN) and executable form. Some small machine language routines are used to format the screen for data entry. These routines limit the programs to IBM-PC and close clones. The minimum hardware requirements are 256K IBM-PC or close clone, a monochrome monitor, and a disk drive. A printer is useful but not required. The following computer programs are provided in the four-disk package: (1) ESP section failure model, (2) GCA/EPA baghouse model, (3) Plume opacity prediction model, and (4) In-stack opacity calculator. All the models are documented in EPA report Microcomputer Programs for Particulate Control, EPA-600/8-85-025a (PB86-146529). The models provide useful tools for those involved in particulate control.

  4. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S

  5. Opacity Build-up in Impulsive Relativistic Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Jonathan; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Silva, Eduardo do Couto e

    2007-09-28

    Opacity effects in relativistic sources of high-energy gamma-rays, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or Blazars, can probe the Lorentz factor of the outflow as well as the distance of the emission site from the source, and thus help constrain the composition of the outflow (protons, pairs, magnetic field) and the emission mechanism. Most previous works consider the opacity in steady state. Here we study the effects of the time dependence of the opacity to pair production ({gamma}{gamma} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) in an impulsive relativistic source, which may be relevant for the prompt gamma-ray emission in GRBs or flares in Blazars. We present a simple, yet rich, semi-analytic model for the time and energy dependence of the optical depth, {tau}{gamma}{gamma}, in which a thin spherical shell expands ultra-relativistically and emits isotropically in its own rest frame over a finite range of radii, R{sub 0} {le} R {le} R{sub 0}+{Delta}R. This is particularly relevant for GRB internal shocks. We find that in an impulsive source ({Delta}R {approx}< R{sub 0}), while the instantaneous spectrum (which is typically hard to measure due to poor photon statistics) has an exponential cutoff above the photon energy {var_epsilon}1(T) where t{gamma}{gamma}({var_epsilon}1) = 1, the time integrated spectrum (which is easier to measure) has a power-law high-energy tail above the photon energy {var_epsilon}1* {approx} {var_epsilon}1({Delta}T) where {Delta}T is the duration of the emission episode. Furthermore, photons with energies {var_epsilon} > {var_epsilon}1* are expected to arrive mainly near the onset of the spike in the light curve or flare, which corresponds to the short emission episode. This arises since in such impulsive sources it takes time to build-up the (target) photon field, and thus the optical depth {tau}{gamma}{gamma}({var_epsilon}) initially increases with time and {var_epsilon}1(T) correspondingly decreases with time, so that photons of energy {var_epsilon} > {var

  6. The epidemiology of cosmetic treatments for corneal opacities in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ki Cheol; Kwon, Ji-Won; Han, Young Keun; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

    2010-06-01

    To describe etiologies and clinical characteristics of corneal opacities leading patients to seek cosmetic treatments. The medical records of 401 patients who presented for cosmetic improvement in corneal opacities between May 2004 and July 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The following parameters were analyzed: age, gender, cause of corneal opacity, time course of the corneal disease, associated diseases, prior and current cosmetic treatments, visual acuity, location and depth of the corneal opacity, and the presence of either corneal neovascularization or band keratopathy. A single practitioner examined all patients. The most common causes of corneal opacity were ocular trauma (203 eyes, 50.6%), retinal disease (62 eyes, 15.5%), measles (38 eyes, 9.5%), and congenital etiologies (22 eyes, 5.5%). Prior treatments included iris colored contact lenses (125 eyes, 31.1%) and corneal tattooing (34 eyes, 8.46%). A total of 321 of 401 eyes underwent cosmetic treatment for corneal opacities. The most common treatment performed after the primary visit was corneal tattooing (261 eyes, 64.92%). This is the first study to investigate the causes and clinical characteristics of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment of corneal opacities rather than for functional improvement. Various cosmetic interventions are available for patients with corneal opacities, and these should be individualized for the needs of each patient.

  7. Can chest high-resolution computed tomography findings diagnose pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Flavia Angelica Ferreira; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Zanetti, Glaucia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante Luiz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina e Apoio Diagnostico; Silva, Claudio S. [Radiology Department, Facultad de Medicina Clinica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Hochhegger, Bruno [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at retrospectively reviewing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in order to evaluate the frequency of tomographic findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma. Materials and methods: thirteen patients (9 females and 4 males; age, 9 to 59 years; mean age, 34.5 years) were included in the present study. The HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers whose decisions were made by consensus. The inclusion criterion was the presence of abnormalities typical of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis at HRCT, which precludes lung biopsy. However, in 6 cases lung biopsy was performed. Results: ground-glass opacities and small parenchymal nodules were the predominant tomographic findings, present in 100% of cases, followed by small subpleural nodules (92.3%), subpleural cysts (84.6%), subpleural linear calcifications (69.2%), crazy-paving pattern (69.2%), fissure nodularity (53.8%), calcification along interlobular septa (46.2%) and dense consolidation (46.2%). Conclusion: as regards distribution of the lesions, there was preferential involvement of the lower third of the lungs. No predominance of distribution in axial and anteroposterior directions was observed. (author)

  8. Influence of opacity on the color stability of a nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodan, Daiana Antoaneta; Gasparik, Cristina; Mada, Diana Carla; Miclăuş, Vasile; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Dudea, Diana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability in relation to the opacity of the nanocomposite Filtek Ultimate (3M ESPE), by immersing the specimens in different types of natural and artificial staining solutions. Eighty disks of the shades A1 body (A1B), A1 dentine (A1D), A1 enamel (A1E), and white enamel (WE) (n = 4) of the nanocomposite Filtek Ultimate (3M ESPE) were immersed in staining solutions Orange II, Amaranth, coffee, tea, and artificial saliva. Color coordinates Commission Internationale de l'éclairage (CIE) L*a*b* were collected before and after immersion at 4, 6, 12, 24 h and 7 days. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used in order to assess the effect of immersion time, staining solutions, and materials on CIE L*a*b* parameters, translucency parameter (TP), and color difference (ΔE*). For comparisons between staining solutions and materials, pairwise contrasts adjusted by Bonferroni method were used. The color difference (ΔE*) after 7 days of immersing in staining solution ranged between 0.9 and 15.8. The highest ΔE* after 7 days was obtained for WE, followed by A1E, A1B, and A1D (for all of the immersion solutions, except coffee). There were differences among staining solutions regarding the induced color changes. Coffee induced the most pronounced color differences. However, Orange II, Amaranth, and artificial saliva generated similar behavior in time, for all tested materials. No statistically significant differences were found among various opacities of Filtek Ultimate regarding the ΔE*, TP, ΔL*, and Δb* overtime. In contrast, Δa* was significantly affected by the type of material. The purpose of this study was to predict the color change of different layers of composites, in cases of complex stratified dental restorations.

  9. Experimental evaluation of opacity in the deep solar interior using the concept of ``microscopic equivalence''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Yair; Hazak, Giora; Bailey, James; Nagayama, Taisuke

    2017-10-01

    A problem for stellar astrophysics is that existing opacity models have been called into question both by experiments and by solar model comparisons with helioseismology, but an alternative opacity model does not yet exist. Importantly, the experiments measured opacity only for iron, at 182 eV - 195 eV temperatures (Te) comparable to the value at 0.7. Experimental validation of opacity models at higher Te and density (ne) are required to understand the entire Sun. Unfortunately, controlled transmission measurements at the required conditions are extremely difficult to achieve at lab. We propose to help resolve this dilemma using experiments at achieved conditions combined with the ``microscopic equivalence'' principle. Thus, using this principle, we can use a lower-atomic-number surrogate element to test opacity model physics important for iron at higher Te and ne than can be reached in present experiments. Theoretical modeling to evaluate this idea, using the CRSTA/PRCRSTA models will be discussed.

  10. Co-registration of pre-operative CT with ex vivo surgically excised ground glass nodules to define spatial extent of invasive adenocarcinoma on in vivo imaging: a proof-of-concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rajiah, Prabhakar [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilkeson, Robert; Yang, Michael; Donatelli, Christopher; Linden, Philip [Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Thawani, Rajat; Madabhushi, Anant [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Jacono, Frank J. [Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To develop an approach for radiology-pathology fusion of ex vivo histology of surgically excised pulmonary nodules with pre-operative CT, to radiologically map spatial extent of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component of the nodule. Six subjects (age: 75 ± 11 years) with pre-operative CT and surgically excised ground-glass nodules (size: 22.5 ± 5.1 mm) with a significant invasive adenocarcinomatous component (>5 mm) were included. The pathologist outlined disease extent on digitized histology specimens; two radiologists and a pulmonary critical care physician delineated the entire nodule on CT (in-plane resolution: <0.8 mm, inter-slice distance: 1-5 mm). We introduced a novel reconstruction approach to localize histology slices in 3D relative to each other while using CT scan as spatial constraint. This enabled the spatial mapping of the extent of tumour invasion from histology onto CT. Good overlap of the 3D reconstructed histology and the nodule outlined on CT was observed (65.9 ± 5.2%). Reduction in 3D misalignment of corresponding anatomical landmarks on histology and CT was observed (1.97 ± 0.42 mm). Moreover, the CT attenuation (HU) distributions were different when comparing invasive and in situ regions. This proof-of-concept study suggests that our fusion method can enable the spatial mapping of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component from 2D histology slices onto in vivo CT. (orig.)

  11. The production and assessment of a plastic rod for the Chinese Reference Preparation for Opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X B; Xu, H L; Qin, J C; Qiao, L Y

    1989-04-01

    A reference preparation for opacity consisting of a plastic rod was introduced by Perkins et al. in 1973. It was adopted as the International Reference Preparation for Opacity in 1975. This plastic rod opacity reference preparation has been used to standardize the Chinese National Bacterial Opacity Standard. The material was prepared from plastic sheet by a water-bath method and by a dry-heat method; the sheet was then machined into the plastic rods. We have studied the technical processes and set up methods for the examination of the sheets and rods. The water-bath method was found to be better than the dry-heat method in our tests. Collaborative assays in research institutes of biological products have shown that the plastic rod can replace the glass-powder suspension. The duration of validity of the plastic rod opacity reference preparation and that of the glass-powder suspension used for the Chinese National Bacterial Opacity Standard were studied and found to be similar. For this reason the plastic rod opacity reference preparation has not been widely used in China.

  12. First Successes and Modifications of the NIF Opacity Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. A.; Huffman, E. J.; Knight, R. A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Ross, P. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Ahmed, M. F.; Emig, J. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Martin, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Thompson, N. B.; Dodd, E. S.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.; Lopez, F. E.; Archuleta, T. N.; Perry, T. S.

    2017-10-01

    The NIF Opacity Spectrometer (OpSpec) began returning X-ray spectra on its first NIF shot in September 2016. In May 2017, OpSpec recorded the first X-ray transmission data for iron-magnesium plasmas on NIF, at ``Anchor 1'' sample conditions (150 eV and 7E21 e-/cc). OpSpec diffracts X-rays in the 540-2100 eV range off a KAP or RbAP crystal onto either image plate or X-ray film. Modifications to further improve OpSpec's performance are underway, with the largest improvements expected in resolving power (E/dE up to 1000) and reduction of background levels. Implementation is planned for NIF shots in August and December 2017. This presentation will discuss the OpSpec data and design improvements, and also future goals. This work was performed by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25946-2891.

  13. Cosmic opacity to CMB photons and polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, L. P. L.; Bonometto, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Anisotropy data analysis leaves a significant degeneracy between primeval spectral index ( ns) and cosmic opacity to CMB photons ( τ). Low- l polarization measures, in principle, can remove it. We perform a likelihood analysis to see how cosmic variance possibly affects such a problem. We find that, for a sufficiently low noise level ( σPpix) and if τ is not negligibly low, the degeneracy is greatly reduced, while the residual impact of cosmic variance on ns and τ determinations is under control. On the contrary, if σPpix is too high, cosmic variance effects appear to be magnified. We apply general results to specific experiments and find that, if favorable conditions occur, it is possible that a 2- σ detection of a lower limit on τ is provided by the SPOrt experiment. Furthermore, if the PLANCK experiment will measure polarization with the expected precision, the error on low- l harmonics is adequate to determine τ, without significant magnification of the cosmic variance. This however indicates that high sensitivity might be more important than high resolution in τ determinations. We also outline that a determination of τ is critical to perform detailed analyses on the nature of dark energy and/or on the presence of primeval gravitational waves.

  14. Color and opacity of composites protected with surface sealants and submitted to artificial accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fabiano Gamero; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the color similarity, stability and opacity of composites (TPH, Charisma, and Concept, shade A2) protected with surface sealants (Fortify Plus and Biscover) and cyanoacrylate (Super Bonder). Forty specimens of each composite were made and separated into 4 groups (n=10) according to the surface protection: GI - without sealant; GII - cyanoacrylate; GIII - Fortify Plus; GIV - Biscover. Color and opacity readings were taken before and after Artificial Acelerated Aging (AAA) and the values obtained for color stability were submitted to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (Pcolor similarity were submitted to 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (Pcolor similarity among them. All composites presented color alteration after AAA with clinically unacceptable values. Protected groups presented lower opacity variation after AAA, in comparison with the control goup. SEM evaluation demonstrated that AAA increased the surface irregularities in all of the studied groups. Surface sealants were not effective in maintaining composite color, but were able to maintain opacity.

  15. The Influence of Opacity on Hydrogen Line Emission and Ionisation Balance in High Density Divertor Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of opacity on hydrogen line emission and ionisation balance in high density divertor plasmas. - Garching bei München : Max-Planck-Inst. für Plasmaphysik, 1997. - 21 S. - (IPP-Report ; 10/5)

  16. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woitke, P; Min, M; Pinte, C; Thi, W. -F; Kamp, I; Rab, C; Anthonioz, F; Antonellini, S; Baldovin-Saavea, C; Carmona, A; Dominik, C; Dionatos, O; Greaves, J; Güdel, M; Ilee, J. D; Liebhart, A; Ménard, F; Rigon, L; Waters, L. B. F. M; Aresu, G; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M

    2016-01-01

    ..., and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on the assumptions about the shape of the disk, the dust opacities, dust settling, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  17. Radiologic findings of diffuse Pulmonary hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ra; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To describe the chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Two radiologists retrospectively analysed the chest radiographic and CT findings of six patients with diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Using open lung biopsy(n=3D2) and transbronchial lung biopsy or bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D4), diagnosis was based on the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophage or intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Underlying diseases were Wegener's granulomatosis(n=3D2), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome(n=3D2), Henoch-Schonlein purpura(n=3D1), and idopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis(n=3D1). In all patients, sequential chest radiographs, obtained during a one to six-month period, were available. HRCT scans were obtained in five patinets, and conventional CT scans in one. Follow-up HRCT scans were obtained in two. We also analyzed the patterns of involvement, distribution and sequential changes in the pulmonary abnormalities seen on chest radiographs and CT scans. Chest radiographs showed multifocal patchy consolidation(n=3D6), ground-glass opacity(n=3D3), and multiple granular or nodular opacity(n=3D3). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, while in one there was consolidation only. Sequential chest radiographs demonstrated the improvement of initial pulmonary abnormalities and appearance of new lesions elsewhere within 5-6 days, though within 7-25 (average, 13) days, these had almost normalized. HRCT scans showed patchy consolidation(n=3D5), multiple patchy ground-glass opacity(n=3D5), or ill-defined air space nodules(n=3D4). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, and in one, ground-glass opacity only was noted. In two patients there were interlobular septal thickening and intalobular reticular opacity. The distribution of these abnormalities was almost always bilateral, diffuse with no zonal predominancy, and spared the apex of the lung and subpleural region were less affected. Although chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary

  18. Non-LTE H2+ as the source of missing opacity in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Stecher, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    The population of the various vibrational levels of the H2+ molecule has been calculated from the consideration of formation and destruction mechanisms. The resulting population is used in calculating the total absorption due to H2+ and is compared with the other known sources of opacity at several optical depths of the solar atmosphere. It is shown that the absorption due to H2+ can probably account for the missing ultraviolet opacity in the solar atmosphere.

  19. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keady, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kilcrease, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  20. Deep corneal stromal opacities associated with long term contact lens wear.

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenides, D; Steele, C F; McGhee, C N; Bryce, I G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One male and three female long term contact lens wearers (mean age 30.3 years; range 26-33) demonstrated unusual deep corneal stromal opacities which were predominantly just anterior to Descemet's membrane. None had any history of corneal dystrophy. These opacities were more common centrally, but were also identified in the corneal periphery. METHODS: All patients underwent routine ophthalmic examinations and, where appropriate, slit-lamp photography and specular microscopy. RESUL...

  1. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Measurements at Stellar-Relevant Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madison E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the simulation of radiation transport in systems such as inertial con nement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would bene t from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Overall, short pulse laser heated iron experiments reaching stellar-relevant conditions have been designed with consideration of minimizing tamper emission and optical depth effects while meeting plasma condition and x-ray emission goals.

  2. Functional characterization of antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity protein loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica G Cole

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a gonorrhea vaccine is challenged by the lack of correlates of protection. The antigenically variable neisserial opacity (Opa proteins are expressed during infection and have a semivariable (SV and highly conserved (4L loop that could be targeted in a vaccine. Here we compared antibodies to linear (Ab(linear and cyclic (Ab(cyclic peptides that correspond to the SV and 4L loops and selected hypervariable (HV(2 loops for surface-binding and protective activity in vitro and in vivo.Ab(SV cyclic bound a greater number of different Opa variants than Ab(SV linear, including variants that differed by seven amino acids. Antibodies to the 4L peptide did not bind Opa-expressing bacteria. Ab(SV (cyclic and Ab(HV2 (cyclic, but not Ab(SV (linear or Ab(HV2 linear agglutinated homologous Opa variants, and Ab(HV2BD (cyclic but not Ab(HV2BD (linear blocked the association of OpaB variants with human endocervical cells. Only Ab(HV2BD (linear were bactericidal against the serum resistant parent strain. Consistent with host restrictions in the complement cascade, the bactericidal activity of Ab(HV2BD (linear was increased 8-fold when rabbit complement was used. None of the antibodies was protective when administered vaginally to mice. Antibody duration in the vagina was short-lived, however, with <50% of the antibodies recovered 3 hrs post-administration.We conclude that an SV loop-specific cyclic peptide can be used to induce antibodies that recognize a broad spectrum of antigenically distinct Opa variants and have agglutination abilities. HV(2 loop-specific cyclic peptides elicited antibodies with agglutination and adherence blocking abilities. The use of human complement when testing the bactericidal activity of vaccine-induced antibodies against serum resistant gonococci is also important.

  3. Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio X between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV-8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for X, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio X bar = 0.30 ± 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for X and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80-100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

  4. Evaluation of opacity in polyethylene fiber reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Tabatabaie M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of polyethylene fibers and veneering composites in fiber-reinforced resin systems on the opacity (contrast ratio. "nMaterials and Methods: The specimens were divided into four groups. Two groups were used as the control groups, with no reinforcement. The fibers of polyethylene (Fibre-Braid with special basement composites were used as the reinforced framework materials. Filtek Z250 and GRADIA (shade A2 were used as veneering materials. The total thickness of samples was 3 mm with 13 mm diameter. Specimens were prepared in disk shaped metal mold. The composite materials were light-cured according to their manufacturers' instructions. The contrast ratio (CR of each specimen was determined on black and white backgrounds using reflection spectrophotometer. Reflectance was measured at intervals of 10 nm between 400 nm and 750 nm. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. "nResults: When contrast ratio were compared among the different types of materials statistically significant differences were observed in both veneering composites (P<0.05. The Z250 resin composite had the lowest CR. It was shown that CR tended to decrease as the wavelength of incident light increased from 400 nm to 750 nm. On the other hand, the most differences in CR between groups were found in longer wavelengths. "nConclusion: It was found that polyethylene fibers reduced the amount of the translucency in FRC samples. The results of this study indicate that light reflectance characteristics, including the wavelength dependence, play an important role for the CR of a fiber-reinforced composite.

  5. Are There Any Additional Benefits to Performing Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Scans and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Patients with Ground-Glass Nodules Prior to Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Uk; Song, Junwhi; Lee, Kyung Jong; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Jhingook; Han, Joungho; Um, Sang Won

    2017-10-01

    A ground-glass nodule (GGN) represents early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. However, there is still no consensus for preoperative staging of GGNs. Therefore, we evaluated the need for the routine use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during staging. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in 72 patients with 74 GGNs of less than 3 cm in diameter, which were confirmed via surgery as malignancy, at the Samsung Medical Center between May 2010 and December 2011. The median age of the patients was 59 years. The median GGN diameter was 18 mm. Pure and part-solid GGNs were identified in 35 (47.3%) and 39 (52.7%) cases, respectively. No mediastinal or distant metastasis was observed in these patients. In preoperative staging, all of the 74 GGNs were categorized as stage IA via chest CT scans. Additional PET/CT scans and brain MRIs classified 71 GGNs as stage IA, one as stage IIIA, and two as stage IV. However, surgery and additional diagnostic work-ups for abnormal findings from PET/CT scans classified 70 GGNs as stage IA, three as stage IB, and one as stage IIA. The chest CT scans did not differ from the combined modality of PET/CT scans and brain MRIs for the determination of the overall stage (94.6% vs. 90.5%; kappa value, 0.712). PET/CT scans in combination with brain MRIs have no additional benefit for the staging of patients with GGN lung adenocarcinoma before surgery.

  6. Development on the National Ignition Facility of a High Energy Density Opacity Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dodd, Evan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeVolder, Barbara Gloria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johns, Heather Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cardenas, Tana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Thomas Nick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kline, John L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Flippo, Kirk Adler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sherrill, Manolo Edgar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilde, Bernhard Heinz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Douglas, Melissa Rae [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heeter, R. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Liedahl, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, B. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Iglesias, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martin, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); London, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahmed, M. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, N. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Emig, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zika, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Opachich, Y. P. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); King, J. A. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Ross, P. W. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Huffman, E. J. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Knight, R. A. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Koch, J. A. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Pond, T. D. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Craxton, R. S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Zhang, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; McKenty, P. W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Garcia, E. M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Bailey, J. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, G. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    X-ray opacity is a crucial factor in all radiation-hydrodynamics calculations, yet it is one of the least validated of the material properties in simulation codes for high-energy-density plasmas. Recent opacity experiments at the Sandia Z-machine have shown up to factors of two discrepancies between theory and experiment for various mid-Z elements (Fe, Cr, Ni). These discrepancies raise doubts regarding the accuracy of the opacity models which are used in ICF and stewardship as well as in astrophysics. Therefore, a new experimental opacity platform has been developed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), not only to verify the Z-machine experimental results, but also to extend the experiments to other temperatures and densities. Within the context of the national opacity strategy, the first NIF experiments were directed towards measuring the opacity of iron at a temperature of ~160 eV and an electron density of ~7xl021 cm-3(Anchor 1). The Z data agree with theory at these conditions, providing a reference point for validation of the NIF platform. Development shots on NIF have demonstrated the ability to create a sufficiently bright point backlighter using an imploding plastic capsule, and also a combined hohlraum, sample and laser drive able to produce iron plasmas at the desired conditions. Spectrometer qualification has been completed, albeit with additional improvements planned, and the first iron absorption spectra have now been obtained.

  7. CT quantification of large opacities and emphysema in silicosis: correlations among clinical, functional, and radiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcos César Santos; Ferreira, Angela Santos; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Hochhegger, Bruno; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Velarde, Guilhermo Coca; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of the extent of silicosis on chest radiographs is subjective and could be more standardized by using computed tomography (CT) quantification methods. We propose a semiautomatic method of quantifying the anatomical lung damage (LD) (the sum of the emphysema and large opacities volumes) measured by CT densitovolumetry in complicated silicosis. Twenty-three nonsmokers with complicated silicosis were included. Large opacities were recorded as size A, B, or C according to the size of the opacities on chest radiographs. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were assessed by spirometry and the carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured by helium dilution, and total lung volume (TLV) was measured by CT quantification (TLVct). CT images were postprocessed using CT densitovolumetry to measure the TLVct, large opacities volume, emphysema volume (EV), and emphysema index (EI). Significant correlations were observed between the EV and the forced vital capacity (r = 0.41, p = 0.04), TLC (r = 0.44, p = 0.03), and residual volume (RV) (r = 0.49, p = 0.01). A correlation also was observed between the LD% and RV (r = 0.43, p = 0.03) and between the LD and RV (r = 0.47, p = 0.02). The PFT findings were correlated with the EV, EI, LD, and LD%, but they were not correlated with the large opacities volume. These results suggest that the emphysema volume, more than the large opacities volume, is responsible for functional impairment in patients with complicated silicosis.

  8. NLTE opacity calculations: C-Si and C-Ge mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, W.; Benredjem, D.; Pain, J.-C.; Dubau, J.

    2017-09-01

    The opacity is an important issue in the knowledge of the radiative properties of ICF and astrophysical plasmas. We present the opacity of dopants (silicon, germanium) embedded in the ablator of some ICF capsules. In recent works, Hill and Rose calculated the opacity of silicon in LTE and non-LTE plasmas, while Minguez and co-workers focused on the opacity of carbon. We have used the Cowan code to calculate the atomic structure of carbon, silicon and germanium in various ionic stages. The cross-sections of atomic processes (collisional excitation, collisional ionization) are obtained by fitting the values given by the code FAC to the Van Regemorter-like formulas of Sampson and Zhang. A corrected Gaunt factor is then obtained. A collisional-radiative code was developed in order to obtain the ionic populations, the level populations and the opacity. Line broadening and line shift are taken into account. The ionization potential depression is included in our calculations. The effect of a radiation field on the opacity is examined.

  9. [Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom cultivation: case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Naoko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Iwata, Atsuko; Umeki, Kenji; Shirai, Ryo; Morinaga, Ryotaro; Kishi, Kenji; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Yamagata, Eiji; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2008-05-01

    A 72-year-old man, a Shiitake mushroom grower over fifty years, was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral chest interstitial shadow with chronic cough and breathlessness. Chest computed tomography showed traction bronchiectasis, subpleural micro-cystic changes and partial ground-glass opacities in both lungs, and mild mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushrooms was comprehensively confirmed by occupational history, radiological findings, and positive findings of an incidental environmental provocation test and lymphocyte stimulation test for Shiitake mushroom extracts. We reviewed the clinical features in five patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushrooms reported in Japan. There was a tendency toward increasing lymphocytes and high CD4/CD8 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Treatment with steroids seems to have a limited effect, while avoidance of the antigen is important.

  10. High-resolution computed tomography findings from adult patients with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: glauciazanetti@gmail.com; Hochhegger, Bruno [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D' OR Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: rosana.souzarodrigues@gmail.com; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque Pantaleao [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: cristinasvolinsque@gmail.com; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianopolis (Brazil)], E-mail: luizfelipenobresc@gmail.com; Dias Mancano, Alexandre [Anchieta Hospital, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: alex.manzano1@gmail.com; Meirelles, Gustavo [Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital NHS, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: klaus.irion@btinternet.com

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings at presentation in patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods: We reviewed the HRCT findings from 20 patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) and compared their HRCT scans with chest radiographs, obtained on the same day. The imaging studies were obtained 4-9 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients included 11 men and 9 women (ages 24-62 years; mean 42.7 years). All patients had a body temperature greater than 100.4 deg. F (>38 deg. C), tachypnea, and cough. Other common symptoms included diarrhea (60%) and sore throat (30%). The radiographs and HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The predominant HRCT findings consisted of bilateral ground-glass opacities (n = 12), bilateral areas of consolidation (n = 2), or a mixed bilateral pattern of ground-glass opacities and areas of consolidation (n = 6). The abnormalities were bilateral in all of the 20 patients, had a predominantly sub-pleural distribution in 13 patients, and had a random distribution in the remaining 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were consolidations. Normal radiographs were found in 4 out of the 20 patients. Conclusion: HRCT may reveal parenchymal abnormalities in patients with Influenza A (H1N1) infection who have normal findings on radiographs. The predominant HRCT findings were bilateral, peripheral, ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation. The patients who presented consolidations had more severe clinical course.

  11. Opacity of big toenail predicts poor prognosis in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Osamu; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Matsumoto, Teppei; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Hosogoe, Shogo; Kodama, Hirotake; Horiguchi, Hirotaka; Kubota, Yuka; Kido, Koichi; Momota, Masaki; Anan, Go; Narita, Ikuyo; Kitahara, Ryuji; Saitoh, Hisao; Suzuki, Tadashi; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-10-25

    The impact of nail abnormalities on prognosis in hemodialysis patients is unknown. This study investigated whether toenail opacity as a readout of nail abnormalities predicted prognosis in hemodialysis patients. In this observational study, 494 eligible hemodialysis patients who received hemodialysis at Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute between September 2010 and December 2015 were included. The presence of nail abnormalities was objectively evaluated by big toenail opacity ratio measurement. Primary endpoint was overall survival, and secondary endpoints were lower limb amputation and determination of risk factors for poor prognosis among patient demographics, comorbidities, blood tests, and big toenail opacity. Overall survival and lower limb survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analyses assessed predictors for poor prognosis. Big toenail opacity was found in 259 (52%) patients. Patients with big toenail opacity were significantly older, had shorter duration of dialysis, higher prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and higher mortality rates than those without opacity. Presence of big toenail opacity predicted poor prognosis for both overall and lower limb survival. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed serum albumin, the presence of DM and big toenail opacity were independent risk factors for both poor overall and lower limb survivals. The prevalence of big toenail opacity was high in hemodialysis patients. Despite the short observation period, our findings indicated that big toenail opacity had significant predictive power for poor overall and lower limb survival.

  12. High-resolution computed tomography findings in chronic eosinophilic vs. cryptogenic organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrian, P; Doroudinia, A; Rashti, A; Aloosh, O; Dorudinia, A

    2017-11-01

    The similar clinical and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) make precise diagnosis challenging. To help differentiate between COP and CEP using high-resolution CT (HRCT). Clinical data and HRCT images of COP and CEP patients referred to Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed. Diagnosis of COP or CEP was confirmed using open lung biopsy or a combination of transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, peripheral eosinophilia and a favourable response to corticosteroids. Ground-glass opacity, a dominant ground-glass pattern, upper-lobe pneumonia, increased thickness of bronchial walls and a mosaic pattern in the lungs were more frequent in CEP. Lower-lobe pneumonia, subpleural reticulation, a dominant consolidation pattern, nodules and masses, non-septal linear opacities, bronchial dilation and a reverse halo sign were more frequent in COP. History of asthma, wheezing and peripheral eosinophilia was significantly more common in CEP than in COP. Distinguishing between CEP and COP based on HRCT alone is not always possible. However, in many cases, especially if the correct diagnosis cannot be established by other means, certain HRCT features can be very helpful.

  13. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  14. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  15. A new in vitro method to evaluate radio-opacity of endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, V B; Hochscheidt, G L; Larentis, N L; Grecca, F S; Fontanella, V R C; Kopper, P M P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a new method for assessing the radio-opacity of endodontic sealers and to compare radio-opacity values with a well-established standard method. The sealers evaluated in this study were AH Plus(®) (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), Endo CPM Sealer (EGEO SRL, Buenos Aires, Argentina) and MTA Fillapex(®) (Angelus Dental Products Industry S/A, Londrina, Parana, Brazil). Two methods were used to evaluate radio-opacity: (D) standard discs and (S) a tissue simulator. For (D), ten standard discs were prepared for each sealer and were radiographed using Digora(®) phosphor storage plates (Soredex; Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland), alongside an aluminium stepwedge. For (S), polyethylene tubes filled with sealer (n = 10 for each) were radiographed inside the simulator as described. The digital images were analysed using Adobe Photoshop(®) software v. 10.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). To compare the radio-opacity among the sealers, the data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's test, and to compare methods, they were analysed by the Mann-Whitney U test. To compare the data obtained from dentin and sealers in method (S), Student's paired t-test was used (=0.05). In both methods, the sealers showed significant differences, according to the following decreasing order: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Endo CPM. In (D), MTA Fillapex and Endo CPM showed less radio-opacity than aluminium. For all of the materials, the radio-opacity was higher in (S) than in (D). Compared with dentin, all of the materials were more radio-opaque. The comparison of the two assessment methods for sealer radio-opacity testing validated the use of a tissue simulator block.

  16. Effektivität und Effizienz von Online-Hilfesystemen in deutschen Universitäts-OPACs

    OpenAIRE

    Greifeneder, Elke

    2007-01-01

    Today, almost always Online Public Access Catalogues (OPACs) are the only way to access library collections, but practical experience shows that users have problems dealing with electronic catalogues. The author therefore recommends that any good OPAC needs an elaborated online help system. The present master thesis surveys implemented online help systems in German university OPACs and gives a critical discussion. Beyond the variety of help texts, the author also includes help systems like sp...

  17. Iron and Nickel spectral opacity calculations in conditions relevant for pulsating stellar envelopes and experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seismology of stars is strongly developing. To address this question we have formed an international collaboration, OPAC, to perform specific experimental measurements, compare opacity calculations, and improve the opacity calculations in stellar codes [1]. We consider the following opacity codes: SCO, CASSANDRA, STA, OPAS, LEDCOP, OP, SCO-RCG. Their comparison has shown large differences for Fe and Ni in equivalent conditions of envelopes of type II supernova precursors, temperatures between 15 and 40 eV and densities of a few mg/cm3 [2–4]. LEDCOP, OPAS, SCO-RCG structure codes and STA give similar results and differ from OP ones for the lower temperatures and for spectral interval values [3]. In this work we discuss the role of Configuration Interaction (CI and the influence of the number of used configurations. We present and include in the opacity code comparisons new HULLAC-v9 calculations [5, 6] that include full CI. To illustrate the importance of this effect we compare different CI approximations (modes available in HULLAC-v9 [7]. These results are compared to previous predictions and to experimental data. Differences with OP results are discussed.

  18. Tamper asymmetry and its effect on transmission for x-ray driven opacity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, H. E.; Tregillis, I. L.; Hoffman, N. M.; Sherrill, M. E.; Fontes, C. J.; Marshall, A. J.; Urbatsch, T. J.; Bradley, P. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on synthetic transmission results from Lasnex [Zimmerman and Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. 2, 51 (1975)] radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of opacity experiments carried out at Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded ZR facility. The focus is on experiments utilizing disk targets composed of a half-moon Fe/Mg mixture tamped on either end with 10-μm CH and an additional 35-μm beryllium tamper accessory on the end facing the spectrometer. Five x-ray sources with peak power ranging from 10 to 24 TW were used in the simulations to heat and backlight the opacity target. The dominant effect is that the beryllium behind the Fe/Mg mixture is denser and more opaque than the beryllium unshielded by metal during the times of greatest importance for the transmission measurement for all drives. This causes the simulated transmission to be lower than expected, and this is most pronounced for the case using the lowest drive power. While beryllium has a low opacity, its areal density is sufficiently high such that the expected reduction of the measured transmission is significant. This situation leads to an overestimate of iron opacity by 10%-215% for a photon energy range of 975-1775 eV for the 10-TW case. It is shown that if the tamper conditions are known, the transmission through each component of the target can be calculated and the resulting opacity can be corrected.

  19. The significance of recurrent lung opacities in neonates on surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odita, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Louisiana State Univ. Health Sciences Center, Shreveport (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Purpose. To determine the significance of recurrent opacities in chest radiographs of neonates on surfactant therapy for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) after an initial period of improvement. Materials and methods. Serial pre- and post-surfactant chest radiographs on 94 preterm infants with RDS were analyzed and the pattern of chest radiographic response was classified as (a) clear, (b) recurrent opacities, and (c) no response. Their clinical characteristics were also recorded. Results. In 34 infants the RDS changes cleared within 3 days. 31 infants developed lung opacities within 10 days after an initial period of improvement. Twenty-nine infants failed to respond to the surfactant. The corresponding mean birth weights for the three groups were 1.74, 1.19, and 0.76 kg and the mean gestation ages 32.6, 27.7, and 25.4 weeks. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was highest among the slumping infants (72. % vs 50 % in no responders, P < 0.001) Conclusions. The pattern of chest radiographic response is primarily affected by gestation age and birth weight. Recurrent lung opacity after an initial positive response to surfactant therapy may be caused by such factors as edema from barotrauma and patent ductus arteriosus. Infants with intraventricular hemorrhage may demonstrate neurogenic edema. Other contributory factors include pneumonia and abnormal consumption of surfactant. Recurrent lung opacities after surfactant may be a predictor of chronic lung disease in the preterm infant. (orig.)

  20. OPAC Design Enhancements and Their Effects on Circulation and Resource Sharing within the Library Consortium Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bennett

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study of three discrete online public access catalog (OPAC design enhancements examined the possible effects such changes may have on circulation and resource sharing within the automated library consortium environment. Statistical comparisons were made of both circulation and interlibrary loan (ILL figures from the year before enhancement to the year after implementation. Data from sixteen libraries covering a seven-year period were studied in order to determine the degree to which patrons may or may not utilize increasingly broader OPAC ILL options over time. Results indicated that while ILL totals increased significantly after each OPAC enhancement, such gains did not result in significant corresponding changes in total circulation.

  1. Extracting User Interaction Information from the Transaction Logs of a Faceted Navigation OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Hemminger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the analysis of Apache web server logs from a faceted catalog interface (OPAC at North Carolina State University. By grouping individual HTTP requests into user sessions and analyzing in that context, requests can be understood as particular user actions, with more specificity as to purpose and effect of an action. Client IP address and time are used as a sufficient proxy for determining user sessions from logs. Some initial exploratory findings of user behavior in the NCSU OPAC are provided, including that users make use of facets less than of text searching, and that some facet groups are used significantly more than others. Links are provided to the scripts used to make this session-based analysis, which could be modified for use with other facetted OPACs which use an Apache front-end.

  2. Smoke opacity in agricultural tractor in function of interior and metropolitano diesel mixture in mamona biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabile, Rubens Andre [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Lopes, Afonso; Camara, Felipe Thomas da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DER/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    The great demand for energy sources by production systems allied to scarcity of fossil fuels has motivated the development and production of biodiesel, which is a fuel produced from renewable sources. Given that, the aim of this study was to compare smoke opacity of an agricultural tractor engine, working with metropolitano and interior diesel mixed to mamona biodiesel, in seven proportions. The tests were conducted in the Departamento de Engenharia Rural of UNESP/Jaboticabal - SP. The results showed that the diesel type did influence opacity of smoke, and metropolitano diesel showed best quality. It was also observed that, as biodiesel proportion increased, smoke opacity decreased until B75, turning to increase to B100. (author)

  3. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2014-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of a warm dense deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture is important for reliable design of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The opacity of a warm dense DT shell essentially determines how much radiation from hot coronal plasmas can be deposited in the DT fuel of an imploding capsule. Even for the simplest species of hydrogen, the accurate calculation of their opacities remains a challenge in the warm-dense matter regime because strong-coupling and quantum effects play an important role in such plasmas. With quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) simulations, we have derived a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) of deuterium (and the DT mixture by mass scaling) for a wide range of densities from ρD=0.5 to 673.518g/cm3 and temperatures from T=5000K up to the Fermi temperature TF for each density. Compared with results from the astrophysics opacity table (AOT) currently used in our hydrocodes, the FPOT of deuterium from our QMD calculations has shown a significant increase in opacity for strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions by a factor of 3-100 in the ICF-relevant photon-energy range. As conditions approach those of classical plasma, the opacity from the FPOT converges to the corresponding values of the AOT. By implementing the FPOT of deuterium and the DT mixture into our hydrocodes, we have performed radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for low-adiabat cryogenic DT implosions on the OMEGA laser and for direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. The simulation results using the FPOT show that the target performance (in terms of neutron yield and energy gain) could vary from ˜10% up to a factor of ˜2 depending on the adiabat of the imploding DT capsule; the lower the adiabat, the more variation is seen in the prediction of target performance when compared to the AOT modeling.

  4. Alpha Dithering to Correct Low-Opacity 8 Bit Compositing Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P L; Frank, R J; LaMar, E C

    2003-03-31

    This paper describes and analyzes a dithering technique for accurately specifying small values of opacity ({alpha}) that would normally not be possible because of the limited number of bits available in the alpha channel of graphics hardware. This dithering technique addresses problems related to compositing numerous low-opacity semitransparent polygons to create volumetric effects with graphics hardware. The paper also describes the causes and a possible solution to artifacts that arise from parallel or distributed volume rendering using bricking on multiple GPU's.

  5. Photoperiodic regime influences onset of lens opacities in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubicanac, Marko; Strueve, Julia; Mestre-Frances, Nadine; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Zimmermann, Elke; Joly, Marine

    2017-01-01

    Opacities of the lens are typical age-related phenomena which have a high influence on photoreception and consequently circadian rhythm. In mouse lemurs, a small bodied non-human primate, a high incidence (more than 50% when >seven years) of cataracts has been previously described during aging. Previous studies showed that photoperiodically induced accelerated annual rhythms alter some of mouse lemurs' life history traits. Whether a modification of photoperiod also affects the onset of age dependent lens opacities has not been investigated so far. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the type of opacity and the mouse lemurs' age at its onset in two colonies with different photoperiodic regimen. Two of the largest mouse lemur colonies in Europe were investigated: Colony 1 having a natural annual photoperiodic regime and Colony 2 with an induced accelerated annual cycle. A slit-lamp was used to determine opacities in the lens. Furthermore, a subset of all animals which showed no opacities in the lens nucleus in the first examination but developed first changes in the following examination were further examined to estimate the age at onset of opacities. In total, 387 animals were examined and 57 represented the subset for age at onset estimation. The first and most commonly observable opacity in the lens was nuclear sclerosis. Mouse lemurs from Colony 1 showed a delayed onset of nuclear sclerosis compared to mouse lemurs from Colony 2 (4.35 ± 1.50 years vs. 2.75 ± 0.99 years). For colony 1, the chronological age was equivalent to the number of seasonal cycles experienced by the mouse lemurs. For colony 2, in which seasonal cycles were accelerated by a factor of 1.5, mouse lemurs had experienced 4.13 ± 1.50 seasonal cycles in 2.75 ± 0.99 chronological years. Our study showed clear differences in age at the onset of nuclear sclerosis formation between lemurs kept under different photoperiodic regimes. Instead of measuring the chronological age

  6. Corneal Opacity in a Participant of a 161-km Mountain Bike Race at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Torres, David R

    2016-06-01

    Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Open-Source Tools for Enhancing Full-Text Searching of OPACs: Use of Koha, Greenstone and Fedora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, K. T.; Sivakaminathan, R.; Kumar, P. Arun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are many library automation packages available as open-source software, comprising two modules: staff-client module and online public access catalogue (OPAC). Although the OPAC of these library automation packages provides advanced features of searching and retrieval of bibliographic records, none of them facilitate full-text…

  8. Engineering analysis of lightweight high-opacity newsprint production by fiber loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Matthew L. Stroika; Marguerite S. Sykes; Said M. Abubakr; Werner. Witek; Oliver U. Heise

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the capital effectiveness of fiber loading in regard to producing lightweight high-opacity newsprint. Fiber loading enhances fiber bonding at increased precipitated calcium carbonate levels without significant loss in Canadian standard freeness or additional use of energy. We investigated the return on investment (ROI) for fiber loading precipitated...

  9. Reduction of greenhouse gases by fiber-loaded lightweight, high-opacity newsprint production

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Matthew L. Stroika; Said M. Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effectiveness of fiber loading in reducing greenhouse gas emissions for producing lightweight high-opacity newsprint. Fiber loading enhances fiber bonding at increased precipitated calcium carbonate levels without significant loss in Canadian Standard Freeness or additional energy use. We investigated the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for a...

  10. Extending fiber resources : fiber loading recycled fiber and mechanical pulps for lightweight, high opacity paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerite Sykes; John Klungness; Freya Tan; Mathew Stroika; Said Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    Production of a lightweight, high opacity printing paper is a common goal of papermakers using virgin or recycled fibers. Fiber loading is an innovative, commercially viable process that can substantially upgrade and extend most types of wood fibers. Fiber loading, a process carried out at high consistency and high alkalinity, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in...

  11. Important consequences of atomic diffusion inside main-sequence stars: opacities, extra-mixing, oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deal M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic diffusion, including the effects of radiative accelerations on individual elements, leads to important variations of the chemical composition inside stars. The accumulation of important elements in specific layers leads to a local increase of the average opacity and to hydrodynamic instabilities that modify the internal stellar structure. This can also have important consequences for asteroseismology.

  12. Quantum opacity, the RHIC Hanbury Brown-Twiss puzzle, and the chiral phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G; Miller, Gerald A; Wu, Jackson M S; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-03-18

    We present a relativistic quantum-mechanical treatment of opacity and refractive effects that allows reproduction of observables measured in two-pion Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry and pion spectra at RHIC. The inferred emission duration is substantial. The results are consistent with the emission of pions from a system that has a restored chiral symmetry.

  13. Opportunities for Laboratory Opacity Chemistry Studies to Facilitate Characterization of Young Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark; Freedman, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal emission spectra of young giant planets is shaped by the opacity of atoms and molecules residing in their atmospheres. While great strides have been made in improving the opacities of important molecules, particularly NH3 and CH4, at high temperatures, much more work is needed to understand the opacity and chemistry of atomic Na and K. The highly pressure broadened fundamental band of Na and K in the optical stretches into the near-infrared, strongly influencing the shape of the Y and K spectral bands. Since young giant planets are bright in these bands it is important to understand the influences on the spectral shape. Discerning gravity and atmospheric composition is difficult, if not impossible, without both good atomic opacities as well as an excellent understanding of the relevant atmospheric chemistry. Since Na and K condense at temperatures near 500 to 600 K, the chemistry of the condensation process must be well understood as well, particularly any disequilibrium chemical pathways. Comparisons of the current generation of sophisticated atmospheric models and available data, however, reveal important shortcomings in the models. We will review the current state of observations and theory of young giant planets and will discuss these and other specific examples where improved laboratory measurements for alkali compounds have the potential of substantially improving our understanding of these atmospheres.

  14. Minimally invasive surgery - endoscopic retinal detachment repair in patients with media opacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M. D.; Mura, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the use of an ophthalmic endoscope in patients with a retinal detachment and anterior media opacity. Materials and methods A retrospective interventional case series. Search of a comprehensive database of retinal detachment patients with pre-operatively impaired anterior segments

  15. Color and opacity of composites protected with surface sealants and submitted to artificial accelerated aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fabiano Gamero; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the color similarity, stability and opacity of composites (TPH, Charisma, and Concept, shade A2) protected with surface sealants (Fortify Plus and Biscover) and cyanoacrylate (Super Bonder). Methods: Forty specimens of each composite were made and separated into 4 groups (n=10) according to the surface protection: GI - without sealant; GII - cyanoacrylate; GIII - Fortify Plus; GIV - Biscover. Color and opacity readings were taken before and after Artificial Acelerated Aging (AAA) and the values obtained for color stability were submitted to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test (P<.05). The values acquired for color similarity were submitted to 1-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P<.05). The specimen sufaces were compared before and after AAA using Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). Results: Studied composites did not present the same values for the coordinates L*, a* and b * before AAA, indicating that there was no color similarity among them. All composites presented color alteration after AAA with clinically unacceptable values. Protected groups presented lower opacity variation after AAA, in comparison with the control goup. SEM evaluation demonstrated that AAA increased the surface irregularities in all of the studied groups. Conclusion: Surface sealants were not effective in maintaining composite color, but were able to maintain opacity. PMID:22229004

  16. An experimental concept to measure opacities under solar-relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul A.; Mussack, Katie; Klein, Sallee R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent solar abundance models (Asplund 2009) use a significantly lower abundance for C, N, O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. Although the models used now are much more sophisticated than before, a discrepancy still exists between the abundances in the models and the abundances determined by helioseismic measurements. Agreement can be obtained by ad hoc adjustments to the opacity of high-Z (Z > 2) elements ranging from a few percent in the solar interior to as much as 30 just below the convection zone (CZ). Although many of the opacity models are thought to agree within a few percent, a recent element-by-element study (Blancard 2012) indicates a larger disagreement between models for certain elements. Experimental opacity measurements for these elements in the regimes of interest will provide valuable information to help resolve these discrepancies. We will present an experimental platform designed to measure the opacity of C, N, and O and discuss the achievable parameter regime. We will also briefly discuss how this platform can be extended to include other high-Z elements.

  17. Influence of hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels on color, opacity, and fluorescence of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C R G; Ribeiro, C F; Bresciani, E; Borges, A B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 20% and 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels on the color, opacity, and fluorescence of composite resins. Seven composite resin brands were tested and 30 specimens, 3-mm in diameter and 2-mm thick, of each material were fabricated, for a total of 210 specimens. The specimens of each tested material were divided into three subgroups (n=10) according to the bleaching therapy tested: 20% hydrogen peroxide gel, 35% hydroxide peroxide gel, and the control group. The baseline color, opacity, and fluorescence were assessed by spectrophotometry. Four 30-minute bleaching gel applications, two hours in total, were performed. The control group did not receive bleaching treatment and was stored in deionized water. Final assessments were performed, and data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (ptherapies (phydrogen peroxide gel. No difference in opacity was detected for all analyzed parameters. Fluorescence changes were influenced by composite resin brand (ptherapy (p=0.0016) used. No significant differences in fluorescence between different bleaching gel concentrations were detected by Tukey test. The greatest fluorescence alteration was detected on the brand Z350. It was concluded that 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel generated the greatest color change among all evaluated materials. No statistical opacity changes were detected for all tested variables, and significant fluorescence changes were dependent on the material and bleaching therapy, regardless of the gel concentration.

  18. Impact of Internet Search Engines on OPAC Users: A Study of Punjabi University, Patiala (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the impact of internet search engine usage with special reference to OPAC searches in the Punjabi University Library, Patiala, Punjab (India). Design/methodology/approach: The primary data were collected from 352 users comprising faculty, research scholars and postgraduate students of the university. A…

  19. Gluon Radiation off Hard Quarks in a Nuclear Environment Opacity Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2000-01-01

    We study the relation between the Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff (BDMPS) and Zakharov formalisms for medium-induced gluon radiation off hard quarks, and the radiation off very few scattering centers. Based on the non-abelian Furry approximation for the motion of hard partons in a spatially extended colour field, we derive a compact diagrammatic and explicitly colour trivial expression for the N-th order term of the kt-differential gluon radiation cross section in an expansion in the opacity of the medium. Resumming this quantity to all orders in opacity, we obtain Zakharov's path-integral expression (supplemented with a regularization prescription). This provides a new proof of the equivalence of the BDMPS and Zakharov formalisms which extends previous arguments to the kt-differential cross section. We give explicit analytical results up to third order in opacity for both the gluon radiation cross section of free incoming and of in-medium produced quarks. The N-th order term in the opacity expansion o...

  20. Laboratory Measurements of Sulfuric Acid Vapor Opacity at Millimeter Wavelengths Under Venus Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Alexander Brooks; Steffes, Paul G.

    2017-10-01

    Radio astronomical observations of the lower-cloud and sub-cloud regions of the Venusian atmosphere at millimeter wavelengths can provide insight into the nature of the sub-cloud sulfur chemistry. Previous observations (de Pater et al., Icarus 90, 1991 and Sagawa, J. Natl. Inst. of Inf. And Comm. Tech. 55, 2008) indicate substantial variations in Venus disc brightness at millimeter wavelengths, likely due to variations in SO2 and H2SO4 vapor abundances. Although previous measurements of H2SO4 vapor opacity provide accurate information at centimeter wavelengths (Kolodner and Steffes, Icarus 132, 1998), extrapolation to millimeter wavelength observations is speculative. A Fabry-Perot open resonator with a quality factor in excess of 15,000 has been designed to measure the opacity of H2SO4 vapor in a CO2 atmosphere under Venus temperature and pressure conditions below the clouds. The resonator system has been designed using corrosion-resistant materials to ensure data integrity. Opacity measurements made with this system target the 2-4 millimeter wavelength range, applicable to recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of Venus. Initial laboratory results for H2SO4 vapor opacity will be presented, and the implications of these results for pressure broadened opacity formalisms will be discussed. In addition to radio astronomical observations, these results of these measurements can aid in the interpretation of radiometer and radio occultation measurements from future Venus missions, such as the Venera D orbiter. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Workings Program under grant NNX17AB19G.

  1. Thoracic manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis: CT findings in 30 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Eun A. [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Moriya, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan); Watanabe, Hideyuki [Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan School of Medicine, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Tateishi, Ukihide [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Ashizawa, Kazuoto [Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Kwon, O. Jung [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the CT findings of thoracic Wegener's granulomatosis. At presentation, both conventional and thin-section CT scans were available in 30 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Serial CT scans (range of intervals: 1-25 months, mean 4.5 months) were available in 20 patients. The initial and follow-up CT scans were analyzed retrospectively by two observers in terms of pattern and extent of parenchymal and airway lesions. Positive CT findings were seen in 29 of 30 (97%) patients at initial presentation. The most common pattern was nodules or masses seen in 27 of 30 (90%) patients. They were multiple in 23 of 27 (85%) patients, bilateral in 18 (67%), subpleural in 24 (89%), and peribronchovascular in 11 (41%) in distribution. Bronchial wall thickening in the segmental or subsegmental bronchi was seen in 22 (73%) patients. Large airways were also abnormal in 9 (30%) patients. Patchy areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacity were seen in 7 (23%) patients, respectively. In 17 of 20 (85%) patients in whom follow-up CT scans were available, the parenchymal or airway lesion showed complete or partial improvement with treatment. The CT findings of Wegener's granulomatosis, although multiple and variable, consist mainly of bilateral subpleural or peribronchovascular nodules or masses and bronchial wall thickening in the segmental or subsegmental bronchi. Parenchymal and airway lesions improve with treatment in most patients. (orig.)

  2. Arab Libraries’ Web-based OPACs: An evaluative study in the light of IFLA’s Guidelines For Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Kamel Shaheen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at evaluating Arabic Libraries’ Web-based Catalogues in the light of Principles and Recommendations published in: IFLA’s Guidelines For OPAC Displays (September 30, 2003 Draft For Worldwide Review. The total No. Of Recommendations reached” 38 “were categorized under three main titles, as follows: User Needs (12 recommendations, Content and arrangement Principle (25 recommendations, Standardization Principle (one recommendation However that number increased to reach 88 elements when formulated as evaluative criteria and included in the study’s checklist.

  3. Investigation of the value of a photographic tool to measure self-perception of enamel opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Gill M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard measurement of oral conditions that are mainly of cosmetic concern can be carried out by a trained clinical professional, or they can be assessed and reported by the individuals who may have the condition or be aware of others who have it. Enamel opacities of anterior teeth are examples of such a condition. At a public health level the interest is only about opacities that are of aesthetic concern, so the need for an index that records opacities that the public perceive to be a problem is clear. Measurement methods carried out by highly trained professionals, using unnatural conditions are not indicated at this level. This study reports on the testing of a novel epidemiological tool that aims to report on the prevalence and impact of self-perceived enamel opacities in a population of young adolescents. Methods A dental health survey was carried out using a random sample of 12-year-old school pupils during 2008/09 by Primary Care Organisations (PCOs in England. This included the use of a novel self-perception tool which aimed to measure individual’s self-perception of the presence and impact of enamel opacities to produce population measures. This tool comprised questions asking about the presence of white marks on their teeth and whether these marks bothered the volunteers and a sheet of grouped photographs of anterior teeth showing opacities ranging from TF 0, TF 1–2 to TF 2–3. Volunteers were asked which of the groups of photographs looked more like their own teeth. Examining teams from a convenience sample of 3 PCOs from this survey agreed to undertake additional measurements to assess the value of the self-perception tool. Volunteer pupils were asked the questions on a second occasion, some time after the first and clinical examiners recorded their assessments of the most closely matching set of photographs of the volunteers on two occasions. Results The tool was feasible to use, with 74% of pupils

  4. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Goncharov, V N; Boehly, T R; Epstein, R; McCrory, R L; Skupsky, S

    2014-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of a warm dense deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture is important for reliable design of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The opacity of a warm dense DT shell essentially determines how much radiation from hot coronal plasmas can be deposited in the DT fuel of an imploding capsule. Even for the simplest species of hydrogen, the accurate calculation of their opacities remains a challenge in the warm-dense matter regime because strong-coupling and quantum effects play an important role in such plasmas. With quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) simulations, we have derived a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) of deuterium (and the DT mixture by mass scaling) for a wide range of densities from ρ(D)=0.5 to 673.518g/cm(3) and temperatures from T=5000K up to the Fermi temperature T(F) for each density. Compared with results from the astrophysics opacity table (AOT) currently used in our hydrocodes, the FPOT of deuterium from our QMD calculations has shown a significant increase in opacity for strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions by a factor of 3-100 in the ICF-relevant photon-energy range. As conditions approach those of classical plasma, the opacity from the FPOT converges to the corresponding values of the AOT. By implementing the FPOT of deuterium and the DT mixture into our hydrocodes, we have performed radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for low-adiabat cryogenic DT implosions on the OMEGA laser and for direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. The simulation results using the FPOT show that the target performance (in terms of neutron yield and energy gain) could vary from ∼10% up to a factor of ∼2 depending on the adiabat of the imploding DT capsule; the lower the adiabat, the more variation is seen in the prediction of target performance when compared to the AOT modeling.

  5. Diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography according to different color map opacities for breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hana; Youk, Ji Hyun, E-mail: jhyouk@yuhs.ac; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography (SWE) according to three different color map opacities for breast masses Materials and methods: 101 patients aged 21–77 years with 113 breast masses underwent B-mode US and SWE under three different color map opacities (50%, 19% and 100%) before biopsy or surgery. Following SWE features were reviewed: visual pattern classification (pattern 1–4), color homogeneity (E{sub homo}) and six-point color score of maximum elasticity (E{sub col}). Combined with B-mode US and SWE, the likelihood of malignancy (LOM) was also scored. The area under the curve (AUC) was obtained by ROC curve analysis to assess the diagnostic performance under each color opacity. Results: A visual color pattern, E{sub homo}, E{sub col} and LOM scoring were significantly different between benign and malignant lesions under all color opacities (P < 0.001). For 50% opacity, AUCs of visual color pattern, E{sub col}, E{sub homo} and LOM scoring were 0.902, 0.951, 0.835 and 0.975. But, for each SWE feature, there was no significant difference in the AUC among three different color opacities. For all color opacities, visual color pattern and E{sub col} showed significantly higher AUC than E{sub homo}. In addition, a combined set of B-mode US and SWE showed significantly higher AUC than SWE alone for color patterns, E{sub homo}, but no significant difference was found in E{sub col}. Conclusion: Qualitative SWE was useful to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesion under all color opacities. The difference in color map opacity did not significantly influence diagnostic performance of SWE.

  6. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty in a child with corneal opacity:case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacities are the fourth cause of blindness world-wide. Over the past two centuries, various corneal transplantation (i.e., keratoplasty methods have been developed and improved. Nowadays, femtolaserssisted keratoplasty is one of most promising techniques. Femtosecond laser have several advantages that provide additional surgical benefits. Among them, no thermal injury, the ability to cut deeply on a single plane and to perform various corneal profiles should be mentioned. In children, corneal disorders are of special importance while femtosecondassisted keraatoplasty case reports are rare. Here, we describe femtosecond laserssisted penetrating keratoplasty in a girl with a rough central corneal opacity.

  7. Radiative ablation with two ionizing-fronts when opacity displays a sharp absorption edge

    CERN Document Server

    Poujade, Olivier; Vandenboomgaerde, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a strong flux of photons with matter through an ionizing-front (I-front) is an ubiquitous phenomenon in the context of astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) where intense sources of radiation put matter into motion. When the opacity of the irradiated material varies continuously in the radiation spectral domain, only one single I-front is formed. In contrast, as numerical simulations tend to show, when the opacity of the irradiated material presents a sharp edge in the radiation spectral domain, a second I-front (an edge-front) can form. A full description of the mechanism behind the formation of this edge-front is presented in this article. It allows to understand supernumerary shocks (edge-shocks), displayed by ICF simulations, that might affect the robustness of the design of fusion capsules in actual experiments. Moreover, it may have consequences in various domains of astrophysics where ablative flows occur.

  8. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty in a child with corneal opacity:case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacities are the fourth cause of blindness world-wide. Over the past two centuries, various corneal transplantation (i.e., keratoplasty methods have been developed and improved. Nowadays, femtolaserssisted keratoplasty is one of most promising techniques. Femtosecond laser have several advantages that provide additional surgical benefits. Among them, no thermal injury, the ability to cut deeply on a single plane and to perform various corneal profiles should be mentioned. In children, corneal disorders are of special importance while femtosecondassisted keraatoplasty case reports are rare. Here, we describe femtosecond laserssisted penetrating keratoplasty in a girl with a rough central corneal opacity.

  9. Radiative ablation with two ionizing fronts when opacity displays a sharp absorption edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujade, Olivier; Bonnefille, Max; Vandenboomgaerde, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a strong flux of photons with matter through an ionizing front (I-front) is an ubiquitous phenomenon in the context of astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) where intense sources of radiation put matter into motion. When the opacity of the irradiated material varies continuously in the radiation spectral domain, only one single I-front is formed. In contrast, as numerical simulations tend to show, when the opacity of the irradiated material presents a sharp edge in the radiation spectral domain, a second I-front (an edge front) can form. A full description of the mechanism behind the formation of this edge front is presented in this article. It allows us to understand extra shocks (edge-shocks), displayed by ICF simulations, that might affect the robustness of the design of fusion capsules in actual experiments. Moreover, it may have consequences in various domains of astrophysics where ablative flows occur.

  10. Interactive Boundary Detection for Automatic Definition of 2D Opacity Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauberger, Martin; Overhoff, Heinrich Martin

    In computer assisted diagnostics nowadays, high-value 3-D visualization intake a supporting role to the traditional 2-D slice wise visualization. 3-D visualization may create intuitive visual appearances of the spatial relations of anatomical structures, based upon transfer functions mapping data values to visual parameters, e.g. color or opacity. Manual definition of these transfer functions however requires expert knowledge and can be tedious. In this paper an approach to automatizing 2-D opacity transfer function definition is presented. Upon few parameters characterizing the image volume and an user-depicted area of interest, the procedure detects organ surfaces automatically, upon which transfer functions may automatically be defined. Parameter setting still requires experience about the imaging properties of modalities, and improper setting can cause falsely detected organ surfaces. Procedure tests with CT and MRI image volumes show, that real time structure detection is even possible for noisy image volumes.

  11. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY IN CORNEAL OPACITIES OF DIFFERENT AETIOLOGY- A CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak Bhuyan; Himanto Nath Hazarika; Bonomita Neogi; Sujit Addya

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Corneal transplantation or grafting is an operation in which abnormal corneal host tissue is replaced by healthy donor cornea. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), corneal diseases are among the major causes of vision loss and blindness in the world today after cataract and glaucoma. The aim of the study is to- 1. Evaluate the different aetiology of corneal opacity including active infective aetiology as indicated for penetrating keratoplasty. ...

  12. Influence of pupil size on measurements made with the Lens Opacity Meter 701.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, M P; Pearson, J C; Vernon, S A; Matthews, J C

    1990-01-01

    The Lens Opacity Meter 701 (Interzeag, Switzerland) is a recently developed instrument for assessing cataract. It measures the degree of scatter of a red light beam by the lens. Fifty patients prior to cataract surgery had measurements made before and after dilatation of the pupil. Inconsistent results were found at pupil diameters of less than 4 mm. It is postulated that this was due to absorption of scattered light by the iris.

  13. Influence of pupil size on measurements made with the Lens Opacity Meter 701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M P; Pearson, J C; Vernon, S A; Matthews, J C

    1990-09-01

    The Lens Opacity Meter 701 (Interzeag, Switzerland) is a recently developed instrument for assessing cataract. It measures the degree of scatter of a red light beam by the lens. Fifty patients prior to cataract surgery had measurements made before and after dilatation of the pupil. Inconsistent results were found at pupil diameters of less than 4 mm. It is postulated that this was due to absorption of scattered light by the iris.

  14. Conceptual design of initial opacity experiments on the national ignition facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeter, R. F.; Bailey, J. E.; Craxton, R. S.; Devolder, B. G.; Dodd, E. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Huffman, E. J.; Iglesias, C. A.; King, J. A.; Kline, J. L.; Liedahl, D. A.; McKenty, P. W.; Opachich, Y. P.; Rochau, G. A.; Ross, P. W.; Schneider, M. B.; Sherrill, M. E.; Wilson, B. G.; Zhang, R.; Perry, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative-convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures eV and electron densities 21~\\text{cm}-3$ . The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a ps, diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design, of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.

  15. Microkeratome-assisted superficial anterior lamellar keratoplasty for anterior stromal corneal opacities after penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit K; Scorcia, Vincenzo; Kadyan, Anju; Lapenna, Lucia; Ponzin, Diego; Busin, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the surgical technique and report the outcomes of patients treated with microkeratome-assisted superficial anterior lamellar keratoplasty for anterior stromal corneal opacities developing after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). All patients with post-penetrating keratoplasty anterior stromal opacities treated with microkeratome-assisted superficial anterior lamellar keratoplasty between July 2005 and June 2007 were reviewed. A 130-μm superficial keratectomy was performed, followed by the placement of an appropriately sized donor graft, which was secured with overlay sutures. Refraction, corneal topography, and uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuities (UCVA, BCVA, respectively) were noted at each examination. Nine eyes of 8 consecutive patients were identified. Causes of anterior stromal opacities included dystrophy recurrence (n = 3), post-photorefractive keratectomy haze (n = 2), and scarring after stromal melt (n = 4). BCVA improved in all 9 eyes at final follow-up, and 7 of 9 eyes achieved ≥20/40 within the first month. Average follow-up period was 28 ± 3.9 months. Refractive astigmatism also improved by an average of 0.7 diopters. Superficial anterior lamellar keratoplasty is a viable and effective alternative to repeat PK in treating anterior stromal scars. It avoids open-globe surgery and exposure to endothelial rejection associated with repeat PK, and visual rehabilitation is considerably quicker.

  16. The Effects of New Nuclear Reaction Rates and Opacities on Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Nova Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S.; Sparks, W. M.; Truran, J. W.; Wiescher, M. C.

    2000-04-01

    We report on the results of new calculations of thermonuclear runaways on 1.25 Msolar oxygen, neon, and magnesium white dwarfs, using our one-dimensional, fully implicit, hydrodynamic stellar evolution code that includes a large nuclear reaction network. We have updated the nuclear reaction network by including both new and improved experimental and theoretical determinations of the nuclear reaction rates. We have also incorporated the carbon-rich OPAL opacity tables. Our results show that the changes in the reaction rates and opacities that we have introduced produce important changes with respect to our previous studies. For example, a smaller amount of 26Al is produced, while the abundances of 31P and 32S increase by factors of more than 2. This change is attributed to the increased proton-capture reaction rates for some of the intermediate-mass nuclei near 26Al and beyond, such that nuclear fusion to higher mass nuclei is enhanced. We also find that our predicted values for the amount of mass ejected in the outburst are at least a factor of 10 less than observed. The low values for the amount of ejected mass is a consequence of the fact that the OPAL opacities are larger than those we previously used, which results in more heat being trapped in the nuclear-burning regions and, therefore, less mass being accreted onto the white dwarf.

  17. Knoop microhardness and FT-Raman evaluation of composite resins: influence of opacity and photoactivation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Barrotte Albino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion by Knoop microhardness (KHN and FT-Raman spectroscopy (FTIR of one nanofilled (Filtek Supreme-3M-ESPE [FS] and one microhybrid composite (Charisma-Heraeus-Kulzer [CH], each with different opacities, namely enamel, dentin, and translucent, which were photo-activated by a quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp (QTH and a light-emitting diode (LED. Resin was bulk inserted into a disc-shaped mold that was 2.0 mm thick and 4 mm in diameter, obtaining 10 samples per group. KHN and FTIR values were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05. Nanofilled resin activated by a LED presented higher microhardness values than samples activated by a QTH for dentin opacity (p < 0.05. The microhybrid resin showed no differences in KHN or FTIR values with different activation sources or opacity. The nanofilled dentin and enamel resins showed lower FTIR values than the translucent resin. The KHN values of the translucent resins were not influenced by the light source.

  18. Random sampling technique for ultra-fast computations of molecular opacities for exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Opacities of molecules in exoplanet atmospheres rely on increasingly detailed line-lists for these molecules. The line lists available today contain for many species up to several billions of lines. Computation of the spectral line profile created by pressure and temperature broadening, the Voigt profile, of all of these lines is becoming a computational challenge. Aims: We aim to create a method to compute the Voigt profile in a way that automatically focusses the computation time into the strongest lines, while still maintaining the continuum contribution of the high number of weaker lines. Methods: Here, we outline a statistical line sampling technique that samples the Voigt profile quickly and with high accuracy. The number of samples is adjusted to the strength of the line and the local spectral line density. This automatically provides high accuracy line shapes for strong lines or lines that are spectrally isolated. The line sampling technique automatically preserves the integrated line opacity for all lines, thereby also providing the continuum opacity created by the large number of weak lines at very low computational cost. Results: The line sampling technique is tested for accuracy when computing line spectra and correlated-k tables. Extremely fast computations ( 3.5 × 105 lines per second per core on a standard current day desktop computer) with high accuracy (≤1% almost everywhere) are obtained. A detailed recipe on how to perform the computations is given.

  19. Opacity and Color Changes of Light-Cured Ideal Makoo (IDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ghavam

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Esthetic materials undergo some physical and mechanical changes,during their service in oral cavity.Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the color and opacity stability of Ideal Makoo (IDM composites and compare it with Tetric ceram.Material and methods: Fifteen disk shaped samples of each material was divided into three groups of five. Different aging treatments were applied to each group. The contrast ratio of 1mm thickness and rE of the samples were evaluated at base line and after aging,using CIE system and Data Flash spectrophotometer. All the samples were kept at 37°C.Results: Baseline opacity of IDM was relatively high (77.60%±8.6. Both materials showed increased opacity after aging. The highest rE belonged to IDM samples of B group, which was significantly more than Tetric Ceram (P<0.05. Tetric Ceram, also showed some degree of color change (rE=4.60 and 5.79, on black and white background,respectively, which is noticeable clinically.Conclusion: The research showed that IDM can not be a reliable esthetic material, unless some improvements in the chemical composition will be achieved.

  20. Pre-papillary vitreous opacities associated with Behçet's disease: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotting, Lindsay A; Davoudi, Samaneh; Uchiyama, Eduardo; Lobo, Ann-Marie; Papaliodis, George N; Sobrin, Lucia

    2017-10-01

    To present pre-papillary vitreous opacity as an uncommon manifestation of inflammation in Behçet's disease that may be specific to this uveitic entity. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 67 patients with Behçet's disease examined at our clinic between 2005 and 2016. Behçet's disease was diagnosed based on established clinical criteria of inflammation involving the eyes, mucocutaneous junctions, and skin. Patients with Behçet's disease who presented with papillitis and a pre-papillary vitreous opacity were identified. Response to anti-inflammatory treatment on examination and optical coherence tomography imaging were evaluated. PubMed searches were performed for (1) other cases with pre-papillary vitreous opacities in uveitic entities and (2) reports of optic nerve involvement specifically in Behçet's disease. We identified three patients with Behçet's disease who presented with unilateral papillitis and a pre-papillary vitreous opacity. The pre-papillary vitreous opacity had a funnel-shaped appearance on optical coherence tomography. All patients were initially treated with steroids, which led to resolution of the opacity clinically and on imaging. We identified one previous report of such a pre-papillary opacity in a patient with Behçet's disease, and no reports of this finding in other uveitic entities. This study expands the number of Behçet's disease cases presenting with a pre-papillary vitreous opacity and demonstrates novel optical coherence imaging of this finding. This finding may be specific to Behçet's disease as it was not identified in other uveitic entities in a review of the existing literature.

  1. The subclinical involvement of the lung in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation by high-resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bichi Secchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is one of the most frequent extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and represents a serious complication, being the second cause of death after infection. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT, owing to its increased sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy respect to the conventional chest radiograph (CXR, allows to detect pulmonary abnormalities in RA patients more frequently than CXR. The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary involvement by HRCT in lifelong non-smoking RA patients without symptoms and clinical signs of pulmonary disease. Seventy-two patients (54 women and 18 men with a mean age of 56.8±10.4 years (range, 40- 77 years and mean duration of disease of 6.9±4.7 years (range, 2-12 years entered the study. 52/72 (72% were positive for rheumatoid factor (> 20 UI/ml. Standard CXR and HRCT were carried out in each patient. CXR showed a mild interstitial fibrosis in 7 patients (9.7%, whereas HRCT demonstrated pulmonary abnormalities in an higher number of them (22/72 = 30.5%. The most frequent abnormal findings on HRCT were irregular pleural margins (13.8% and septal/subpleural lines (18%, both compatible with pulmonary fibrosis. Ground-glass opacities were found in 8.3% of the patients. Pulmonary nodules (diameter, range 0,5-2 cm predominantly located in the subpleural portions of the lung, were demonstrated in the same percentage (8.3% of patients. Small airway involvement, represented by bronchiectasis/bronchioloectasis, was shown in 15.2% of patients. Subpleural cysts were present in two cases (2.8%. No patient had evidence of honeycombing on HRCT. In conclusion, HRCT is an accurate, non-invasive and safe method of diagnosing lung abnormalities in RA patients without signs and clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease...

  2. Effect of ceramic veneer opacity and exposure time on the polymerization efficiency of resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archegas, Lucí Regina Panka; de Menezes Caldas, Danillo Biazzetto; Rached, rodrigo Nunes; Soares, Paulo; Souza, Evelise Machado

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of conversion (DC), hardness (H), and modulus of elasticity (E) of a dual-cured resin cement, a light-cured resin cement, and a flowable resin cured through opaque or translucent ceramic with different exposure times. RelyX ARC (dual), RelyX Veneer (light-cured), and Filtek Z350 Flow resin specimens 0.5 mm thick were cured for 40, 80, and 120 seconds through 1-mm thick translucent or opaque feldspathic ceramic disks (n=10). The specimens were stored at 37°C for 24 hours. Half of each specimen was used to test the DC and the other half to test H and E. The DC was determined in a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in absorbance mode at peaks of 1638 cm(-1) and 1610 cm(-1). H and E were determined using nanoindentation with one loading cycle and a maximum load of 400 mN. The data were analyzed with three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Games-Howell test, and the Pearson correlation test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences were found for all three factors (material, opacity, and exposure time), as well as interaction between them. The opaque ceramic resulted in lower DC, H, and E than the translucent ceramic for an exposure time of 40 seconds. An exposure time of 120 seconds resulted in a similar DC for all materials, irrespective of the opacity of the ceramic. Materials cured for 120 seconds had higher H and E than those cured for 40 seconds. The exposure time and opacity of the ceramic exerted an influence on the DC, H, and E of the materials evaluated.

  3. Effect of accelerated aging on the color and opacity of resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavam, Maryam; Amani-Tehran, Mohammad; Saffarpour, Mahshid

    2010-01-01

    The color stability of resin cements plays a major role in the esthetic performance of porcelain laminate veneers. Some dual-polymerizable resin cements used to bond porcelain laminates were shown to undergo color changes during service. Some recently produced cements are described as being color stable, but scientific data are not available. The current study evaluated the effect of accelerated aging on the color and opacity of resin cements. The hypothesis was that the auto-polymerizing cements would show less color and opacity stability. Forty (0.7 x 18 mm) feldspathic porcelain disks were prepared and divided into four equal groups. The resin cements were bonded to the disks by application of an identical load of 2.5 kilograms, and they were polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions. The groups were: Variolink Veneer (light-polymerizing), Variolink II (light-polymerizing), Variolink II (dual-polymerizing) and Multilink (auto-polymerizing). A spectrophotometer was used to measure the following color parameters in the CIE L*a*b* color space on a black and white background: deltaa*, deltab*, deltaL*, deltaC, deltaH, deltaE and deltaCR (contrast ratio). The measurements were performed before and after aging. Paired t- and one-way ANOVA tests were used to analyze the data (alpha = .05). None of the groups showed significant differences in deltaE before and after aging (p > .05); deltaE remained in the range of clinical acceptance (deltaE aging. The studied cements can ensure color stability when used to cement porcelain laminate veneers, but the change in opacity can affect clinical results. Auto polymerizing cements become more opaque with aging; therefore, porcelain restorations may lose their match with other teeth.

  4. A test of lens opacity as an indicator of preclinical Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Ling; Shui, Ying-Bo; Bai, Fang; Nelson, Suzanne K; Van Stavern, Gregory P; Beebe, David C

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies reported that characteristic lens opacities were present in Alzheimer Disease (AD) patients postmortem. We therefore determined whether cataract grade or lens opacity is related to the risk of Alzheimer dementia in participants who have biomarkers that predict a high risk of developing the disease. AD biomarker status was determined by positron emission tomography-Pittsburgh compound B (PET-PiB) imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ42. Cognitively normal participants with a clinical dementia rating of zero (CDR = 0; N = 40) or with slight evidence of dementia (CDR = 0.5; N = 2) were recruited from longitudinal studies of memory and aging at the Washington University Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. The age, sex, race, cataract type and cataract grade of all participants were recorded and an objective measure of lens light scattering was obtained for each eye using a Scheimpflug camera. Twenty-seven participants had no biomarkers of Alzheimer dementia and were CDR = 0. Fifteen participants had biomarkers indicating increased risk of AD, two of which were CDR = 0.5. Participants who were biomarker positive were older than those who were biomarker negative. Biomarker positive participants had more advanced cataracts and increased cortical light scattering, none of which reached statistical significance after adjustment for age. We conclude that cataract grade or lens opacity is unlikely to provide a non-invasive measure of the risk of developing Alzheimer dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of preheating and opacity on the sorption and solubility of a composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Fabrício Luscino Alves de; Pazinatto, Flávia Bittencourt; de Lima, Érick; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Reges, Rogério Vieira

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of material opacity and preheating on the sorption and solubility of a composite resin material. A commercially available composite resin and an 8 × 2-mm circular metallic matrix were used to fabricate a total of 60 specimens in 6 shades, of which 3 had conventional opacity (CA2, CA3, and CA3.5) and 3 were opaque (OA2, OA3, and OA3.5). Specimens were prepared at a room temperature of 25°C or preheated to 60°C (n = 5 per shade at each temperature). The specimens were weighed 3 times: M1, dried for 24 hours at 37°C; M2, stored for 7 days in 75% ethanol at 37°C; and M3, dried for an additional 24 hours at 37°C. The weights were used to calculate the sorption and solubility of the composite resin and were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α = 5%). Composite resin specimens heated at 60°C yielded lower values of sorption and solubility than did specimens prepared at 25°C (P solubility of conventional and opaque composite shades were found to be similar (P > 0.05), except for shade CA2, which presented a greater mean solubility value than OA2 (P = 0.004). Therefore, preheating was beneficial, as it lowered both the sorption and solubility of the evaluated composite resin, but opacity had little effect on these properties.

  6. Lens opacities in Bloom syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefle, Kivanc; Ozturk, Sukru; Gozum, Nilufer; Duman, Nilgun; Mantar, Ferhan; Guler, Kerim; Palanduz, Sukru

    2007-09-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by proportionate short stature, photosensitivity, immunodeficiency, hypogonadism and a tendency to develop various malignancies. The greatly increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (reciprocal exchange of homologous segments between the two sister chromatids of a chromosome) is regarded as pathognomonic for BS. We describe an 18-year old girl who presented with short stature. She was diagnosed with BS based on an extremely increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Ophthalmological examination revealed mild lens opacities bilaterally, which, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported to be associated with BS.

  7. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY IN CORNEAL OPACITIES OF DIFFERENT AETIOLOGY- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Bhuyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corneal transplantation or grafting is an operation in which abnormal corneal host tissue is replaced by healthy donor cornea. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, corneal diseases are among the major causes of vision loss and blindness in the world today after cataract and glaucoma. The aim of the study is to- 1. Evaluate the different aetiology of corneal opacity including active infective aetiology as indicated for penetrating keratoplasty. 2. Determine the clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty in relation to graft survival, graft rejection and peri-operative complications in different aetiology groups. 3. Determine the final visual outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Candidates for keratoplasty were selected from- 1. Eye Bank of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (R.I.O. 2. R.I.O OPD. The study period was from September 2014 to August 2015. 30 cases were taken in the study. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyse the data wherever necessary. RESULTS 34.6±19.73 yrs. (mean±SD was the mean age at which transplants were done in the study. Out of total 30 cases, 13 (43.33% and 17 (56.66% were male and female, respectively. The different indications for penetrating keratoplasty are- Post ulcer corneal opacity in 14 cases (46.66%, posttraumatic corneal opacity 9 cases (30%, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy 4 cases (13.33%, corneal dystrophy in 2 cases (6.66% and non-healing corneal ulcer in 1 case (3.33%. 16 cases (53.33% showed clear graft till the last follow up while 11 (33.33% cases showed partially clear graft resulting in improved visual outcome while 3 cases (10.00% of the grafts were opaque due to graft failure. CONCLUSION The major indications for penetrating keratoplasty in this part of the world are post ulcer and posttraumatic corneal opacity and majority of them are illiterate agricultural workers who failed to get adequate treatment on time. Graft survival rate is high, which can be attributed to the

  8. Far-infrared dust opacity and visible extinction in the Polaris Flare

    OpenAIRE

    Cambresy, L.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Stepnik, B.

    2001-01-01

    We present an extinction map of the Polaris molecular cirrus cloud derived from star counts and compare it with the Schlegel et al. (1998) extinction map derived from the far--infrared dust opacity. We find that, within the Polaris cloud, the Schlegel et al. Av values are a factor 2 to 3 higher than the star count values. We propose that this discrepancy results from a difference in $\\tau_{FIR}/ A_V$ between the diffuse atomic medium and the Polaris cloud. We use the difference in spectral en...

  9. Influence of Corneal Opacity on Intraocular Pressure Assessment in Patients with Lysosomal Storage Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Politino, Giuseppe; Schmidtmann, Irene; Lorenz, Katrin; Bell, Katharina; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Pitz, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    To investigate an influence of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)- and Morbus Fabry-associated corneal opacities on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements and to evaluate the concordance of the different tonometry methods. 25 MPS patients with or without corneal clouding, 25 Fabry patients with cornea verticillata ≥ grade 2 and 25 healthy age matched controls were prospectively included into this study. Outcome measures: Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT); palpatory assessment of IOP; Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), corneal resistance factor (CRF) and corneal hysteresis (CH) assessed by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA); central corneal thickness (CCT) and density assessed with Pentacam. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effect models and Spearman correlation coefficients. The concordance between tonometry methods was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. There was no relevant difference between study groups regarding median GAT, IOPg, IOPcc and CCT measurements. The limits of agreement between GAT and IOPcc/IOPg/palpatory IOP in MPS were: [-11.7 to 12.1mmHg], [-8.6 to 15.5 mmHg] and [- 5.4 to 10.1 mmHg] respectively. Limits of agreement were less wide in healthy subjects and Fabry patients. Palpatory IOP was higher in MPS than in healthy controls and Fabry patients. Corneal opacity correlated more strongly with GAT, IOPg, CH, CRF, CCT and corneal density in MPS (r = 0.4, 0.5, 0.5, 0.7, 0.6, 0.6 respectively) than in Fabry patients (r = 0.3, 0.2, -0.03, 0.1, 0.3, -0.2 respectively). In contrast, IOPcc revealed less correlation with corneal opacity than GAT in MPS (r = 0.2 vs. 0.4). ORA and GAT render less comparable IOP-values in patients suffering from MPS-associated corneal opacity in comparison to Fabry and healthy controls. The IOP seems to be overestimated in opaque MPS-affected corneas. GAT, IOPg and biomechanical parameters of the cornea correlate more strongly with the corneal

  10. Molecular Line and Continuum Opacities for Modeling of Extrasolar Giant Planet and Cool Stellar Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, P. F.; Schweitzer, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Kirby, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Allen, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular line and continuum opacities are investigated in the atmospheres of cool stars and Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs). Using a combination of ab inito and experimentally derived potential curves and dipole transition moments, accurate data have been calculated for rovibrationally-resolved oscillator strengths and photodissociation cross sections in the B' (sup 2)Sigma+ (left arrow) X (sup 2)Sigma+ and A (sup 2)Pi (left arrow) X (sup 2)Sigma+ band systems in MgH. We also report our progress on the study of the electronic structure of LiCl and FeH.

  11. Critical opacity: a possible explanation of the fast thermalization times seen in BNL RHIC experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastineau, F; Blanquier, E; Aichelin, J

    2005-07-29

    The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Lagrangian offers an explication of the seemingly contradictory observations that (a) the energy loss in the entrance channel of heavy ion reactions is not sufficient to thermalize the system and that (b) the observed hadron cross sections are in almost perfect agreement with hydrodynamical calculations. According to this scenario, a critical opacity develops close to the chiral phase transition which equilibrates and hadronizes the expanding system very effectively. It creates as well radial flow and, if the system is not isotropic, finite upsilon2 values.

  12. Amelogenesis imperfecta with enamel opacities and taurodontism: an alternative diagnosis for 'idiopathic dental fluorosis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, G B

    1996-09-07

    A retrospective study of 32 children (mean age 10.3 years) attending the Children's Department, Eastman Dental Hospital with enamel opacities resembling dental fluorosis in the majority showed that these changes were probably genetically determined and had a close association with taurodontism of permanent molar teeth. It seems likely that these enamel defects should be classified as hypomaturation types of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) conveyed by mutant auto-somal genes. The clinical expression (phenotype) of these mutant genes has a greater heterogeneity than previously described.

  13. Study of Opacity Effects on Emission Lines at EXTRAP T2R RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancalie, Viorica; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    We have investigated the influence of opacity on hydrogen (H-α and Ly-β) and Li-like oxygen emission lines from the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. We used the Atomic Data Analysis System (AzDAS) based on the escape factor approximation for radiative transfer to calculate metastable and excited population densities via a collisional-radiative model. Population escape factor, emergent escape factor and modified line profiles are plotted vs. optical depth. The simulated emission line ratios in the density/temperature plane are in good agreement with experimental data for electron density and temperature measurements.

  14. Calculation of opacities and emissivities for carbon plasmas under NLTE and LTE conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Dept. de Ingenieria Energetica, Madrid (Spain); Minguez, E. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear-DENIM (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    We calculate different optical properties for carbon plasma in a wide range of temperatures and densities by using ATOM3R-OP code which has been recently developed. In this code we have implemented the rate equations, the Saha equation (for local thermodynamic equilibrium) and the coronal equilibrium model. We have calculated average ionizations, level populations, opacities and emissivities and we focus our study on the identification with our code of coronal equilibrium, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium regions for this kind of plasma. Moreover, we analyse the differences in the optical properties when they are calculated in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium. (authors)

  15. AKATSUKI-IR2 reveals unexpected opacity disruption affecting Venus's lower clouds every 9 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Satoh, T.; Horinouchi, T.; Ogohara, K.; Kouyama, T.; Murakami, S.; Imamura, T.; McGouldrick, K.; Sato, T. M.; Limaye, S.; García-Melendo, E.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.

    2017-09-01

    The images of AKATSUKI acquired with the camera IR2 at 1.74-2.3 µm report the discovery of an equatorial disruption or "bow" between 30ºN‒30ºS of the Venus's lower clouds at 50 km. This feature appears on the night every 9 terrestrial days during more than 8 months, and introduces a dramatic and abrupt increase of the cloud opacity and reducing the thermal radiance in a factor of about 1:2 from its brightest to the darkest side.

  16. Mapping the opacity of paint layers in paintings with coloured grounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Hall-Aquitania, Moorea; Hermens, Erma; Groves, Roger M.

    2017-07-01

    Optical diagnostics techniques are becoming important for technical art history (TAH) as well as for heritage conservation. In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly used as a novel technique for the inspection of artwork, revealing the stratigraphy of paintings. It has also shown to be an effective tool for vanish layer inspection. OCT is a contactless and non-destructive technique for microstructural imaging of turbid media, originally developed for medical applications. However current OCT instruments have difficulty in paint layer inspection due to the opacity of most pigments. This paper explores the potential of OCT for the investigation of paintings with coloured grounds. Depth scans were processed to determine the light penetration depth at the optical wavelength based on a 1/e light attenuation calculation. The variation in paint opacity was mapped based on the microstructural images and 3D penetration depth profiles was calculated and related back to the construction of the artwork. By determining the light penetration depth over a range of wavelengths the 3D depth perception of a painting with coloured grounds can be characterized optically.

  17. Constraining the Dust Opacity Law in Three Small and Isolated Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, K. A.; Di Francesco, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Thanjavur, K.; Launhardt, R.; Shirley, Y.; Stutz, A.; Abreu Vicente, J.; Kainulainen, J.

    2017-11-01

    Density profiles of isolated cores derived from thermal dust continuum emission rely on models of dust properties, such as mass opacity, that are poorly constrained. With complementary measures from near-infrared extinction maps, we can assess the reliability of commonly used dust models. In this work, we compare Herschel-derived maps of the optical depth with equivalent maps derived from CFHT WIRCAM near-infrared observations for three isolated cores: CB 68, L 429, and L 1552. We assess the dust opacities provided from four models: OH1a, OH5a, Orm1, and Orm4. Although the consistency of the models differs between the three sources, the results suggest that the optical properties of dust in the envelopes of the cores are best described by either silicate and bare graphite grains (e.g., Orm1) or carbonaceous grains with some coagulation and either thin or no ice mantles (e.g., OH5a). None of the models, however, individually produced the most consistent optical depth maps for every source. The results suggest that either the dust in the cores is not well-described by any one dust property model, the application of the dust models cannot be extended beyond the very center of the cores, or more complex SED fitting functions are necessary.

  18. Propuesta metodológica de evaluación de interfaces de OPACs. INNOPAC versus UNICORN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Bravo, Blanca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a model of academic OPACs evaluation with the objective of sharing a procedure and some parameters and indicators established. There are two fundamental parameters, the interface searching services and the characteristics of the interface: design, ergonomics and user-friendliness. The present work provides also, the main results of the evaluations of ten OPACs implemented with INNOPAC and UNICORN previously accomplished. Now we will contrast both systems. We consider that universities are institutions that demand OPACs with better services to those of other informative units. The present evaluation has considered the users needs in academic libraries.

    Los propósitos de este trabajo son presentar un modelo de evaluación de OPACs universitarios con el objetivo de compartir un procedimiento y unos parámetros e indicadores establecidos a este fin. Dos son los parámetros fundamentales, las prestaciones de búsqueda de la interfaz y las características de la propia interfaz: diseño, ergonomía y amigabilidad. El presente estudio ofrece, asimismo, los principales resultados de las evaluaciones realizadas en trabajos previos sobre diez OPACs implementados con INNOPAC y UNICORN, que nos permiten ahora contrastar ambos sistemas. Partimos de la consideración de que las universidades son instituciones que por su idiosincrasia exigen OPACs con prestaciones superiores a las de otras unidades informativas. En este sentido, la formalización de los criterios evaluativos ha considerado las necesidades de los usuarios de las bibliotecas universitarias.

  19. Esthetic management of developmental enamel opacities in young permanent maxillary incisors with two microabrasion techniques--a split mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, Neha; Garg, Shalini; Damle, Satyawan G; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Opal, Shireen; Gupta, Shivani

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of two microabrasion materials for the removal of developmental enamel opacities in young permanent maxillary incisors. Using a split-mouth study design, 37% phosphoric acid and 18% hydrochloric acid were used for removal of visually unesthetic developmental enamel opacities of young permanent maxillary anterior teeth from 25 subjects (11-13 years old) by two microabrasion techniques for 10 and 5 seconds respectively. This procedure was repeated four to six times during each clinical appointment. The subjects were evaluated about their satisfaction with the treatment. Two blinded evaluators appraised both sides of the mouth using visual analog scale. The records were analyzed using Wilcoxon test. The majority of the subjects (approximately 97%) reported satisfaction at the end of the treatment (p = 0.001**). Statistical significant reduction in enamel opacities was observed by evaluators immediately after microabrasion technique in group 1 (81.75%) and in group 2 (81.4%) (p microabrasion techniques showed comparative highly significant successful results in esthetic management of enamel opacities clinically and in terms of subject's satisfaction. Developmental enamel defects like diffuse opacities due to high-fluoride content in water and demarcated opacities associated with positive dental history and are commonly seen in young permanent maxillary incisors of both boys and girls in their developing years. They are aware of unesthetic appearance of these newly erupted permanent anterior teeth and become highly motivated when informed about minimally invasive, patient friendly, cost-effective, and safe treatment like microabrasion for esthetic improvement. Both noninvasive microabrasion techniques using 37% phosphoric acid (group 1) and 18% hydrochloric acid (group 2) show comparatively high success results in treating enamel defects successfully to the subject's satisfaction along with their parents. © 2014 Wiley

  20. CHANGES OF DUST OPACITY WITH DENSITY IN THE ORION A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Arabindo; Martin, Peter G.; Nguyen-Luong, Quang [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Polychroni, Danae [INAF-IFSI, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bontemps, Sylvain; Schneider, Nicola [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Abergel, Alain; Konyves, Vera [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Andre, Philippe; Arzoumanian, Doris; Hill, Tracey [Laboratoire AIM, C.E.A. Saclay, F-90091 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Di Francesco, James [National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Pezzuto, Stefano [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); White, Glenn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    We have studied the opacity of dust grains at submillimeter wavelengths by estimating the optical depth from imaging at 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and comparing this to a column density obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey derived color excess E(J - K {sub s}). Our main goal was to investigate the spatial variations of the opacity due to 'big' grains over a variety of environmental conditions and thereby quantify how emission properties of the dust change with column (and volume) density. The central and southern areas of the Orion A molecular cloud examined here, with N {sub H} ranging from 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} to 50 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, are well suited to this approach. We fit the multi-frequency Herschel spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each pixel with a modified blackbody to obtain the temperature, T, and optical depth, {tau}{sub 1200}, at a fiducial frequency of 1200 GHz (250 {mu}m). Using a calibration of N {sub H}/E(J - K{sub s} ) for the interstellar medium (ISM) we obtained the opacity (dust emission cross-section per H nucleon), {sigma}{sub e}(1200), for every pixel. From a value {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} H{sup -1} at the lowest column densities that is typical of the high-latitude diffuse ISM, {sigma}{sub e}(1200) increases as N {sup 0.28} {sub H} over the range studied. This is suggestive of grain evolution. Integrating the SEDs over frequency, we also calculated the specific power P (emission power per H) for the big grains. In low column density regions where dust clouds are optically thin to the interstellar radiation field (ISRF), P is typically 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -31} W H{sup -1}, again close to that in the high-latitude diffuse ISM. However, we find evidence for a decrease of P in high column density regions, which would be a natural outcome of attenuation of the ISRF that heats the grains, and for

  1. The Opacity of Russian-Ukrainian Energy Relations; Russie-Ukraine: opacite des reseaux energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubien, A.

    2007-07-01

    Energy issues lie at the heart of Ukraine's economic, political and strategic challenges. A year after the 'orange revolution', the 'gas war' served to highlight the country's vulnerable position, being 80% dependent on imports of gas and having the world's most energy hungry economy. The 2005 crisis also highlighted the extreme opacity of the country's bilateral relations with Russia, which are governed as much by the interests surrounding Gazprom's relations as by those of the state. Yanukovich's return to power in the summer of 2006 coincided with a relative appeasement of relations with Moscow and a new division of spheres of influence in the Ukrainian energy sector. (author)

  2. The Next Generation Library Catalog: A Comparative Study of the OPACs of Koha, Evergreen, and Voyager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Q. Yang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Open source has been the center of attention in the library world for the past several years. Koha and Evergreen are the two major open-source integrated library systems (ILSs, and they continue to grow in maturity and popularity. The question remains as to how much we have achieved in open-source development toward the next-generation catalog compared to commercial systems. Little has been written in the library literature to answer this question. This paper intends to answer this question by comparing  the next-generation features of the OPACs of two open-source ILSs (Koha and Evergreen and one proprietary ILS (Voyager’s WebVoyage.

  3. Conceptual design of initial opacity experiments on the national ignition facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, R.  F.; Bailey, J.  E.; Craxton, R.  S.; DeVolder, B.  G.; Dodd, E.  S.; Garcia, E.  M.; Huffman, E.  J.; Iglesias, C.  A.; King, J.  A.; Kline, J.  L.; Liedahl, D.  A.; McKenty, P.  W.; Opachich, Y.  P.; Rochau, G.  A.; Ross, P.  W.; Schneider, M.  B.; Sherrill, M.  E.; Wilson, B.  G.; Zhang, R.; Perry, T.  S.

    2017-01-09

    Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures${\\geqslant}150$ eV and electron densities${\\geqslant}7\\times 10^{21}~\\text{cm}^{-3}$. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a${\\sim}200$ ps,${\\sim}200~\\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\\text{m}$diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design

  4. The Impact of Web Search Engines on Subject Searching in OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the results of transaction logs at California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA and studies the effects of implementing a Web-based OPAC along with interface changes. The authors find that user success in subject searching remains problematic. A major increase in the frequency of searches that would have been more successful in resources other than the library catalog is noted over the time period 2000-2002. The authors attribute this increase to the prevalence of Web search engines and suggest that metasearching, relevance-ranked results, and relevance feedback ( "more like this" are now expected in user searching and should be integrated into online catalogs as search options.

  5. 1st oPAC Topical Workshop: Grand Challenges in Accelerator Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Accelerators are key instruments for fundamental research, health and industry applications. International collaboration is very important for their continued optimisation. To address this oPAC is organising this two-day international workshop on Grand Challenges in Accelerator Optimisation. The workshop will provide an overview of the current state of the art in beam physics, numerical simulations and beam instrumentation and highlight existing limitations. It will discuss research and development being undertaken and ambitions to further improve the performance of existing and future facilities. In addition to invited talks, there will be industry displays and a special seminar covering recent LHC discoveries. All participants will have an opportunity to contribute a poster.

  6. Lethality Index 2008-2014: Less shootings, same lethality, more opacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Forné

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the use of lethal force by Mexican federal security forces during shootings with presumed members of organized crime from 2008-2014. The authors use official data and press reports on deaths and wounded in shootings to construct indicators such as the number of dead civilians over the number of dead officials from the federal security forces and the number of dead civilians over the number of wounded civilians. In a context where certain factors that contribute to an excessive use of force become more common, the results of the study show a growing use of lethal force. This raises questions over the possible excessive use of lethal force as a normal or systematic practice. The study also shows a growing context of opacity in the infor­mation available to evaluate the use of lethal force and the general lack of a legal framework to regulate the use of lethal force in Mexico.

  7. Efficient blood flow visualization using flowline extraction and opacity modulation based on vascular structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohjae; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Bohyoung; Shin, Juneseuk; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2017-03-01

    With the recent advances regarding the acquisition and simulation of blood flow data, blood flow visualization has been widely used in medical imaging for the diagnosis and treatment of pathological vessels. In this paper, we present a novel method for the visualization of the blood flow in vascular structures. The vessel inlet or outlet is first identified using the orthogonality metric between the normal vectors of the flow velocity and vessel surface. Then, seed points are generated on the identified inlet or outlet by Poisson disk sampling. Therefore, it is possible to achieve the automatic seeding that leads to a consistent and faster flow depiction by skipping the manual location of a seeding plane for the initiation of the line integration. In addition, the early terminated line integration in the thin curved vessels is resolved through the adaptive application of the tracing direction that is based on the flow direction at each seed point. Based on the observation that blood flow usually follows the vessel track, the representative flowline for each branch is defined by the vessel centerline. Then, the flowlines are rendered through an opacity assignment according to the similarity between their shape and the vessel centerline. Therefore, the flowlines that are similar to the vessel centerline are shown transparently, while the different ones are shown opaquely. Accordingly, the opacity modulation method enables the flowlines with an unusual flow pattern to appear more noticeable, while the visual clutter and line occlusion are minimized. Finally, Hue-Saturation-Value color coding is employed for the simultaneous exhibition of flow attributes such as local speed and residence time. The experiment results show that the proposed technique is suitable for the depiction of the blood flow in vascular structures. The proposed approach is applicable to many kinds of tubular structures with embedded flow information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Effect of resin shades on opacity of ceramic veneers and polymerization efficiency through ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Elif; Chiang, Yu-Chih; Coşgun, Erdal; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different resin cement shades on the opacity and color difference of ceramics and to determine the polymerization efficiency of the resin cement at different shades after curing through ceramics. Two different ceramics (IPS e.max Press and IPS Empress(®)CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were used for this study. A light-cured veneer luting resin (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent) in four different shades of HV+1, HV+3, LV-1, and LV-3 was used for the colorimetric measurements. The color and spectral reflectance of the ceramics were measured according to the CIELab color scale relative to the standard illuminant D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer (ColorEye7000A, USA). Color differences (ΔE values) and the contrast ratios (CR) of the different groups of samples were calculated. In order to analyse the polymerization efficiency of the resin cements, the micromechanical properties of the resins were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests (SPSS 18.0). The one-way ANOVA test showed that the values of ΔE and CR of the different specimen groups were significantly different (presin cement) exhibited the highest and group 10 (14.8 ± 0.5) (e.max:HV+3) exhibited the lowest ΔE value. Significant differences in the micromechanical properties were identified among the tested resin cements in different shades (pResin cement shade is an important factor for the opacity of a restoration. Furthermore, the resin shade affects the micromechanical properties of the underlying resin cement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Repeatability of pachymetric mapping using fourier domain optical coherence tomography in corneas with opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy El Gendy, Nehal M; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Huang, David

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) pachymetric mapping in patients with corneal opacities and to assess the reliability of Fourier domain OCT with 830 nm wavelength as a pachymetric measurement tool in opaque corneas. A Fourier domain OCT system was used to map the corneal thickness of patients with corneal scars or dystrophy. A retrospective study of a consecutive series was conducted. The repeatability was measured using pooled standard deviation of repeated measurements. A slit-scanning tomography device provided pachymetric mapping for comparison. Seventeen eyes of 12 patients with corneal scars (7 trauma and 3 post infection) or dystrophy (2 Reis-Bucklers and 5 granular dystrophy) were included. The posterior corneal boundary was detectable in all cases. The average corneal thickness measured by OCT was 536 ± 89 μm in central 2 mm area, 553 ± 76 μm in pericentral 2- to 5-mm area, and 508 ± 93 μm for the minimum corneal thickness. The slit-scanning tomography central corneal thickness, 433 ± 111 μm, was significantly lower than OCT readings (mean difference -91.1 ± 33.3 μm, P = 0.002). Repeatability of the OCT measurements was 2.1 μm centrally and 1.2 μm pericentrally. Pachymetric mapping with Fourier domain OCT was highly repeatable. Fourier domain OCT is a reliable pachymetric tool in opaque corneas. In comparison, corneal thickness measured by the slit-scanning tomography is significantly thinner than those measured by the Fourier domain OCT in the presence of corneal opacities.

  10. MINIMUM CORE MASSES FOR GIANT PLANET FORMATION WITH REALISTIC EQUATIONS OF STATE AND OPACITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Youdin, Andrew N., E-mail: apiso@cfa.harvard.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Giant planet formation by core accretion requires a core that is sufficiently massive to trigger runaway gas accretion in less than the typical lifetime of protoplanetary disks. We explore how the minimum required core mass, M {sub crit}, depends on a non-ideal equation of state (EOS) and on opacity changes due to grain growth across a range of stellocentric distances from 5-100 AU. This minimum M {sub crit} applies when planetesimal accretion does not substantially heat the atmosphere. Compared to an ideal gas polytrope, the inclusion of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) dissociation and variable occupation of H{sub 2} rotational states increases M {sub crit}. Specifically, M {sub crit} increases by a factor of ∼2 if the H{sub 2} spin isomers, ortho- and parahydrogen, are in thermal equilibrium, and by a factor of ∼2-4 if the ortho-to-para ratio is fixed at 3:1. Lower opacities due to grain growth reduce M {sub crit}. For a standard disk model around a Solar mass star, we calculate M {sub crit} ∼ 8 M {sub ⊕} at 5 AU, decreasing to ∼5 M {sub ⊕} at 100 AU, for a realistic EOS with an equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio and for grain growth to centimeter-sizes. If grain coagulation is taken into account, M {sub crit} may further reduce by up to one order of magnitude. These results for the minimum critical core mass are useful for the interpretation of surveys that find exoplanets at a range of orbital distances.

  11. Radiative hydrodynamics simulations of red supergiant stars. IV. Gray versus non-gray opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.; Masseron, T.; Plez, B.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Red supergiants are massive evolved stars that contribute extensively to the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy. It has been shown that convection in those stars produces large granules that cause surface inhomogeneities and shock waves in the photosphere. The understanding of their dynamics is crucial for unveiling the unknown mass-loss mechanism, their chemical composition, and their stellar parameters. Aims: We present a new generation of red supergiant simulations with a more sophisticated opacity treatment performed with 3D radiative-hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD. Methods: In the code the coupled equations of compressible hydrodynamics and non-local radiation transport are solved in the presence of a spherical potential. The stellar core is replaced by a special spherical inner boundary condition, where the gravitational potential is smoothed and the energy production by fusion is mimicked by a simply producing heat corresponding to the stellar luminosity. All outer boundaries are transmitting for matter and light. The post-processing radiative transfer code OPTIM3D is used to extract spectroscopic and interferometric observables. Results: We show that if one relaxes the assumption of frequency-independent opacities, this leads to a steeper mean thermal gradient in the optical thin region that strongly affects the atomic strengths and the spectral energy distribution. Moreover, the weaker temperature fluctuations reduce the incertitude on the radius determination with interferometry. We show that 1D models of red supergiants must include a turbulent velocity that is calibrated on 3D simulations to obtain the effective surface gravity that mimics the effect of turbulent pressure on the stellar atmosphere. We provide an empirical calibration of the ad hoc micro- and macroturbulence parameters for 1D models using the 3D simulations: we find that there is no clear distinction between the different macroturbulent profiles needed in 1D models to fit 3D

  12. Asymptotic giant branch stars at low metallicity: the challenging interplay between the mass-loss and molecular opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Marigo, P.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the main physical properties of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the aim of quantifying the uncertainties that presently affect the predicted chemical yields of these stars, associated with the mass-loss and description of molecular opacities. We find that above a threshold mass, M ~= 3.5Msolar for Z = 0.001, the results are little dependent on the opacity treatment, as long as the hot-bottom burning (HBB) prevents the surface C/O ratio from exceeding unity; the yields of these massive AGB stars are expected to be mostly determined by the efficiency of convection, with a relatively mild dependence on the mass-loss description. A much higher degree of uncertainty is associated with the yields of less-massive models, which critically depend on the adopted molecular opacities. An interval of masses exists, say, 2.0-3.0Msolar (the exact range depends on the mass-loss), in which the HBB may be even extinguished following the cooling produced by the opacity of C-bearing molecules. The yields of these stars are the most uncertain, the variation range being the largest (up to ~2dex) for the nitrogen and sodium yields. For very low mass models, not experiencing the HBB (M <= 1.5Msolar), the description of mass-loss and the treatment of the convective boundaries are crucial for the occurrence of the third dredge-up, with a sizeable impact on the CNO yields.

  13. A high en-face resolution AS-OCT providing quantitative ability to measure layered corneal opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Li; Tsai, Cheng-Tsung; Yang, Chang-Hao; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2017-07-01

    An in-vivo anterior-segment optical coherence tomography with sub-micron isotropic resolutions is demonstrated on rat cornea. The opacity of the layered cornea was quantitatively analyzed. The morphology of corneal layers was well-depicted by the en-face image.

  14. Colour stability and opacity of resin cements and flowable composites for ceramic veneer luting after accelerated ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archegas, Lucí Regina Panka; Freire, Andrea; Vieira, Sergio; Caldas, Danilo Biazzetto de Menezes; Souza, Evelise Machado

    2011-11-01

    Colour changes of the luting material can become clinically visible affecting the aesthetic appearance of thin ceramic laminates. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the colour stability and opacity of light- and dual-cured resin cements and flowable composites after accelerated ageing. The luting agents were bonded (0.2 mm thick) to ceramic disks (0.75 mm thick) built with the pressed-ceramic IPS Aesthetic Empress (n=7). Colour measurements were determined using a FTIR spectrophotometer before and after accelerated ageing in a weathering machine with a total energy of 150 kJ. Changes in colour (ΔE) and opacity (ΔO) were obtained using the CIE L*a*b* system. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and Student's t test (α=5%). All the materials showed significant changes in colour and opacity. The ΔE of the materials ranged from 0.41 to 2.40. The highest colour changes were attributed to RelyX ARC and AllCem, whilst lower changes were found in Variolink Veneer, Tetric Flow and Filtek Z350 Flow. The opacity of the materials ranged from -0.01 to 1.16 and its variation was not significant only for Opallis Flow and RelyX ARC. The accelerated ageing led to colour changes in all the evaluated materials, although they were considered clinically acceptable (ΔEcolour stability. All the flowable composites showed proper colour stability for the luting of ceramic veneers. After ageing, an increase in opacity was observed for most of the materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolutionary sequences for Nova V1974 Cygni using new nuclear reaction rates and opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J. W.; Wiescher, M. C.; Sparks, W. M.

    1998-05-01

    The outburst of Nova V1974 Cyg 1992 is arguably the best observed of this century, with realistic estimates now available for the amount of mass ejected, the composition of the ejecta and the total energy budget. These data strongly support the conclusion that this was indeed a `neon' nova that occurred on an oxygen, neon, magnesium white dwarf. In addition, X-ray studies of its outburst imply that the mass of the white dwarf is about 1.25Msolar. We, therefore, report on the results of new calculations of thermonuclear runaways on 1.25-Msolar oxygen, neon, magnesium white dwarfs, using our one-dimensional, fully implicit, hydrodynamic stellar evolution code that includes a large nuclear reaction network. We have updated the nuclear reaction network, with the inclusion of new and improved experimental and theoretical determinations of the nuclear reaction rates. We have also incorporated the OPAL carbon rich tables and have investigated the effects of changes in convective efficiency on the evolution. Our results show that the changes in the reaction rates and opacities that we have introduced produce important changes with respect to our previous studies. For example, relevant to nucleosynthesis considerations, a smaller amount of ^26Al is produced, while the abundances of ^31P and ^32S increase by factors of more than two. This change is attributed to the increased proton-capture reaction rates for some of the intermediate mass nuclei near ^26Al and beyond, such that nuclear fusion to higher mass nuclei is enhanced. The characteristics of our models are then compared to observations of the outburst of V1974 Cyg 1992 and we find that the predicted amount of mass ejected is at least a factor of 10 less than observed. The low values for the amount of ejected mass are a consequence of the fact that the OPAL opacities are larger than those we previously used, which results in less mass being accreted on to the white dwarf. This is a general problem with respect to the

  16. Code developer's guide to the Styx Liaison Library: a software interface for accessing and manipulating Styx opacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeufer, G.W.

    1985-04-01

    The Styx Liaison Library (STYXLL) is a new software interface under development on the Cray-1 and Cray X-MP computers at Los Alamos. STYXLL provides standardized techniques for accessing and manipulating gray and multi-group opacity data in Styx format. The first version of STYXLL provides interrogation methods for seeking a list of materials on a random-access Styx opacity file, and for determining the storage parameters of the data defined for these materials. In particular, the query procedures for the opacity files determine, for each requested material found on the file, the first-word disk address, the number of words, and the internal storage substructure for the DS530 data structure (Rosseland absorption and scattering opacities as a function of photon energy and material density and temperature, and Rosseland gray total opacities as a function of material density and temperature). Knowledge of these storage parameters simplifies data acquisition to a set of read specifications from a ''generic'' random-access file. A tutorial illustrates the use of the Styx Liaison Library and examines the output from the interrogation of Styx opacity files. An overview of the Styx data base and a detailed discussion of the query procedures for an opacity file complement the tutorial. A Glossary summarizes the terms used in these discussions.

  17. Evaluation of optimized digital fundus reflex photographs for lens opacities in the age-related eye disease study 2: AREDS2 report 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalpally, Amitha; Danis, Ronald P; Chew, Emily Y; Clemons, Traci E; Reed, Susan; Sangiovanni, John Paul; Ferris, Frederick L

    2013-09-05

    We described the system for grading lens opacities using stereoscopic digital fundus reflex photographs in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) and compared reproducibility with the AREDS lens grading system, which used retroillumination film images. Stereoscopic fundus reflex photographs were acquired in a standardized fashion at baseline and annually. Images were enhanced and evaluated in the red channel at a central reading center. Percentage involvement of cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities within the central 5 mm diameter zone of a modified AREDS lens grid was estimated. Reproducibility was assessed for contemporaneous variability (ongoing, monthly regrade on 5% of submissions, n = 777 eyes) and temporal drift (regrading a subset of baseline photographs annually, n = 88). In the contemporaneous exercise, the agreement for presence of cortical opacities was 93% (κ = 0.86) and for PSC opacities it was 97% (κ = 0.83). Intraclass correlation (ICC) for area of central zone involvement was 0.95 for cortical and 0.99 for PSC opacities. Historic data for contemporaneous regrading of film-based images in AREDS showed an ICC of 0.94 for cortical and 0.82 for PSC. The final annual temporal drift exercise had a reproducibility of 95% for cortical and PSC opacities. Digital grading using fundus reflex images with image enhancing tools has reproducibility comparable to film-based retroillumination images, and may be useful for centralized objective lens opacity assessment in clinical trials using widely available fundus cameras. Red reflex images limit evaluation to cortical and PSC opacities, and do not permit assessment of nuclear opacities. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345176.).

  18. Opacity and conductivity measurements in noble gases at conditions of planetary and stellar interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, R Stewart; Dalton, D Allen; Konôpková, Zuzana; Mahmood, Mohammad F; Goncharov, Alexander F

    2015-06-30

    The noble gases are elements of broad importance across science and technology and are primary constituents of planetary and stellar atmospheres, where they segregate into droplets or layers that affect the thermal, chemical, and structural evolution of their host body. We have measured the optical properties of noble gases at relevant high pressures and temperatures in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, observing insulator-to-conductor transformations in dense helium, neon, argon, and xenon at 4,000-15,000 K and pressures of 15-52 GPa. The thermal activation and frequency dependence of conduction reveal an optical character dominated by electrons of low mobility, as in an amorphous semiconductor or poor metal, rather than free electrons as is often assumed for such wide band gap insulators at high temperatures. White dwarf stars having helium outer atmospheres cool slower and may have different color than if atmospheric opacity were controlled by free electrons. Helium rain in Jupiter and Saturn becomes conducting at conditions well correlated with its increased solubility in metallic hydrogen, whereas a deep layer of insulating neon may inhibit core erosion in Saturn.

  19. Preventive effect of diethyldithiocarbamate on selenite-induced opacity in cultured rat lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Cai, H; Terao, M; Tomohiro, M

    2001-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the development of cataracts. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on the selenite-induced opacification of cultured rat lenses. Lens opacity was produced by incubation with 0.2 mM selenite for 24 h, which resulted in an increase in selenium content in the cultured lenses. The increase in selenium content and the onset of opacification and lens membrane damage were inhibited by preincubation with DDC. It is reasonable to assume that DDC contributed to anticataract ability. In addition, selenite resulted in a significant decrease in glutathione and protein thiol content and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels in the lenses. These alterations were also depressed by DDC, suggesting a contribution of an antioxidative effect by DDC in the inhibition of lens opacification. At the same lens selenium content, DDC treatment inhibited opacification and lipid peroxide. In conclusion, we propose that the antioxidative properties of DDC play a major role in its contribution to the anticataract effect. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Vitrectomy for primary symptomatic vitreous opacities: an evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T; Jalil, A; Antoniou, Y; Bishop, P N; Vallejo-Garcia, J L; Patton, N

    2016-01-01

    Floaters are a common ocular condition which form as a consequence of aging changes in the vitreous. Although in most patients the symptoms are minimal, they can cause significant impairment in vision-related quality of life in a small population of patients. Recently there has been an increase in awareness of the visual disability caused by floaters, and the evidence-base for treatment of this condition using small-gauge vitrectomy has increased. In this review, we define the term ‘floaters' as symptomatic vitreous opacities (SVO). We suggest a classification dependent on the presence or absence of posterior vitreous detachment and discuss their pathogenesis and natural history. We review their impact on patients' quality of life related to visual function. We review the psychological factors that may have a role in some patients who appear to be affected by SVO to the extent that they pursue all options including surgery with all its attendant risks. We summarise the available evidence-base of treatment options available for SVO with special emphasis on the safety and efficacy of vitrectomy for this condition. PMID:26939559

  1. Thermonuclear Bursts with Short Recurrence Times from Neutron Stars Explained by Opacity-Driven Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keek, L.; Heger, A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermonuclear flashes of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars produce the frequently observed Type I X-ray bursts. It is the current paradigm that almost all material burns in a burst, after which it takes hours to accumulate fresh fuel for the next burst. In rare cases, however, bursts are observed with recurrence times as short as minutes. We present the first one-dimensional multi-zone simulations that reproduce this phenomenon. Bursts that ignite in a relatively hot neutron star envelope leave a substantial fraction of the fuel unburned at shallow depths. In the wake of the burst, convective mixing events driven by opacity bring this fuel down to the ignition depth on the observed timescale of minutes. There, unburned hydrogen mixes with the metal-rich ashes, igniting to produce a subsequent burst. We find burst pairs and triplets, similar to the observed instances. Our simulations reproduce the observed fraction of bursts with short waiting times of approximately 30%, and demonstrate that short recurrence time bursts are typically less bright and of shorter duration.

  2. Los catálogos en línea de acceso público (OPACs: un estado de la cuestión = Public Access Online Catalogs (OPACs: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nicolás Rucks

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisión bibliográfica sobre los catálogos en línea de acceso público, más conocidos por su sigla en inglés, OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogs. Se plantean las principales dificultades que tienen sus usuarios. Se hace un diagnóstico de la situación basado en la literatura especializada, concluyendo que se está todavía lejos de lo deseable. La revisión cubre bibliografía, principalmente de los Estados Unidos de América, desde 1994 hasta 1998 = Review on the Online Public Access Catalogs, (OPAC. It explains the main difficulties the patron has to use the OPAC A diagnosis of the situation is made based on the specialized literature, concluding that we are still far from what is desirable. The review covers bibliography from 1994 to 1998, mainly from the USA.

  3. APLIKASI ONLINE PUBLIC ACCESS CATALOQUE (OPAC BERBASIS ANDROID SEBAGAI SARANA TEMU KEMBALI INFORMASI DI PERPUSTAKAAN UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN GANESHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Tika Parmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan perangkat lunak aplikasi Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC berbasis android. Jenis penelitian ini merupakan Research and Development (R & D dengan metode pengembangan menggunakan model prototyping. Pengembangan sistem informasi layanan audio visual berbasis video streaming dengan enam tahap, yaitu : 1 Tahap pengumpulan kebutuhan dan perbaikan, 2 Tahap perancangan desain cepat (desain awal, 3 Tahap membangun prototipe, 4 Tahap evaluasi prototype, 5 Tahap perbaikan prototype, dan 6 Tahap rekayasa produk. Penentuan tingkat kelayakan aplikasi Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC berbasis android berdasarkan uji validasi ahli bidang teknologi informasi dan uji coba terbatas pada pengguna. Hasil uji coba sebagai berikut : 1 Pengembangan aplikasi Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC berbasis android sudah sesuai dengan spesifikasi yang telah ditentukan sebagai aplikasi penelusuran informasi koleksi buku teks umum secara online melalui smartphone. 2 Indikator penilaian dari program ini adalah kebenaran atau ketepatan operasional sistem, ketegaran, keterluasan, keterpakaian ulang, efisiensi atau kinerja, portabilitas, integritas, modularitas, keterbacaan mendapat kualifikasi cukup baik, sedangkan verifikasi mendapat kualifikasi baik. 3 Secara umum dari hasil penilaian tersebut aplikasi OPAC berbasis android ini cukup layak untuk digunakan sebagai alternatif pelengkap pemberian layanan penelusuran informasi koleksi buku teks umum di Perpustakaan Undiksha. Kata Kunci: OPAC, android, dan temu kembali informasi Abstract Aim of this study to develop the software of Online Public Access Cataloque (OPAC based on android. Research and Development (R & D design was applied in this study which was developed through prototyping models. The software was constructed through six stages, namely: 1 needs analysis and repairment, 2 rapid design (preliminary design, 3 prototypes building, 4 prototype evaluation, 5

  4. Corneal opacity due to Setaria digitata in a Jersey cross-bred Cow and its surgical management

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mohan; K. J. Ananda; N. B. Shridhar; G.C. Puttalakshmamma and Placid E. D’Souza

    2009-01-01

    A Jersey cross bred cow brought to the peripheral hospital, Uttara Kannada with clinical signs of lacrimation, corneal opacity, bleophorospasm and presence of white thread like worm in its anterior chamber of the right eye. The worm was surgically removed by limbal incision and an adequate post operative care was taken for early recovery. The worm was morphologically identified as Setaria digitata. The cow attains normal sight in 3 weeks postoperatively. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000): 69-70

  5. Influence of Projection Operator on Oxygen Line Shapes and its effect on Rosseland-Mean Opacity in Stellar Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Thomas; Nagayama, Taisukue; Kilcrease, David; Hansen, Stephanie; Montgomery, Mike; Winget, Don

    2018-01-01

    The Rosseland-Mean opacity (RMO) is an important quantity in determining radiation transport through stars. The solar-convection-zone boundary predicted by the standard solar model disagrees with helioseismology measurements by many sigma; a 14% increase in the RMO would resolve this discrepancy. Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories are now measuring iron opacity at solar-interior conditions, and significant discrepancies are already observed. Highly-ionized oxygen is one of the dominant contributions to the RMO. The strongest line, Lyman alpha, is at the peak of the Rosseland weighting function. The accuracy of line-broadening calculations has been called into question due to various experimental results and comparisons between theory. We have developed an ab-initio calculation to explore different physical effects, our current focus is treating penetrating collisions explicitly. The equation of motion used to calculate line shapes within the relaxation and unified theories includes a projection operator, which performs an average over plasma electron states; this is neglected due to past calculations approximate treatment of penetrations. We now include this projection term explicitly, which results in a significant broadening of spectral lines from highly-charged ions (low-Z elements are not much affected). The additional broadening raises the O Ly-alpha wing opacity by a factor of 5; we examine the consequences of this additional broadening on the Rosseland mean.

  6. An analysis of couplings between solar activity and atmospheric opacity at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John E.

    2017-11-01

    A spectral radiometer located at the South Pole has obtained a long-term record of ground-level solar irradiance at wavelengths from 315 to 600 nm. Data acquired during the sunlit periods from 1992 to 2016 provide information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere and their variation covering more than two solar cycles. Prior to the late 1990s the time-integrated solar energy received over an entire observing season, September to March, displayed no organized trend. However, between 1996 and 2000 the irradiances began a decline which persisted through the end of the record. The observations imply a small systematic increase in attenuation at the South Pole, presumably associated with cloudiness, during the current century. The dataset allows a search for links between atmospheric opacity and solar activity. There is no significant correlation between seasonally-integrated irradiances and the 11-year solar cycle as measured by the 10.7 cm radio flux or the ground-level neutron count. On a much shorter timescale, a statistically significant positive relationship exists between the geomagnetic activity index Ap on one day and ground-level irradiance on the following day. Two days that differ in Ap by 10 units are followed by days whose irradiances differ, on average, by about 0.25 ± 0.19% in the wavelength band 400-600 nm. The wavelength dependence of this effect from the near-ultraviolet into the visible is consistent with a small decrease in the optical thickness of tropospheric clouds or of scattering layers at higher altitudes following magnetic disturbances.

  7. The role of opacity and transparency in achieving strategic stability in South Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajain, Arpit (New Delhi, India); Ashraf, Tariq Mahmud (Islamabad, Pakistan)

    2005-08-01

    According to international relations theory, deterrence can be used as a tool to achieve stability between potentially hostile nations. India and Pakistan's long history of periodic crises raises the question of how they can achieve deterrence stability. 'Transparency' describes the flow of information between parties and plays a key role in establishing a deterrence relationship. This paper studies the balance needed between opacity and transparency in nuclear topics for the maintenance of deterrence stability between India and Pakistan. States with nuclear weapons are postulated to implement transparency in four categories: potential, capability, intent, and resolve. The study applies these categories to the nuclear components of the ongoing India-Pakistan Composite Dialogue Working Group for Peace and Security including CBMs. To focus our efforts, we defined four scenarios to characterize representative strategic/military/political conditions. The scenarios are combinations of these two sets of opposite poles: competition - cooperation; extremism - moderation (to be understood primarily in a religious/nationalistic sense). We describe each scenario in terms of select focal areas (nuclear doctrine, nuclear command and control, nuclear stockpile, nuclear delivery/defensive systems, and conventional force posture). The scenarios help frame the realm of possibilities, and have been described in terms of expected conditions for the focal areas. We then use the conditions in each scenario to prescribe a range of information-sharing actions that the two countries could take to increase stability. We also highlight the information that should not be shared. These actions can be political (e.g., declarations), procedural (e.g., advance notice of certain military activities), or technologically based (e.g., seismic monitoring of the nuclear test moratorium).

  8. The opacity of the universe for high and very high energy {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Manuel

    2013-08-15

    }{sub {gamma}{gamma}}<1 to {tau}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}{>=}2 is investigated. The absorption-corrected spectra consistently show an upturn at high optical depths, significant at the 4{sigma} level. A source intrinsic effect is unlikely to produce such a feature, since the transition to the {tau}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}{>=}2 regime occurs at different energies for each source. Systematic uncertainties that could mimic the effect are studied but found unlikely as a possible explanation. A similar study is conducted for photons detected with the Fermi-LAT. To this end, the number of expected photons in the optical thick regime is compared to the number of photons observed with the LAT. Above {tau}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}{>=}2, three photons are associated with AGN with high confidence. Under the assumption of certain EBL models, extrapolating the unattenuated spectrum from low to high energies results in a probability of 1.2 x 10{sup -4} to observe these photons. However, the probability for detecting the high optical depth photons when all LAT detected AGN with known redshift are considered sensitively depends on the choice of the intrinsic spectral model. The indication for a reduced opacity might be explained by the oscillation of photons into hypothetical axion-like particles (ALPs) in ambient magnetic fields. Such particles propagate unimpeded over cosmological distances, thereby reducing the {gamma}-ray opacity. Photon-ALP conversions are studied in different magnetic field configurations, including intracluster and intergalactic magnetic fields, as well as the field of the Milky Way. Optimistic values of the field strength and coherence length result in lower limits on the photon-ALP coupling, g{sub a{gamma}}>or similar 10{sup -12} GeV{sup -1}. For more realistic magnetic field parameters, couplings above g{sub a{gamma}}>or similar 2 x 10{sup 11} GeV{sup -1} are necessary to explain the indication for the reduced opacity. The lower limits are in reach of future dedicated ALP

  9. ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN LIMBUS AND RETINAL BREAK IN EYES WITH MEDIA OPACITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiano, Agostino S; Coronado Quitllet, Elisabet; Zinzanella, Gaetano; De Benedetti, Giacomo; Caramello, Guido

    2017-07-01

    in eyes with media opacities by identifying the meridian and corneoscleral limbus-retinal break distance.

  10. Nighttime Infrared radiative cooling and opacity inferred by REMS Ground Temperature Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano, María; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot; Lepinette, Alain; Sebastián, Eduardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    Due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere, the temperature of the surface is controlled primarily by solar heating, and infrared cooling to the atmosphere and space, rather than heat exchange with the atmosphere. In the absence of solar radiation the infrared (IR) cooling, and then the nighttime surface temperatures, are directly controlled by soil termal inertia and atmospheric optical thickness (τ) at infrared wavelengths. Under non-wind conditions, and assuming no processes involving latent heat changes in the surface, for a particular site where the rover stands the main parameter controlling the IR cooling will be τ. The minimal ground temperature values at a fixed position may thus be used to detect local variations in the total dust/aerosols/cloud tickness. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) and Air Temperature Sensor (ATS) in the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover provides hourly ground and air temperature measurements respectively. During the first 100 sols of operation of the rover, within the area of low thermal inertia, the minimal nightime ground temperatures reached values between 180 K and 190 K. For this season the expected frost point temperature is 200 K. Variations of up to 10 K have been observed associated with dust loading at Gale at the onset of the dust season. We will use these measurements together with line-by-line radiative transfer simulations using the Full Transfer By Optimized LINe-by-line (FUTBOLIN) code [Martín-Torres and Mlynczak, 2005] to estimate the IR atmospheric opacity and then dust/cloud coverage over the rover during the course of the MSL mission. Monitoring the dust loading and IR nightime cooling evolution during the dust season will allow for a better understanding of the influence of the atmosphere on the ground temperature and provide ground truth to models and orbiter measurements. References Martín-Torres, F. J. and M. G. Mlynczak

  11. Corneal opacity due to Setaria digitata in a Jersey cross-bred Cow and its surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A Jersey cross bred cow brought to the peripheral hospital, Uttara Kannada with clinical signs of lacrimation, corneal opacity, bleophorospasm and presence of white thread like worm in its anterior chamber of the right eye. The worm was surgically removed by limbal incision and an adequate post operative care was taken for early recovery. The worm was morphologically identified as Setaria digitata. The cow attains normal sight in 3 weeks postoperatively. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 69-70

  12. November 2017 imaging case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Clinical History: A 70-year-old white woman with a remote history of smoking and mild gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with complaints of a dry cough and shortness of breath, present for some time but worsening over the previous 8 months. No hemoptysis was noted and the patient did not complain of chest pain. No history of syncope was noted. Physical examination was largely unremarkable and the patient’s oxygen saturation was 86% on room air, 90% on 4 L/m by mask. The patient’s vital signs were within normal limits. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable. Quantiferon testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was negative, and testing for coccidioidomycosis was unrevealing. Enhanced thoracic CT (Figure 1 was performed. Which of the following statements regarding the thoracic CT is most accurate? 1. The thoracic CT shows advanced destructive emphysema 2. The thoracic CT shows bilateral, basal and subpleural predominant reticulation associated with ground-glass opacity, architectural distortion, and traction …

  13. Opacity-driven volume clipping for slice of interest (SOI) visualisation of multi-modality PET-CT volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2014-01-01

    Multi-modality positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging depicts biological and physiological functions (from PET) within a higher resolution anatomical reference frame (from CT). The need to efficiently assimilate the information from these co-aligned volumes simultaneously has resulted in 3D visualisation methods that depict e.g., slice of interest (SOI) from PET combined with direct volume rendering (DVR) of CT. However because DVR renders the whole volume, regions of interests (ROIs) such as tumours that are embedded within the volume may be occluded from view. Volume clipping is typically used to remove occluding structures by `cutting away' parts of the volume; this involves tedious trail-and-error tweaking of the clipping attempts until a satisfied visualisation is made, thus restricting its application. Hence, we propose a new automated opacity-driven volume clipping method for PET-CT using DVR-SOI visualisation. Our method dynamically calculates the volume clipping depth by considering the opacity information of the CT voxels in front of the PET SOI, thereby ensuring that only the relevant anatomical information from the CT is visualised while not impairing the visibility of the PET SOI. We outline the improvements of our method when compared to conventional 2D and traditional DVR-SOI visualisations.

  14. Measurements of the K -Shell Opacity of a Solid-Density Magnesium Plasma Heated by an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, T. R.; Vinko, S. M.; Ciricosta, O.; Hollebon, P.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G. L.; Krzywinski, J.; Minitti, M.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Hájková, V.; Juha, L.; Vozda, V.; Zastrau, U.; Lee, R. W.; Wark, J. S.

    2017-08-01

    We present measurements of the spectrally resolved x rays emitted from solid-density magnesium targets of varying sub-μ m thicknesses isochorically heated by an x-ray laser. The data exhibit a largely thickness-independent source function, allowing the extraction of a measure of the opacity to K -shell x rays within well-defined regimes of electron density and temperature, extremely close to local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The deduced opacities at the peak of the K α transitions of the ions are consistent with those predicted by detailed atomic-kinetics calculations.

  15. Measurements of the K-Shell Opacity of a Solid-Density Magnesium Plasma Heated by an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, T R; Vinko, S M; Ciricosta, O; Hollebon, P; Chung, H-K; Dakovski, G L; Krzywinski, J; Minitti, M; Burian, T; Chalupský, J; Hájková, V; Juha, L; Vozda, V; Zastrau, U; Lee, R W; Wark, J S

    2017-08-25

    We present measurements of the spectrally resolved x rays emitted from solid-density magnesium targets of varying sub-μm thicknesses isochorically heated by an x-ray laser. The data exhibit a largely thickness-independent source function, allowing the extraction of a measure of the opacity to K-shell x rays within well-defined regimes of electron density and temperature, extremely close to local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The deduced opacities at the peak of the Kα transitions of the ions are consistent with those predicted by detailed atomic-kinetics calculations.

  16. Observation of a strong inverse temperature dependence for the opacity of atmospheric water vapor in the mm continuum near 280 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Louisa K.; De Zafra, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of the field measurements of atmospheric opacity at 278 GHz (9.3/cm) conducted at the McMurdo Station (Antarctica) during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987, in conjunction with balloon measurements of water vapor profile and total column density, showing a strong inverse temperature dependence when normalized to precipitable water vapor. The value of measured opacity per mm of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is roughly two times greater at -35 C than at -10 C and three times greater than measurements at +25 C reported by Zammit and Ade (1981). Various theories proposed to explain excess absorption in continuum regions are reviewed.

  17. Opacity probability distribution functions for electronic systems of CN and C2 molecules including their stellar isotopic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querci, F.; Kunde, V. G.; Querci, M.

    1971-01-01

    The basis and techniques are presented for generating opacity probability distribution functions for the CN molecule (red and violet systems) and the C2 molecule (Swan, Phillips, Ballik-Ramsay systems), two of the more important diatomic molecules in the spectra of carbon stars, with a view to including these distribution functions in equilibrium model atmosphere calculations. Comparisons to the CO molecule are also shown. T he computation of the monochromatic absorption coefficient uses the most recent molecular data with revision of the oscillator strengths for some of the band systems. The total molecular stellar mass absorption coefficient is established through fifteen equations of molecular dissociation equilibrium to relate the distribution functions to each other on a per gram of stellar material basis.

  18. Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in interventional cardiology (O'CLOC study: are X-Rays involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Sophie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eye is well known to be sensitive to clearly high doses (>2 Gy of ionizing radiation. In recent years, however, cataracts have been observed in populations exposed to lower doses. Interventional cardiologists are repeatedly and acutely exposed to scattered ionizing radiation (X-rays during the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures they perform. These "low" exposures may cause damage to the lens of the eye and induce early cataracts, known as radiation-induced cataracts. The O'CLOC study (Occupational Cataracts and Lens Opacities in interventional Cardiology was designed to test the hypothesis that interventional cardiologists, compared with an unexposed reference group of non-interventional cardiologists, have an increased risk of cataracts. Method/Design The O'CLOC study is a cross-sectional study that will include a total of 300 cardiologists aged at least 40 years: one group of exposed interventional cardiologists and another of non-interventional cardiologists. The groups will be matched for age and sex. Individual information, including risk factors for cataracts (age, diabetes, myopia, etc., will be collected during a telephone interview. A specific section of the questionnaire for the exposed group focuses on occupational history, including a description of the procedures (type, frequency, radiation protection tool used. These data will be used to classify subjects into "exposure level" groups according to cumulative dose estimates. Eye examinations for all participants will be performed to detect cataracts, even in the early stages (lens opacities, according to LOCS III, the international standard classification. The analysis will provide an estimation of the cataract risk in interventional cardiology compared with the unexposed reference group, while taking other risk factors into account. An analysis comparing the risks according to level of exposure is also planned. Discussion This epidemiological study will

  19. A 'Fish-eye disease' familial condition with massive corneal opacities and hypoalphalipoproteinaemia: clinical, biochemical and genetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, M; Dumon, M F; Sess, D; Freneix-Clerc, M; Mackness, M; Conri, C

    1991-12-01

    A Caucasian family of mediterranean origin comprising a patient whose parents were first cousins, his wife and their three children, and his two sisters have been studied. The patient and his two daughters were afflicted with the same corneal opacities and hypoalphalipoproteinaemia. The disease was shown to be transmitted as a non-sex-linked recessive trait. The corneal opacities develop at the end of the second decade of life and consist of numerous minute greyish dots in the entire corneal stroma that give the cornea a misty appearance. Vision slowly deteriorated from 40 years of age. At about 50 years of age, except in one of the two daughters who showed Marfanoid syndrome, the three patients had good general health and no symptoms of atherosclerosis. Biochemical investigations showed hypoalphalipoproteinaemia (with a faint fast-moving HDL band on polyacrylamide gel gradient electrophoresis and small arcs of HDL2 and HDL3 of low mobility determined by agarose gel immunoelectrophoresis), low total cholesterol (3.5-4.9 mmol l-1), slightly decreased cholesteryl ester/total cholesterol ratio (0.52-0.63), extremely low HDL cholesterol (0.20-0.21 mmol l-1), mild hypertriglyceridaemia (1.94-3.80 mmol l-1), and striking deficiency in apo A-I and apo A-II (0.45-0.72, 0.08-0.16 g l-1, respectively). The esterification of HDL cholesterol was low while that of LDL and VLDL was nearly normal. Other laboratory values were normal. The HDL subspecies and major apolipoprotein isoforms have been studied to differentiate FED from Tangier disease, LCAT deficiency, as Apo A-I, A-II, C-II, C-III deficiencies and variants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Measurement of nurses' attitudes and knowledge regarding acute care older patients : Psychometrics of the OPACS-US combined with the KOP-Q

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G.; Lagerwey, Mary D; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie; Klaassen, Sharon; Schuurmans, Marieke J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/127722386

    2017-01-01

    In clinical practice, identifying positive and negative attitudes toward older patients is very important to improve quality of care provided to them. The Older People in Acute Care Survey - United States (OPACS-US) is an instrument measuring hospital nurses attitudes regarding older patients.

  1. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section 62.14820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FO...

  2. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampere, Alexandre; Delhaes, Laurence; Soots, Jacques; Bart, Frederic; Wallaert, Benoit

    2012-08-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary granulomatosis involving an immunoallergic mechanism caused by chronic inhalation of antigens, most frequently organic substances, as well as chemicals. We report the first European case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores. A 37-year-old French Caucasian man with a one-month history of persistent dry cough, shortness of breath and loss of weight was admitted to our hospital on December 2010. Anamnesis showed he was involved in mushroom production beginning in the summer of 2010. His temperature on admission was 36.6°C and he had a normal blood pressure (135/90 mmHg). Bilateral fine crackles were audible in the base of both lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed a mild restrictive pattern with decreased DLco and a PaO(2) of 65 mmHg, Chest CT scan revealed reticulo-nodular shadows, slight ground glass opacities, liner atelectasis, and subpleural opacities in both lung fields. Bronchoscopy was normal but cytological examination of BAL revealed a predominant lymphocytosis (55%). Serum precipitins to the Shiitake mushroom spores were positive (3 precipitins arcs with high intensity) and as a result we advised the patient to cease his mushroom production activities. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was established as a result of the improvement of all of his clinical symptoms, i.e., cough, weight loss, bilateral fine crackles, mild restrictive pattern of pulmonary function, and reticulo-nodular shadows on chest CT, once exposure was eliminated. Recent interest in exotic mushrooms varieties, e.g., Shiitake, in developed countries because of their possible medicinal properties might increase the potential risk of HP among mushrooms workers. Therefore, healthcare professionals have to take this new potential respiratory disease into account.

  3. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, a rare entity of interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Chun; Chae, Eun Jin; Song, Joon Seon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a recently described, very rare type of fibrotic interstitial lung disease predominantly involving subpleural areas of both upper lungs. IPPFE has distinctive radiologic and pathologic features: progressive subpleural opacity with fibrotic changes, predominantly in upper lungs, and dense elastic component on histology. We experienced one case of surgically confirmed IPPFE, with progression of radiologic findings on the serial CT examinations. We herein report the characteristic radiologic features of IPPFE with pathologic and clinical manifestations.

  4. RE-INTERVENTION IN DE NOVO VITREOUS OPACITIES AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY IN FAMILIAL AMYLOIDOTIC POLYNEUROPATHY TTR VAL30METPORTUGUESE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Natália Novais; Cunha Dias, David Afonso; Afonso Carvalho, Rui Pedro; Pardal Monteiro Coelho, Maria Teresa

    2017-03-22

    To report management of de novo vitreous amyloid opacities after previous pars plana vitrectomy in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy transthyretin Val30Met. This work is a retrospective observational consecutive case series of five eyes of four patients. Demographic data, transthyretin mutation involved, age at the beginning of disease, duration of disease, treatment (liver transplant or tafamidis), time between vitrectomy and re-intervention, and ophthalmologic changes were evaluated. Surgical re-intervention included phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in phakic eyes, re-vitrectomy as complete as possible with posterior capsulectomy, and internal limiting membrane peeling if wrinkling of internal retinal surface was present. All patients had transthyretin Val30Met mutation, and three were women. Mean age of onset of the disease was 52 ± 11.0 years, and average evolution time of the disease was 8 years. Three patients had been submitted to liver transplant 4, 9, and 15 years before. Time between first vitrectomy and surgical re-intervention was longer than 2 years in all cases. Two eyes had amyloid deposits on anterior lens surface and pupillary border with scalloped pupil. Two eyes were phakic. Glaucoma was present in two eyes; one of them had previous trabeculectomy. All cases had vitreous opacities behind posterior lens capsule and at vitreous base area. After re-intervention, no further recurrence was observed (average follow-up of 10 months). De novo vitreous amyloid opacities may occur several years after pars plana vitrectomy. Amyloid deposition in vitreous cavity was observed only in strong vitreous adherence locations (behind posterior lens capsule and at vitreous base area). The authors expect that this procedure, an extensive re-vitrectomy associated with posterior capsulectomy, will prevent de novo vitreous amyloid opacities.

  5. Changes in Lens Opacities on the Age-Related Eye Disease Study Grading Scale Predict Progression to Cataract Surgery and Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indaram, Maanasa; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E.; Sperduto, Robert D.; Wong, Wai T.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the two year change in severity of lens opacities on the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) lens grading scale predicts progression to cataract surgery or loss of visual acuity by 5 years. Design Prospective, cohort study within a randomized clinical trial of oral supplements Participants AREDS participants whose eyes were phakic at baseline and free of late AMD throughout the study. Methods Baseline and annual lens photographs of AREDS participants (n=3466/4757; 73%) were graded for severity of cataract using the AREDS System for Classifying Cataracts from Photographs. Clinical exams conducted semi-annually collected data on cataract surgery and visual acuity. Association of the change in lens opacities at 2 years with these outcomes at 5 years was analyzed with adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Main Outcome Measurements Progression of lens opacities on stereoscopic lens photographs at 2 years, cataract surgery, and visual acuity loss of 2 or more lines at 5 years. Results The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for association of progression to cataract surgery at 5 years, were: nuclear cataract increase of 1.0 unit or greater compared with cataract increase of 5% or greater in lens opacity in the central 5mm of the lens, compared with cataract increase of 5% or greater vs. <5% in the central 5 mm of the lens: 8.25 (95% CL: 5.55–12.29, p<.001). Similarly, HRs of vision loss of ≥2 lines at 5 years for this degree of lens changes at 2 years were the following: nuclear: 1.83 (95% CL: 1.49–2.25, p<.001); cortical: 1.13 (95% CL: 0.78–1.65, p=.519); and PSC: 3.05 (95% CL: 1.79–5.19, p<0.001). Conclusions Two-year changes in severity of lens opacities on the AREDS lens grading scale are predictive of long-term clinically relevant outcomes, making them potential surrogate endpoints in follow-up studies. PMID:25682177

  6. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously.

  7. New pre-main-sequence tracks for M less than or equal to 2.5 solar mass as tests of opacities and convection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Francesca; Mazzitelli, Italo

    1994-01-01

    We present tabular and graphic results on the computation of pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks of Population I stellar structures from 2.5 to approximately 0.015 solar mass. Deuterium and lithium burning are followed in detail. The chosen input physics gives M approximately 0.018 solar mass as minimum mass for deuterium burning and M approximately 0.065 solar mass as minimum mass for lithium burning. While we adopt the approximations of hydrostatic equilibrium, no mass accretion and no mass loss, we have taken care to include several updates in the input physics, among them two different sets of the more recent available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-length theory (MLT) with the mixing-length scale calibrated on the solar model, and the recent Canuto & Mazzitelli (CM) model). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram location of tracks turns out to be largely model-dependent, especially for M less than or equal to 0.6 solar mass, and we are able to relate the cause of the large differences (up to 0.04 dex in Teff at 0.3 solar mass) with opacity and with the details of the convection model adopted. Since we are not able to provide 'first principle' physical reasons to choose among models, we consider these tracks as 'tests', in the hope that significant comparisons with observations can exclude some models or provide hints toward a better understanding of convection. Nevertheless, we feel obliged to call the reader's attention to the fact that theoretical Teff's, especially in the red, are intrinsically ill-determined, and no sound observational interpretation critically depending on the Teff's can be presently performed, contrary to the current habit due to an exceedingly 'faithful' use of the MLT.

  8. Cosmic rays, gas and dust in nearby anticentre clouds. I. CO-to-H2 conversion factors and dust opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Q.; Grenier, I. A.; Marshall, D. J.; Casandjian, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    Aims: We aim to explore the capabilities of dust emission and γ rays for probing the properties of the interstellar medium in the nearby anti-centre region, using γ-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the thermal dust optical depth inferred from Planck and IRAS observations. We also aim to study massive star-forming clouds including the well known Taurus, Auriga, Perseus, and California molecular clouds, as well as a more diffuse structure which we refer to as Cetus. In particular, we aim at quantifying potential variations in cosmic-ray density and dust properties per gas nucleon across the different gas phases and different clouds, and at measuring the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO, in different environments. Methods: We have separated six nearby anti-centre clouds that are coherent in velocities and distances, from the Galactic-disc background in H I 21-cm and 12CO 2.6-mm line emission. We have jointly modelled the γ-ray intensity recorded between 0.4 and 100 GeV, and the dust optical depth τ353 at 353 GHz as a combination of H I-bright, CO-bright, and ionised gas components. The complementary information from dust emission and γ rays was used to reveal the gas not seen, or poorly traced, by H I, free-free, and 12CO emissions, namely (I) the opaque H iand diffuse H2 present in the Dark Neutral Medium at the atomic-molecular transition, and (II) the dense H2 to be added where 12CO lines saturate. Results: The measured interstellar γ-ray spectra support a uniform penetration of the cosmic rays with energies above a few GeV through the clouds, from the atomic envelopes to the 12CO-bright cores, and with a small ± 9% cloud-to-cloud dispersion in particle flux. We detect the ionised gas from the H iiregion NGC 1499 in the dust and γ-ray emissions and measure its mean electron density and temperature. We find a gradual increase in grain opacity as the gas (atomic or molecular) becomes more dense. The increase reaches a factor of

  9. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, M. [Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  10. Administration of nintedanib after discontinuation for acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Yamakawa, Hideaki; Morita, Masato; Kitamura, Hideya; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-03-03

    Nintedanib is a multi-target receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In two recent randomized phase 3 trials (INPULSIS™-1 and -2), it has been shown to slow the disease progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by reducing the decline in the forced vital capacity (FVC). Although the INPULSIS™ trials indicate that nintedanib may serve to prevent acute exacerbations or delay the time to the first acute exacerbation, a certain number of IPF patients develop acute exacerbations while receiving nintedanib. However, there has been no report on the readministration of nintedanib in IPF patients who develop acute exacerbations during initial treatment with nintedanib. A 64-year-old man with IPF had nintedanib added to his ongoing pirfenidone therapy. He developed dyspnea after 65 days and presented with hypoxemia after 68 days. At presentation, chest computed tomography showed newly developed diffuse ground glass opacities with the pre-existing subpleural reticular shadows. Because of the absence of infection or other potential causative factors, we diagnosed an acute exacerbation of IPF. Nintedanib was temporarily discontinued and the acute exacerbation was successfully managed with intensive treatment. We re-initiated nintedanib 30 days after cessation, which helped stabilize his FVC for 8 months. Nintedanib was safely continued for 28 months until he died of a bacterial infection. To the best of our our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an acute exacerbation of IPF during nintedanib treatment, wherein nintedanib was safely and successfully restarted after treatment of the acute exacerbation. Our case indicates that nintedanib can be safely resumed and a desired effect on FVC can be obtained, even in IPF patients who develop acute exacerbations. However, we recommend close monitoring and appropriate measures until the long-term safety profile is clarified.

  11. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis vs. pulmonary involvement of collagen vascular disease: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Im, Jung Gi; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Seon Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary involvement of collagen vascular disease (CVD) are well known cause of diffuse interstitial lung disease which lead to fibrosis and honeycombing. We analyzed HRCT findings of 33 patients with IPF and 14 patients with CVD in terms of predominant pattern, site of involvement, mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural change and pulmonary volume loss. Criteria of mediastinal lymph node enlargement and pleural thickening were 15 mm in long diameter and 3 mm, respectively. Volume loss of the lung was measured by using hilar height ratio (apex to hilum/hilum to diaphragmatic dome). Mean age was 61 years for IPF and 46 years for CVD and male: female ratio was 27:6, 4:10, respectively. Predominant HRCT pattern was honeycombing for IPF (63%), and ground-glass opacity for CVD (66%) (p=0.001). Predominantly, subpleural involvement was seen in 90% for IPF and 74% for CVD. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement was seen in 47% of the patient with IPF and 14% with CVD (p=0.004). Pleural thickening was seen in 97% of the patients with IPF and 42% with CVD (p=0.002). Pleural effusion was seen in 10% of the patients with IPF and 36% with CVD (p=0.009). Hilar height ratio of more than 1.5 was seen in 84% of the patients with IPF and 29% with CVD. In conclusion, our study shows that patients with IPF are prone to have more progressed stage of pulmonary fibrosis than the patients with CVD on HRCT.

  12. Cystic pneumocystosis in a patient with AIDS; Pneumocistose cistica em paciente com SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rodrigo Juliano; Barata, Cristina Hueb; Correia, Dalmo [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: dalmo@mednet.com.br

    2007-09-15

    A 34-year-old man was hospitalized on February 14, 2005, with fever of up to 39 deg C with several peaks over the course of the day. He also reported a persistent cough with slight production of yellowish sputum. He had sought the health services in his hometown and had been medicated for three days with amikacin, ceftriaxone and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Because there was no clinical improvement, he was referred to the teaching hospital of Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro. He had had AIDS since July 1998, and had already presented clinical episodes of pneumocystosis, secondary syphilis and, as a comorbidity, moderate asthma. The CD4+T lymphocyte count in February 2005 was 381 cells/mm{sup 3} (51.1%). He had given up treatment for HIV infection two months earlier. On physical examination, he presented diffuse wheezing and rales in the lower third of both lungs. His respiratory rate was 24; his heart rate was 76; and his arterial blood pressure was 130/80mmHg. A chest x-ray showed condensations in the base of the right lung (Figure A). Computed tomography of the chest showed tenuous ground-glass opacity in both lung fields and multiple bilateral well-defined thin-walled cystic lesions in subpleural and medullary locations (Figure B - in a lateral view, a large, well defined cyst is demonstrated by CT scan - arrow). He was treated for pneumocystosis using SMX-TMP. Bronchofibroscopy with alveolar lavage was performed, from which the anatomopathological examination showed structures compatible with Pneumocystis jiroveci. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) using the AZT/3TC/NFV scheme was administered and a good clinical response to treatment was observed. Cyst formation in the pulmonary parenchyma is unusual in patients with pneumocystosis. We have reported on the case of an AIDS patient who presented cystic lesions attributed to pneumocystosis. (author)

  13. An Empirical Determination of the Intergalactic Background Light Using Near-Infrared Deep Galaxy Survey Data Out to 5 Micrometers and the Gamma-Ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Sean T.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    We extend our previous model-independent determination of the intergalactic background light, based purely on galaxy survey data, out to a wavelength of 5 micrometers. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. We further determine a 68% confidence upper and lower limit on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays up to energies of 1.6/(1 + z) terraelectron volts. A comparison of our lower limit redshift-dependent opacity curves to the opacity limits derived from the results of both ground-based air Cerenkov telescope and Fermi-LAT observations of PKS 1424+240 allows us to place a new upper limit on the redshift of this source, independent of IBL modeling.

  14. Follow-up Aspects of Influenza A (H1N1) Virus-Associated Pneumonia: the Role of High-Resolution Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of the Recovery Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Zanetti, Gla ucia; Mano, Cla udia Mauro; Hochhegger, Bruno [Federal University College of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Broadgreen University Hospital NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    The first patient showed ill-defined ground-glass opacity nodules and patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation. The second, with secondary bacterial pneumonia, showed bilateral areas of lobar consolidation and ground-glass opacities. The predominant HRCT findings reported bilateral, peripheral, ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation. The patients who presented with consolidations had a more severe clinical course. Limited data are available, however, on the tomographic or pathological aspects observed during the recovery phase after H1N1 infection. During the treatment and recovery phases, persistent opacities on radiographs may not be informative enough to distinguish disease progression from healing. HRCT may play a role in the detection and characterization of the disease, in monitoring the disease progress and response to treatment, as well as in the identification of complications. In conclusion, although pulmonary opacities secondary to H1N1 infection usually regress during convalescence, the consolidations may occasionally progress to linear opacities (parenchymal bands). These linear opacities probably represent organizing pneumonia.

  15. Theory of wave propagation in magnetized near-zero-epsilon metamaterials: evidence for one-way photonic states and magnetically switched transparency and opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Engheta, Nader

    2013-12-20

    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation.

  16. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Scully, Sean T.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  17. Optical density filters modeling media opacities cause decreased SD-OCT retinal layer thickness measurements with inter- and intra-individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Stanley; Kok, Pauline H B; van den Berg, Thomas J T P; Abràmoff, Michael D; Faber, Dirk J; Hulsman, Caroline A; Zantvoord, Frank; Mourits, Maarten P; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Verbraak, Frank D

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effect of media opacities on thickness measurements of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and macular inner retinal layer (mIRL) performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using a set of filters with known optical density. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volume scans of the optic disc and the macular area were performed in 18 healthy volunteers, using Topcon-3DOCT-1000 Mark II. A set of five filters with optical density ranging from 0.04 to 0.69 was used. The correlation was calculated between the percentage change in thickness measurements (%ΔpRNFL and %ΔmIRL) and the change in optical density. All scans and measurements were performed in duplicate by one operator. Eighteen right eyes of 18 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Percentage decrease in pRNFL and mIRL thickness correlated with change in optical density (Spearman's rho r = 0.82; p measured decrease in pRNFL thickness differed from the decrease in mIRL thickness, not only between individuals, but also within the same individual. Optical coherence tomography thickness measurements of both pRNFL and mIRL are influenced by image degradation caused by optical density filters as a model for media opacities. An underestimation of the thickness of these layers was observed, caused by a shift of retinal layer boundary placement due to image quality loss. This underestimation is not the same for each individual and also differed between the pRNFL and mIRL thickness measurements. These individual and interindividual differences demonstrate that an individual approach will be necessary to correct for this underestimation per layer. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Multilevel Analysis of Trachomatous Trichiasis and Corneal Opacity in Nigeria: The Role of Environmental and Climatic Risk Factors on the Distribution of Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available The distribution of trachoma in Nigeria is spatially heterogeneous, with large-scale trends observed across the country and more local variation within areas. Relative contributions of individual and cluster-level risk factors to the geographic distribution of disease remain largely unknown. The primary aim of this analysis is to assess the relationship between climatic factors and trachomatous trichiasis (TT and/or corneal opacity (CO due to trachoma in Nigeria, while accounting for the effects of individual risk factors and spatial correlation. In addition, we explore the relative importance of variation in the risk of trichiasis and/or corneal opacity (TT/CO at different levels. Data from the 2007 National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey were used for this analysis, which included a nationally representative sample of adults aged 40 years and above. Complete data were available from 304 clusters selected using a multi-stage stratified cluster-random sampling strategy. All participants (13,543 individuals were interviewed and examined by an ophthalmologist for the presence or absence of TT and CO. In addition to field-collected data, remotely sensed climatic data were extracted for each cluster and used to fit Bayesian hierarchical logistic models to disease outcome. The risk of TT/CO was associated with factors at both the individual and cluster levels, with approximately 14% of the total variation attributed to the cluster level. Beyond established individual risk factors (age, gender and occupation, there was strong evidence that environmental/climatic factors at the cluster-level (lower precipitation, higher land surface temperature, higher mean annual temperature and rural classification were also associated with a greater risk of TT/CO. This study establishes the importance of large-scale risk factors in the geographical distribution of TT/CO in Nigeria, supporting anecdotal evidence that environmental conditions are associated

  19. Transmural pressure in rat initial subpleural lymphatics during spontaneous or mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Mukenge, Sylvain; Negrini, Daniela

    2005-07-01

    The role played by the mechanical tissue stress in supporting lymph formation and propulsion in thoracic tissues was studied in deeply anesthetized rats (n = 13) during spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation. After arterial and venous catheterization and insertion of an intratracheal cannula, fluorescent dextrans were injected intrapleurally to serve as lymphatic markers. After 2 h, the fluorescent intercostal lymphatics were identified, and the hydraulic pressure in lymphatic vessels (P lymph) and adjacent interstitial space (P int) was measured using micropuncture. During spontaneous breathing, end-expiratory P lymph and corresponding P int were -2.5 +/- 1.1 (SE) and 3.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.01), which dropped to -21.1 +/- 1.3 and -12.2 +/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively, at end inspiration. During mechanical ventilation with air at zero end-expiratory alveolar pressure, P lymph and P int were essentially unchanged at end expiration, but, at variance with spontaneous breathing, they increased at end inspiration to 28.1 +/- 7.9 and 28.2 +/- 6.3 mmHg, respectively. The hydraulic transmural pressure gradient (DeltaP tm = P lymph - P int) was in favor of lymph formation throughout the whole respiratory cycle (DeltaP tm = -6.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg) during spontaneous breathing but not during mechanical ventilation (DeltaP tm = -1.1 +/- 1.8 mmHg). Therefore, data suggest that local tissue stress associated with the active contraction of respiratory muscles is required to support an efficient lymphatic drainage from the thoracic tissues.

  20. High resolution computed tomography and classification of children with interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M L; Lai, H; Cao, Y; Shuai, Y Z; Yu, S C

    2014-06-09

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to classify children with interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Sixty children with ILD underwent HRCT in supine position under free-respiratory conditions during scanning. Children under 5 years old were sedated with chloral hydrate and the scanning scope was from the lung apex to the diaphragm. In children older than 5 years old, scans were obtained at three levels: aortic arch, tracheal carina, and 1 cm above the right diaphragm. Five infectious patients were followed up. Two experienced radiologists read the films blindly to observe the type and distribution of ground-glass opacities and bronchovascular bundle abnormalities. Bronchovascular bundles were thick in 49 patients, and were thick and stiff in 27 patients. Of the 41 infectious patients, 39 showed thickened bronchovascular bundles, and 26 showed thick and stiff bronchovascular bundles. Of the 19 non-infectious patients, bronchovascular bundles were thickened in 10 patients, and were thick and stiff in 1 patient. Forty-one patients showed lobular ground-glass opacity (32 infectious, 9 non-infectious). Twenty-seven patients showed both bronchovascular bundle abnormality and lobular ground-glass opacity (20 infectious, 7 non-infectious). Eighteen patients showed patchy or mosaic ground-glass opacity (16 infectious, 2 non-infectious). There were 4 cases of bronchiectasis. HRCT is the first non-invasive diagnostic method for children with ILD, and its different manifestations can be classified. In early manifestation, bronchovascular bundles were abnormal and complicated with lobular ground-glass opacity. Patchy ground-glass opacity was the most common manifestation, and appeared to be difficult to disappear. Bronchiectasis indicated that the disease is irretrievable.

  1. Pulmonary metastatic calcification: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozi, Lilian Christine Franchiotti [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The present report describes the case of a 48-year-old female patient suffering from chronic renal failure on dialysis for 13 years. She presented with hemoptysis, fever, productive cough and dyspnoea. Chest radiography showed predominance of ill-defined opacities in the middle and lower lung fields, bilaterally. Chest computed tomography showed ground glass opacities associated with poorly defined centrilobular nodules with ground-glass attenuation. The patient was submitted to bronchoalveolar lavage that was negative for mycobacteria and fungi. On the basis of such findings, open lung biopsy was performed, which revealed metastatic pulmonary calcification. (author)

  2. Opacity proteins of neisseria gonorrhoeae in lipooligosaccharide mutants lost ability to interact with neutrophil-restricted CEACAM3 (CD66d).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Tu, Ya-Ting; Cai, Hua-Hua; Ding, Hong-Hui; Li, Qiao; He, Ying-Xia; Liu, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xin; Hu, Feng; Chen, Tie; Chen, Hong-Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Lipooligosacharide (LOS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci, GC) is involved in the interaction of GC with host cells. Deletion of the alpha-oligosaccharide (alpha-OS) moiety of LOS (lgtF mutant) significantly impairs invasion of GC into epithelial cell lines. GC opacity (Opa) proteins, such as OpaI, mediate phagocytosis and stimulate chemiluminescence responses in neutrophils in part through interaction with members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which includes CEACAM3 (CD66d), a human neutrophil specific receptor for phagocytosis of bacteria. In the present work, we examined the effects of OpaI-expressing lgtF mutant on phagocytosis by HeLa-CEACAM3 cells and chemiluminescence responses in neutrophils. The results showed that lgtF mutant even expressing OpaI completely lost the ability to promote either phagocytosis mediated by CEACAM3 interaction in HeLa cells or chemiluminescence responses in neutrophils. These data indicated that Opa proteins in the lgtF mutant, which might result from the conformational change, cannot be functional.

  3. Dust Temperatures and Opacities in the Central Parsec of the Galactic Center Modeled from Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Mid-Infrared Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varosi, F.; Gezari, D.; Dwek, E.; Telesco, C.

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed multi-wavelength mid-infrared images of the central parsec of the Galactic Center using a two-temperature line-of-sight (LOS) radiative transfer model at each pixel of the images, giving maps of temperatures, luminosities and opacities of the hot, warm, cold (dark)dust components. The data consists of images at nine wavelengths in the mid-infrared (N-band and Q-band) from the Thermal Region Camera and Spectrograph (T-ReCS) instrument operating at the Gemini South Observatory. The results of the LOS modeling indicate that the extinction optical depth is quite large and varies substantially over the FOV. The high-resolution images of the central parsec of the Galactic center region were obtained with T-ReCS at Gemini South in January 2004. These images provide nearly diffraction-limited resolution (approx. 0.5) of the central parsec. The T-ReCS images were taken with nine filters (3.8, 4.7, 7.7, 8.7, 9.7, 10.3, 12.3, 18.3 and 24.5m), over a field-of-view (FOV) of 20 x 20 arcsec.

  4. Smoke opacity of agricultural tractor using biodiesel in function of weather conditions in the time of testing; Opacidade da fumaca de trator agricola utilizando biodiesel em funcao das condicoes climaticas no horario de execucao do ensaio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Afonso; Camara, Felipe T. da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic de; Furlani, Carlos E.A.; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Mello Junior, Jose G.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: afonso@fcav.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    The biodiesel highlights as an alternative fuel to petroleum diesel, due its similar diesel properties, allowing the biodiesel replace the diesel without engine's alterations. The present work aimed measure the tractor's smoke opacity running with biodiesel in three proportions (B0, B50, and B100), in function of environment temperature and moisture in eight times (1h, 4h, 7h, 10h, 13h, 16h, 19h, and 22h). The experiment was conducted in the Rural Engineering Department of UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, it was used a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA (74kW - 100 cv) tractor, in the engine at 2350 rpm, and a soybean's distillated ethylic Biodiesel produced by USP - Laboratory of Development of Clean Technologies, in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. The results evidence smoke opacity reduction in order to environment temperature reduction and when increased the moisture. (author)

  5. Biodiesel of palm oil in tractor agricultural: opacity of smoke in the light of storage time; Biodiesel de dende em trator agricola: opacidade da fumaca em funcao do tempo de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Leomar P. [Instituto Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (IFTM), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)], email: leomaragro@yahoo.com.br; Lopes, Afonso; Oliveira, Melina C.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Camara, Felipe T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Cariri, CE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The scenario of atmospheric emissions world characterized-if, in recent years, due to a series of technical factors, economic and political, by the need to reduce the consumption of petroleum. The objective of this work was to evaluate the opacity of smoke of a motor of a tractor agricultural operating with biodiesel of palm oil with different periods of storage. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of machinery and agricultural mechanization of Rural Engineering Department of UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. In this study,-if a tractor Valtra BM 110 4x2 TDA 73,6 kW (100 cv) in engine 2.350 rpm. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 5x3, with 3 repetitions. The combinations of factors were five proportions of mixing biodiesel for diesel (B0, B5, B25, B 50 and B100, that the number indicates the percentage of biodiesel for diesel) and three storage times in condition environment (0, 3 and 6 months). The results showed that in relation to B0, when used biodiesel in the proportion of B100, the opacity of smoke reduced in 50.4% and the time of storage of biodiesel not committed the opacity of smoke from combustion of the engine. (author)

  6. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  7. A case of radiation pulmonary injury simulating bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia following postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Masaru; Yoshida, Norio; Katagiri, Akira; Takeda, Naoya [Kariya General Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    A 57-year-old female underwent conservative surgery for a left sided breast cancer, and received 48 Gy postoperative radiation therapy. One year later, a chest CT scan disclosed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities. She had no subjective symptom. These abnormal opacities disappeared spontaneously without any treatment. We considered this was a radiation lung injury simulating bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. We emphasize that the symptomless and spontaneous resolution of this type of lung injury should be kept is mind. (author)

  8. Metastatic pulmonary calcification: high-resolution computed tomography findings in 23 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belem, Luciana Camara; Souza, Carolina A.; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Hochhegger, Bruno; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Gomes, Antonio Carlos Portugal; Silva, Claudio S.; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Zanetti, Glaucia; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, (Canada); Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Hospital Universitario

    2017-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients diagnosed with metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings from 23 cases of MPC [14 men, 9 women; mean age, 54.3 (range, 26-89) years]. The patients were examined between 2000 and 2014 in nine tertiary hospitals in Brazil, Chile, and Canada. Diagnoses were established by histopathologic study in 18 patients and clinical-radiological correlation in 5 patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were centrilobular ground-glass nodules (n = 14; 60.9%), consolidation with high attenuation (n = 10; 43.5%), small dense nodules (n = 9; 39.1%), peripheral reticular opacities associated with small calcified nodules (n = 5; 21.7%), and ground-glass opacities without centrilobular ground-glass nodular opacity (n = 5; 21.7%). Vascular calcification within the chest wall was found in four cases and pleural effusion was observed in five cases. The abnormalities were bilateral in 21 cases. Conclusion: MPC manifested with three main patterns on HRCT, most commonly centrilobular ground-glass nodules, often containing calcifications, followed by dense consolidation and small solid nodules, most of which were calcified. We also described another pattern of peripheral reticular opacities associated with small calcified nodules. These findings should suggest the diagnosis of MPC in the setting of hypercalcemia. (author)

  9. Spontaneous gastric perforation in a neonate presenting with massive hydroperitoneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Soo Ah [Catholic University of Korea, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lim, Gye-Yeon; Hahn, Seong Tai [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-12-01

    We report the imaging findings in a case of neonatal spontaneous gastric perforation presenting as massive hydroperitoneum rather than pneumoperitoneum. Plain abdominal radiography showed a diffuse ground-glass opacity with paucity of bowel gas. Subsequent ultrasonography demonstrated numerous echogenic peritoneal fluid collections containing echogenic debris shown at surgery to be due to milk and bile. (orig.)

  10. Metastatic pulmonary calcification: high-resolution computed tomography findings in 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Camara Belém

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT findings in patients diagnosed with metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings from 23 cases of MPC [14 men, 9 women; mean age, 54.3 (range, 26-89 years]. The patients were examined between 2000 and 2014 in nine tertiary hospitals in Brazil, Chile, and Canada. Diagnoses were established by histopathologic study in 18 patients and clinical-radiological correlation in 5 patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were centrilobular ground-glass nodules (n = 14; 60.9%, consolidation with high attenuation (n = 10; 43.5%, small dense nodules (n = 9; 39.1%, peripheral reticular opacities associated with small calcified nodules (n = 5; 21.7%, and ground-glass opacities without centrilobular ground-glass nodular opacity (n = 5; 21.7%. Vascular calcification within the chest wall was found in four cases and pleural effusion was observed in five cases. The abnormalities were bilateral in 21 cases. Conclusion: MPC manifested with three main patterns on HRCT, most commonly centrilobular ground-glass nodules, often containing calcifications, followed by dense consolidation and small solid nodules, most of which were calcified. We also described another pattern of peripheral reticular opacities associated with small calcified nodules. These findings should suggest the diagnosis of MPC in the setting of hypercalcemia.

  11. Radiological patterns of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation evaluated by 64-multi-slice computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther Okeke; Steffensen, Ida; Jensen, Claus Verner

    2012-01-01

    by two observers, for ground-glass (GG) opacities, consolidation, septal thickening (ST) and pulmonary embolism. Image and PGD scores were compared in each patient. GG and consolidation changes were largely present up until 2 weeks post-LUTX, and markedly reduced by the 12th week. ST was predominantly...

  12. Clinical characteristics and computed tomography findings of pulmonary toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Masahiko; Norose, Kazumi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Kaiume, Hiroko; Takeda, Wataru; Kirihara, Takehiko; Kurihara, Taro; Sato, Keijiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kuraishi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahide; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-12-01

    The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties associated with early diagnosis and the rapidly progressive deterioration of multiorgan function. In our institution, we identified nine cases of toxoplasmosis, representing incidences of 2.2 and 19.6 % among all HSCT recipients and seropositive HSCT recipients, respectively. Of the patients with toxoplasmosis, six had pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) findings revealed centrilobular, patchy ground-glass opacities (n = 3), diffuse ground-glass opacities (n = 2), ground-glass opacities with septal thickening (n = 1), and marked pleural effusion (n = 1). All cases died, except for one with suspected pulmonary toxoplasmosis who was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction assay 2 days after the onset of symptoms. In pulmonary toxoplasmosis, CT findings are non-specific and may mimic pulmonary congestion, atypical pneumonia, viral pneumonitis, and bronchopneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for overcoming this serious infectious complication. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered during differential diagnosis in a recipient with otherwise unexplained signs of infection and CT findings with ground-glass opacities, regardless of the distribution.

  13. High ion-exchange properties of hybrid materials from X-type zeolite and ground glass powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with a homogeneous distribution of micropores with a superior cation-exchange capacity. Because they have especially excellent selective exchange properties, a considerable number of studies have been conducted on treating water containing radioisotopes using the zeolites. When using artificial zeolites, they have inferior sinterability; in addition, it is quite hard for them to remove from polluted liquid since these artificial zeolites are principally synthesized as a form of powder, which is a disadvantage. In this study, hybrid materials were prepared from X-type zeolite and waste glass powder. Their ion-removal effect and mechanical strength were investigated. The zeolite and waste glass were ground in an agate mortar in several ratios. 0.5 g of the mixture was pressure-molded into pellets having a diameter of 7 mm. These pellets were slowly heated at the speed of 240°C/h to 700°C and maintained at 700°C for 2 h. The removal rate of Sr2+ ions increased as the amount of X-type zeolite in the hybrid materials increased; the former increased up to 100% when the content of latter exceeded 50%. The mechanical strength increased by increasing the amount of glass in the hybrid materials. This is attributed to the fact that the glass powder acts as a binder that improves the densification and consequently the mechanical strength of the hybrid materials.

  14. Evaluation of CT findings in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Sato, Morihito; Yoshida, Masashi; Ura, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Masamitsu [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings of 19 critically ill patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in ICU were analyzed retrospectively. ARDS was diagnosed according to Murray`s criteria (Lung Injury Score> 2.5). The CT findings obtained were diffuse increased lung opacities [100%] (ground-glass opacity [100%] and air-space consolidation [74%]), lobular distributions of increased opacity [53%], loss of lung volume [53%], bronchiectasis and bronchioloectasis [42%] , fine reticular opacity [26%] and peribronchovascular distributions of increased density [11%]. Among those findings, diffuse increased lung opacities were seen in almost all patients. Especially ground-glass opacity was seen in all patients and distributed in the whole lung. Air-space consolidation was observed in 14 patients and involved mainly lower lung fields. Loss of lung volume and bronchiectasis and bronchioloectasis were likely to exist in the same area of air-space consolidation. Lobular distributions of increased opacity was seen in 10 patients without specific distribution. Those findings were thought to be relatively specific CT findings of ARDS. It is concluded that CT findings provide more information than bedside plain roentgenograms and was useful for clinical management of patients with ARDS. (author).

  15. Η ανάπτυξη νέου καταλόγου (opac) με τεχνολογίες Ιστού 2.0, η αποδοχή και αξιολόγηση τους από ομάδα χρηστών.

    OpenAIRE

    Γαβρίλης, Δημήτρης; Κακάλη, Κωνσταντία

    2008-01-01

    The main index/retrieval tool for records of physical objects inside a library is the Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC). Until now, the services that OPAC catalogues offer are item retrieval, availability status and loan services. The new generation OPAC, exploits the new Web 2.0 technologies (Web 2.0 refers to a second/new generation of Internet services) such as social networking sites, blogs, wikis, and various collaboration and annotation tools which emphasize on the user’s collaboratio...

  16. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzoni, Fernando Ferreira, E-mail: gazzoni4@gmail.com [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Av. Cristovão Colombo 4105, ap.603-C, Post Code: 90560-005, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Severo, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: severo@santacasa.tche.br [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2400, 2° andar, Post Code: 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Radiology Department, Av. Pedro Calmon, n° 550 – Cidade Universitária, Post Code: 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pasqualotto, Alessandro, E-mail: acpasqualotto@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sartori, Ana Paula Garcia, E-mail: ana_sartori@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schio, Sadi, E-mail: smschio@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Camargo, José, E-mail: jjcamargo@terra.com.br [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients.

  17. The effects of secondhand smoke exposure on HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierikko, Tuula; Järvenpää, Ritva; Uitti, Jukka; Virtema, Pauliina; Oksa, Panu; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Autti, Taina; Vehmas, Tapio

    2008-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting that secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is causally linked to adverse respiratory effects. We examined the relations between the exposure to SHS and radiological signs in chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Asbestos-exposed workers (n=633) were imaged with HRCT, primarily to investigate potential occupational lung disease. After excluding current smokers, the study population included 361 ex- and 141 never-smokers. They answered a questionnaire on occupational exposures, smoking habits and SHS exposure. HRCT images were assessed for emphysema, ground-glass, irregular/linear and rounded opacities, honeycombing and several other signs. Regression analyses were adjusted for asbestos exposure, ex-smoking, age, body mass index and potential reader effect. Due to missing data the multivariate analyses were restricted to 310 participants aged 47.5-87.0 years. Their lifetime SHS exposure ranged between 0 and 193.5 pack-years (mean 23.5), and exposure in the past 12 months 0-30 packs (0.43). Total (B=0.005, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 0.002-0.008, p=0.000) and workplace (B=0.006, 95% CI 0.003-0.009, p=0.001) cumulative SHS exposures were significantly related to ground-glass opacities. Total SHS exposure in the last 12 months (B=0.027, 95% CI 0.000-0.054, p=0.048) and workplace exposure (B=0.027, 95% CI 0.000-0.054, p=0.048) were also significantly related to ground-glass opacities. Positive effects of SHS were also detected on irregular/linear opacities. SHS exposure in the last 12 months and over lifetime significantly increases ground-glass opacity in HRCT, suggesting an early or subclinical desquamative interstitial pneumonia/respiratory bronchiolitis. This study further supports that SHS has adverse effects on the lungs that can be detected by X-ray methods.

  18. Aplicación de dos nuevos algoritmos para agrupar resultados de búsquedas en sistemas de catálogos públicos en línea (OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Marín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la facilidad que da la Internet y, en particular la Web, cada día es más fácil acceder a nuevas fuentesde información puestas a disposición en cualquier lugar del mundo. Los usuarios buscan informaciónespecífica de acuerdo a sus necesidades particulares, a través de la Web. Ellos pueden hacer búsquedasya sea mediante motores de búsqueda tales como Google o Yahoo!, o también mediante bases de datosparticulares de bibliotecas o sistemas de información. Sin embargo, los resultados de consultas enmotores de búsqueda, sistemas de catálogos de acceso público en línea, y en general sistemas deconsulta en la Web, pueden saturar a un usuario por la abundancia de resultados, causando pérdida deefectividad del sistema de búsqueda. Para resolver este problema, la investigación "Agrupamiento deresultados obtenidos de consultas distribuidas en sistemas de catálogos públicos en línea (OPAC",de la que se deriva este artículo, propone dos algoritmos de agrupamiento de resultados orientados asistemas en línea concurrentes, con características de bajo consumo de ciclos de procesador y memoria,los cuales se usan en un prototipo de software.

  19. Short Time Exposure (STE) test in conjunction with Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay including histopathology to evaluate correspondence with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation classification of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Ducas, Rafael do Nascimento; Teixeira, Gabriel Campos; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2015-09-01

    Eye irritation evaluation is mandatory for predicting health risks in consumers exposed to textile dyes. The two dyes, Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19) are classified as Category 2A (irritating to eyes) based on the UN Globally Harmonized System for classification (UN GHS), according to the Draize test. On the other hand, animal welfare considerations and the enforcement of a new regulation in the EU are drawing much attention in reducing or replacing animal experiments with alternative methods. This study evaluated the eye irritation of the two dyes RO16 and RG19 by combining the Short Time Exposure (STE) and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assays and then comparing them with in vivo data from the GHS classification. The STE test (first level screening) categorized both dyes as GHS Category 1 (severe irritant). In the BCOP, dye RG19 was also classified as GHS Category 1 while dye RO16 was classified as GHS no prediction can be made. Both dyes caused damage to the corneal tissue as confirmed by histopathological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that the STE test did not contribute to arriving at a better conclusion about the eye irritation potential of the dyes when used in conjunction with the BCOP test. Adding the histopathology to the BCOP test could be an appropriate tool for a more meaningful prediction of the eye irritation potential of dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis: CT and FDG-PET Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jonathan H. [National Jewish Health, Denver (United States); Wu, Carol C.; Gilman, Matthew D.; Palmer, Edwin L.; Hasserjian, Robert P.; Sphepar, Jo-Anne O. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG) is a rare, aggressive extranodal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. The purpose of our study was to analyze the CT and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings of pulmonary LG. Between 2000 and 2009, four patients with pathologically proven pulmonary LG and chest CT were identified. Two of these patients also had FDG-PET. Imaging features of LG on CT and PET were reviewed. Pulmonary nodules or masses with peribronchovascular, subpleural, and lower lung zonal preponderance were present in all patients. Central low attenuation (4 of 4 patients), ground-glass halo (3 of 4 patients), and peripheral enhancement (4 of 4 patients) were observed in these nodules and masses. An air-bronchogram and cavitation were seen in three of four patients. FDG-PET scans demonstrated avid FDG uptake in the pulmonary nodules and masses. Pulmonary LG presents with nodules and masses with a lymphatic distribution, as would be expected for a lymphoproliferative disease. However, central low attenuation, ground-glass halo and peripheral enhancement of the nodules/masses are likely related to the angioinvasive nature of this disease. Peripheral enhancement and ground-glass halo, in particular, are valuable characteristic not previously reported that can help radiologists suggest the diagnosis of pulmonary LG.

  1. [Computed tomography of pneumoconiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Kusaka, Y; Ishii, Y

    1995-09-01

    This review describes the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in image evaluation in pneumoconiosis. For pneumoconiosis, in the same way as for other diffuse lung diseases, conventional CT includes 10 mm collimation scans at 1 cm intervals from the apex to the base of the lung, whereas HRCT uses five to six 1.2 to 3 mm collimation scans at predetermined representative locations including the aortic arch, the tracheal carina, and 2 cm above the dome of the right hemidiaphragm. The CT scans are performed in the supine position in silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis, and both in the supine and prone position in asbestosis. In silicosis, CT is superior to chest radiography in detecting coalescence of nodules and early stage formation of large opacities. There are good correlations between HRCT findings and histological changes, especially in secondary pulmonary lobules. With HRCT, small nodules are found to be located in the center of the secondary pulmonary lobule in silicotic lungs. The mild emphysematous change associated with silicosis can also be found with HRCT. In coal workers' pneumoconiosis, the HRCT is useful in detecting nodules located in the subpleural and fissural subpleural areas. In asbestosis, the conventional CT can detect pleural plaques more sensitively than chest radiography. HRCT is also especially useful in detecting earlier fibrotic change in asbestosis in lung parenchyma, apparent as subpleural lines, parenchymal bands, subpleural curvilinear line shadows and so on.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Bronchiolitis in adults: pathology and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J H; Kim, T S; Lee, K S; Choi, Y H; Han, J; Chung, M P; Kwon, O J; Rhee, C H

    1997-01-01

    The most common high resolution CT (HRCT) findings of bronchiolitis are centrilobular nodules and branching linear structures in the secondary pulmonary lobules or areas of air trapping. These findings can be helpful in suggesting the presence of bronchiolitis. However, they are nonspecific because there are overlapping features among various kinds of bronchiolitis. Bronchiolar or peribronchiolar inflammation appears as centrilobular nodule, while bronchiolectasis filled with secretions manifests with branching linear structure on HRCT. Air trapping is secondary to bronchiolitis. Proliferative bronchiolitis with the findings of patchy areas of consolidation or ground-glass opacity can be distinguished from other bronchiolitis. Mineral dust-induced bronchiolitis and peribronchiolar lesions in sarcoidosis present with perilymphatic (centrilobular plus perilobular) micronodules in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Bronchiolitis in hypersensitivity pneumonia appears with poorly defined centrilobular nodules, associated with ground-glass opacity and air trapping.

  3. Pulmonary hemosiderosis due to mitral valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Yeop; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of biopsy-proven secondary hemosiderosis of the lung in a 58-year-old patient with mitral valvular heart disease. Both chest radiography and high-resolution CT demonstrated patchy areas of ground-glass opacity ; the former indicated that it was in both lungs, while the latter showed inter-and intralobular septal thickening. These findings were reversible when pulmonary venous hypertension was corrected.

  4. A case of vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuse, Naoyuki; Abe, Shinji; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Inomata, Minoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yuh; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with a productive cough and worsening dyspnea. He had started receiving vildagliptin, which is one of the dipeptideylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, several days before the appearance of his symptoms. Laboratory findings revealed markedly elevated levels of immunoglobulin E and Krebs von den Lungen-6. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacity with irregular reticulation throughout both lungs. ...

  5. Lung Ultrasound Has Limited Diagnostic Value in Rare Cystic Lung Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Henriksen, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) used to identify interstitial syndrome (IS) and pleural thickening related to diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) has shown significant correlations with ground glass opacity (GGO) on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, the applicability of L...... value as a diagnostic tool in patients with LAM, PLCH, and BHDS as normal LUS findings did not rule out severe cystic lung disease....

  6. A disorder of surfactant metabolism without identified genetic mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Montella, Silvia; Vece, Timothy J.; Langston, Claire; Carrera, Paola; Nogee, Lawrence M.; Hamvas, Aaron; Manna, Angelo; Cervasio, Mara; Santamaria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background Surfactant metabolism disorders may result in diffuse lung disease in children. Case presentation We report a 3-years-old boy with dry cough, progressive hypoxemia, dyspnea and bilateral ground glass opacities at chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) who had no variants in genes encoding surfactant proteins or transcription factors. Lung histology strongly suggested an abnormality of surfactant protein. A 7-month course of pulse intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone p...

  7. Radiologic Findings of Influenza A (H1N1) Pneumonia: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Young Kyoon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection is a highly infectious disease, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide since it was first documented in March of 2009 in Mexico. We experienced and report two cases of Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, accompanied by chest radiographic and CT findings. The chest radiographs revealed diffuse haziness and extensive airspace consolidation, whereas the CT scans demonstrated multifocal areas of ground glass opacity and airspace consolidation with a CT halo sign.

  8. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  9. Middle east respiratory syndrome-corona virus infection: A case report of sieral computed tomographic findings in a young male patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jin; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Hyuck [Dong A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Radiologic findings of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), a novel coronavirus infection, have been rarely reported. We report a 30-year-old male presented with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, who was diagnosed with MERS. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed rapidly developed multifocal nodular consolidations with ground-glass opacity halo and mixed consolidation, mainly in the dependent and peripheral areas. After treatment, follow-up imaging showed that these abnormalities markedly decreased but fibrotic changes developed.

  10. PREVALENCE OF LENS OPACITY AT QUEEN ELIZABETH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    of the optical homogeneity of the lens and this definition includes lens vacuoles, water clefts, dense areas, ... health needs, and to determine the risk factors that influence the social and economic burden associated with the .... hazards of jobs mainly reserved for individual sexes. On the other hand, some studies have shown ...

  11. Modeling Molecular Opacities using Galileo Probe Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) experiment on the Galileo mission has been successfully collected and analyzed through 1996. As data was received, the best available laboratory spectroscopic data and was used in the reduction procedure. Since then newer and more accurate spectroscopic data has become available. During this agreement, research efforts focused on re-analysis of certain aspects of the data which benefited from recent improvements in spectroscopic databases, and from a more exact treatment of certain aspects of the physical theory of line shape and line broadening. In addition, a brief survey was completed of the available information, both theoretical and observational, of the absorption, reflection and transmission spectra of the atmospheres of the various types of planets that could reasonably be expected to occur in other solar systems.

  12. Hydro-dissection and posterior capsule opacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows2G

    the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells3. The incidence of PCO reduces with greater attention to meticulous ... effect to prevent the proliferation of lens epithelial cells on to the posterior capsule4,5. Hydrodissection is ... counter pressure from a lens extractor and squint hook. Majority of the intraocular lenses were from.

  13. MARC Data, the OPAC, and Library Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that knowledge of the Machine-Readable Cataloguing (MARC) format is useful in all aspects of librarianship, not just for cataloguing, and how MARC knowledge can address indexing limitations of the online catalogue. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs examples and scenarios to show the…

  14. Virtual autopsy: two- and three-dimensional multidetector CT findings in drowning with autopsy comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Angela D; Harcke, H Theodore; Getz, John M; Mallak, Craig T; Caruso, James L; Pearse, Lisa; Frazier, Aletta A; Galvin, Jeffrey R

    2007-06-01

    To retrospectively determine the multidetector computed tomographic (CT) virtual autopsy findings of death by drowning in comparison with autopsy findings. The institutional review board of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology approved this HIPAA-compliant study and did not require informed consent by the next of kin. Total-body multidetector CT was performed, immediately prior to routine autopsy, in 28 consecutive male subjects (mean age, 24.2 years) who died of drowning and a control group of 12 consecutive male subjects (mean age, 50.8 years) who died of sudden death from atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Images were evaluated for the presence of fluid and sediment in the paranasal sinuses and airways, mastoid air cell fluid, frothy fluid in the airways, pulmonary opacity (ground-glass opacity or airspace consolidation), interlobular septal thickening, and gastric distention and contents (fluid or sediment). Image findings were compared with findings from autopsy reports and photographs. All drowning subjects had fluid in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells and had ground-glass opacity within the lungs. Twenty-six subjects (93%) had fluid in the subglottic trachea and main bronchi. Fourteen subjects (50%) had high-attenuation sediment in the subglottic airways. Frothy fluid in the airways was present in six subjects (21%). Twenty-five (89%) of the drowning subjects had pulmonary ground-glass opacity with septal lines, which was mild with apical and perihilar distribution in 12 subjects, severe and diffuse in nine, posterior and basilar in three, and limited to the apices in one (not assessed in three of 28 subjects because of decomposition). Control subjects showed mastoid cell fluid (25%), sinus fluid (83%), subglottic airway fluid (92%), and pulmonary ground-glass opacity (100%) but did not have evidence of frothy airway fluid or high-attenuation sediment in the airways. The multidetector CT finding of frothy airway fluid or high

  15. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Escola de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  16. [Follicular bronchiolitis: report of 3 cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J; Cai, H R; Li, Y; Meng, F Q; Wu, J Q

    2017-06-12

    Objective: To improve understanding of the characteristics of follicular bronchiolitis(FB). Methods: The clinical data of 3 patients with FB confirmed by thoracoscopic lung biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. A literature search was performed with "follicular bronchiolitis" as the key word in China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Wanfang and PubMed, Ovid Database. The time interval was from January 1947 to December 2015. Related articles of FB were retrieved and the clinical, radiographic characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. Results: Among the 3 patients, 1 was male and 2 were female, aging 32-55 years. Two patients were asymptomatic, and 1 patient presented with fever, cough and dyspnea. Two patients showed normal pulmonary ventilatory function with decreased diffusive function, and 1 patient showed normal pulmonary function. The predominant HRCT findings were bilateral multiple small nodules and cystic opacities, patchy ground-glass opacities, reticular opacities and traction bronchiectasis. The pathological examination by thoracoscopic biopsy revealed bronchiolar and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicles. All patients were treated with corticosteroids, with 2 patients receiving immunosuppressants. Follow-up HRCT after 1-2 months showed no improvement, and further follow-up HRCT after 2-4 years revealed no change in 2 patients while the other patient had increased pulmonary nodules and cystic opacities. Seventeen articles concerning FB with complete records were included in the literature review. A total of 64 patients were reported in these articles. The typical images were bilateral multiple small nodules and ground-glass opacities, reticular opacities, and cystic opacities. The majority of patients improved after treatment of corticosteroids and (or) immunosuppressants. But our 3 cases showed no improvement. Conclusions: FB is a rare small airway disease which has non-specific clinical manifestations and pulmonary function. The most common

  17. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Igari, Yui, E-mail: igari@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosoya, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  18. Tomographic and pathological findings in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Pneumology

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To analyze radiological findings observed at high-resolution computed tomography in patients with sarcoidosis, and establishing their correlation with pathological findings. Materials and Methods: High-resolution computed tomography findings in ten patients with sarcoidosis were reviewed and correlated with findings in specimens obtained by surgical biopsy or at necropsy of four of such patients. Results: The most frequently observed finding was presence of nodules with perilymphatic distribution, predominating along bronchovascular sheaths and pleural surface, with subpleural nodules and nodular scissurae. Other less frequent findings were ground-glass attenuation and interlobular septa thickening. Conclusion: In general, all the mentioned findings demonstrated anatomopathological correlation with development of granulomas in these regions. (author)

  19. First Presentation of a Case of Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis with Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Sigari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease of unknown origin. It is characterized by the presence of small calculi within the alveolar spaces, and has various clinical manifestations. Some patients may be asymptomatic for a long period of time with subsequent occurrence of dyspnea, dry cough, chest pain, and eventually, respiratory failure. Recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax episodes are a late complication of the disease. We report the case of an alveolar microlithiasis episode in a 42-year-old male, admitted to Tohid Hospital, Iran, whose first clinical presentation was symptoms of pneumothorax. He was admitted with sudden onset dyspnea and right-sided pleuretic chest pain. Following treatment of pneumothorax after chest tube placement, the pulmonary function revealed normal indices, and chest radiograph demonstrated diffuse confluence of dense micronodular infiltrate. High-resolution computerized tomography scan showed diffuse ground glass attenuation and calcifications along the interlobular septa and subpleural regions. Transbronchial lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAM.

  20. High-resolution CT findings of varicella-zoster pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Hye Jeung; Kim, Kun Il [Busan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Nam [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the high-resolution CT findings of varicella-zoster pneumonia. Seven adult patients with clinically and serologically diagnosed varicella-zoster pneumonia underwent HRCT scanning. One had undergone a kidney transplant, and the others were immunocompetent. The HRCT findings were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists in terms of the presence of a nodule, pneumonia consolidation, ground-glass attenuation and pleural effusion, and with regard to the number, size and distribution of nodules. HRCT findings of varicella pneumonia included nodule (n=7), consolidation (n=3), diffuse ground-glass attenuation (n=1) and pleural effusion (n=1). Nodules were mostly 2-10 mm in size, and multiple (n=6), and zonal predominancy was not apparent. One case in which HRCT demonstrated diffuse ground-glass opacity and slight bilateral pleural effusion involved a patient in whom complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome occured. When HRCT demonstrates the presence of nodules 2-10 mm in size multiple nodules, or nodule surrounded by ground-glass attenuation, or the coalescence of nodules and consolidation is observed in adults with chickenpox, the varicella-zoster pneumonia should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  1. Sandstorm appearance of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis incidentally detected in a young, asymptomatic male

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Li Shyan; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Liam, Chong Kin; Rahman, Nazarina Abdul; Ho, Choon Yan [Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-10-15

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare chronic disease with paucity of symptoms in contrast to the imaging findings. We present a case of a 24-year-old Malay man having an incidental abnormal pre-employment chest radiograph of dense micronodular opacities giving the classical 'sandstorm' appearance. High-resolution computed tomography of the lungs showed microcalcifications with subpleural cystic changes. Open lung biopsy showed calcospherites within the alveolar spaces. The radiological and histopathological findings were characteristic of PAM.

  2. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. [Nine cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis predominantly affecting the lower lung fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshinori; Akagawa, Shinobu; Masuda, Kimihiko; Yamato, Azusa; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Nagai, Hideaki; Hebisawa, Akira

    2010-12-01

    Pulmonary sarcoidosis which predominantly affects the lower lung fields is relatively rare. We performed this study to clarify the clinical manifestations of this type of sarcoidosis. Over a period of 13 years, we diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis in 119 patients. Among these, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of 9 patients (3 men, 6 women, mean age 62 years) with pulmonary lesions predominantly affecting the lower lung fields. Four patients had a history of dust inhalation and 6 had symptoms of dyspnea. All patients had ocular lesions and 5 had cutaneous lesions. Serum KL-6 levels were elevated in all patients, whereas angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) levels were elevated in 3. Pulmonary function tests revealed stenosis in 4 patients, and decreased diffusion capacity in 7. Chest CT findings in the lower lung fields revealed bronchovascular thickening, micronodular opacities in the vessels and chest wall, and interlobular septal thickening in 8 patients; ground-glass opacities in 5; curvilinear shadows in 4; and patchy shadows, traction bronchiectasis, and pleural effusion in 3. Histopathologic findings of lung biopsy specimens featured granulomas in all patients, and pulmonary interstitium fibrosis and small round-cell infiltration in the alveoli of most patients. Patients with sarcoidosis affecting the lower lung fields often had symptoms of dyspnea, extrapulmonary lesions in the eye and/or on the skin, and elevated serum KL-6 levels but not ACE. Chest CT showed findings typical of sarcoidosis, such as lymphatic distribution, but also showed unusual findings such as ground-glass opacities, curvilinear shadows, patchy shadows, traction bronchiectasis and pleural effusion. We speculated that 1 patient with ground-glass opacities and traction bronchiectasis without lymphatic distribution on CT, and fibroblastic foci with active alveolitis histopathologically, had complications of a different type of interstitial pneumonia.

  4. High-resolution CT imaging of the lung for patients with primary Sjoegren's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, Christian E-mail: lohrmann@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Uhl, Markus; Warnatz, Klaus; Ghanem, Nadir; Kotter, Elmar; Schaefer, Oliver; Langer, Mathias

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To assess pulmonary abnormalities in patients with primary Sjoegren's syndrome (PSS) using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and methods: The HRCT scans of 24 patients with the diagnosis PSS were retrospectively reviewed regarding the presence, extension and distribution of 16 pathological findings. Results: Nineteen patients (79.2%) showed pathological findings and in five patients (21.8%) the HRCT scan was judged to be normal. A predominance of abnormalities in the lower lobes and subpleural areas was detected. The following pathologies were found: bronchiectasis, thin-walled cysts and small pulmonary nodules (46.2%), ground-glass attenuation and emphysema (37.8%), interlobular-septal thickening (29.4%), honeycombing (25.2%), bronchial wall thickening, tree-in-bud pattern (21.0%), mosaic perfusion (16.8%), architectural distortion (12.6%). Airspace consolidation, air trapping, large nodules (10-30 mm) and masses (>30 mm), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (>15 mm) and free pleural fluid were seen each in 4.2%. In 7 of the 11 patients with thin-walled cysts areas of ground-glass attenuation were detected. Conclusion: HRCT seems is contributive to the characterization of the wide variety of lung abnormalities in PSS. Airway disease alone or in association with the presence of varying degrees of interstitial disease represents the main findings in accordance with earlier reports. Unexpectedly, almost half of the patients had thin-walled cysts on the HRCT scans, which etiology is unclear but could be associated with areas of ground-glass attenuation indicating LIP.

  5. April 2014 imaging case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Jensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Clinical History: A 34-year-old woman presented with complaints of abdominal fullness. The patient described a history of several pneumonias, successfully treated with antibiotics. Liver function testing showed a mild transaminitis. Frontal chest radiography (Figure 1 was performed. Which of the following statements regarding the chest radiograph is most accurate? 1. The chest radiograph shows multifocal coarse linear opacities suggesting bronchiectasis; 2. The chest radiograph shows multifocal ground-glass opacity and consolidation; 3. The chest radiograph shows multifocal, somewhat basal predominant linear opacities within diminished lung volumes, suggesting fibrosis; 4. The chest radiograph shows multiple small nodules, suggesting a miliary pattern; 5. The chest radiograph shows symmetric, basal predominant fine linear and reticular abnormalities without architectural distortion...

  6. Increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography postbronchoalveolar lavage: a potential cause of radiologic misinterpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2011-08-01

    Cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is used for lung cancer diagnosis. We describe a patient with a history of rectal carcinoma who presented with a new lung mass. BAL was performed, with positron emission tomography-computed tomography the following day. There was mildly increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in areas of the lung parenchyma with new ground-glass opacification. This created ambiguity in staging, clarified 2 weeks later by a computed tomography showing complete resolution of the ground-glass opacity. Clinicians should be aware that BAL may cause increased pulmonary fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, making accurate radiologic interpretation problematic. We suggest that to optimize positron emission tomography-computed tomography, studies should not be performed within 24 hours of BAL.

  7. Effect of radiation dose and iterative reconstruction on lung lesion conspicuity at MDCT: Does one size fit all?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marcos Paulo Ferreira; Agrawal, Rishi, E-mail: rishi.agrawal@northwestern.edu; Gonzalez-Guindalini, Fernanda Dias; Hart, Eric M.; Patel, Suresh K.; Töre, Hüseyin Gürkan; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms in lung lesions conspicuity in chest MDCT. Methods: An anthropomorphic chest phantom containing 6 models of lung disease (ground glass opacity, bronchial polyp, solid nodule, ground glass nodule, emphysema and tree-in-bud) was scanned using 80, 100 and 120 kVp, with fixed mAs ranging from 10 to 110. The scans were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms. Three blinded thoracic radiologists reviewed the images and scored lesions conspicuity and overall image quality. Image noise and radiation dose parameters were recorded. Results: All acquisitions with 120 kVp received a score of 3 (acceptable) or higher for overall image quality. There was no significant difference between IR and FBP within each setting for overall image quality (p > 0.05), even though image noise was significantly lower using IR (p < 0.0001). When comparing specific lower radiation acquisition parameters 100 kVp/10 mAs [Effective Dose (ED): 0.238 mSv] vs 120 kVp/10 mAs (ED: 0.406 mSv) vs 80 kVp/40 mAs (ED: 0.434 mSv), we observed significant difference in lesions conspicuity (p < 0.02), as well as significant difference in overall image quality, independent of the reconstruction algorithm (p < 0.02), with higher scores on the 120 kV/10 mAs setting. Tree-in-bud pattern, ground glass nodule and ground glass opacity required lower radiation doses to get a diagnostic score using IR when compared to FBP. Conclusion: Designing protocols for specific lung pathologies using lower dose acquisition parameters is feasible, and by applying iterative reconstruction, radiologists may have better diagnostic confidence to evaluate some lesions in very low dose settings, preserving acceptable image quality.

  8. CT Findings in People Who Were Environmentally Exposed to Asbestos in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yookyung; Park, Jai Soung

    2015-12-01

    Asbestos related pleuropulmonary disease has been emerging health problem for recent years. It can cause variable clinical symptoms and radiological abnormalities. However, there has been no report for their characteristics in subjects who were environmentally exposed to asbestos. We reviewed the CT images of 35 people who were environmentally exposed to asbestos in Chungnam province, Korea. The study result showed high incidence of pleural plaque and pulmonary fibrosis on chest CT (94% and 77%, respectively). The common CT findings of lung parenchymal lesions were as follows: centrilobular opacities (94%), subpleural dot-like or branching opacities (80%), interlobular septal thickening (57%), intralobular interstitial thickening (46%), parenchymal bands (43%) and subpleural curvilinear line (29%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis and pleural plaques according to sex, age and duration of exposure. In conclusion, pleural plaque and pulmonary fibrosis are common asbestos-related CT finding in the exposed people. Asbestos related lung parenchymal CT findings in the participants with environmental exposure show similar to those observed in the occupational exposure.

  9. Lacking applicability of in vitro eye irritation methods to identify seriously eye irritating agrochemical formulations: Results of bovine cornea opacity and permeability assay, isolated chicken eye test and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 method to classify according to UN GHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Van Cott, Andrew; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2017-04-01

    In vitro methods have gained regulatory acceptance for the prediction of serious eye damage (UN GHS Cat 1). However, the majority of in vitro methods do not state whether they are applicable to agrochemical formulations. This manuscript presents a study of up to 27 agrochemical formulations tested in three in vitro assays (three versions of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP, OECD TG 437) assay, the isolated chicken eye test (ICE, OECD TG 438) and the EpiOcular™ ET-50 assay). The results were compared with already-available in vivo data. In the BCOP only one of the four, one of five in the ICE and six of eleven tested formulations in the EpiOcular™ ET-50 Neat Protocol resulted in the correct UN GHS Cat 1 prediction. Overpredictions occurred in all assays. These data indicate a lack of applicability of the three in vitro methods to reliably predict UN GHS Cat 1 of agrochemical formulations. In order to ensure animal-free identification of seriously eye damaging agrochemical formulations testing protocols and/or prediction models need to be modified or classification rules should be tailored to in vitro testing rather than using in vivo Draize data as a standard. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunal Bharat Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present.

  11. August 2012 imaging case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Clinical History: A 48-year-old non-smoking man presented with a history of slowly progressive shortness of breath and recent onset of a headache. Frontal chest radiography (Figure 1 was performed.Figure 1: Frontal chest radiography shows normal cardiomediastinal contours with bilateral peri- and infrahilar predominant ground-glass opacity with a background of linear and reticular abnormalities.Which of the differential diagnostic considerations listed below is the most likely consideration for the chest radiographic abnormality?1.Pneumococcal pneumonia 2.Lung carcinoma3.Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis4.Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis5.Miliary tuberculosisCorrect!Answer: 4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosisThe frontal chest radiograph shows bilateral increased lung attenuation consisting of ground-glass opacity and a background of linear and reticular abnormalities. Pneumococcal pneumonia is a possibility, but this infection most commonly presents either with an air-space pneumonia pattern [homogeneous lung opacity with air bronchograms extending towards the pleural surface] or with a bronchopneumonia pattern [patchy …

  12. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komocsi, Andras [Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie, Universitaet Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologische, Universitaet Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 7, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin [Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie, Universitaet Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  13. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: initial results in comparison to HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, U I; Morelli, J N; Henzler, T; Buchheidt, D; Fink, C; Schoenberg, S O; Reichert, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23-77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TETesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were disseminated in these patients, accurate treatment decisions were possible in every case based on MRI. In one case MRI showed a central area of cavitation, which was not visualized by HRCT. Infectious nodules and consolidations can be detected in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy by 3 Tesla MRI. Detection of ground glass opacity areas is the main limitation of 3-Tesla MRI when compared to HRCT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metastatic angiosarcoma of the lung : HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Lim, Byung Sung; Oh, Mee Hye [Sejong General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, SNUMRC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    We describe a case of cavitary metastasis to the lungs from a small angiosarcoma of the scalp, in which the metastatic lesions were complicated by pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage. On high-resolution CT, the lesions simulated the findings of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Thin-walled cavitary metastatic lesions were similar to those of thin walled air cysts in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ground-glass opacity simulated the findings of smoker's respiratory bronchiolitis in Langerhans cell histiocytosis but histologically represented hemorrhage during metastasis of the angiosarcoma.

  15. HRCT findings of chest complications in patients with leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Miura, Gouji; Emoto, Takuya; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of several chest complications occurring in leukemic patients were reviewed. Although most entities show non-specific HRCT findings including ground-glass opacity and air-space consolidation, characteristic findings are observed in several pulmonary complications including Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, fungal infections, miliary tuberculosis, leukemic infiltration, pulmonary edema, bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. A combination of these characteristic HRCT findings and the information obtained from the clinical setting may help in achieving a correct diagnosis of chest complications occurring in leukemic patients. (orig.)

  16. Respiratory bronchiolitis: radiographic and CT findings in a pathologically proven case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essadki, O.; Chartrand-Lefebvre, C.; Grenier, P. [Department of Radiology, Pitie-Salpetrire Hospital, Paris (France); Briere, J. [Department of Pathology, Laennec Hospital, Paris (France)

    1998-12-01

    A small number of cases of cigarette-smoking-associated respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) with positive findings on the chest radiograph have been reported in the literature. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings are available in even fewer cases. We describe the case of an asymptomatic female smoker presenting with a reticulomicronodular infiltrate on a routine chest radiograph. High-resolution CT was characterized by ground-glass opacities and centrilobular micronodules with an upper lobe predominance. Surgical biopsy revealed peribronchiolar lesions, with accumulation of brown pigmented macrophages in the lumen of alveolar and bronchiolar lumen, consistent with the pathologic diagnosis of RB. (orig.) With 3 figs., 12 refs.

  17. Cavernous hemangioma concurrently involving the anterior and middle mediastinum and the lung parenchyma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Sung Jin; Cho, Bum Sang [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Hemangioma is rarely found in the mediastinum or lung. In the mediastinum, this tumor is usually located in the anterior mediastinum and manifests as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. In the lung, it usually presents as a well-defined nodule. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case of cavernous hemangioma concurrently involving the mediastinum and lung parenchyma, except for one case of concurrent cardiac and pulmonary hemangiomas. Here, we present an interesting case of cystic anterior and middle mediastinal masses together with multiple pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities, which were diagnosed as cavernous hemangiomas. When similar findings are encountered, clinicians should consider hemangioma in the differential diagnosis.

  18. CT findings of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Siro; Osima, K.; Kim, S. [Chiba Tokusyukai Hospital, Funabashi (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    CT scans were performed in 11 cases of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking. Characteristics of CT findings were as follows: Remarkable visualization of the branching in peripheral bronchi within secondary lobules, multiple ground-glass opacities of centrilobular or lobular size adjacent to the above mentioned bronchial branching, thickening of the bronchial wall without dilatation, and no or minimal centrilobular emphysema. These characteristic CT findings were observed in all of 11 cases, who are current smokers, and never observed in non-smokers, ex-smokers and patients with apparent centrilobular emphysema. (author)

  19. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: typical and atypical imaging features on computed tomography; Typische und atypische Morphologie der kryptogen organisierenden Pneumonie in der Computertomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, O.W. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Silva, C.I.; Mueller, N.L. [Section of Chest Imaging, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Organizing pneumonia (OP) occurs without any identifiable cause (''cryptogenic organizing pneumonia'') as well as secondary to a multitude of disorders of various origins (''secondary organizing pneumonia''). Possible triggers are infections, drugs, collagen vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, transplantations, and radiation directed to the chest. The present manuscript provides an overview of the histopathological, clinical and CT imaging features of OP. Classic CT morphologies (peripheral and peribronchovascular consolidations and ground glass opacities) and atypical imaging features (nodules, crazy paving, lines and bands, perilobular consolidations and the reversed halo sign) are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia following accidental intravenous injection of an oil-steroid solution in a body builder is presented. Chest roentography at the time of presentation showed diffuse bilateral opacities, and computed tomography revealed predominantly peripheral ground-glass opacifications. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved over 48 h and imaging of the chest was unremarkable one week later. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication of intravenous oil injection are discussed.

  1. A fatal case of middle east respiratory syndrome corona virus infection in South Korea: Cheat radiography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyo Lim; Choi, Su Mi [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) infection in South Korea originated from Saudi Arabia. This virus shows high infectivity, and causes outbreaks of severe febrile respiratory infections in health care-associated settings. Herein, we reported a fatal case of MERS-CoV infection with a focus on the pulmonary radiologic findings. The initial chest computed tomography and radiographs of our patient showed ground-glass opacity in patchy distribution, followed by rapid progression of consolidation and pleural effusion in serial studies.

  2. Linfomas pulmonares: avaliação por tomografia computadorizada Pulmonary lymphomas: evaluation by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marchiori

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the tomographic appearance of pulmonary lymphomas. We studied the thoracic computed tomographies of ten patients with biopsy-proven diagnoses non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's disease. The most common radiologic findings in this series are the alveolar opacities with air bronchograms (n=8. Other manifestations include multiple pulmonary nodules (n=4, thickening of broncho-vascular bundles (n=3 and foci of ground-glass attenuation (n=2. The present series confirms the results published in available literature about the radiographic appearance of the disease.

  3. Pulmonary complications of crack cocaine use: high-resolution computed tomography of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancano, Alexandre [Taguatinga Regional Hospital, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil). Medical Residency in Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: edmarchiori@bol.com.br; Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil). School of Medicine; Escuissato, Dante Luiz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Radiology; Duarte, Beatriz Cunha; Apolinario, Lourenco de Araujo [Radiologia Anchieta, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Here, we report high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in a patient who developed sudden hemoptysis, dyspnea and chest pain after smoking crack cocaine. Chest X-rays showed consolidations, primarily in the upper lobes, and HRCT scans showed ground glass attenuation opacities, consolidations and air-space nodules. A follow-up CT, after drug use discontinuation and administration of corticosteroids, showed partial resolution of pulmonary lesions and the appearance of cavitations. Clinical, imaging and laboratory findings led to a diagnosis of 'crack lung'. (author)

  4. Accounting for highly excited states in detailed opacity calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In multiply-charged ion plasmas, a significant number of electrons may occupy high-energy orbitals. These "Rydberg" electrons, when they act as spectators, are responsible for a number of satellites of X-ray absorption or emission lines, yielding a broadening of the red wing of the resonance lines. The contribution of such satellite lines may be important, because of the high degeneracy of the relevant excited configurations which give these large Boltzmann weights. However, it is in general difficult to take these configurations into account since they are likely to give rise to a large number of lines. We propose to model the perturbation induced by the spectators in a way similar to the Partially-Resolved-Transition-Array approach recently published by C. Iglesias. It consists in a partial detailed-line-accounting calculation in which the effect of the Rydberg spectators is included through a shift and width, expressed in terms of the canonical partition functions, which are key-ingredients of the Super-Tr...

  5. Syllabification and Opacity in Harmonic Serialism

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Tamarit, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    Aquesta tesi doctoral explora la teoria del Serialisme Harmònic en el domini de la sil·labificació. El Serialisme Harmònic és una versió derivacional de la Teoria de l'Optimitat (TO) on GEN està constret per una condició de gradualitat segons la qual els candidats generats només introdueixen un sol canvi en relació a l'últim input, fins que la derivació convergeix en el candidat plenament fidel, és a dir, quan cap millora harmònica és possible. Una conseqüència inevitable de la gradualitat és...

  6. Region 7 Policy on Periodic Monitoring for Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. The Role of Phonological Opacity in Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the relation among phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and reading achievement in 69 children (ages 10- 12) with and without language-learning disabilities. Children with language-learning disabilities were outperformed in two morphological tasks that assessed skill in identifying the bases and suffices of…

  8. Transparency and Opacity: Levinasian Reflections on Accountability in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to consider, from an ethical perspective, the current transparency and accountability agenda in Australian schooling. It focuses on the case of the "My School" website and the argument that transparent publication of comparative performance data via the website provides a basis for…

  9. Imagining worlds: responsible engineering under conditions of epistemic opacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark; van der Poel, Ibo; Goldberg, David E.

    2010-01-01

    How must we understand the demand that engineering be morally responsible? Starting from the epistemic aspect of the problem, I distinguish between two approaches to moral responsibility. One ascribes moral responsibility to the self and to others under epistemic conditions of transparency, the

  10. Acoustic transparency and opacity using Fano Interferences in Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Khelif, A.

    2015-08-04

    We investigate both experimentally and theoretically how to generate the acoustical analogue of the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency. This phenomenon arises from Fano resonances originating from constructive and destructive interferences of a narrow discrete resonance with a broad spectral line or continuum. Measurements were realized on a double-cavity structure by using a Kundt’s Tube. Transmission properties reveal an asymmetric lineshape of the transmission that leads to acoustic transparency.

  11. Opacity in complex systems; Opacidade em sistemas complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vaner Diniz de [IBERDROLA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo Fernando Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2005-07-01

    This paper tries to explain why operators have difficult situations when an emergency takes place; complexity has always existed and is not only consequence of high technology as most people try to point out. One of the reasons for this problem is given by the design engineering people beliefs in mechanical paradigms, considering high technology resources without worrying about the limitations related to the operators. Another aspect of relevant importance is the necessity of reviewing the cognitive processes studies taking into consideration that the old ones, as an example THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction), were based on technological researches developed at that time (1980{sup th}). It is important to emphasize that, for the moment, risk studies continue applying such a technology. (author)

  12. Comparative radio-opacity of bones of commonly consumed fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If a fishbone is identified on a radiograph, the patient should be referred for endoscopy without further imaging. If the radiograph is normal, then there should be no further imaging or endoscopy. An observation policy can be adopted. Radiographs may be of limited value in cases of Butter fish (Schilbe intermedius) and ...

  13. Controlled opacity in a class of nonlinear dielectric media

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; De Lorenci, Vitorio A; Klippert, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by new technologies on designing and tailoring metamaterials, we seek for properties of certain classes of nonlinear optical materials that allow room for a reversibly controlled opacityto-transparency phase transition through the application of external electromagnetic fields. We examine some mathematically simple models for the dielectric parameters of the medium, and compute the relevant geometric quantities that describe the speed and polarization of light rays.

  14. URLs in the OPAC: Integrating or Disintegrating Research Libraries' Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gerald; Germain, Carol Anne; Van Ullen, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Research library catalogs serve as authoritative sources of access. The increasing practice of including Web sites in the catalog, resources not under the library's control, raises new issues of the catalog's accuracy and reliability. An analysis of ARL libraries' catalogs examined the persistence of cataloged URLs. Error rates ranged from a low…

  15. A Method for Visualizing Transaction Logs of a Faceted OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Niu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce a method for visualizing user transaction logs from a library catalog application. Simple visualization supporting intuitive or qualitative analysis to quickly make sense of complicated patterns can be a useful supplement or alternative to more common quantitative analysis. To this end, a visual flowchart is created illustrating an individual user session. This visualization can be used to qualitatively grasp user behavior within the application, possibly as an aid to identifying patterns or clusters of use. These flowcharts are created by automatically pre-processing apache transaction logs into an XML representation of meaningful user actions, which are then converted via JavaScript in a web browser to HTML table based flowcharts. The particular toolkit introduced is named Visualization for Understanding Transaction Logs (VUTL, and is available with an open source license. The toolkit has been prototyped with logs from the catalog applications of several academic and one public library.

  16. Referential Opacity and Hermeneutics in Plato’s Dialogue Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McDonough

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that Plato’s dialogue form creates a Quinean “opaque context” that segregates the assertions by Plato’s characters in the dialogues from both Plato and the real world with the result that the dialogues require a hermeneutical interpretation. Sec. I argues that since the assertions in the dialogues are located inside an opaque context, the forms of life of the characters in the dialogues acquires primary philosophical importance for Plato. The second section argues that the thesis of Sec. I coheres with the claim in Plato’s Seventh Letter that since philosophical truth is incommunicable by means of language it is of primary importance for philosophers to develop proper “schemes of living” (forms of life. Sec. III argues since the forms of life of the characters portrayed in the dialogues is of primary philosophical importance for Plato, and since hermeneutical methods are required to interpret emerging forms of life, Plato’s dialogues are positively crafted to be read hermeneutically. Sec IV argues that Heidegger, who is famous for seeing Plato’s views as antithetical to his own hermeneutical approach, is mistaken, and that Plato’s real views are, in principle, more akin to Heidegger’s views than he thinks.

  17. Pattern of corneal opacity in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ashaye | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence and causes of corneal blindness vary from one region of the world to another. There is even variation within the developing countries of Africa. Method: A retrospective review of 675 patients with corneal scarring out of the 3,753 new patients corneal scarring in patients attending the eye clinic of ...

  18. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the ...

  19. Analysis of OPACITY and PLAID Protocols for Contactless Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    have always revolved around the need to establish identity. An example of this is the use of a library card to allow a library to determine how much...and Privacy [16] L. Francis, K. M. Gerhard Hancke and K. Markantonakis, “Practical relay attack on contactless transactions using nfc mobile phones...90 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 91 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. Dudley Knox Library Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Monterey

  20. Humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease: Computed tomographic features, histopathologic correlation and comparison between survivors and non-survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hee Mang; Lee, Jin Seong; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Jung, Ah Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Cho, Young Ah [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun; Hong, Soo-Jong [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon-Ok [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Se-Jin [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To report radiologic findings with histopathologic correlations of humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease (HD-chILD) and to compare computed tomography (CT) findings between survivors and non-survivors. Forty-seven children with HD-chILD (27.4 ± 12.4 months old) were categorized as survivors (n = 25) and non-survivors (n = 22). The patterns, distributions, and chronological changes in lung lesions at follow-up CT were investigated. Histopathologic correlations were performed in 23 patients. CT features were characterized by chronological changes, from consolidation to centrilobular opacities, and lesions eventually became faint centrilobular nodules. Histopathologic features were bronchocentric-distributed fibro-inflammatory lesions, which were more profound in the advanced stage than the early stage. Consolidation ≥30 % [hazard ratio (HR), 2.932], centrilobular opacities ≥60 % of the total lung volume (TLV; HR, 0.206) and spontaneous air leaks (HR, 3.457) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as per univariate analysis. Consolidation ≥30 % (HR, 3.519), centrilobular opacities ≥60 % (HR, 0.205) and diffuse ground glass opacity (GGO) ≥70 % of the TLV (HR, 3.521) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as determined via multivariate analysis. Distinctive chronological CT features were observed in the HD-chILD images. Spontaneous air leaks, consolidation, GGO, and centrilobular opacities were prognostic factors. (orig.)

  1. Gradual progression of intrapulmonary lymph nodes associated with usual interstitial pneumonia in progressive systemic sclerosis on chest radiographs and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Joon Young; Chung, Myung Hee; Kim, Seon Mun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hyun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A 40 year old female visited the clinic for evaluation of Raynaud's phenomenon for a period of four years. The initial chest radiograph showed a fine reticular density and ground glass opacity with lower lobe predominance. These findings are consistent interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, high resolution CT showed multiple, small, coexisting nodular opacities, ranging from 3 to 7 mm in size in both lungs. These nodules grew up to 1.5 cm and showed moderate enhancement. Because of the rareness of intrapulmonary lymph node in patient of progressive systemic sclerosis, we couldn't exclude the possibility of malignancy. These nodules are turned out to be intrapulmonary lymph nodes on video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy.

  2. Typical and Atypical Manifestations of Intrathoracic Sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Chung, Myung Hee; Song, Sun Wha; Kim, Hyo Lim; Baik, Jun Hyun; Han, Dae Hee [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Jun [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyo Young [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas. The radiological findings associated with sarcoidosis have been well described. The findings include symmetric, bilateral hilar and paratracheal lymphadenopathy, with or without concomitant parenchymal abnormalities (multiple small nodules in a peribronchovascular distribution along with irregular thickening of the interstitium). However, in 25% to 30% of cases, the radiological findings are atypical and unfamiliar to most radiologists, which cause difficulty for making a correct diagnosis. Many atypical forms of intrathoracic sarcoidosis have been described sporadically. We have collected cases with unusual radiological findings associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis (unilateral or asymmetric lymphadenopathy, necrosis or cavitation, large opacity, ground glass opacity, an airway abnormality and pleural involvement) and describe the typical forms of the disorder as well. The understanding of a wide range of the radiological manifestations of sarcoidosis will be very helpful for making a proper diagnosis.

  3. Lipoid pneumonia: computed tomography findings - a case report; Pneumonia lipidica: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada - relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Janos; Martins, Erick Malheiro Leoncio; Pozes, Aline Serfaty; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Fialho, Suzane Mansur [Clinica Radiologica Emilio Amorim, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    The authors report a case of lipoid pneumonia in an 80 year old man with chronic constipation in regular use of mineral oil as a laxative. According to his family, he experienced coughing episodes when he took his medication. He also presented dyspnoea at rest and diminished consciousness levels. Chest radiographs showed a consolidation area in the posterior segment of right upper lobe, which did not change on successive exams. High resolution computed tomography demonstrated low-density consolidation with negative Hounsfield units (-29 to -83 UH) and ground-glass opacities in the right upper lobe and inferior lobes. These opacities predominated in the posterior regions of the lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of oil material on bronchoalveolar washing. The patient was advised to discontinue the ingestion of mineral oil and did not return for follow-up. (author)

  4. HRCT findings of bleomycin-related lung toxicity: a report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jeong Geun; Jang, Won Ho; Yoon, Dae Young; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Many drugs can result in a variety of pathologic reactions in the lung, especially the cytotoxic drugs. Among cytotoxic drugs bleomycin is a prototype. Bleomycin-related pulmonary toxicity is usually known as dose-dependent and can be enhanced with concurrent oxygen therapy, irradiation, or other chemotherapeutic agents. The incidence of bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity has been reported as varying from 2 to 46%, and 1% of fatal lung disease. We describe the radiographic and HRCT findings of bleomycin-related pulmonary toxicity developed in two patients: one in ovarian teratocarcinoma, the other malignant lymphoma patient. Chest radiographs and HRCT of these patients showed ground-glass opacities, consolidation, linear and reticular opacities, and interlobular septal thickening. These abnormalities were bilateral, and symmetrical and were found predominantly in the area of mid- and lower-lung zone.

  5. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults; Usefulness of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Honma, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Masahiko; Honda, Yasuhito; Abe, Shosaku (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)); Igarashi, Tomofumi; Sekine, Kyuichiro

    1993-09-01

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author).

  6. High resolution CT findings of pseudoalveolar sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Eun; Park, Jun Gyun; Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Sang Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hoon; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo [Sungkunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Koun Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyae Young [National Cancer Centar, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    To determine the specific high-resolution CT features of sarcoidosis in which the observed pattern is predominantly pseudoalveolar. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings in 15 cases in which chest radiography demonstrated pseudoalveolar consolidation. In all 15, sarcoidosis was pathologically proven. The distribution and characterization of the following CT features was meticulously scrutinized: distribution and characterization of pseudoalveolar lesions, air-bronchograms, micronodules, thickening of bronchovascular bundles and interlobular septa, lung distortion, ground-glass opacities and combined hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Follow-up CT scans were available in three cases after corticosteroid administration. Between one and 12 (mean, 5.6) pseudoalveolar lesions appeared as dense homogeneous or inhomogeneous opacities 1-4.5 cm in diameter and with an irregular margin located either at the lung periphery adjacent to the pleural surface or along the bronchovascular bundles, with mainly bilateral distribution (n=14, 93%). An air-bronchogram was observed in ten cases. Micronodules were observed at the periphery of the lesion or surrounding lung, which along with a thickened bronchovascular bundle was a consistent feature in all cases. Additional CT features included hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=14, 93%), thickened interlobular septa (n=12, 80%), and ground-glass opacity (n=10, 67%). Lung distortion was noted in only one case (7%). After steroid administration pseudoalveolar lesions decreased in number and size in all three cases in which follow-up CT was available. The consistent HRCT features of pseudoalveolar sarcoidosis are bilateral multifocal dense homogenous or inhomogenous opacity and an irregular margin located either at the lung periphery adjacent to the pleural surface or along the bronchovascular bundles. Micronodules are present at the periphery of the lesion or surrounding lung. The features are reversible administration.

  7. Mixed Herbal Medicine Induced Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Disease: The HRCT and Histopathologic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Shin, Eun A [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joung Sook [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution CT (HRCT) and pathologic findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse interstitial lung disease. Eight patients (6 women and 2 men, age range: 31 to 81 years, mean age: 51.4 years) who presented with cough or dyspnea after taking mixed herbal medicine were included in this study. All the patients underwent plain chest radiography and HRCT. We obtained pathologic specimens from 7 patients via fluoroscopy guided large bore cutting needle biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy. All the patients were treated with steroid therapy. The most common HRCT finding was bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity (n=7), followed by peribronchial consolidation (n=5) and inter- or intralobular septal thickening (n=2). For the disease distribution, the lower lung zone was dominantly involved. The pathologic results of 7 patients were nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n=3), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n=2), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=1) and eosinophilic pneumonia (n=1). Irrespective of the pathologic results, all 8 patients improved clinically and radiologically after steroid treatment. The HRCT findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse infiltrative lung disease were mainly bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity, peribronchial consolidation and dominant involvement of the lower lung zone. Those pathologic findings were nonspecific and the differential diagnosis could include interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eosinophilic pneumonia

  8. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, F; Ono, A; Ando, Y; Nakayama, T; Ishii, H; Hiramatsu, K; Sato, H; Kira, A; Otabe, M; Mori, H

    2013-06-01

    To assess pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Sixty consecutive patients with acute S. milleri pneumonia who had undergone high-resolution CT chest examinations between January 2004 and March 2010 were retrospectively identified. Twenty-seven patients with concurrent infections were excluded. The final study group comprised 33 patients (25 men, 8 women; aged 20-88 years, mean 63.1 years) with S. milleri infection. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, and pleural effusion were evaluated on high-resolution CT. Underlying conditions included malignancy (n = 15), a smoking habit (n = 11), and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). CT images of all patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n = 24), bronchial wall thickening (n = 23), consolidation (n = 17), and cavities (n = 7). Pleural effusion was found in 18 patients, and complex pleural effusions were found in seven patients. Pulmonary infection caused by S. milleri was observed mostly in male patients with underlying conditions such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Niemann-Pick disease type B: HRCT assessment of pulmonary involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Maria Pereira Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze HRCT findings in patients with Niemann-Pick disease (NPD type B, in order to determine the frequency of HRCT patterns and their distribution in the lung parenchyma, as well as the most common clinical characteristics. Methods: We studied 13 patients (3 males and 10 females aged 5 to 56 years. HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal HRCT findings and diagnosis of NPD type B confirmed by histopathological examination of a bone marrow, lung, or liver biopsy specimen. Results: The most common clinical findings were hepatosplenomegaly and mild to moderate dyspnea. The most common HRCT patterns were smooth interlobular septal thickening and ground-glass opacities, which were both present in all patients. Intralobular lines were present in 12 patients (92.3%. A crazy-paving pattern was observed in 5 patients (38.4%, and areas of air trapping were identified in only 1 case (7.6%. Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in all cases, with the most affected area being the lower lung zone. Conclusions: Smooth interlobular septal thickening, with or without associated ground-glass opacities, in patients with hepatosplenomegaly is the most common finding in NPD type B.

  10. Synchrotron tomographic images from human lung adenocarcinoma: Three-dimensional reconstruction and histologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eunjue; Han, Sung-Mi; Chang, Ji-Eun; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Jong-Ki; Seo, Seung-Jun; Chung, Jin-Haeng; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution tomographic images using synchrotron X-rays are expected to provide detailed reflection of microstructures, thereby allowing for the examination of histologic structures without destruction of the specimen. This study aims to evaluate the synchrotron tomographic images of mixed ground-glass opacity excised on 5-mm sections in comparison to pathologic examination. The Institutional Review Board of our institute approved this retrospective study, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient whose lung tissue would be used. Obtained lung cancer specimens were brought to the multiple Wiggler 6C beam line at the Pohang Light Source (PLS-II) in Korea, and phase contrast X-ray images were obtained in November 2016. The X-ray emanated from a bending magnet of the electron storage ring with electron energy of 3 GeV, and a typical beam current was 320 mA. Reconstructed tomographic images were compared with images from histologic slides obtained from the same samples. Pulmonary microstructures including terminal bronchioles, alveolar sacs, and vasculature were identified with phase contrast X-ray images. Images from normal lung tissue and mixed ground-glass opacity were clearly distinguishable. Hyperplasia of the interalveolar septum and dysplasia of microstructure were clearly identified. The imaging findings correlated well with hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens. Tomographic images using synchrotron radiation have the potential for clinical applications. With refinement, this technique may become a diagnostic tool for detection of lung cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN SEDATION AND GENERAL ANESTHESIA FOR HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CANINE IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS IN WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Couvreur, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric; Clercx, Cécile; Verschakelen, Johny; Bolen, Géraldine

    2017-05-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers. Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT) findings for Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis acquired under general anesthesia have been described previously. However, the use of general anesthesia may be contraindicated for some affected dogs. Sedation may allow improved speed and safety, but it is unknown whether sedation would yield similar results in identification and grading of Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lesions. The aim of this prospective, observational, method-comparison, case-control study was to compare findings from T-HRCT images acquired under sedation versus general anesthesia for West Highland white terriers affected with Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 11) and age-matched controls (n = 9), using the glossary of terms of the Fleischner Society and a scoring system. Ground-glass opacity was identified in all affected West Highland white terriers for both sedation and general anesthesia acquisitions, although the Ground-glass opacity extent varied significantly between the two acquisitions (P Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lesions, but not all of them. These differences should be taken into consideration when general anesthesia is contraindicated and sedation is necessary for evaluating West Highland white terriers with Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Tuberous sclerosis diagnosed by incidental computed tomography findings of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Makoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The majority of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia associated with tuberous sclerosis complex is diagnosed with the classical clinical triad of seizures, mental retardation, and skin lesions. We report a rare case of tuberous sclerosis complex with no classical clinical findings, which was diagnosed through incidental computed tomography findings of multiple nodular lesions of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia. Case presentation A chest computed tomography scan of a 51-year-old Japanese woman showed multiple nodular ground-glass opacities that were not seen on chest X-ray. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed. A histological examination demonstrated type II pneumocyte hyperplasia with thickened fibrotic alveolar septa, which was consistent with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging displayed multiple cortical tubers, and abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral renal angiomyolipoma. Our patient was finally diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis complex with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia, although she had no episodes of epilepsy, no skin lesions, and no family history. Conclusions Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia with latent tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple ground-glass opacities.

  13. An approach to the development of interstitial lung disease in dermatomyositis: a study of 230 cases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Geng, Daoying; Xu, Jinhua

    2013-04-01

    : To study the clinical features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with dermatomyositis and factors related to its development. : Clinical records for patients with dermatomyositis were reviewed retrospectively. : Records were analysed for 230 patients (mean follow-up period, 18 months). The prevalence of ILD was 49.6%. The presence of ILD correlated positively with the presence of arthralgia, myoasthenia and cough, but negatively with the presence of Gottron's papules. Patients with ILD had poorer pulmonary function and more frequent positivity for anti-Jo1 antibodies than those without ILD. Patients with ILD characteristically showed linear, patchy, ground-glass opacities and reticular computed tomography (CT) patterns, usually at the bottom or apex of the lung. : Dermatomyositis patients presenting with heliotrope rash, arthralgia, myoasthenia, cough, dysphagia, anti-Jo1 positivity or abnormal lung function were more likely, whereas those presenting with Gottron's papules were less likely, to develop ILD. Characteristic CT patterns in dermatomyositis patients with ILD were lines, patches, ground-glass opacities and reticulation.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations for thermodynamical properties calculations of plasmas at thermodynamical equilibrium. Applications to opacity and equation of state calculations; Apport d'un code de simulation Monte Carlo pour l'etude des proprietes thermodynamiques d'un plasma a l'equilibre et application au calcul de l'elargissement des profils de raies ioniques emises dans les plasmas denses, aux opacites spectrales et aux equations d'etat de systemes fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, D

    2005-07-01

    This report is devoted to illustrate the power of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code to study the thermodynamical properties of a plasma, composed of classical point particles at thermodynamical equilibrium. Such simulations can help us to manage successfully the challenge of taking into account 'exactly' all classical correlations between particles due to density effects, unlike analytical or semi-analytical approaches, often restricted to low dense plasmas. MC simulations results allow to cover, for laser or astrophysical applications, a wide range of thermodynamical conditions from more dense (and correlated) to less dense ones (where potentials are long ranged type). Therefore Yukawa potentials, with a Thomas-Fermi temperature- and density-dependent screening length, are used to describe the effective ion-ion potentials. In this report we present two MC codes ('PDE' and 'PUCE') and applications performed with these codes in different fields (spectroscopy, opacity, equation of state). Some examples of them are discussed and illustrated at the end of the report. (author)

  15. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: Initial results in comparison to HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, U.I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, J.N. [Scott and White Hospital, Texas A and M Health Sciences Center, Temple (United States); Henzler, T. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Buchheidt, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Fink, C. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology, AKH Celle, Celle (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reichert, M. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Material and methods: In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23–77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24 h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6 mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TE < 1 ms (TE/TR 0.8/2.9 ms, slice thickness 2 mm). The VIBE sequence was examined before and after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet). The presence of pulmonary abnormalities, their location within the lung, and lesion type (nodules, consolidations, glass opacity areas) were analyzed by one reader and compared to the findings of HRCT, which was evaluated by a second independent radiologist who served as the reference standard. The findings were compared per lobe in each patient and rated as true positive (TP) findings if all three characteristics (presence, location, and lesion type) listed above were concordant to HRCT. Results: Pulmonary abnormalities were characterized by 3 Tesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were

  16. [Cryptogenic organising pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazor, Romain

    2005-06-01

    Organising Pneumonia (formerly called Bronchiolitis Obliterans with Organising Pneumonia) is a particular form of inflammatory and fibroproliferative lung disease. Its idiopathic form called Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia, was recently defined by an ATS/ERS consensus conference. The disease onset is subacute with cough, dyspnea, fever, asthenia, weight loss, crackles, and elevation of biological inflammatory markers. Bronchoalveolar lavage reveals a mixed alveolitis with elevated lymphocyte, neutrophil, and eosinophil counts. Chest imaging usually shows multifocal alveolar opacities predominating in the subpleural regions, often with a migratory pattern. Lung biopsy reveals budding connective tissue filling the distal airspaces. Diagnosis is established by combining clinical, radiological and histological criteria. Similarities with other disease processes can lead to delayed or erroneous diagnosis. Most patients respond well to corticosteroid therapy. Relapses are frequent but can generally be controlled with moderate doses of prednisone and do not worsen the prognosis. The therapeutic strategy aims at reducing the steroid doses while maintaining an optimal disease control.

  17. Anomalies of Pulmonary Circulation as a Cause of Hemoptysis: A Series of Unusual Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract, called hemoptysis, is a common clinical condition with many potential etiologies. Massive hemoptysis is life threatening and needs urgent intervention. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is a useful non-invasive imaging modality for the initial assessment of hemoptysis. Using MDCT with multiplanar reformatted images has improved the diagnosis and management of hemoptysis by providing a more precise depiction of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries than conventional computed tomography (CT. In 95% of hemoptysis cases, the systemic arterial system is the origin of bleeding and pulmonary vascular anomalies are a rare cause. Among these, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease are well known entities. However, primary anomalies affecting pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum or diseases secondarily affecting the pulmonary vessels are unusual causes. Here we present three cases where patients had pulmonary vascular anomalies causing hemoptysis. These patients had decreased pulmonary arterial pressures leading to bronchial and systemic arterial hypertrophy and development of bronchopulmonary collaterals. Secondary CT signs in the parenchyma and mediastinum (mosaic attenuation, ground glass haze, subpleural interstitial thickening, and hypertrophied bronchial arteries were similar in all patients. Hence, evaluation of the MDCT images for primary abnormality led to the diagnosis.

  18. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after inhalation of a water repellent

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    David Bennett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is unpredictable at the time of diagnosis. Some patients may experience episodes of acute respiratory worsening that have been termed acute exacerbations. A 58-year-old male was admitted to our Emergency Department due to progressive and intense dyspnea and dry cough after accidental inhalation of waterproof’s vapor containing siloxanes. Chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan showed diffuse and bilateral ground glass attenuation, basal predominant reticular abnormalities and subpleural honeycombing. The patient didn’t know that he suffered from IPF and siloxanes’ inhalation triggered an acute exacerbation of his disease. Clinical course after the inhalation was aggressive and, despite steroids and cyclophosphamide therapy, the patient died 3 months after due to a respiratory failure. Inhalation of water repellents has been associated with an acute onset of respiratory symptoms and acute lung injury; usually, however, the prognosis is commonly good with a complete recovery. Our case is an example of an extremely negative reaction probably because of pre-existing and misdiagnosed IPF. Currently, no literature concerning water repellent inhalation as a trigger of acute exacerbation of IPF is available.

  19. Effectiveness of rosiglitazone on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis: Assessed by micro-computed tomography and pathologic scores

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    Jin, Gong Yong; Bok, Se Mi; Han, Young Min [Department of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Ja [Department of Pathology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon-Ha [Department of Radiology, Iksan Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Ri [Department of Internal Medicine and Research Center for Pulmonary Disorders, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Chul, E-mail: leeyc@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Research Center for Pulmonary Disorders, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists exhibit potent anti-fibrotic effects in the lung and other tissues. Recently, micro-computed tomography (CT) has been a useful tool for the investigation of lung diseases in small animals and is now increasingly applied to visualize and quantify the pulmonary structures. However, there is little information on the assessment for therapeutic effects of PPAR{gamma} agonists on the pulmonary fibrosis in mice using micro-CT. This study was aimed to determine the capability of micro-CT in examining the effects of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis. We used a murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis to evaluate the feasibility of micro-CT in evaluating the therapeutic potential of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis, comparing with pathologic scores. On micro-CT findings, ground glass opacity (80%) and consolidation (20%) were observed predominantly at 3 weeks after the instillation of bleomycin, and the radiologic features became more complex at 6 weeks. In bleomycin-instilled mice treated with rosiglitazone, the majority (80%) showed normal lung features on micro-CT. Radiological-pathologic correlation analyses revealed that ground glass opacity and consolidation were correlated closely with acute inflammation, while reticular opacity was well correlated with histological honeycomb appearance. These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis in mice and that the visualization of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis using micro-CT is satisfactory to assess the effects of rosiglitazone. It implies that micro-CT can be applied to evaluate therapeutic efficacies of a variety of candidate drugs for lung diseases.

  20. Comprometimento pulmonar na esclerose sistêmica: revisão de casos Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis: cases review

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    Marcel Koenigkam Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rever e avaliar os padrões de alterações encontrados em exames de imagem de pacientes com comprometimento pulmonar da esclerose sistêmica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram retrospectivamente estudados os exames de radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução de 23 pacientes com esclerose sistêmica. RESULTADOS: Na radiografia simples, o padrão reticular em bases pulmonares foi predominante, tendo sido verificado em 18 pacientes (78,2%. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução evidenciou lesão pulmonar em todos os pacientes estudados, encontrando-se faveolamento em nove pacientes (39,1%, opacidades em vidro fosco associadas a opacidades reticulares em oito (34,7%, predomínio de opacidades reticulares em cinco (21,7% e vidro fosco em um paciente (4,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O padrão de anormalidades tomográficas possui boa correlação com os achados histopatológicos, diferenciando padrões predominantemente inflamatórios de fibróticos, com os padrões inflamatórios estando associados a uma resposta superior ao tratamento. Dessa maneira, observou-se alteração sugestiva de fibrose na maior parte dos casos (faveolamento e opacidades reticulares somando 60,8%, porém com boa parte apresentando padrões sugestivos de processo inflamatório.OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate the patterns of imaging examinations findings of lung disease in patients with systemic sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plain x-rays and high-resolution computed tomography studies of 23 patients with systemic sclerosis were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: At plain x-rays, pulmonary disease with reticular pattern had higher prevalence, appearing in 18 patients (78.2%. High-resolution computed tomography showed lung involvement in the whole group of patients, with honeycombing in nine patients (39.1%, ground-glass opacities associated with reticular opacities in eight patients (34.7%, predominance of reticular opacities in five (21

  1. Therapeutic effects for hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Japanese mushroom (Bunashimeji).

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    Tsushima, Kenji; Furuya, Shino; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yasuo, Masanori; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Kubo, Keishi

    2006-10-01

    Bunashimeji-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis is found among workers who cultivate the mushroom in indoor facilities. An evaluation of protective measures was initiated using the outcomes of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. Twenty-two patients presented with symptoms of HP; all were employed cultivating Bunashimeji mushrooms in indoor facilities. After hospitalization, 6 of 22 patients quit their job to avoid exposure to spores (Avoidance group). Sixteen patients continued to work used a mask for 3 months, and were then divided into two subgroups: Mask alone (seven patients) and mask plus oral prednisolone (Mask + PSL) (nine patients). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum Krebs von der Lungen-6 (KL-6), surfactant protein-D (SP-D), lymphocyte stimulation test (LST), ground-glass scores in chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were assessed before and after treatment. Complete avoidance resulted in a significant decrease in LST. There was a significant decrease after PSL treatment in serum KL-6, SP-D, and total cell counts in the BAL fluid in the Mask + PSL group. In the Mask alone group, serum KL-6, SP-D, ground-glass scores in chest HRCT and total cell counts in BAL fluid showed high levels compared with the other two groups. Complete cessation was the best treatment for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The use of a mask was ineffective for patients with a high serum KL-6 and SP-D concentration and severe ground-glass opacity on chest HRCT. Initial treatment with PSL is recommended for these patients with high levels of total cell counts in BAL fluid.

  2. The relation between the extent of radiological findings and respiratory functions in pneumoconiosis cases of dental technicians who are working in Ankara.

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    Ergün, Dilek; Ergün, Recai; Evcik, Ender; Nadir Öziş, Türkan; Akkurt, İbrahim

    2016-06-01

    In dental technicians, parenchymal changes caused by dust affect pulmonary functions. The evaluation of the relation between radiological scores (chest X-Ray/HRCT) indicating the extent of pulmonary involvement and the severity of functional findings in dental technicians. 440 dental technicians were evaluated with chest X-Ray, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The degree of pulmonary involvement in radiological images was categorized based upon emphysema, the profusion of opacities, ground-glass opacity, honey combing and extent of pleural abnormalities. Mean age of the study population was 34.7 ± 8.5 and mean duration of work was 16.5 ± 7.9 years. The prevalance of Dental technicians' pneumoconiosis (DTP) was 11.1%. The most common opacity in HRCT was round opacity with a rate of 89.7%. The rate of large opacity was %14.3. There was positive correlation between ILO score and HRCT score. Negative correlation was found between ILO and HRCT scores and all pulmonary function tests (except for FEV1/FVC), while no relation was found with age, overall duration of exposure, smoking and the age ofwork onset. In Multiple regression analysis, the extent of pulmonary involvement (HRCT scores) was found to be an independent predictor of functional impairment. Functional parameter reflecting the extent of pulmonary involvement most accurately was (FEV1%). It is our suggestion that radiological measurement should be used along with functional measurements in the evaluation of functional impairment in mixed dust exposed dental technicians.

  3. Septic pulmonary embolism caused by a Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and clinical courses

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    Deng-Wei Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism caused by a Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae liver abscess is rare but can cause considerable morbidity and mortality. However, clinical information regarding this condition is limited. This study was conducted to elucidate the full disease spectrum to improve its diagnosis and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and clinical courses of 14 patients diagnosed with septic pulmonary embolism caused by a K. pneumoniae liver abscess over a period of 9 years. RESULTS: The two most prevalent symptoms were fever and shortness of breath. Computed tomography findings included a feeding vessel sign (79%, nodules with or without cavities (79%, pleural effusions (71%, peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (64%, patchy ground-glass opacities (50%, air bronchograms within a nodule (36%, consolidations (21%, halo signs (14%, and lung abscesses (14%. Nine (64% of the patients developed severe complications and required intensive care. According to follow-up chest radiography, the infiltrates and consolidations were resolved within two weeks, and the nodular opacities were resolved within one month. Two (14% patients died of septic shock; one patient had metastatic meningitis, and the other had metastatic pericarditis. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentations ranged from insidious illness with fever and respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure and septic shock. A broad spectrum of imaging findings, ranging from nodules to multiple consolidations, was detected. Septic pulmonary embolism caused by a K. pneumoniae liver abscess combined with the metastatic infection of other vital organs confers a poor prognosis.

  4. [Pulmonary sarcoidosis imaging].

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    Brillet, P-Y; Nunes, H; Soussan, M; Brauner, M-W

    2011-04-01

    Sarcoidosis is a juvenile systemic granulomatosis. Its polymorphic clinical presentation depends on its different localisations, thoracic and extrathoracic. The role of imaging is very important for all localisations; but for mediastinopulmonary involvement, which is the most frequent (>90% of cases), it plays a major role in detecting the disease, diagnosing it, its prognosis, decision-making regarding treatment of it and in the monitoring of its development. Standard radiography, which sometimes detects the disease, forms the basis for its four-stage prognostic classification. CT scanning enables the study of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy and the study of parenchyma, making it possible to identify micronodules of lymphatic distributions, alveolar opacities, septal lines, ground-glass hyperintensities, nodules surrounded by a ring of satellite micronodules, peribronchovascular thickening; all potentially reversible lesions. Elsewhere, it highlights irreversible fibrous lesions: hilar peripheral linear opacities; septal linear opacities; bronchial distortion, honeycomb destruction or even perihilar fibrotic masses. Less frequently we can visualise bronchiolar or cystic involvement. Benign in most cases, the sarcoidosis prognosis becomes bleaker in the event of hemoptysis, Aspergillus colonisation or before the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Hemoptysis due to breath-hold diving following chemotherapy and lung irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, Markus; Kuschner, Ware G

    2012-08-01

    Breath-hold diving, also known as free-diving, describes the practice of intentional immersion under water without an external supply of oxygen. Pulmonary hemorrhage with hemoptysis has been reported as a complication of immersion and breath-hold diving in young healthy athletes. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a history of radiation and chemotherapy for breast carcinoma, who developed the abrupt onset of hemoptysis in the setting of swimming and breath-hold diving. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest demonstrated an area of ground glass opacification, suggestive of pulmonary hemorrhage, superimposed on a background of reticular opacities within the prior radiation field. A follow-up CT scan of the chest, obtained 2 months after presentation, demonstrated resolution of the ground glass opacification, but persistence of fibrotic features attributable to prior radiation therapy. We postulate that prior irradiation of the chest resulted in lung injury and fibrosis which, in turn, rendered the affected region of the lung susceptible to "stress failure," due to an increase in the transcapillary pressure gradient arising from immersion and breath-hold diving. Patients with a history of lung injury resulting from chest irradiation should be cautioned about pulmonary hemorrhage and hemoptysis as a potential complication of swimming and breath-hold diving.

  6. Accuracy of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

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    Hidalgo, A.; Mauleon, S.; Andreu, J.; Caceres, J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Paseo Vall d' Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Falco, V.; Crespo, M.; Ribera, E.; Pahissa, A. [Department of Medicine, Service of Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Paseo Vall d' Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients HIV-positive and high risk to have PCP. We performed a prospective study in 30 patients with <200 CD4 lymphocytes, clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease and chest X-ray non-conclusive for pulmonary infection. Evaluated CT findings included ground-glass opacities, reticulation, tree-in-bud appearance, consolidation, cystic lesions, bronchiectasis and lymphadenopathies. The diagnosis of ''examination suggestive of PCP'' was applied to cases showing a diffuse or predominant ground-glass pattern in the upper fields, associated or not with reticulations and small cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the diagnosis of PCP was 100, 83.3, 90.5 and 100%, respectively. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was not demonstrated in any of the cases classified as ''examination not suggestive of PCP''. Significant small airway disease was not observed in any of the PCP cases. We conclude that HRCT is a reliable method for differentiating PCP from other infectious processes in HIV-positive patients and a good method to rule our PCP. Its inclusion in the diagnostic algorithm of lung infections is justified in these patients. (orig.)

  7. An unusual presentation of multiple cavitated lung metastases from colon carcinoma

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    Iannace Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidation with or without ground-glass opacity is the typical radiologic finding of lung metastases of adenocarcinoma from the gastrointestinal tract. Lung excavated metastases from gastrointestinal carcinoma are very rare. Case presentation The authors describe an unusual presentation of multiple cavitated lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma and discuss the outcome of a patient. The absence both of symptoms and other disease localizations, the investigations related to different diagnostic hypotheses and the empirical treatments caused a delay in correct diagnosis. Only a transparietal biopsy revealed the neoplastic origin of nodules. Conclusions This report demonstrates that although lung excavated metastases are described in literature, initial failure to reach a diagnosis is common. We would like to alert clinicians and radiologists to the possibility of unusual atypical features of pulmonary metastases from colon adenocarcinoma.

  8. An Adult Case of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Interstitial Pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Ha, Young Eun; Jung, Dong Sik; Cheong, Hae Suk; Wi, Yu Mi; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is characterized by persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, an unusual pattern of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies, detection of the EBV genome in affected tissues or peripheral blood, and chronic illness that cannot be attributed to any other known disease. This is the first reported Korean case of an immunocompetent adult with CAEBV-associated interstitial pneumonitis. A 28-year-old female was admitted with a fever that persisted for 3 weeks. She had multiple lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and elevated serum aminotransferase levels. Serology for antibodies was positive and chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities in both lungs. Histopathology of the lung tissue showed lymphocyte infiltration, and EBV DNA was detected in those lymphocytes using in situ hybridization with an EBV-encoded RNA probe. After 1 month of hospitalization, she improved without specific treatment. PMID:22205850

  9. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or lymphomatoid granulomatosis grade 3: a still-puzzling diagnosis in autopsy

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    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary lung lymphoma is a rare entity accounting for approximately 0.3% of all primary neoplasia of the lung and includes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL and lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG. Considering that clinical features may be similar, whereas epidemiology, morphology, and radiological features are different, the authors report a case of a middle-aged man who presented multiple pulmonary nodules in the lower lobes and ground-glass opacities scattered bilaterally on computed tomography. Clinically, he presented a consumptive syndrome with respiratory failure and pleurisy, which progressed until death. The autopsy findings were consistent with lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG grade 3/ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL. The authors call attention to the difficulty of establishing an accurate diagnosis, mainly when the demonstration of EBV-infected atypical B-cells fails.

  10. [A case of adult onset idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis markedly improved by steroid therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayama, Mami; Hino, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Akio; Otsuka, Shinsaku; Machida, Hisanori; Hatakeyam, Nobuo; Iwahara, Yoshihito; Motoki, Tokuji; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Fumitaka, Ogushi

    2007-12-01

    A case of adult onset idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) was reported. A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of repeated bloody sputum on June 2, 2006. Chest radiograph on admission disclosed diffuse infiltrative shadows in both lung fields, and one month later these shadows became more marked. The chest CT on July 5, 2006 showed patchy areas of ground-glass opacity and consolidation, exhibiting a distinctly peripheral distribution. Bronchoscopic findings revealed oozing bleeding from the orifice of B5 in the right lung and B9 in the left lung. We employed video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for lung biopsy and he as primary IPH was diagnosed clinicopathologically. His symptoms and radiographic findings were markedly improved after steroid therapy, followed by no signs of recurrence. It may be important to establish a definitive diagnosis early, even in IPH, using VATS, for further effective therapy.

  11. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Aspergillus niger--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroo; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Ono, Takahisa; Masuda, Masafumi; Sano, Takehisa; Sato, Masaki; Koshimizu, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2004-07-01

    A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger.

  12. Pulmonary Nodule Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks on Computed Tomography Images

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    Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided detection (CAD systems can assist radiologists by offering a second opinion on early diagnosis of lung cancer. Classification and feature representation play critical roles in false-positive reduction (FPR in lung nodule CAD. We design a deep convolutional neural networks method for nodule classification, which has an advantage of autolearning representation and strong generalization ability. A specified network structure for nodule images is proposed to solve the recognition of three types of nodules, that is, solid, semisolid, and ground glass opacity (GGO. Deep convolutional neural networks are trained by 62,492 regions-of-interest (ROIs samples including 40,772 nodules and 21,720 nonnodules from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC database. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of sensitivity and overall accuracy and that it consistently outperforms the competing methods.

  13. Characteristics of Adenovirus Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee; Jhun, Byung Woo; Kim, Hojoong; Yoo, Hongseok; Park, Sung Bum

    2017-02-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P military personnel.

  14. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by spores of Penicillium citrinum in a worker cultivating Enoki mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Tsushima, Kenji; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Kubo, Keishi; Kumagai, Toshiko; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    A 47-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-week history of dry cough and shortness of breath. She had been engaged in Enoki mushroom production for 22 years. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed bilateral fine-nodular shadows and ground glass opacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated an increase of total cell counts with predominant lymphocytosis. Pathological specimens obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed alveolitis and noncaseating granuloma with giant cells. Lymphocyte stimulation test showed positive responses with Enoki mushroom, culture medium, and Penicillium citrinum. On double immunodiffusion test, a precipitation line was observed between patient's serum and Penicillium citrinum antigen. She was found to have hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Penicillium citrinum. This is the first report of mushroom worker's lung caused by Penicillium citrinum.

  15. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

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    Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rafful, Patricia Piazza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Gláucia [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Rio Preto (FAMERP) and Ultra X, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Marcos Duarte [Department of Imaging, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions.

  16. Medical image of the week: subcutaneous calcification in dermatomyositis

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    Natt B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year old woman was referred to our Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD clinic for evaluation of dyspnea. A high-resolution CT scan of the chest showed perivascular reticular and ground glass opacities with air trapping, consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (Figure 1. She was diagnosed with connective tissue associated ILD. On review of previous images extensive subcutaneous calcifications were seen (Figure 2. Calcinosis is an uncommon manifestation of dermatomyositis in adults (1. It is usually seen around areas of frequent trauma like the hands and elbows. In her case, a pelvic inflammatory disease may have been a trigger for this calcinosis. Calcinosis is a difficult complication to treat with some success seen with diltiazem, aluminum hydroxide, and even alendronate in children. Surgical excision may be required in some cases.

  17. Effect of gravitation for detection of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misao, Takahiko; Minamoto, Kanji; Nakano, Hideharu; Yamane, Masataka; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Katashi

    2005-06-01

    A 64-year-old female was found to have localized ground-glass opacity (GGO) in the middle lobe on a chest computed tomography (CT) for screening. Middle lobectomy with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was undertaken, and pathological diagnosis was a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) in stage IA. A follow-up CT a year following the surgery revealed localized GGO in area S6 of the left lung. However, it disappeared during the gravitation-dependent gradient in the observation period. The patient was scanned again under prone position to exclude the gravitational effect, resulting in definite detection of the GGO. Left extended S6 segmentectomy with VATS was performed, and pathological diagnosis was a BAC in stage IA. As GGO existing in a gravitation-dependent area may be masked by the gravitation-dependent density, a change of the scanning position may lead to a proper detection of the tumor for the diagnosis of BAC.

  18. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Secondary to Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia: A Comparison of AIDS and Non-AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Nakao, Makoto; Kagawa, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Ryota; Sato, Hidefumi; Niimi, Akio

    2018-02-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of dry cough. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse infiltrates and ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung fields. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed alveoli filled with yeast-like fungi. With a diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), he was given oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, to which he responded well. However, seven months later, PCP relapsed. Analyses revealed a low bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.04 and CD4+ lymphocytopenia (250/μL). Despite intensive work-up, we were unable to detect the underlying cause of CD4+ lymphocytopenia; therefore, a final diagnosis of idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia was made.

  19. Crazy-paving sign in high-resolution computed tomography in parainfluenza virus pneumonia

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    Matsuno, Osamu [Department of Respiratory Disease, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano City, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: matsuno@ommc-hp.jp; Hayama, Yoshitomo; Honda, Hidehiro; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Suguru; Ueno, Kiyonobu [Department of Respiratory Disease, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano City, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan); Saeki, Yukihiko [Department of Clinical Research, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano city, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The crazy-paving sign is the appearance of a smooth linear pattern superimposed on an area of ground-glass opacity on thin-section computed tomography (CT). A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of pneumonia. Thoracic CT showed a crazy-paving sign in the right lung field on admission. She received ceftriaxone and clarithromycin, and the symptoms and infiltration shadow promptly disappeared. Serologic testing revealed a greater than 4-fold increase in the IgG titer for parainfluenza virus I. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of the crazy-paving sign in associated with viral pneumonia in a non-immunocompromised host or with parainfluenza pneumonia.

  20. Research on a Pulmonary Nodule Segmentation Method Combining Fast Self-Adaptive FCM and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD of lung cancer is to segment pathologically changed tissues fast and accurately. As pulmonary nodules are potential manifestation of lung cancer, we propose a fast and self-adaptive pulmonary nodules segmentation method based on a combination of FCM clustering and classification learning. The enhanced spatial function considers contributions to fuzzy membership from both the grayscale similarity between central pixels and single neighboring pixels and the spatial similarity between central pixels and neighborhood and improves effectively the convergence rate and self-adaptivity of the algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate segmentation of vascular adhesion, pleural adhesion, and ground glass opacity (GGO pulmonary nodules than other typical algorithms.

  1. Rapid Progression of Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification and Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure and Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Hun; Yoon, Seong Ho [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seonam University College of Medicine, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is common in patients with chronic renal failure. The authors experienced a patient with chronic renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism by parathyroid adenoma accompanied with rapid progressions of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage. Recent chest radiographs, compared with previous chest radiographs, showed rapid accumulation of calcification in both upper lungs. Following up on the high-resolution CT scan after five years demonstrates more increased nodules in size and ground glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with MPC and alveolar hemorrhage by transbronchial lung biopsy. We assumed rapid progression of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage in underlying chronic renal failures could be a primary hyperparathyroidism which may be caused by parathyroid adenoma detected incidentally. Therefore parathyroid adenoma was treated with ethanol injections. Herein, we have reported on CT findings of MPC with alveolar hemorrhage and reviewed our case along with other articles.

  2. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in Wegener's granulomatosis. High-Resolution CT (HRCT) der Lunge bei Wegenerscher Granulomatose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Kiel Univ. (Germany)); Muhle, C. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Kiel Univ. (Germany)); Schnabel, A. (Medizinische Abt., Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt (Germany) Abt. fuer Klinische Rheumatologie, Luebeck Univ. (Germany)); Handrock, K. (Medizinische Abt., Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt (Germany) Abt. fuer Klinische Rheumatologie, Luebeck Univ. (Germany)); Reuter, M. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Kiel Univ. (Germany)); Spielmann, R.P. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Kiel Univ. (Germany)); Gross, W.L. (Medizinische Abt., Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt (Germany) Abt. fuer Klinische Rheumatologie, Luebeck Univ. (Germany)); Heller, M. (Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Kiel Univ. (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    HRCT of the lung and plain chest X-ray were performed to reveal pulmonary manifestation in primary diagnostics or reevaluation of 35 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Pleural and parenchymal pathology was detected in chest X-ray of 20 (57%) and in HRCT of 30 (85,7%) patients. Granulomas with and without cavitations and with smooth or spiculated margins were deemed pathognomonic. Nonspecific findings were infiltrates, thickened interlobular septae and fibrotic changes of parenchyma and pleura. Ground glass opacities, traction bronchiectasis and small cysts were only visible on HRCT. As expected HRCT proved to be more sensitive in detecting subtle lung alterations than plain film chest X-ray. It helps to differentiate acute inflammatory and thus potentially curable processes from chronic fibrotic changes in Wegener's granulomatosis. (orig.)

  3. Pulmonary Wegener`s granulomatosis: changes at follow-up CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attali, P.; Begum, R.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Brauner, M.W. [Department of Radiology, Univ. Paris XIII (France); Valeyre, D. [Department of Pneumology, Univ. Paris XIII (France); Guillevin, L. [Department of Internal Medicine, Univ. Paris XIII (France)

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the reversibility of pulmonary lesions in Wegener`s granulomatosis using serial CT. We reviewed the follow-up CT scans of ten treated patients with confirmed Wegener`s granulomatosis. The delay between the first evaluation before treatment and the second, on patients in clinical and biological remission, ranged from 6 to 54 months (mean 20.5 months). Follow-up CT showed a decrease in the extent of disease in all cases. Lesions disappeared completely, without scarring, in 4 of 4 ground-glass opacities, 25 of 36 nodules, and 4 of 9 pulmonary consolidations; they disappeared with residual scarring in 8 of 8 masses, 3 of 9 pulmonary consolidations, and 2 of 36 nodules. The majority of lesions disappear without scarring. Residual fibrosis may follow the occurence of masses and pulmonary consolidation. Computed tomography permits assessment of cicatricial lesions. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  4. Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease in a patient with follicular lymphoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Aagre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD-20 antigen expressed in more than 90% of all B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. We report a case of 33-year-old female without any comorbidities, newly diagnosed with stage IIIB follicular lymphoma treated with rituximab-based chemotherapy. Patient developed exertional dyspnea and dry cough after the fourth cycle of rituximab-based chemotherapy. Diagnostic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the lungs revealed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD. It was managed successfully with supplemental oxygen and corticosteroids with discontinuation of the Rituximab. Extensive review of the literature did not reveal ample of material on rituximab-induced ILD (RTX-ILD.

  5. Acute lung injury after inhalation of water-proofing spray while smoking a cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinn, Y; Akizuki, N; Ohkouchi, M; Inase, N; Ichioka, M; Marumo, F

    1998-01-01

    A 34-year-old Japanese woman developed acute lung injury soon after inhaling a water-proofing spray which she applied onto her ski suit while smoking a cigarette at the same time. She initially demonstrated arterial hypoxemia (PaO2 = 59 mm Hg) and ground-glass opacities in both lung fields on the CT scan, which both returned to normal without any medication. Several water-proofing sprays, which are easily obtainable in Japan, contain 1,1,1-trichloroethane, liquefied petroleum gas and fluoride resin. Although these components have not been reported to be toxic to the lung yet, high concentrations of these components and/or the pyrolytic products of fluoride resin may have caused acute lung injury in this case.

  6. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome-related lung injury without eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinehara, Yuhei; Kijima, Takashi; Inoue, Koji; Hirata, Haruhiko; Takeuchi, Yoshiko; Fukushima, Kiyoharu; Hayama, Yoshitomo; Higashiguchi, Masayoshi; Morimura, Osamu; Miyake, Kotaro; Minami, Toshiyuki; Nagatomo, Izumi; Takeda, Yoshito; Kida, Hiroshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted in respiratory failure that had subacutely progressed after five weeks of dapsone treatment for a skin rash. He also presented with fever, systemic erythroderma and liver dysfunction. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse reticular shadows with ground-glass opacity and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Lymphocytes, but not eosinophils, were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, reactivation of human herpes virus-6 was confirmed on a paired serum test. Finally, we diagnosed the patient with dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS), a rare adverse event of this drug. Lung injury unaccompanied by eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is even more rare as a DHS-related lung manifestation.

  7. High-resolution computed tomography findings in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis; Paracoccidioidomicose pulmonar - aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Maria Angelica Soares; Magnago, Marcelo; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson; Almeida Junior, Jose Guiomar de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2002-06-01

    Pulmonary disease in paracoccidioidomycosis is very common and in some cases can be the sole manifestation of the disease. We studied the findings observed in 30 patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis submitted to high-resolution computed tomography in order to determine the most frequent findings, presentation patterns and distribution of paracoccidioidomycosis lesions in the lungs. The most frequent findings observed in high-resolution computed tomography were: interlobular septal thickening (96.7%), ground-glass opacities (66.7%), nodules (60%), irregular air-space enlargement (56.7%), bronchial wall thickening (46.7%), pleural thickening (36.7%), tracheal dilatation (33.3%), architectural distortion (30%), air-space consolidation (30%), parenchymal bands (23.3%), intralobular reticulate (13.3%) and hilar interstitial thickening (10%). Chest X-ray allow limited evaluation of diffuse pulmonary diseases, and hence high-resolution computed tomography is an essential method for studying patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  8. Lupus pneumonitis as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: case series from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, S A; Teh, C L; Jobli, A T

    2016-11-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features, treatment and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in our centre who presented with lupus pneumonitis as the initial manifestation. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients who presented with lupus pneumonitis during the initial SLE manifestation from March 2006 to March 2015. Results There were a total of five patients in our study who presented with fever and cough as the main clinical features. All patients had pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiographs. High-resolution computed tomography, which was performed in two patients, showed ground glass opacities with patchy consolidations bilaterally. All patients received high-dose steroids, 80% received intravenous cyclophosphamide and 60% received intravenous immunoglobulin. Two patients died from severe lupus pneumonitis within 2 weeks of admission despite treatment with ventilation, steroids, cyclophosphamide and intravenous immunoglobulin. Conclusions Acute lupus pneumonitis is an uncommon presentation of SLE. Mortality in this case series is 40%.

  9. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by smut spores of Ustilago esculenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yumi; Usui, Yutaka; Konno, Kazunori; Atarashi, Kenichi; Ohtani, Yoshio; Inase, Naohiko; Tanaka, Takehiko; Yoshizawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-04-01

    A 49-year-old woman was admitted with cough, general fatigue, and dyspnea on effort. Her hobby was the Japanese traditional handicraft of lacquer-carving. She sometimes used smut spores of Ustilago esculenta, pronounced as "Makomozumi"on lacquer ware. The chest radiographs showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and small centrilobular nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage yielded a marked number of lymphocytes as well as total cell counts and a low CD4 +/CD8 + ratio. The transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and non-necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas. The results of provocation test by Makomozumi were positive. Serum tests of the specific antibody against extracted soluble antigens of smut spores were positive. The peripheral lymphocyte proliferation test, performed with Mokomozumi antigens was also positive. The final diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by smut spores of fungus Ustilago esculenta.

  10. Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Osimertinib for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) T790M-positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiya; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Norio; Sawa, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Naoki; Suzumura, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Mitsuoka, Shigeki; Asai, Kazuhisa; Kimura, Tatsuo; Yoshimura, Naruo; Kuwae, Yuko; Hirata, Kazuto

    2017-09-01

    A 75-year-old man with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was treated with osimertinib due to disease progression despite having been administered erlotinib. Both an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) L858R mutation on exon 21 and a T790M mutation on exon 20 were detected in a specimen from a recurrent primary tumor. Five weeks after osimertinib initiation, he developed general fatigue and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography scan revealed diffuse ground glass opacities and consolidation on both lungs. An analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed marked lymphocytosis, and a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen showed a thickened interstitium with fibrosis and prominent lymphocytic infiltration. We diagnosed the patient to have interstitial lung disease induced by osimertinib.

  11. Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Vali Khojeini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBL is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that resides in the lumen of blood vessels. Patients typically present with nonspecific findings, particularly bizarre neurologic symptoms, fever, and skin lesions. A woman presented with shortness of breath and a chest CT scan showed diffuse interstitial thickening and ground glass opacities suggestive of an interstitial lung disease. On physical exam she was noted to have splenomegaly. The patient died and at autopsy was found to have an IVLBL in her lungs as well as nearly all her organs that were sampled. Although rare, IVLBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung disease and this case underscores the importance of the continuation of autopsies.

  12. A Case of Yellow Nail Syndrome Accompanying Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia; Successful Treatment with Clarithromycin, Methylprednisolone, and Alpha-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz Kara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old woman presented with complaints of dyspnea, fatigue, and non-productive cough. Chest X-ray showed bilateral lung infiltrates. Nonspecific air-space consolidation on anterior segment of the right lower lobe, bilateral bronchiectasis and infiltrates, patchy ground-glass opacities, and interstitial thickening were reported on thorax computed tomography which was non-responsive to antibiotics. After tru-cut biopsy which only revealed a single granuloma in a particular area, alveolar septal thickening and fibrosis, slight chronic inflammation with findings of congestion, lung involvement was considered to be associated with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The nails on all fingers displayed yellow discoloration with mild edema in the face and the legs. The final diagnosis was yellow nail syndrome. Short-term clarithromycin and long-term oral methylprednisolone with vitamin E treatment were successful. After 4 months, all components of the syndrome almost completely regressed.

  13. Acute Respiratory Failure due to Alveolar Hemorrhage after Exposure to Organic Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is associated with severe outcomes. We report a case of acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation and was clinically and pathologically diagnosed as DAH related to exposure to organic dust. A 39-year-old man, who had visited a warehouse to grade beans for purchase, was referred to our hospital for impending respiratory failure. His initial radiographic examinations revealed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities in his lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in progressively bloodier returns, which is characteristic of DAH. He underwent bedside open lung biopsy of his right lower lobe in the intensive care unit. Biopsy results revealed DAH and organization with accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and a few fibroblastic foci. The patient was treated with empirical antibiotics and high-dose corticosteroids and successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. DAH might be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute respiratory failure after exposure to organic particles.

  14. Extent and computed tomography appearance of early radiation induced lung injury for non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Lübeck Christiansen, Rasmus; Asmussen, Jon Thor

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study investigates the extent and appearance of radiologic injury in the lung after radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and correlates radiologic response with clinical and dosimetric factors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible follow-up CT...... scans acquired up to six months after radiotherapy were evaluated for radiologic injuries in 220 NSCLC patients. Radiologic injuries were divided into three categories: (1) interstitial changes, (2) ground-glass opacity, or (3) consolidation. The relationship between the fraction of injured lung of each...... category and clinical or dosimetric factors was investigated. RESULTS: Radiological injuries of category 1-3 were found in 67%, 52%, and 51% of the patients, and the mean (and maximum) fraction of injured lung was 4.4% (85.9%), 2.4% (46.0%), and 2.1% (22.9%), respectively. Traditional lung dose metrics...

  15. Congenital surfactant protein B deficiency - emphasis on imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kuhn, J.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Buffalo Children' s Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Kramer, S.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Carcillo, J.A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Background and objectives. Surfactant protein B deficiency has become increasingly recognized as a cause of severe prolonged respiratory distress. Little has been written about the imaging appearance and the role of imaging in diagnosis. Materials and methods. Three newborn infants with severe respiratory distress exhibited prolonged diffuse pulmonary opacification radiographically. Results. Diffuse ground-glass opacity and markedly prominent interlobular septa suggesting alveolar proteinosis were present on early thin-section chest computed tomographic (CT) images. Fibrotic changes with prominent interlobular septal thickening were present on a later CT. Surfactant protein B deficiency was confirmed by alveolar lavage and peripheral blood DNA analysis. Conclusion. Thin-section chest CT imaging contributes important information when this diagnosis is considered. (orig.)

  16. Pulmonary Nodule Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks on Computed Tomography Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Dazhe; Wang, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Computer aided detection (CAD) systems can assist radiologists by offering a second opinion on early diagnosis of lung cancer. Classification and feature representation play critical roles in false-positive reduction (FPR) in lung nodule CAD. We design a deep convolutional neural networks method for nodule classification, which has an advantage of autolearning representation and strong generalization ability. A specified network structure for nodule images is proposed to solve the recognition of three types of nodules, that is, solid, semisolid, and ground glass opacity (GGO). Deep convolutional neural networks are trained by 62,492 regions-of-interest (ROIs) samples including 40,772 nodules and 21,720 nonnodules from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of sensitivity and overall accuracy and that it consistently outperforms the competing methods. PMID:28070212

  17. Medical image of the week: CREST plus ILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva I

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old female with a history of fibromyalgia presented with dyspnea and skin changes, predominantly on the hands. Physical exam and imaging showed classic findings of limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (scleroderma CREST syndrome. Calcinosis cutis (Figure 1A, Raynaud’s (not shown but endorsed by the patient, Esophageal dysmotility (Figure 1B, dilated esophagus, Sclerodactyly (Figure 1C, and Teleganectasias (Figure 1D were all present. Ground glass opacities were seen predominantly in the bilateral lower lung zones, associated with increased reticular markings (Figure 2A, and traction bronchiectasis (Figure 2B. Pulmonary involvement is noted in the majority of scleroderma patients. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is common and often portends a poor prognosis.

  18. Pemetrexed induced pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pemetrexed is an antifolate chemotherapy agent that is active in malignant mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Pneumonitis is a rare side effect of Pemetrexed. We report the case of 72-year-old female with metastatic poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma. She was placed on maintenance pemetrexed and developed gradual progressive dyspnea after first cycle of maintenance of pemextrexed. The computed tomography (CT of the chest showed ground glass opacity in both lung fields. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed uniform interstitial widening by a cellular chronic infiltrate with areas of type II pneumocyte and exudation of pale eosinophilic edema fluid; features consistent with acute lung injury. Patient improved both clinically and radiological after stopping pemetrexed and starting prednisone. Although pemetrexed induced lung injury is relatively rare, with the increasing use of pemetrexed in first-line treatment and in maintenance therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, awareness of this potential adverse effects is important.

  19. High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2017-05-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)

  20. Medical image of the week: asbestosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strawter C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 76-year-old man with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and an unspecified industrial-related asbestos exposure presented to the hospital after a syncopal episode and a ground level fall. A computed tomography (CT of the chest was performed on admission which revealed several abnormalities including multiple bilateral calcified pleural plaques, pleural thickening, peripheral groundglass opacities (GGO in the nondependent portion of the lungs and subpleural reticular and band like opacities. The patient unfortunately developed alcohol withdrawal and aspiration pneumonia requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and was unable to provide additional details regarding his lung disease. Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral that historically was praised for its versatility. Its properties including heat and electrical resistance, tensile strength, and insulating capabilities made it a common component in materials used in both commercial and domestic settings. Exposure to asbestos is linked to numerous respiratory diseases, including pleural and parenchymal disease, both ...

  1. Ultrafast CT scoring system for assessing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Reproducibility and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Jun; Ohki, Yasushi; Inoue, Tomio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Jun; Morikawa, Akihiro; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Sakurai, Minako; Shigeta, Makoto

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the Ultrafast CT (UFCT) scoring system and assess its usefulness in monitoring clinical severity in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). UFCT scoring was done in 22 infants (15 boys and 7 girls aged 1 to 37 months) with BPD. A total of 258 lung fields were evaluated for the presence of hyperaeration, linear opacities, triangular subpleural opacities, and bronchovascular bundle distortion or thickening, and UFCT scores were given. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement and reproducibility of UFCT scores were statistically analyzed. In 12 patients, UFCT scores were linearly correlated with clinical severity scores based on respiratory dysfunction and complexity of care. `Hyperaeration,` which was the most frequent (18 of 22, 81.8%) finding, showed high concordance ({kappa}=0.73, p<0.001, {kappa}=0.59, p<0.001), and its UFCT scores significantly correlated with intraobserver and interobserver analyses (r=0.94, p<0.001, r=0.82, p<0.001, respectively). UFCT scores for hyperaeration significantly correlated with clinical scores (r=0.75, p<0.01), whereas those for the others did not. UFCT is useful for assessing BPD. Hyperaeration was the most common and reproducible finding, and its extent significantly correlated with clinical severity. (author)

  2. Usual interstitial pneumonia and chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: analysis of CT appearance in 92 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Johkoh, Takeshi; Ichikado, Kazuya; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Tateishi, Ukihide; Hiramatsu, Tetsuo; Inoue, Atsuo; Natsag, Javzandulam; Ikemoto, Minako; Mihara, Naoki; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Hamada, Seiki; Nakamura, Hironobu; Müller, Nestor L

    2006-10-01

    To retrospectively analyze computed tomographic (CT) findings of chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and to determine which findings are most helpful for distinguishing IIP from usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) with univariate and multivariate analyses. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were not required for this retrospective review of patient records and images. Two observers working independently and without knowledge of the diagnosis evaluated the extent and distribution of various thin-section CT findings (ground-glass opacity, consolidation, reticulation, and honeycombing) in 92 patients (51 men, 41 women; mean age, 56 years; age range, 29-81 years) with a histologic diagnosis of UIP (n = 20), cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) (n = 16), fibrotic NSIP (n = 16), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) (n = 11), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) (n = 15), or lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) (n = 14). Observers used univariate and multivariate statistical analyses to compare their findings with the extent and distribution of UIP. Observers made the correct diagnosis in 145 (79%) of 184 readings. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the independent findings that distinguished UIP from cellular NSIP were the extent of honeycombing and the most proximal bronchus with traction bronchiectasis (odds ratio, 5.16 and 0.37, respectively); the finding that distinguished UIP from fibrotic NSIP was the extent of honeycombing (odds ratio, 2.10). CT features that distinguished UIP from RB-ILD and DIP included extent of ground-glass opacity (odds ratio, 0.76), thickening of bronchovascular bundles (odds ratio, 1.58), the most proximal bronchus with traction bronchiectasis (odds ratio, 0.22), and the number of segments with traction bronchiectasis (odds ratio, 3.64). UIP has a characteristic appearance that usually facilitates distinction from other types of

  3. Embolization of a Bronchial Artery Aneurysm in a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patient with Non-Massive Hemoptysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Ignazio; Cavallaro, Marco; Visalli, Carmela; Velo, Mariano; Barbaro, Ugo; Galletta, Karol; Andò, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is a rare condition with a reported prevalence of less than 1% of all selective bronchial arterial angiograms. Despite its low incidence, BAA represents a potential cause of hemoptysis. We describe the case of a 63-year-old man suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who presented with non-massive hemoptysis. CT angiography revealed a single bronchial artery aneurysm of 9 mm in diameter, abutting the esophageal wall. Other CT findings included hypertrophy of the bronchial arteries along the mediastinal course, diffuse thickening of the walls of numerous bronchial branches and a "ground glass" opacity in the anterior segment of the right upper pulmonary lobe suggestive of alveolar hemorrhage. The final diagnosis was established based on selective angiography, which was followed by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of the BAA and of the pathological bronchial circulation. Follow-up CT scans revealed a total exclusion of the aneurysm from the systemic circulation, resolution of the parenchymal "ground glass" opacity and absence of further episodes of hemoptysis over a period of two years. An incidental finding of a bronchial artery aneurysm necessitates prompt treatment. CT angiography and TAE represent the methods of choice for an appropriate diagnosis and treatment, respectively. In case of a BAA associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as COPD, in patients with hemoptysis, TAE of the BAA and of the pathological bronchial circulation, in association with the treatment of the underlying disease, represents a valid approach that can improve the pulmonary status and prevent further episodes of hemoptysis.

  4. Differential Chest Computed Tomography Findings of Pulmonary Parasite Infestation Between the Paragonimiasis and Nonparagonimiatic Parasite Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yu-Il; Lee, Jee Hyeon; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Yun-Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the chest computed tomography findings of parasite infestation regardless of pathogen and to compare the differential findings between paragonimiasis and nonparagonimiatic parasite infestation (NPPI). Between January 2008 and November 2011, 75 patients (46 men; 52.9 ± 14.1 years) with serologically proven parasite infestation and available chest computed tomography images were evaluated. Computed tomography images of 40 patients with paragonimiasis and 35 patients with NPPI (13 with sparganosis, 12 with toxocariasis, 8 with cysticercosis, and 2 with clonorchiasis) were assessed for the presence or absence of pleural abnormalities, consolidation, cavitary lesions, aggregated cysts, worm-migration tracts, and pure ground-glass opacity. Findings associated with consolidation were further assessed for characteristics including size, perilesional ground-glass opacity, presence of perilesional centrilobular nodules, and internal low attenuation, and multisegmentality and bilaterality were assessed for all patients. In both groups, the most common pleural abnormality was pleural effusion (42.5% in paragonimiasis vs 22.9% in NPPI, P = 0.09), and the most common pulmonary abnormality was consolidation (82.5% vs 80.0%, P = 1.00). Multisegmentality (35% vs 42.9%, P = 0.64) and bilaterality (55.0% vs 60%, P = 0.82) of pleuropulmonary lesions were often observed in both groups. Internal low attenuation, perilesional centrilobular nodules, cavitary lesions, and worm-migration tracts were more frequently found in the paragonimiasis group (P ≤ 0.05). The presence of internal low attenuation and perilesional centrilobular nodules associated with pulmonary consolidative lesions, along with cavitary lesions and worm-migration tracts, is more frequent in patients with paragonimiasis than in patients with NPPI.

  5. [Radiographic and computed tomographic manifestations of chest in patients with acute chlorine gas poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-juan; Huang, De-jian; Wang, Zhong-qiu; Wang, Zheng-ge; Chang, Shuang-hui; Wu, Zheng-can

    2010-10-26

    To investigate the radiographic and computerized tomographic features of chest in patients with acute chlorine poisoning and its diagnostic value. Twenty-eight cases of chlorine poisoning were reviewed. And their radiographic and computerized tomographic features were compared and analyzed. Radiographic findings: among 28 patients, 9 cases were normal and 2 cases had no abnormalities on the first chest X-ray and became abnormal one or two days later. And there were abnormal findings in first chest X-ray in 17 patients:acute tracheal inflammation of peribronchitis (n = 3), acute chemical bronchopneumonia (n = 6) and diffuse interstitial and central pulmonary edema (n = 8). CT manifestations: At Days 1-3, the patients of mild poisoning had scattered patchy dense shadow; those of moderate to severe poisoning showed multiple patchy or diffuse infiltration (ground-glass opacity). And partial consolidation, air bronchogram and pleural effusion could be observed. At Days 4-10, the manifestations of mild poisoning were largely absorbed; those of moderate to severe poisoning manifested the absorption of diffuse or multiple patchy effusion and a fading of shadow. And the size of lung consolidation became smaller than before. At Day 10 after onset, 4 patients completely recovered. At Days 30-40, 6 cases showed traces of fibrous shadow and one case showed small punctiform opacities in both lungs. And at Day 42, there was slight ground-glass change. Acute chlorine gas poisoning in varying degrees may manifest acute bronchial pneumonia and acute pulmonary edema. During treatment, a series of chest X-ray examinations will help to follow the changes of disease. And CT examination can offer a more accurate evaluation of lung lesions.

  6. Foucault’s Statement in Context: opacity of discourse versus conceptual determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The significance of negativity as a way for conceptual determination in Hegelian dialectics is well-known. Authors such as Gilles Deleuze have underlined, on the other hand, how this notion of (dialectical negativity is incompatible with a Nietzschean perspective of interplay of forces and affirmation of difference. There is here a real distension (rather than a distinction — a fissure enabling one to think what connects and inevitably dissociates rationalistic and deconstructive philosophical perspectives on language. In this fissure it is constituted, for instance, the space of dispersion of the so-called Foucaultian statements (énoncés, the focus of his archeology. This essay addresses the context in which the Foucaultian notion of énoncé emerges. It does so by criticizing first the dialectical notion of negativity. It then considers some semiological notions used by post-structuralist authors, such as plethora of signs and floating signifier. In a third moment, examples are taken from a literary work, Vitor Ramil’s Pequod, in order to illustrate more concretely our discussion.

  7. Acquisition of Chinese Quadra-Syllabic Idiomatic Expressions: Effects of Semantic Opacity and Structural Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Hin Tat, Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Idiomatic expressions pose substantial learning difficulties for learners across languages and tend to be acquired later in the course of language development both in L1 and L2. A number of factors have been identified as contributing to this difficulty. However, cross-linguistic studies on figurative language acquisition are still rare. The…

  8. The Extragalactic Background Light and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Krennrich, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is one of the fundamental observational quantities in cosmology. All energy releases from resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources, and the light from any truly diffuse background, excluding the cosmic microwave background (CMB), contribute to its intensity and spectral energy distribution. It therefore plays a crucial role in cosmological tests for the formation and evolution of stellar objects and galaxies, and for setting limits on exotic energy releases in the universe. The EBL also plays an important role in the propagation of very high energy gamma-rays which are attenuated en route to Earth by pair producing gamma-gamma interactions with the EBL and CMB. The EBL affects the spectrum of the sources, predominantly blazars, in the approx 10 GeV to 10 TeV energy regime. Knowledge of the EBL intensity and spectrum will allow the determination of the intrinsic blazar spectrum in a crucial energy regime that can be used to test particle acceleration mechanisms and VHE gamma-ray production models. Conversely, knowledge of the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum and the detection of blazars at increasingly higher redshifts will set strong limits on the EBL and its evolution. This paper reviews the latest developments in the determination of the EBL and its impact on the current understanding of the origin and production mechanisms of gamma-rays in blazars, and on energy releases in the universe. The review concludes with a summary and future directions in Cherenkov Telescope Array techniques and in infrared ground-based and space observatories that will greatly improve our knowledge of the EBL and the origin and production of very high energy gamma-rays.

  9. Femtosecond laser-assisted sutureless anterior lamellar keratoplasty for superficial corneal opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Hashemian, Hesam; Khodaparast, Mehdi; Ghadimi, Hadi; Khalilipour, Elias

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes, endothelial cell count (ECC), ocular surface changes, corneal aberrations, and biomechanical profile changes after femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery for superficial corneal scars. Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Prospective case series. Patients with superficial corneal scars had femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Visual and refractive results, ECC, ocular surface changes, corneal aberrations, and biomechanical profiles were assessed preoperatively and for 1 year postoperatively. Nineteen eyes (19 patients) were evaluated. A significant decline occurred in refractive astigmatism and corneal astigmatism after 1 year. There was a nonsignificant reduction in corneal hysteresis and the corneal resistance factor from preoperatively to 1 year postoperatively. The corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOP) and Goldmann-correlated IOP increased during the follow-up; the increase was not significant. A statistically insignificant reduction in the root mean square for trefoil and spherical aberrations occurred between 1 month and 1 year postoperatively (P=.1 and P=.4, respectively). The decreases in primary coma and total higher-order aberrations approached significance (P=.08 and P=.07, respectively). There were no significant changes in the central corneal thickness, ECC, or ocular surface parameters. No intraoperative complications occurred. Femtosecond laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty was an efficient and safe procedure for improving the quality of vision in patients with anterior corneal pathology, and the results remained stable during the 1-year follow-up. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaphylaxis followed by unilateral lung opacity and hypocomplementemia in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorovic, Branimir; Milosevic, Katarina; Rsovac, Snezana; Nikolic, Aleksandra

    2013-11-01

    A 36-year-old woman was stung in the right wrist by a bee, suffered typical anaphylaxis, and was transferred to a local hospital. After a few hours, which corresponded to late-onset reaction, she developed shortness of breath and weakness and was transferred to the emergency department, where the diagnosis of anaphylaxis was confirmed. Serum complement levels, components C3 and C4, were undetectable. Flexible bronchoscopy excluded lung hemorrhage. She was on the ventilator for 4 days and was fully awake during that time. After the treatment, her improvement was rapid, and she fully recovered. Three weeks after she had been stung by a bee, skin prick tests to bee, wasp, and yellow jacket venom were done, and all tests came back negative as well as IgE and IgG4 antibodies to the same venoms. Coagulation factors and the complement, including C1q inhibitor, were normal. Occurrence of complement activation and consumption could point to the immune complexes as basis of pathophysiological mechanism. It remains unclear why such a reaction would involve only the right lung and why no detectable immune complexes were discovered. The clinical picture in the presented case resembled acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the exact nature of lung consolidation remains puzzling. The most likely explanation is a very rare case of airway obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of anaphylaxis associated with undetectable serum complement levels. The potential role and diagnostic significance of hypocomplementemia in cases of anaphylaxis should be further investigated.

  11. Dust coagulation and fragmentation in molecular clouds. II. The opacity of the dust aggregate size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C.W.; Min, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/277318416; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Dominik, C.; Paszun, D.

    2011-01-01

    The dust size distribution in molecular clouds can be strongly affected by ice-mantle formation and (subsequent) grain coagulation. Following previous work where the dust size distribution has been calculated from a state-of-the art collision model for dust aggregates that involves both coagulation

  12. Lightweight, high-opacity paper : process costs and energy use reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Fabienne. Pianta; Mathew L. Stroika; Marguerite. Sykes; Freya. Tan; Said. AbuBakr

    1999-01-01

    Fiber loading is an environmentally friendly, energy efficient, and economical method for depositing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) partly within pulp fibers. Fiber loading can easily be done within the existing pulp processing system. This paper is a review of the process development from bench-scale to industrial-scale demonstrations, with additional...

  13. Value-added mechanical pulps for light weight, high opacity paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerite. Sykes; John. Klungness; Freya. Tan; Said M. Abubakr

    1998-01-01

    Brightness, strength, economy, and paper machine runnability are common concerns of pacemakers who use virgin or recycled fiber furnishes. Fiber loadining, a process that precipitates calcium carbonate partially inside the fiber lumen, is a cost-effective technology that could substantially upgrade mechanical pulp furnishes. This study demonstrates the optical and...

  14. smoke opacity in a HSDI diesel engine fuelled with palm oil biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Agudelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un estudio experimental evaluando las prestaciones mecánicas, las emisiones de óxidos de nitrógeno (NOx y la opacidad de humos de un motor diesel de alta velocidad e inyección directa operando con biodiesel de palma puro. Las pruebas se llevaron a cabo en un motor de automoción montado en un banco de ensayos y operando bajo condiciones estacionarias. Como línea base o combustible de referencia se tomó combustible diesel convencional. Los resultados indican que la utilización del biodiesel de palma, operando el motor a condiciones de plena carga, condujo a una disminución de potencia entre 10% y 17% y a un aumento en el consumo de combustible entre 14% y 22%. A plena carga y bajos regímenes de giro se midió un incremento en los óxidos de nitrógeno en torno a 20%. Sin embargo, bajo las mismas condiciones de carga y altas velocidades del motor se obtuvo una disminución del 6%. A carga parcial siempre se obtuvieron incrementos en las emisiones de NOx al usar biodiesel de palma, siendo más pronunciado el efecto a bajo régimen de giro. Por su parte, la opacidad de humos disminuyó significativamente (entre 40% y 80% independiente del grado de carga. De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, el uso del biodiesel de aceite puro de palma disminuyó la potencia entregada por el motor, aumentó el consumo de combustible, incrementó ligeramente la eficiencia, disminuyó siempre la opacidad de humos, y disminuyó o aumentó las emisiones de óxidos de nitrógeno dependiendo del modo de operación del motor.

  15. Adopting the ritual stance: The role of opacity and context in ritual and everyday actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitány, Rohan; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Rituals are a pervasive and ubiquitous aspect of human culture, but when we naïvely observe an opaque set of ritual actions, how do we come to understand its significance? To investigate this, across two experiments we manipulated the degree to which actions were ritualistic or ordinary, and whether or not they were accompanied with context. In Experiment 1, 474 adult participants were presented with videos of novel rituals (causally opaque actions) or control actions (causally transparent) performed on a set of objects accompanied with neutral-valance written context. Experiment 2 presented the same video stimuli but with negative and aversive written context. In both experiments ritualized objects were rated as physically unchanged, but more 'special' and more 'desirable' than objects subjected to control actions, with context amplifying this effect. Results are discussed with reference to the Ritual Stance and the Social-Action hypothesis. Implications for both theories are discussed, as are methodological concerns regarding the empirical investigation of ritual cognition. We argue that causally opaque ritual actions guide the behavior of naïve viewers because such actions are perceived as socially normative, rather than with reference to supernatural intervention or causation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous mapping of Titan's surface albedo and aerosol opacity from Cassini/VIMS massive inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltagliati, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Sotin, C.; Cornet, T.; Rannou, P.; Le Mouelic, S.; Solomonidou, A.; Coustenis, A.; Brown, R.

    2015-10-01

    Titan still lacks information on the cartography of its surface albedo, due to the complications linked to the treatment of the atmospheric contributions on surface observations. We present in this paper the results of our massive inversion method that we developed to treat Cassini/VIMS h yperspectral data of Titan. Our minimization procedure is based on look-up tables (LUTs) we create from a state-of-the-art radiative transfer (RT) model[1]. This allows us to decrease the computational time by a factor of several thousands with respect to the standard radiative transfer applications. We will present the improvements on the RT modeling thanks to the acquisition of new information on Titan's aerosol properties and our results for the simultaneous mapping of Titan's surface albedo and aerosol abundance in some regions of interest.

  17. The opacity of reduction: nutritional black-boxing and the meanings of nourishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consolidating technical and historically contingent ideas about nourishment into seemingly straightforward terms such as vitamins and minerals. I study the adoption of scientific principles of abstraction and reduction as a strategy of nutrition education in

  18. Conical targets and pinch confinement for inertial fusion: Opacity calculations of plasmas by using parametric potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, P.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Eliezer, S.; Piera, M.; Chacon, L. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    Conical microducts and minithrottles can be used to accelerate micropellets of fusionable fuel up to very high speeds ({approx}10{sup 8} cm/s). The central collision of two pellets flying in opposite directions can produce a hot plasma where fusion reactions are triggered. The main drawback of this scheme is the short confinement time provided by the external guide tube (throttle). To obtain high yield, an extra force of confinement is advisable. In this paper, the performance of fuel implosions within conical targets and the effect of ultrashort magnetic fields and pinch forces are analyzed. Although very high currents are needed to stretch the confinement time, modern technologies based on pulse-power machines and fast discharges induced by ultrashort lasers can provide a solution to this problem. (Author).

  19. Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in interventional cardiology. The O'CLOC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Sophie; Bertrand, Alexandre; Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Lab. of Epidemiology

    2010-07-01

    Interventional cardiologists are repeatedly and acutely exposed to scattered ionizing radiation (X-rays) during their diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. These exposures may cause damages to the eye lenses and induce early cataracts known as radiation-induced cataracts. The O'CLOC study is an ongoing epidemiological study designed to test the hypothesis of an increased risk of cataract among interventional cardiologists as compared with unexposed cardiologists. This paper summarizes a detailed article on the O'CLOC study protocol that has been published elsewhere. (orig.)

  20. Dal record al dato. Linked data e ricerca dell’informazione nell’OPAC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Iacono

    2013-12-01

    In this paper the author explores the possibility the new record deconstructed and connected with the other data on the Web is able to facilitate the creation of knowledge in the use of the catalogue. The author then analyzes the potential of application of linked data to the catalogue with regards to the capabilities for research, the new possibilities of semantic search and the ways to access bibliographic data.

  1. Evaluation of New Jersey Route 18 OPAC/MIST traffic-control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Conventional traffic-control strategies have limitations in handling unanticipated traffic demands. An adaptive traffic-signal control is expected to mitigate this problem and improve overall system performance. Furthermore, with the increasing needs...

  2. 77 FR 8160 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    .... Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low... checks, daily status indicator checks, quarterly performance audits, annual zero alignment audits, and... consensus standards. J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority...

  3. 75 FR 8249 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Opacity Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... based on (i) visual observations conducted pursuant to methods approved by the U.S. Environmental... protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  4. Beyond OPAC 2.0: Library Catalog as Versatile Discovery Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Sierra; Joseph Ryan; Markus West

    2007-01-01

    North Carolina State University has developed an Application Programming Interface (API) “platform”, called CatalogWS, to provide web service access to catalog search and availability services. This project was motivated by the realization that the discovery of library collections should not be limited to a single catalog application, and such a platform could support the efficient creation of novel interfaces based on consistent services. Some technical discussion of the CatalogWS architectu...

  5. Single Nodula opacity of granulomatous Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumoniain an asymptomatic lymphoma patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Shin, Kyung Eun; Lee, Ju Hie [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The radiologic findings of a single nodule from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) have been rarely reported. We described a case of granulomatous PJP manifesting as a solitary pulmonary nodule with a halo sign in a 69-year-old woman with diffuse large B cell lymphoma during chemotherapy. The radiologic appearance of the patient suggested an infectious lesion such as angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis or lymphoma involvement of the lung; however, clinical manifestations were not compatible with the diseases. The nodule was confirmed as granulomatous PJP by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery biopsy.

  6. COSMIC REIONIZATION ON COMPUTERS. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM SLOPES AND DUST OPACITIES IN HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu [Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: zimu@uchicago.edu, E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting ultraviolet (UV) and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are not fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.

  7. Lumican Regulates Collagen Fibril Assembly: Skin Fragility and Corneal Opacity in the Absence of Lumican

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarti, Shukti; Magnuson, Terry; Lass, Jonathan H.; Jepsen, Karl J.; LaMantia, Christian; Carroll, Heidi

    1998-01-01

    Lumican, a prototypic leucine-rich proteoglycan with keratan sulfate side chains, is a major component of the cornea, dermal, and muscle connective tissues. Mice homozygous for a null mutation in lumican display skin laxity and fragility resembling certain types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. In addition, the mutant mice develop bilateral corneal opacification. The underlying connective tissue defect in the homozygous mutants is deregulated growth of collagen fibrils with a significant proportion...

  8. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  9. Opacity and Mass Emission Relationship in Forging Areas of Large Caliber Metal Parts Facilities,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    defined by a simplified expression of the Beer - Lambert Law: I = Ioe-xCL (2) where C = particle concentration in terms of mass per unit volume a an...to/ I/MO (14 I: ) 3240 fri L,’ 7/ , 1110 3’.0 Corp. I ’go. -lhss I.irs.r-irepC et Ilin 1 ,- .ai.4 ,O to’ bill -! -: 11r, tl f-.1n-i IJ doir.’ iot it

  10. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Hence, in order to meet the envi- ronmental legislations, it is highly desirable to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas. 275 .... (i) Hot EGR: Exhaust gas is recirculated without being cooled, resulting in increased intake ... is mounted on the inlet pipe between the air filter and the inlet manifold of the engine as shown in ...

  11. Beyond OPAC 2.0: Library Catalog as Versatile Discovery Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Sierra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available North Carolina State University has developed an Application Programming Interface (API “platform”, called CatalogWS, to provide web service access to catalog search and availability services. This project was motivated by the realization that the discovery of library collections should not be limited to a single catalog application, and such a platform could support the efficient creation of novel interfaces based on consistent services. Some technical discussion of the CatalogWS architecture is provided, including a technical description of web service protocols implemented. Several applications providing discovery in novel contexts have already been developed based on CatalogWS, and are described in some depth. CatalogWS has helped create a culture of experimentation and enabled a larger group of staff to work with library catalog data and services in new and interesting ways.

  12. Stromal opacity secondary to preservative in dilating drops – A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhiusudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This patient is a 64-year-old man who presented with painless progressive blurring of vision for one year. After a routine fundoscopy preceded by dilatation of both eyes with a drop of topical tropicamide, the left eye was noted to have stromal edema temporally. This was attributed to the preservative (BAC in the medication. The stromal oedema persisted over the following weeks despite administration of a topical steroid, and was associated with deterioration in visual acuity to 6/30 (PH 6/21. This case reminds us that clinicians should be vigilant during instillation of any preservative-containing drops, even in routine practices like dilatation. Far from being restricted to chronic use of preservative-containing drugs, toxicity with BAC can occur even upon a single application. Ideally, all eyedrops should be single-use topical drug formulations, but in the absence of this option, it is imperative that ophthalmic drug prescription be done with adequate clinical justification.

  13. Human-Computer Interfaces and OPACs: Introductory Thoughts Related to INNOPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Helen K.

    1991-01-01

    Human-computer interface design concepts are used as the criteria for evaluating the benefits and shortcomings of San Diego State University Library's online catalog, INNOPAC (the PAC). Features discussed include integrated files, search capabilities, system availability, user interface, record-to-record links, boolean operations, subject access,…

  14. A polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer to characterize millimeter-wavelength filters and measure the atmospheric opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrusca, D.; Velázquez de La Rosa, M.; Hughes, D. H.; Devlin, M.; Swetz, D.

    2005-12-01

    We will shortly complete the testing of a cryogenic (1.8K) total-power sky monitor which will measure the temporal fluctuations of the sky brightness at millimeter wavelengths. In this article we outline the development of a polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) that can characterize the spectral response of our mm-wavelength filters and entire optical system. Since the FTS will be portable, we can also measure the seasonal changes in the atmospheric transmission windows above Sierra Negra (the GTM site). These data will influence the design of submillimeter and millimeter filters for future GTM instruments.

  15. 77 FR 13977 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lula H. Melton, U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality...; telephone number: (919) 541-2910; fax number: (919) 541-0516; email address: melton.lula@epa.gov...

  16. 77 FR 13997 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...: Ms. Lula H. Melton, U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Assessment... number: (919) 541-2910; fax number: (919) 541-0516; email address: melton.lula@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  17. 77 FR 8209 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lula H. Melton, U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and...: melton.lula@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Why is the EPA issuing this proposed rule? This...

  18. 77 FR 18709 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...: Ms. Lula H. Melton, U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Assessment... number: (919) 541-2910; fax number: (919) 541-0516; email address: melton.lula@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  19. Pulmonary involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome: an analysis of CT, clinical, and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chong, Semin; Chung, Myung Jin; Yi, Chin A.; Kim, Ha Young [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Man Pyo [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joungho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-12-15

    We tried to assess retrospectively thin-section CT findings of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) in 25 patients and to compare these findings with clinical and histopathologic findings. Of 25 patients, 19 (76%) had parenchymal abnormalities at CT; small nodules (n = 12; 63%), ground-glass opacity (n = 10; 53%), bronchial wall thickening (n = 10; 53%), and consolidation (n = 8; 42%). Parenchymal abnormalities (n = 19) were categorizable as an airway pattern in 11 and an airspace pattern in eight. Patients with an airway pattern (n = 5) had obstructive (n = 3) or combined (n = 2) PFT results, whereas those with an airspace pattern (n = 4) had restrictive (n = 3) or obstructive (n = 1) results. Parenchymal opacities at CT corresponded histologically to areas of eosinophilic pneumonia, necrotizing granulomas, and granulomatous vasculitis; small nodules to eosinophilic bronchiolitis and peribronchiolar vasculitis; and bronchial wall thickening to airway wall eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltration. Patients with airspace pattern responded more readily to treatment than those with airway pattern. CT shows lung parenchymal abnormalities in about three-quarters of CSS patients and these abnormalities can be categorized as airspace or airway patterns. This classification helps predict PFT data, underlying histopathology, and treatment response. (orig.)

  20. Can acute interstitial pneumonia be differentiated from bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia by high-resolution CT?

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    Mihara, Naoki; Johkoh, Takeshi [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Ichikado, Kazuya (and others)

    2000-10-01

    In the early stages, clinical and chest radiographic findings of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) are often similar to those of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). However, patients with AIP have a poor prognosis, while those with BOOP can achieve a complete recovery after corticosteroid therapy. The objective of this study was to identify differences in high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings between the two diseases. The study included 27 patients with AIP and 14 with BOOP who were histologically diagnosed [open-lung biopsy (n=7), autopsy (n=17), transbronchial lung biopsy (n=17)]. The frequency and distribution of various HRCT findings for each disease were retrospectively evaluated. Traction bronchiectasis, interlobular septal thickening, and intralobular reticular opacities were significantly more prevalent in AIP (92.6%, 85.2%, and 59.3%, respectively) than in BOOP (42.9%, 35.7%, and 14.3%, respectively) (p<0.01). Parenchymal nodules and peripheral distribution were more prevalent in BOOP (28.6% and 57.1%, respectively) than in AIP (7.4% and 14.8%, respectively) (p<0.01). Areas with ground-glass attenuation, air-space consolidation, and architectural distortion were common in both AIP and BOOP. For a differential diagnosis of AIP and BOOP, special attention should be given to the following HRCT findings: traction bronchiectasis, interlobular septal thickening, intralobular reticular opacities, parenchymal nodules, pleural effusion, and peripheral zone predominance. (author)

  1. Effect of iterative reconstruction on image quality of low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarani, Antonio; Martini, Chiara; Gafa', Veronica; Bini, Paola; Silva, Mario; Ghetti, Caterina; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2016-09-13

    To assess quality and radiologists' preference of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) or Iterative Reconstruction. Thin-section LDCTs (1-mm thick contiguous images; 120 kVp; 30 mAs) of 38 consecutive unselected patients, evaluated for various clinical indications, were reconstructed by four different reconstruction algorithms: FBP and Sinogram-AFfirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) with three different strengths, from 2 to 4 (i.e. S2, S3, S4). The image noise was recorded. Two thoracic radiologists visually compared both anatomic structures (interlobular septa, lung fissures, centrilobular artery, bronchial wall, and small vessels) and lung abnormalities (intralobular reticular opacities, nodules, emphysema, cystic lung disease, decreased-attenuation areas related to constrictive obliterans bronchiolitis, patchy ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and bronchiectasis) using a qualitative four-point scale grading system of the image quality. A lower amount of noise was recorded for LDCTs reformatted with any SAFIRE algorithm, as compared to FBP (P Iterative reconstructions showed lower image noise but did not provide any real improvement for the radiologists' evaluation of thin-section LDCT of the lung.

  2. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography; Alteracoes pulmonares intersticiais na leishmaniose visceral: avaliacao pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

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    Costa, Norma Selma Santos; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite. The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. The most common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur in the secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  3. Pleural fluid characteristics of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ki-Eun; Song, Hyo-Yeop; Jung, Jae-Wan; Oh, Su-Jin; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Park, Do-Sim; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis produces no specific symptoms or radiologic findings, allowing for the possibility of misdiagnosis. We evaluated the specific clinical and pleural fluid features of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiologic characteristics of 20 patients diagnosed with pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis between 2001 and 2011. In total, 17 patients presented with respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea (30%), hemoptysis (20%), cough (20%), and pleuritic chest pain (15%). Chest radiographs revealed intrapulmonary parenchymal lesions, including air-space consolidation (30%), nodular opacities (20%), cystic lesions (15%), ground-glass opacities (10%), and pneumothorax (5%). A pleural fluid examination revealed eosinophilia, low glucose levels, and high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in 87%, 76%, and 88% of the patients, respectively. These traits helped to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis from other pleural diseases such as parapneumonic effusion, malignancy, and pleural tuberculosis. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis is often initially misdiagnosed as other pleural diseases. Therefore, it is important to establish the correct diagnosis. In patients with unexplained pleural effusion living in paragonimiasis-endemic areas, pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis should be examined to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis. When marked eosinophilia, high LDH levels, and low glucose levels are identified in pleural fluid, physicians could consider a diagnosis of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis.

  4. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

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    Yu Hui [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Sato, Yoko [Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Shinzato, Takashi [Nakagami General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Fujita, Jiro, E-mail: fujita@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Li, Huiping [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  5. Squalene aspiration pneumonia in children: radiographic and CT findings as the first clue to diagnosis

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    Lee, Kyoung Ho [Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Joon Beom [Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea); University of Ulsan, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    The diagnosis of squalene aspiration pneumonia in children is often difficult because of minimal non-specific symptoms. To investigate the radiological findings of squalene aspiration pneumonia in children. We reviewed the chest radiographs (n=8) and CT scans (n=), including high-resolution CT (n=3), of eight patients (four boys, four girls; age 3 months to 6 years) with squalene aspiration pneumonia. All patients presented minimal symptoms. Chest radiographs showed right-sided predominantly parahilar infiltrations. The extent and the opacity of the lesions decreased slowly during the follow-up period (mean 5.4 months) after halting the exposure. On CT, affected areas appeared as dense consolidations surrounded by ground-glass opacities showing a crazy-paving pattern in a geographic lobular distribution in all patients. The lesions were predominantly in the right lung and dependent areas in all patients and extensively involved all pulmonary lobes in five patients. These radiological findings, although non-specific, can lead to an appropriate diagnosis, particularly when patients present few symptoms. (orig.)

  6. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João Rocha; Marques, Ricardo; Serra, Paula; Cardoso, Leila

    2017-09-07

    Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare histological pattern of interstitial lung disease. The authors describe a 60-year-old woman admitted to the hospital for sustained fever, presenting with an alveolar opacity on chest X-ray, with the presumed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and the onset of antibiotics. Since serological results suggested that Legionella pneumophila was the infectious agent, she was discharged on levofloxacin. A week later, she was again admitted with fever. CT scan showed opacities with crescentic morphology and a central ground-glass area suggestive of cryptogenic organising pneumonia. Microbiological, serological and autoimmunity tests were negative. She underwent surgical lung biopsy that revealed inflammatory infiltrate, macrophage desquamation, fibroblasts proliferation and fibrin deposition in the alveolar spaces, consistent with AFOP. She started corticotherapy with good response. Disease relapsed after prednisolone discontinuation, 10 months later. Currently, the patient is on prednisolone 5 mg/day without clinical and radiological recurrence. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Edoxaban Therapy

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    Kenichi Nitta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main adverse effect of anticoagulant therapy is bleeding, and major bleeding, including intracranial, gastrointestinal, and retroperitoneal bleeding, has been reported as an adverse effect of edoxaban, a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC. Bleeding during systemic anticoagulation with edoxaban presents a therapeutic conundrum, because there is currently no safe or efficacious reversal agent to stop major bleeding. Case Report. A 51-year-old woman had multiple traumatic injuries, including lower limb fractures. On day 8, she developed deep venous thrombosis, and edoxaban was administered orally. On day 38, she developed fungemia, which was treated with an antifungal drug. On day 43, she presented with dyspnea. Chest computed tomography scan showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities in the whole lung fields. The results of the subsequent workup (i.e., serum levels of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, antinuclear antibody, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibody and microbiological study were unremarkable. Based on these findings, her condition was diagnosed as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH associated with edoxaban therapy. The lung opacities disappeared spontaneously after edoxaban therapy was discontinued. Conclusion. DAH is a dangerous complication associated with edoxaban therapy. DOACs, including edoxaban, should be prescribed with caution, especially for patients in a critical condition.

  8. Sarcoidosis and multiple myeloma: Concurrent presentation of an unusual association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature on concurrent association of sarcoidosis with lymphoproliferative malignancies other than lymphoma e.g. multiple myeloma is meager. The rarity of the situation prompted us to report this patient who was a 51-year-old woman with a 2-years history of breathlessness, cough with expectoration, chest pain and backache. Initial evaluation revealed mild anemia, increased alkaline phosphatase with chest skiagram showing both lower zone non homogenous opacities with calcified hilar lymph nodes. CECT chest showed mediastinal with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, parenchymal fibrosis, traction bronchiectasis, ground glass opacities, septal and peribronchovascular thickening affecting mid and lower lung zones bilaterally. MRI Dorsolumbar spine was suggestive of marrow infiltrative disorder. EBUS FNA of intrathoracic nodes, EBB and TBLB confirmed sarcoidosis. PET CT revealed hyper metabolic activity in lung, multiple lymph nodes and lytic bone lesions. Serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation revealed a monoclonal paraprotein, immunoglobulin IgG kappa type. Bone marrow biopsy revealed an increase in plasma cells (15%, but no granulomas. Diagnosis of Indolent or multiple myeloma with sarcoidosis was established. 12 cases of sarcoidosis and multiple myeloma have been reported in literature, and mostly preceding the onset of multiple myeloma by many years, in our case both were diagnosed concurrently.

  9. Lung imaging during acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: computed tomography patterns and diagnostic accuracy of bedside chest radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Deux, Jean-François; Habibi, Anoosha; Abidi, Nour; Godeau, Bertrand; Adnot, Serge; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Rahmouni, Alain; Galacteros, Frederic; Maitre, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The lung computed tomography (CT) features of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease patients is not well described, and the diagnostic performance of bedside chest radiograph (CR) has not been tested. Our objectives were to describe CT features of ACS and evaluate the reproducibility and diagnostic performance of bedside CR. We screened 127 consecutive patients during 166 ACS episodes and 145 CT scans (in 118 consecutive patients) were included in the study. Among the 145 CT scans, 139 (96%) exhibited a new pulmonary opacity and 84 (58%) exhibited at least one complete lung segment consolidation. Consolidations were predominant as compared with ground-glass opacities and atelectasis. Lung parenchyma was increasingly consolidated from apex to base; the right and left inferior lobes were almost always involved in patients with a new complete lung segment consolidation on CT scan (98% and 95% of cases, respectively). Patients with a new complete lung segment consolidation on CT scan had a more severe presentation and course as compared with others. The sensitivity of bedside CR for the diagnosis of ACS using CT as a reference was good (>85%), whereas the specificity was weak (lung bases. The reproducibility and diagnostic capacity of bedside CR were far from perfect. These findings may help improve the bedside imaging diagnosis of ACS.

  10. Corticosteroids and Azathioprine Do Not Prevent Radiation-Induced Lung Injury

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    Eva Kwok

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a man who presented with dyspnea and a dry cough six weeks after mediastinal radiotherapy for malignant thymoma is described. The patient was on prednisone (30 mg/day and azathioprine (100 mg/day throughout the course of radiation. The respiratory difficulties developed as the dose of prednisone was gradually decreased to 20 mg/day postradiation. Chest x-ray showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Computed tomography scan of the thorax confirmed bilateral ground glass opacities, with well-defined lateral margin on the right side corresponding to the field of radiation. However, the airspace opacities extended beyond the radiation field into the periphery of the lungs together with mild airway dilation on the left side compatible with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar lavage performed on the nonirradiated area showed an intense lymphocytosis. No cause of BOOP other than radiation was found. Treatment with high dose corticosteroids (80 mg/day resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement, and resolution of chest x-ray abnormalities. Focal mediastinal radiation therapy may induce diffuse lung injury including BOOP. In addition, the concurrent use of moderate dose prednisone and azathioprine during the periradiotherapy period does not prevent the development of either BOOP or classic radiation pneumonitis.

  11. Diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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    Alireza Hosseinnezhad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man known case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL presented with fever and weakness. He had never received any treatment for his CLL in the past. On admission he was found to be in mild respiratory distress with bilateral crackles and had markedly elevated white blood count (WBC (137 K/uL with 93% lymphocytes. His respiratory status deteriorated necessitating noninvasive ventilatory support. Chest computed tomography (CT scan revealed bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities, so broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was initiated. Despite that, he remained febrile and cultures were all negative. Chest x-rays showed progressive worsening of diffuse alveolar opacities. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was negative for infectious etiologies, however flow cytometry of the fluid was consistent with CLL. Chemotherapy with chlorambucil was started. Although most of the pulmonary infiltrates in CLL patients are due to infectious causes, leukemic cells infiltration should be considered as well in CLL patients with respiratory symptoms who do not respond appropriately to standard antimicrobial regimen.

  12. Clinical features and radiological findings of adenovirus pneumonia associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome: A single center study in 19 adult patients

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    Cha, Min Jae; Chong, Semin [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; KIm, Tae Jung; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Jung Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To describe radiologic findings of adenovirus pneumonia and to understand clinico-radiological features associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with adenovirus pneumonia. This study included 19 patients diagnosed with adenovirus pneumonia at a tertiary referral center, in the period between March 2003 and April 2015. Clinical findings were reviewed, and two radiologists assessed imaging findings by consensus. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Student's t tests were used for comparing patients with and without subsequent development of ARDS. Of 19 patients, nine were immunocompromised, and 10 were immunocompetent. Twelve patients (63%) progressed to ARDS, six of whom (32%) eventually died from the disease. The average time for progression to ARDS from symptom onset was 9.6 days. Initial chest radiographic findings were normal (n = 2), focal opacity (n = 9), or multifocal or diffuse opacity (n = 8). Computed tomography (CT) findings included bilateral (n = 17) or unilateral (n = 2) ground-glass opacity with consolidation (n = 14) or pleural effusion (n = 11). Patients having subsequent ARDS had a higher probability of pleural effusion and a higher total CT extent compared with the non-ARDS group (p = 0.010 and 0.007, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in clinical variables such as patient age and premorbid condition. Adenovirus pneumonia demonstrates high rates of ARDS and mortality, regardless of patient age and premorbid conditions, in the tertiary care setting. Large disease extent and presence of pleural effusion on CT are factors suggestive of progression to ARDS.

  13. Humane metapneumovirus (HMPV) associated pulmonary infections in immunocompromised adults—Initial CT findings, disease course and comparison to respiratory-syncytial-virus (RSV) induced pulmonary infections

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    Syha, R., E-mail: roland.syha@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Beck, R. [Institute of Medical Virology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Elfriede-Authorn-Str. 6, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Hetzel, J. [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Otfried-Müller-Str. 10, 72070 Tübingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Grosse, U.; Springer, F.; Horger, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: To describe computed tomography (CT)-imaging findings in human metapneumovirus (HMPV)-related pulmonary infection as well as their temporal course and to analyze resemblances/differences to pulmonary infection induced by the closely related respiratory-syncytial-virus (RSV) in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: Chest-CT-scans of 10 HMPV PCR-positive patients experiencing pulmonary symptoms were evaluated retrospectively with respect to imaging findings and their distribution and results were then compared with data acquired in 13 patients with RSV pulmonary infection. Subsequently, we analyzed the course of chest-findings in HMPV patients. Results: In HMPV, 8/10 patients showed asymmetric pulmonary findings, whereas 13/13 patients with RSV-pneumonia presented more symmetrical bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Image analysis yielded in HMPV patients following results: ground-glass-opacity (GGO) (n = 6), parenchymal airspace consolidations (n = 5), ill-defined nodular-like centrilobular opacities (n = 9), bronchial wall thickening (n = 8). In comparison, results in RSV patients were: GGO (n = 10), parenchymal airspace consolidations (n = 9), ill-defined nodular-like centrilobular opacities (n = 10), bronchial wall thickening (n = 4). In the course of the disease, signs of acute HMPV interstitial pneumonia regressed transforming temporarily in part into findings compatible with bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Conclusions: Early chest-CT findings in patients with HMPV-related pulmonary symptoms are compatible with asymmetric acute interstitial pneumonia accompanied by signs of bronchitis; the former transforming with time into bronchitis and bronchiolitis before they resolve. On the contrary, RSV-induced pulmonary infection exhibits mainly symmetric acute interstitial pneumonia.

  14. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease as the Presenting Manifestation of Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishant; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; Fischer, Aryeh; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung diseases, especially lymphoproliferative disorders such as follicular bronchiolitis and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, are commonly seen in association with Sjögren syndrome. Although the predominant computed tomographic (CT) findings in patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia/follicular bronchiolitis include poorly defined centrilobular nodules and ground-glass attenuation, cystic changes can be seen in approximately two-thirds of these patients. The objective of this study was to define the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of cyst-predominant lymphoid interstitial pneumonia/follicular bronchiolitis in patients with Sjögren syndrome. We present four patients who were referred to our institution with diffuse cystic changes on chest CT imaging. All four had a presumptive diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis but were subsequently found to have Sjögren syndrome. The diagnosis was established based on the clinical symptoms of xerostomia and xerophthalmia along with serologic detection of antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SSA)/Ro antibodies, and anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen B (SSB)/La antibodies. The cystic pattern associated with Sjögren syndrome had a characteristic appearance on chest CT images. Typical features included a wide variation in cyst size, internal structure within cysts, geographic simplification of parenchymal architecture producing a "dissolving lung appearance," perivascular and often basilar-predominant distribution, and frequent association with ground-glass opacities and nodules. In a compatible clinical context, we submit that these findings can be sufficiently distinctive to obviate the need for lung biopsy, even in the absence of confirmatory serological studies or lip biopsy. Clinicians should consider occult Sjögren syndrome in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with idiopathic diffuse cystic lung disease.

  15. Serial chest CT findings in interstitial lung disease associated with polymyositis-dermatomyositis

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    Bonnefoy, Olivier; Ferretti, Gilbert; Calaque, Olivier; Coulomb, Max; Begueret, Hugues; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Laurent, Francois E-mail: francois.laurent@chu-bordeaux.fr

    2004-03-01

    Objective: A retrospective study was carried out in two institutions to determine serial changes in the pattern, distribution, and extent of interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with polymyositis (PM)-dermatomyositis (DM) using HRCT. Subjects and methods: Twenty patients with PM-DM and clinical suspicion of ILD who underwent at least two serial HRCT examinations were retrospectively evaluated by two readers. Patients were classified according to the dominant CT pattern which was correlated with clinical evolution and underlying histology when available (n=6). Results: Patients were classified into four groups according to the dominant pattern: ground-glass attenuation and reticulation (group 1, n=9); honeycombing (group 2, n=4); airspace consolidation (group 3, n=4), and normal or almost normal lung (group 4, n=3). Under medical treatment, serial HRCT showed that the extent of areas of ground-glass opacities (group 1) decreased in five patients, stabilized in two, and increased in two. Pathologic findings demonstrated usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in two cases and unspecified interstitial pneumonia in one. In group 2, extent of honeycombing increased in three cases and stabilized in one. In group 3, dramatic resolution of airspace consolidation occurred in three cases. Clinical deterioration with extensive consolidation at CT and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) at histology occurred in one patient of each of the three previous groups. Lesions stayed invisible or progressed slightly in the fourth group. Conclusion: In ILD associated with PM-DM, clinical deterioration and DAD in the follow-up can be observed whatever the HRCT pattern. However, unfavorable evolution is constant when honeycombing is present at the initial CT.

  16. CT-morphological characterization of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in immune-compromised adults; Morphologische Charakterisierung und Verlaufsbeurteilung von Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Pneumonien bei immunkompromittierten Erwachsenen in der Thorax-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.L.; Kauczor, H.U. [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Lehners, N.; Egerer, G. [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Internal Medicine V of Hematology, Oncoloy and Rheumatology; Heussel, C.P. [Thoracic Hospital at Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine

    2014-07-15

    Characterization and follow-up evaluation of chest CT of RSV pneumonia in immune-compromised adults during a seasonal epidemic. Retrospective analysis of 132 chest CT examinations of 51 adult immune-compromised patients (29 m/22f, diameter 58 years) with clinical signs of pneumonia and positive RSV test in winter 2011/2012. Two experienced chest radiologists evaluated the morphology (bronchial wall thickening, tree-in-bud, nodules, halo, ground-glass opacities, consolidations, pleural fluid) of the CT scans by consensus. Pathological findings were in 86 % of the chest CT scans: Areas of ground-glass attenuation in 64 %, consolidations in 56 %, nodules in 55 % (diameter 8 mm in maximal diameter, with halo in 71 %), pleural fluid in 44 % (diameter 2 cm), tree-in-bud in 36 %, bronchial wall thickening in 27 % and more than one morphological finding in 72 %. There were no pathological CT findings in 14 % of patients with clinical symptoms of pneumonia because these patients did not undergo follow-up. Radiological progression was found in 45 % of patients and regression in 33 % in follow-up examinations. In 37 % an additional examination of the paranasal sinuses was performed and showed sinusitis in 63 % of cases. 90 % of the patients had sinusitis as well as pneumonia. In addition to RSV, a further pathogenic agent was found in bronchoalveolar lavage of five patients (Aspergillus spec., herpes simplex virus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The most characteristic signs in chest CT scans were at the beginning of pneumonia with nodules and tree-in-bud often combined with bronchial wall thickening. The following CT scans showed characteristic but not pathognomonic chest CT findings of RSV pneumonia. These morphological findings should be recognized seasonally (winter) especially at the beginning of the case of pneumonia. RSV-associated additional sinusitis is probably common and should be noticed.

  17. Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen: An unusual presentation of a common tumor

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    Adrienne E Moul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting as a primary lung disease is rare. We present a 52-year-old male with a 3-month history of cough, shortness of breath, and weight loss with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a primary lung disease: Bilateral interstitial and alveolar opacities with blunting of the costophrenic angles, multiple diffuse foci of consolidations and nodules, predominantly subpleural and located in the lower lobes, and diffuse interlobular septal thickening and peribronchial thickening. The patient underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was obtained. Cytospin smears were diagnostic for a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Clinically, the patient had elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels greater than 5,000 ng/mL. Because of this, immunocytochemistry for PSA was performed which was positive, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. This unusual case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate first diagnosed by BAL highlights the significance of available clinical information and the use of immunocytochemistry for proper diagnosis.

  18. Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii: findings on computed tomography of the chest

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    Mogami, Roberto; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Marca, Patricia Gomes Cytrangulo de, E-mail: agnaldolopes.uerj@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Goldenberg, Telma; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    Objective: To describe the main tomography findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium kansasii. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of computed tomography scans of 19 patients with pulmonary infection by M. kansasii. Results: Of the 19 patients evaluated, 10 (52.6%) were male and 9 (47.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range, 33-76 years). Computed tomography findings were as follows: architectural distortion, in 17 patients (89.5%); reticular opacities and bronchiectasis, in 16 (84.2%); cavities, in 14 (73.7%); centrilobular nodules, in 13 (68.4%); small consolidations, in 10 (52.6%); atelectasis and large consolidations, in 9 (47.4%); subpleural blebs and emphysema, in 6 (31.6%); and adenopathy, in 1 (5.3%). Conclusion: There was a predominance of cavities, as well as of involvement of the small and large airways. The airway disease was characterized by bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis presenting as centrilobular nodules. (author)

  19. Medical image of the week: septic pulmonary emboli misdiagnosed as metastatic disease

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    Dandachi D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 54-year-old previously healthy man presented with acute onset of left-sided, sharp pleuritic chest pain and dry cough. He denied having fever, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, or unintentional weight loss. Review of system was positive for bright blood per rectum for the last year. He had a root canal procedure done 3 weeks prior to presentation. His is a 30 pack-year smoker, drinks alcohol occasionally, but denied any IV drug use. On admission, he was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. Clinical examination was positive for fecal occult blood test. CBC revealed WBC of 12,800/mm3 and his hemoglobin was11.9 g/dL. Thoracic CT scan with contrast was negative for pulmonary embolism, but showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules suspicious for malignancy (Figure 1. The left upper lobe showed a subpleural 2.4 x 1.5 cm rounded opacity and emphysematous changes. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed folds in the stomach but was otherwise unremarkable...

  20. Imaging Characteristics of Driver Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and ALK among Treatment-Naïve Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma.

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    Jangchul Park

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the computed tomography characteristics of treatment-naïve patients with lung adenocarcinoma and known driver mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK. Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIB-IV and known mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK were assessed. The radiological findings for the main tumor and intra-thoracic status were retrospectively analyzed in each group, and the groups' characteristics were compared. We identified 265 treatment-naïve patients with non-small-cell carcinoma, who had EGFR mutations (n = 159, KRAS mutations (n = 55, or ALK rearrangements (n = 51. Among the three groups, we evaluated only patients with stage IIIB-IV lung adenocarcinoma who had EGFR mutations (n = 126, KRAS mutations (n = 35, or ALK rearrangements (n = 47. We found that ground-glass opacity at the main tumor was significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to ALK-positive patients (p = 0.009. Lymphadenopathy was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.003. Extranodal invasion was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and KRAS-positive patients (p = 0.001 and p = 0.049, respectively. Lymphangitis was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.049. Pleural effusion was significantly less common among KRAS-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026, respectively. Lung metastases were significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to KRAS-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conclusion, EGFR mutations were associated with ground-glass opacity, KRAS-positive tumors were generally solid and less likely to metastasize to the lung and pleura, and ALK-positive tumors tended to present with lymphadenopathy, extranodal

  1. Tomographic findings of acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Giassi, Karina; Costa, Andre Nathan; Apanavicius, Andre; Teixeira, Fernando Bin; Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar; Helito, Alfredo Salim; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib

    2014-11-25

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human zoonosis, and is generally benign in most of the individuals. Pulmonary involvement is common in immunocompromised subjects, but very rare in immunocompetents and there are scarce reports of tomographic findings in the literature. The aim of the study is to describe three immunocompetent patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis and their respective thoracic tomographic findings. Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. From 2009 to 2013, three patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute toxoplasmosis. The patients were two female and one male, and were 38, 56 and 36 years old. Similarly they presented a two-week febrile illness and progressive dyspnea before admission. Laboratory tests demonstrated lymphocytosis, slight changes in liver enzymes and high inflammatory markers. Tomographic findings were bilateral smooth septal and peribronchovascular thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (100%), atelectasis (33%), random nodules (33%), lymph node enlargement (33%) and pleural effusion (66%). All the patients improved their symptoms after treatment, and complete resolution of tomographic findings were found in the followup. These cases provide a unique description of the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tomographic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasma pneumonia manifests with fever, dyspnea and a non-productive cough that may result in respiratory failure. In animal models, changes were described as interstitial pneumonitis with focal infiltrates of neutrophils that can finally evolve into a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage with focal necrosis. The tomographic findings are characterized as ground glass opacities, smooth septal and marked peribronchovascular thickening; and may mimic pulmonary congestion

  2. Edema pulmonar hidrostático: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Hydrostatic pulmonary edema: high-resolution computed tomography aspects

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    Cláudia Maria Cunha Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi caracterizar por meio de tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax as principais alterações pulmonares do edema pulmonar hidrostático. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas, retrospectivamente, as tomografias de quinze pacientes com quadro clínico de edema pulmonar hidrostático, divididos em cinco principais grupos etiológicos: insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, valvulopatia mitral aguda, infarto agudo do miocárdio, miocardite e mediastinite fibrosante, tendo sido sete pacientes classificados no primeiro grupo e dois em cada um dos demais. RESULTADOS: Os principais achados do edema hidrostático foram opacidades em vidro fosco (100%, espessamento dos septos interlobulares (100%, derrame pleural (87% e espessamento do interstício peribroncovascular (80%. Outros achados menos comuns foram aumento do calibre dos vasos, consolidações e nódulos do espaço aéreo. CONCLUSÃO: O padrão predominante encontrado nos pacientes estudados foi o de opacidades em vidro fosco associadas a espessamento dos septos interlobulares (padrão de pavimentação em mosaico, com derrame pleural bilateral, predominante à direita.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest to characterize the principal alterations occurring in cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made of the tomography scans of 15 patients presenting clinical profiles of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. The cases were divided into five groups by etiology: congestive heart failure (n = 7; acute mitral valve disease (n = 2; acute myocardial infarction (n = 2; myocarditis (n = 2; and fibrosing mediastinitis (n = 2. RESULTS: The principal findings in the cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema were ground-glass opacities (in 100%, interlobular septal thickening (in 100%, pleural effusion (in 87% and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (in 80%. Other, less common

  3. Imaging of melorheostosis : emphasis on MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyon; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Jong Yeol; Shin, Tae Bum; Kim, Young Whan; Pak, Hyo Yong; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeong Hwan [College of Medicine, Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyung Hwan [Kumi CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Kumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of various radiographic imaging modalities in the diagnosis and characterization of melorheostosis. We retrospectively evaluated the plain film (n=3D8), computed tomographic (CT) imaging (n=3D5) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n=3D5) findings of eight patients with melorheostosis diagnosed by bone biopsy (n=3D4) and characteristic radiographic findings (n=3D8). MR images were obtained with a 1.5-T scanner focused on the region of maximal radiographic abnormality. Pulse sequences include T1-weighted SE. T2-weighted fast SE (n=3D5) and postcontrast imaging (n=3D4). In order to define subtle enhancement of the lesions, subtraction MR images were obtained in one case. Imaging findings were analyzed with particular emphasis on the distribution lesions along the sclerotome, differential radiographic findings between diaphyseal and metaepiphyseal lesions of the long bones, as seen on plain radiographs, and the density and signal characteristics of hyperostotic lesions, as seen on CT and MR images. Characteristic distribution along the sclerotome was identified in five of eight cases mainly along C6 and 7 (n=3D2) and L3, 4 and 5 (n=3D3) sclerotomes. In diaphyseal melorherostosis (8/8), a characteristic finding, i.e., a wax flowing down from the candle, was identified on plain radiographs. In all three patients with metaepiphyseal melorheostosis (3/8), multiple round or oval hyperostotic lesions were seen in the epipysis and metaphysis of the long bones. On CT, the marrow cavity was partly obliterated by hyperostotic lesions in all five patients with endosteal hyperostosis. Among these, central ground glass opacity with a sclerotic rim was seen in three patients. Periosteal hyperostosis was seen in two of five cases, being visualized as irregular excrescence in the periosteal region and surrounding soft tissue. Individual hyperostosis was visualized as hypointense on T1-weighted images and as a hyperintense center with a surrounding

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Noble Paul W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000 than in women (13.2/100,000. The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock. IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP. The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant

  5. Conversion of Wade-Giles to Pinyin: An Estimation of Efficiency Improvement in Retrieval for Item-Specific OPAC Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Clement

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the adoption of the pinyin Romanization standard over Wade-Giles and considers the impact on retrieval in online library catalogs. Describes an investigation that tested three factors that could influence retrieval efficiency: the number of usable syllables, the average number of letters per syllable, and users' familiarity with the…

  6. Corneal Opacity in Lumican-Null Mice: Defects in Collagen Fibril Structure and Packing in the Posterior Stroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Shukti; Petroll, W. Matthew; Hassell, John R.; Jester, James V.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Paul, Jennifer; Birk, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gene targeted lumican-null mutants (lumtm1sc/lumtm1sc) have cloudy corneas with abnormally thick collagen fibrils. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the loss of transparency quantitatively and to define the associated corneal collagen fibril and stromal defects. Methods Backscattering of light, a function of corneal haze and opacification, was determined regionally using in vivo confocal microscopy in lumican-deficient and wild-type control mice. Fibril organization and structure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Biochemical approaches were used to quantify glycosaminoglycan contents. Lumican distribution in the cornea was elucidated immunohistochemically. Results Compared with control stromas, lumican-deficient stromas displayed a threefold increase in backscattered light with maximal increase confined to the posterior stroma. Confocal microscopy through-focusing (CMTF) measurement profiles also indicated a 40% reduction in stromal thickness in the lumican-null mice. Transmission electron microscopy indicated significant collagen fibril abnormalities in the posterior stroma, with the anterior stroma remaining relatively unremarkable. The lumican-deficient posterior stroma displayed a pronounced increase in fibril diameter, large fibril aggregates, altered fibril packing, and poor lamellar organization. Immunostaining of wild-type corneas demonstrated high concentrations of lumican in the posterior stroma. Biochemical assessment of keratan sulfate (KS) content of whole eyes revealed a 25% reduction in KS content in the lumican-deficient mice. Conclusions The structural defects and maximum backscattering of light clearly localized to the posterior stroma of lumican-deficient mice. In normal mice, an enrichment of lumican was observed in the posterior stroma compared with that in the anterior stroma. Taken together, these observations indicate a key role for lumican in the posterior stroma in maintaining normal fibril architecture, most likely by regulating fibril assembly and maintaining optimal KS content required for transparency. PMID:11006226

  7. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta of Shivalik hills in Western Himalayas, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the affected eye. Medical management with topical ciprofloxacin and prednisolone along with ketoprofen and vitamin A was instituted. The corneal lesions subsided completely within one week following treatment. The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort and intraocular lesions with no serious subsequent irritation due to the treatment in these animals.

  8. The Transfer Function Model, A Computer Program for Determination of Jet Engine Test Cell Exhaust Particulates and Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    real components of the index of refraction of the particle or the conductivity and relative permittivity of the particle 7 Further documentation of...1000’,RHYYY(1000) C REAL NAI~INSLMPNWIPMASEQUINSOLMHWYNArNWIT, lihewLoadiniixlMdotlMdot2,MsairdlyMsord2,MolwtlMolwt2, 2NRBAR...GO TO 2100 (1 [F (WMDOT(J) .E𔃼.0.0) GOr0 TO O0 I" DO 201 Izl,20 C IF’ (NW(IwJ).EO,0.0) GO rO 201. C VFRSR= Esat (TW( I r J) ’K’( 1 . +Ac/RUJ I C EMEDTR

  9. Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

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    Watanabe, Yasutaka, E-mail: yasuyasu@omiya.jichi.ac.jp [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Kawabata, Yoshinori [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kanauchi, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Hoshi, Eishin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kurashima, Kazuyoshi [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Koyama, Shinichiro [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF), recently identified as a smoking related change. • Investigation was in 35 smokers. • They underwent lobectomy for lung cancer with pathological confirmation of AEF. • Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of AEF. - Abstract: Purpose: Airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) has been identified pathologically as a smoking related change. We sought to identify the HRCT findings of AEF and search for distinguishing features from honeycombing. Materials and methods: 50 patients (47 males; mean age 69) were evaluated. All had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer and had confirmed AEF and/or usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by pathological evaluation. HRCT findings were first evaluated preresection for resected lobes, and then correlated with the subsequent pathological findings in the resection specimens. Three groups were devised: one with AEF alone to determine the HRCT findings of AEF, a second with AEF and UIP and third with UIP alone. HRCT features of AEF and honeycombing were compared. Results: There were 11 patients (10 male; mean age 69) with AEF alone, 24 patients (22 male; mean age 69) with AEF and UIP, and 15 patients (15 male; mean age 68) with UIP alone. The HRCT on the AEF alone showed subpleural (but not abutting the pleura) multiple thin-walled cysts (MTWCs) in 7 and reticular opacities in 3. The HRCT in AEF and UIP showed MTWCs in 10, reticular opacities in 17; and honeycombing in 5. Among these 35 patients with the pathological finding of AEF (with or without UIP), 17 showed MTWCs. The maximum cyst wall thickness of MTWCs (mean 0.81 mm) was significantly thinner than that of honeycombing (mean 1.56 mm). MTWCs did not locate in lung base and was distant from the pleura. HRCT findings correlated with gross findings on both cysts and honeycombing. No MTWCs were seen in the 15 patients with UIP, 8 of 15 had

  10. Correlation between pretreatment or follow-up CT findings and therapeutic effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for interstitial pneumonia associated with systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Hidetake, E-mail: yabuuchi@shs.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsuo, Yoshio [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sakai, Shuji [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hatakenaka, Masamitsu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nagafuji, Koji; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Harada, Mine; Akashi, Koichi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate what is useful among various parameters including CT findings, laboratory parameters (%VC, %DLco, KL-6), patients related data (age, sex, duration of disease) to discriminate between responder and non-responder in patients who received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) for interstitial pneumonia (IP) with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Method: Auto-PBSCT and follow-up of at least one year by chest CT, serum KL-6, %VC, and %DLco were performed in 15 patients for IP with SSc. Analyzed CT findings included extent of ground-glass opacity (GGO), intralobular reticular opacity, number of segments that showed traction bronchiectasis, and presence of honeycombing. We regarded the therapeutic response of patients as responders when TLC or VC increase over 10% or DLco increase more than 15%, otherwise we have classified as non-responder. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to find the significant indicators to discriminate responders from non-responders. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the significant parameter to discriminate responders from non-responders were pretreatment KL-6, presence of honeycombing, extent of GGO, and early change in extent of GGO. Among them, extent of GGO and early change in extent of GGO were the strongest discriminators between responders and non-responders (P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Several CT findings and pretreatment KL-6 may be useful to discriminate between responder and non-responder in patients who received auto-PBSCT for IP with SSc.

  11. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: A case report

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    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity. Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  12. Radiological description about the globally first case of human infected avian influenza virus (H10N8 induced pneumonia

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    Jian He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human infected avian influenza (H10N8 is an acute infectious respiratory tract infection caused by JX346-H10N8. The reported case in this paper is the globally first case report about radiological description of human infected avian influenza (H10N8 virus related pneumonia. The patient showed an epidemiological history of contacts to living poultries and the incubation period lasted for 4 days. The condition was clinically characterized by fever, cough, chest distress and obvious hypoxia. CT scan demonstrated the lungs with large flake of hyper-intense consolidation, confined patch of ground glass opacity, dilated bronchi, predominantly dorsal thickening of the interlobular septum, and other types of lesions related to interstitial pulmonary edema. Meanwhile, accompanying interlobar effusion, infrapulmonary effusion and pleural effusion were demonstrated in a small quantity by CT scan. Human infected avian influenza (H10N8 related pneumonia should be differentiated from pneumonia induced by human infected avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9. No characteristic key points for radiological differentiation have been found. And its definitive diagnosis should be based on the etiological examination.

  13. Computerized margin and texture analyses for differentiating bacterial pneumonia and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma presenting as consolidation.

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    Hyun Jung Koo

    Full Text Available Radiologists have used margin characteristics based on routine visual analysis; however, the attenuation changes at the margin of the lesion on CT images have not been quantitatively assessed. We established a CT-based margin analysis method by comparing a target lesion with normal lung attenuation, drawing a slope to represent the attenuation changes. This approach was applied to patients with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 40 or bacterial pneumonia (n = 30. Correlations among multiple regions of interest (ROIs were obtained using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC values. CT visual assessment, margin and texture parameters were compared for differentiating the two disease entities. The attenuation and margin parameters in multiple ROIs showed excellent ICC values. Attenuation slopes obtained at the margins revealed a difference between invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma and pneumonia (P<0.001, and mucinous adenocarcinoma produced a sharply declining attenuation slope. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, pneumonia had an ill-defined margin (odds ratio (OR, 4.84; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.26-18.52; P = 0.02, ground-glass opacity (OR, 8.55; 95% CI, 2.09-34.95; P = 0.003, and gradually declining attenuation at the margin (OR, 12.63; 95% CI, 2.77-57.51, P = 0.001. CT-based margin analysis method has a potential to act as an imaging parameter for differentiating invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma and bacterial pneumonia.

  14. Role of virtopsy in the post-mortem diagnosis of drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Re, Giuseppe; Vernuccio, Federica; Galfano, Maria Cristina; Picone, Dario; Milone, Livio; La Tona, Giuseppe; Argo, Antonella; Zerbo, Stefania; Salerno, Sergio; Procaccianti, Paolo; Midiri, Massimo; Lagalla, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Due to admitted limits of autopsy-based studies in the diagnosis of drowning, virtopsy is considered the new imaging horizon in these post-mortem studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of virtopsy performed through computed tomography (CT) in the forensic diagnosis of drowning. We retrospectively examined the CT data of four cadavers recovered from sea water and suspected to have died by drowning. Each patient underwent a full-body post-mortem CT scan, and then a traditional autopsy. All the cadavers showed fluid in the airways and patchy ground-glass opacities in the lung. Only one patient had no fluid in the digestive tract; this patient had a left parietal bone fracture with a large gap and other multiple bone fractures (nose, clavicle, first rib and patella). One of the three patients who had fluid in the digestive tract had no fluid in the paranasal sinuses. This latter patient showed cerebral oedema with subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage, multiple bone fractures (orbital floor, ribs, sacrum and acetabular edge) and air in the heart, in the aorta and in bowel loops. To date, there are no autopsy findings pathognomonic of drowning. This study proves that virtopsy is a useful tool in the diagnosis of drowning in that it allows us to understand if the victim was alive or dead when he entered the water and if the cause of death was drowning.

  15. Clinical radiology and postmortem imaging (Virtopsy) are not the same: Specific and unspecific postmortem signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Andreas; Flach, Patricia; Ross, Steffen; Spendlove, Danny; Bolliger, Stephan; Vock, Peter; Thali, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this article is to disclose the characteristics of postmortem forensic imaging; give an overview of the several possible findings in postmortem imaging, which are uncommon or new to clinical radiologists; and discuss the possible pitfalls. Unspecific postmortem signs are enlisted and specific signs shall be presented, which are typical for one cause of death. Unspecific signs. Livor mortis may not only be seen from the outside, but also inside the body in the lungs: in chest CT internal livor mortis appear as ground glass opacity in the dependent lower lobes. The aortic wall is often hyperdense in postmortem CT due to wall contraction and loss of luminal pressure. Gas bubbles are very common postmortem due to systemic gas embolism after major open trauma, artificial respiration or initial decomposition; in particular putrefaction produces gas bubbles globally. Specific signs. Intracranial bleeding is hyperattenuating both in radiology and in postmortem imaging. Signs of strangulation are hemorrhage in the soft tissue of the neck like skin, subcutaneous tissue, platysma muscle and lymph nodes. The "vanishing" aorta is indicative for exsanguination. Fluid in the airways with mosaic lung densities and emphysema (aquosum) is typical for fresh-water drowning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia during Ibrutinib Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Jungmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 74-year-old male with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP during treatment with ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma. Previously, the patient had received six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab and six cycles of R-CHOP, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy. Respiratory tract complications of ibrutinib other than infectious pneumonia have not been mentioned in larger trials, but individual case reports hinted to a possible association with the development of pneumonitis. In our patient, the onset of alveolitis that progressed towards NSIP together with the onset of ibrutinib treatment suggests causality. One week after ibrutinib was discontinued, nasal symptoms resolved first. A follow-up CT showed a reduction in the reticular hyperdensities and ground-glass opacities, suggestive of restitution of the lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing a strong link between ibrutinib and interstitial lung disease, strengthening a previous report on subacute pneumonitis. Our findings have clinical implications because pulmonary side effects were reversible at this early stage. We, therefore, suggest close monitoring for respiratory side effects in patients receiving ibrutinib.

  17. Leptospirosis of the lung presenting with crazy-paving pattern: Correlation between the high-resolution CT and pathological findings

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    Edson Marchiori

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the high-resolution CT findings of a patient with diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage due to leptospirosis. The main finding consisted of extensive ground-glass opacities super imposed on mild interlobular septal thickening, resulting in the appearance termed “crazy- paving”. The patient died and the necropsy showed extensive haemorrhage filling the airspace and blood infiltrating the interlobular septa. The correlation between the high-resolution CT and pathological findings is emphasised. Resumo: Os autores apresentam os aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução de um doente com hemorragia pulmonar difusa por leptospirose. O achado predominante consistiu de opacidades em vidro despolido difusas, com espessamento de septos interlobulares sobrepostos, resultando no padrão de crazy-paving. O doente morreu, e na necrópsia foi observada extensa hemorragia alveolar, com sangue infiltrando os septos interlobulares. É realçada a correlação entre os achados anatomopatológicos e na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução. Key-words: Leptospirosis, pulmonary haemorrhage, crazy-paving pattern, high resolution CT, Palavras-chave: Leptospirose, hemorragia pulmonar, padrão de crazy-paving, tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): HRCT findings in survivors

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    Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Song, Jeong Sup; Lee, Kyo Young [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of the lung in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Among eleven patients who survived ARDS for one year, chest radiography and HRCT revealed pulmonary fibrosis in four. Causes of ARDS included pneumonia during pregnancy, near drowning, pneumonia during liver cirrhosis, and postoperative sepsis. Thoracoscopic biopsy and histopathologic correlation were available in one patient. HRCT showed diffuse interlobular septal thickening, ground glass opacity, parenchymal distortion, and traction bronchiectasis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules were seen in two patients and one patient had multiple, large bullae in the left hemithorax. In all patients, lesions affected the upper and anterior zones of the lung more prominently. The distribution of pulmonary fibrosis was characteristic and reflected the pathogenesis of lung injury; fibrosis was largely due to hyperoxia caused by ventilator care. In one patient, histopathologic correlation showed that imaging findings were accounted for by thickening of the alveolar septum along with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells and fibrosis. Fuzzy centrilobular nodules corresponded with bronchiolitis.

  19. Improvement of lung abnormality detection in computed radiography using multi-objective frequency processing: Evaluation by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagashira, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Murase, Kenya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    Computed radiography (CR) has been shown to have relatively low sensitivity for detection of pulmonary nodules. This poor sensitivity precludes its use as a screening modality despite the low cost, low dose and wide distribution of devices. The purpose of this study was to apply multi-objective frequency processing (MFP) to CR images and to evaluate its usefulness for diagnosing subtle lung abnormalities. Fifty CR images with simulated subtle lung abnormalities were obtained from 50 volunteers. Each image was processed with MFP. We cut chest images. The chest image was divided into two rights and left. A total of 200 half-chest images (100 MFP-processed images and 100 MFP-unprocessed images) were prepared. Five radiologists participated in this study. ROC analyses demonstrated that the detection rate of simulated subtle lung abnormalities on the CR images was significantly better with MFP (Az=0.8508) than without MFP (Az=0.7925). The CR images processed with MFP could be useful for diagnosing subtle lung abnormalities. In conclusion, MFP appears to be useful for increasing the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of pulmonary nodules, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and reticular shadow.

  20. CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection Using Gabor Filtering and Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Nitta, Norihisa; Tsudagawa, Masaru

    This paper aims at developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system used for the detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography (CT) images. These lung nodules include both solid nodules and Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) nodules. In our scheme, we apply Gabor filter on the CT image in order to enhance the detection process. After this we perform some morphological operations including threshold process and labeling to extract all the objects inside the lung area. Then, some feature analysis is used to examine these objects to decide which of them are likely to be potential cancer candidates. Following the feature examination, a template matching between the potential cancer candidates and some Gaussian reference models is performed to determine the similarity between them. The algorithm was applied on 715 slices containing 25 GGO nodules and 82 solid nodules and achieved detection sensitivity of 92% for GGO nodules and 95% for solid nodules with False Positive (FP) rate of 0.75 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 2.32 FP/slice for solid nodules. Finally, we used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reduce the number of FP findings. After using ANN, we were able to reduce the FP rate to 0.25 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 1.62 FP/slice for solid nodules but at the expense of detection sensitivity, which became 84 % for GGO nodules and 91% for solid nodules.

  1. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis mimicking iron deficiency anemia: a delayed diagnosis?

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    Sultan Aydin Koker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is an uncommon chronic disorder in children. It is characterized by recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage and may result in hemoptysis and pulmonary insufficiency. The most common hematologic manifestation of IPH is iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of IPH is not known and its diagnosis may be difficult due to the variable clinical courses. The most helpful signs for identifying IPH are iron deficiency anemia and recurrent or chronic cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, wheezing. We report here 5 pediatric cases of IPH presenting with iron deficiency anemia and without pulmonary symptoms. Mean corpuscular volume was low in all patients; iron was low in 4 out of 5 cases; total iron binding capacity was high in all of them; ferritin was low in 3 patients. At follow up, none of them had responded successfully to the iron therapy. Although they didn’t present with pulmonary symptoms, chest radiographs incidentally revealed diffuse reticulonoduler shadows in all of them. Computed tomography revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities, consolidation, increased density. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of hemosiderinladen macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gastric aspirate. If patients with iron deficiency anemia don’t respond to iron therapy, they should be examined for IPH. Chest radiographs should be taken even in absence of pulmonary symptoms. Early diagnosis is important for a timely management of IPH.

  2. Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis Mimicking Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Delayed Diagnosis?

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    Koker, Sultan Aydin; Gözmen, Salih; Oymak, Yeşim; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Can, Demet; Genç, Sinan; Vergin, Raziye Canan

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon chronic disorder in children. It is characterized by recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage and may result in hemoptysis and pulmonary insufficiency. The most common hematologic manifestation of IPH is iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of IPH is not known and its diagnosis may be difficult due to the variable clinical courses. The most helpful signs for identifying IPH are iron deficiency anemia and recurrent or chronic cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, wheezing. We report here 5 pediatric cases of IPH presenting with iron deficiency anemia and without pulmonary symptoms. Mean corpuscular volume was low in all patients; iron was low in 4 out of 5 cases; total iron binding capacity was high in all of them; ferritin was low in 3 patients. At follow up, none of them had responded successfully to the iron therapy. Although they didn’t present with pulmonary symptoms, chest radiographs incidentally revealed diffuse reticulonoduler shadows in all of them. Computed tomography revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities, consolidation, increased density. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of hemosiderin-laden macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gastric aspirate. If patients with iron deficiency anemia don’t respond to iron therapy, they should be examined for IPH. Chest radiographs should be taken even in absence of pulmonary symptoms. Early diagnosis is important for a timely management of IPH. PMID:28670434

  3. Vildagliptin-induced acute lung injury: a case report.

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    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Sato, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Ryoko; Furukawa, Tomoyasu; Tanaka, Junta; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2016-08-12

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs and are used widely to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in many countries. Adverse effects include nasopharyngitis, headache, elevated serum pancreatic enzymes, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition, a few cases of interstitial pneumonia associated with their use have been reported in the Japanese literature. Here we describe a patient who developed drug-induced acute lung injury shortly after the administration of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin. A 38-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus developed acute respiratory failure 1 day after administration of vildagliptin. Chest computed tomography revealed nonsegmental ground-glass opacities in her lungs. There was no evidence of bacterial pneumonia or any other cause of her respiratory manifestations. After discontinuation of vildagliptin, she recovered fully from her respiratory disorder. She received insulin therapy for her diabetes mellitus, and her subsequent clinical course has been uneventful. The period of drug exposure in previously reported cases of patients with drug-induced interstitial pneumonia caused by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor varied from several days to over 6 months. In the present case, our patient developed interstitial pneumonia only 1 day after the administration of vildagliptin. The precise mechanism of her vildagliptin-induced lung injury remains uncertain, but physicians should consider that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor-induced lung injury, although rare, may appear acutely, even within days after administration of this drug.

  4. A case of vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia.

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    Kuse, Naoyuki; Abe, Shinji; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Inomata, Minoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yuh; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with a productive cough and worsening dyspnea. He had started receiving vildagliptin, which is one of the dipeptideylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, several days before the appearance of his symptoms. Laboratory findings revealed markedly elevated levels of immunoglobulin E and Krebs von den Lungen-6. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacity with irregular reticulation throughout both lungs. Biopsy specimens by transbronchial lung biopsy showed subacute interstitial pneumonia and an organizing pneumonia pattern with acute alveolar injury. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed a positive result for vildagliptin. Withdrawal of vildagliptin and administration of glucocorticoid treatment improved his respiratory condition and radiological findings. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia based on both his clinical course and pathological findings. Interstitial pneumonia as a side effect of vildagliptin is rare. It may be necessary to monitor the respiratory condition of patients upon administration of DPP-4 inhibitors until further evidence is obtained.

  5. Asbestos: when the dust settles an imaging review of asbestos-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Huw D; Davies, Gareth J; Attanoos, Richard; Crane, Michael; Adams, Haydn; Phillips, Siân

    2002-10-01

    Asbestos-related neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases of the lungs and pleura range from pleural effusion and pleural plaques to lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Pleural effusions are typically hemorrhagic exudates of mixed cellularity but do not typically contain asbestos bodies. The classic distribution of pleural plaques seen on chest radiographs is the posterolateral chest wall between the seventh and tenth ribs, lateral chest wall between the sixth and ninth ribs, the dome of the diaphragm, and the mediastinal pleura. Computed tomographic (CT) findings support this distribution but also show anterior and paravertebral plaques not well shown at chest radiography. Imaging features of diffuse pleural thickening include a continuous sheet, often involving the costophrenic angles and apices, that rarely calcifies. The typical CT features of round atelectasis are of a round or oval mass that abuts the pleura, a "comet tail" of bronchovascular structures going into the mass, and thickening of the adjacent pleura. Features of asbestosis on chest radiographs include ground-glass opacification, small nodular opacities, "shaggy" cardiac silhouette, and ill-defined diaphragmatic contours. CT, however, is more sensitive in their detection. Chest radiography in patients with malignant mesothelioma may show an effusion, pleural thickening, and as the tumor progresses, a more lobulated outline. CT can help identify the disease in its early stages. Asbestos-related cancers can occur anywhere in the lungs. Recognition of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of these diseases will be important for some years to come.

  6. Thin-Section Computed Tomography Manifestations During Convalescence and Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Dong, Dawei; Ma, Daqing

    2016-08-08

    BACKGROUND SARS is not only an acute disease, but also leads to long-term impaired lung diffusing capacity in some survivors. However, there is a paucity of data regarding long-term CT findings in survivors after SARS. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in lung function and lung thin-section computed tomography (CT) features in patients recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), especially the dynamic changes in ground-glass opacity (GGO). MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical and radiological data from 11 patients with SARS were collected. The serial follow-up thin-section CTs were evaluated at 3, 6, and 84 months after SARS presentation. The distribution and predominant thin-section CT findings of lesions were evaluated. RESULTS The extent of the lesions on the CT scans of the 11 patients decreased at 6 and 84 months compared to 3 months. The number of segments involved on 84-month follow-up CTs was less than those at 6 months (PSARS, GGO and intralobular and interlobular septal thickening were the main thin-section CT manifestation. Intralobular and interlobular septal thickening predominated over GGO at 84 months.

  7. Traumatic lung lesions: computed tomography findings; Lesoes traumaticas do parenquima pulmonar: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada

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    Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo [Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Disciplina de Radiologia

    2003-06-01

    Traumatic lesions of the lung are common findings in patients with thoracic trauma. These lesions are increasingly diagnosed using computed tomography, mostly due to the fast acquisition time helical techniques that allow evaluation of critically ill patients and an efficient therapeutic management. The authors studied 150 patients with thoracic trauma submitted to computed tomography that demonstrated lung contusions, atelectasis, lacerations and hematomas. Lung contusions were the most frequent lesions appearing as consolidation or ground-glass attenuation areas. Atelectasis, in subsegmentar and compressive patterns, were the second most common lesions observed. Lacerations appeared as consolidations with air or liquid level. Lung hematomas, characterized by round opacities, were the most rare lung lesions seen in only five cases. In this study, blunt thoracic trauma accounted for the majority of 120 cases whereas penetrating trauma occurred in 30 cases. The causes of blunt trauma in de crescent order of frequency were motor vehicle accidents, pedestrian hit by car, falls, motorcycle accidents and trashing. Penetrating traumas were caused by bullets or knives. (author)

  8. Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Virus Infection: A Review of the Literature

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    Servet Kayhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. On 18 March 2009, A novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1 virus was seen in Mexico, then a global outbreak of respiratory illness started. The new H1N1 virus usually attaches to tracheobronchial epithelial cells and the clinical picture ranges from transient lower respiratory tract infections to severe pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The main complication is extension of viral infection to the alveoli that causes primary viral pneumonia. The most common radiologic findings are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities and multifocal areas of consolidations Bacterial coinfections, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, increase the severity of illness. Patients with underlying cardiopulmonary comorbid conditions, pregnancy and obesity appear to be at higher risk of severe pneumonia. The severe cases have required admission to intensive care units and needs to mechanical ventilation. H1N1 influenza virus is now in post-pandemic period; however, localized outbreaks of various magnitudes are being reported. Keywords: H1N1; influenza; pandemic; pneumonia

  9. Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in an Iranian Immunocompro-mised Patient: A Case Report

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    Narges NAJAFI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH widespread in various part of the world. A 78-yr-old peasant diabetic female from Mazandaran Province northern Iran, was admitted to Infection Department of the Razi Hospital in city of Qaemshahr, north of Iran complaining about abdominal skin rash, pruritus, itching, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dysuria and cough. This patient had cutaneous migration effects of S. stercoralis larvae in her abdominal skin (larva currents and urticaria. Lung CT without contrast demonstrates bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity draws attention. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastro esophageal reflux with antral gastritis. Duodenal endoscopy showed unusual mucosa and a biopsy from it sent to the pathology laboratory. Histopathology of duodenal bulb and duodenum biopsy showed mild villous atrophy and S. stercoralis infection. The patient was treated with albendazole and clinical sings improved completely after treatment. Strongyloidiasis should be care­fully considered by clinicians who practice in endemic areas. Clinicians must keep a high level of skepticism for patients from endemic area.

  10. Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose; Capone, Domenico; Mogami, Roberto; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences].E mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Cunha, Daniel Leme da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2007-11-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans. (author)

  11. Fractal analysis of internal and peripheral textures of small peripheral bronchogenic carcinomas in thin-section computed tomography: comparison of bronchioloalveolar cell carcinomas with nonbronchioloalveolar cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Shoji; Kuriyama, Keiko; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Kasugai, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Chikazumi

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the internal and peripheral textures of small peripheral bronchogenic carcinomas (analysis. Thin-section computed tomography images from 70 patients with bronchogenic carcinomas (61 adenocarcinomas and 9 squamous cell carcinomas) were used. Regions of interest (ROIs) with a matrix size of 32 x 32 (0.326 mm per pixel) were selected manually on the lung-nodule interfaces and within the nodules on HRCT images. Three-dimensional density surfaces based on CT values of ROIs were characterized by fractal dimensions (FDs). When all the bronchogenic carcinomas were divided into bronchioloalveolar cell carcinomas (BACs) and other bronchogenic carcinomas (nonBACs), there were significant differences between BACs and nonBACs in the FDs obtained from the internal textures (mean: 2.38 +/- 0.05 versus 2.19 +/- 0.05; Ptextures (mean: 2.16 +/- 0.01 versus 2.06 +/- 0.01; Ptextures of BACs that reveal ground-glass opacities are more complicated than those of nonBACs. The FDs can differentiate between small localized BACs, which have a good prognosis, and nonBACs, which have a poor prognosis. Fractal analysis is promising for characterization of small peripheral pulmonary bronchogenic carcinomas based on radiographic features of HRCT images.

  12. Brucellosis with cervical vertebrae and pulmonary involvement: A rare case

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    Gül Karagöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement of brucellosis. However, there is no case report presented in the literature of both cervical vertebrae spondylodiscitis and pulmonary involvement of brucella.We reported a 52-year-old woman complaining for one month of fever with rigors, fatigue, malaise, pain on the neck and arm, and sweating. The Wright agglutination test for brucella was positive at titers of 1/640. MRI of the cervical vertebrae was consistent with spondylodiscitis and paravertebral and epidural abscesses. Ground glass opacity was seen in the left upper lobe on CT scanning of the chest. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy was performed and Brucella melitensis was isolated. The patient was treated with streptomycin for 3 weeks, plus doxycycline and rifampicin for 3 months. We recommend tissue culture for rucella patients with lung lesions. Isolation of the microorganism from a biopsy material provides conclusive evidence. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 173-175

  13. Asymmetry in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Akihiko Sokai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF results in poor survival. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the impact of asymmetrical ground-glass opacity (GGO and/or consolidation on outcomes in patients with AE-IPF. The cases of 59 consecutive patients with AE-IPF were retrospectively reviewed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT at diagnosis of an AE was assessed to determine the disease extent and asymmetry. Asymmetrical AE was defined as a right-to-left ratio of GGO and consolidation ≥2.0 or ≤0.5. The impacts of HRCT indices and other clinical parameters on 180-day mortality were analysed. The overall 180-day mortality rate was 59.2%, and asymmetrical AE was observed in 13 patients (22.0%. A multivariate analysis revealed that asymmetrical AE was a significant predictor of 180-day mortality (hazard ratio=0.36, p=0.047, long-term oxygen therapy before AE and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The 180-day mortality of patients with asymmetrical AE was significantly lower than that of patients with symmetrical AE (asymmetrical AE 30.8% versus symmetrical AE 68.2%, p=0.03. An asymmetrical distribution of GGO and/or consolidation is a predictor of survival in patients with AE-IPF.

  14. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  15. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Hypsizigus marumoreus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yotaro; Takayanagi, Noboru; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Hijikata, Naoya; Hara, Kenichiro; Yamaji, Tomohisa; Tokunaga, Daido; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2009-10-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was employed at a mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii and Hypsizigus marumoreus) cultivation factory for 15 years. She was admitted to our hospital because of fever and dry cough. Chest radiography and CT scanning revealed diffuse ground glass opacity and centrilobular nodules in both lung fields. Serum KL-6 was elevated. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the CD4/CD8 ratio was reduced, and the lymphocyte fraction was very high. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. Although these findings are compatible with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, it was difficult to identify a causative antigen. Serum antibody against Trichosporon was positive. A lymphocyte stimulation test of the peripheral blood was positive against extracts of P. eryngii and H. marumoreus. Furthermore, precipitins against the extracts of H. marumoreus were detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Therefore, we decided to conduct a challenge test using H. marumoreus. As an inhalation provocation test with H. marumoreus conducted in a sickroom caused the same clinical symptoms and signs as experienced in the workplace, we diagnosed hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by H. marumoreus. A provocation test, in which antigen exposure is limited using a closed space, such as a sickroom, was simple, safe and effective for determining the antigen causing hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  16. A case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basora, Jose F; Fernandez, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Modesto; Adorno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Male, 25 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage Symptoms: Cough dry • short of breath - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: - Unusual clinical course. Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body, especially in joints and eyes. Hyaluronic acid injectable gels have been available for the general market since 2003 as cosmetic dermal fillers and skin boosters. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an acute event that threatens the life of the patient and can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers is an entity that to the best of our knowledge has never been described in the medical literature. We describe a patient who presented with dyspnea and cough after a subcutaneous injection of hyaluronic acid, with radiographic abnormalities including ground glass opacities and consolidation. The patient underwent flexible bronchoscopy and was diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. This case emphasizes that this life threatening condition may occur with the use of this medication and physicians must be aware of this disorder, as early recognition and management can reduce morbidity.

  17. Non-mucinous lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma presenting with extensive aerogenous spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takanashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An extremely rare case of non-mucinous lepidic-predominant invasive adenocarcinoma (LPA showing extensive aerogenous spread with a pneumonic presentation is reported. A 73-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of an infiltrative shadow on chest xray. Chest computed tomography revealed extensive ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe, which was accompanied by infiltrative shadow with a pneumonic presentation. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma was presumed, and a partial resection of the right lower lobe was done. Histopathological examination revealed lepidic growth-predominant invasive adenocarcinoma with Clara type tumor cells, and there were innumerable aerogenous metastases also consisting of Clara cells. Because Alcian Blue and periodic acid-Schiff staining disclosed no mucus, the tumor was diagnosed as a non-mucinous LPA. The patient showed a poor response to 5 courses of pemetrexed, and she died one year after the diagnosis due to cancer progression. Nonmucinous LPA showed a rare presentation characterized by extensive aerogenous spread followed by a poor prognosis.

  18. Usual interstitial pneumonitis UIP presenting with Wells grade 3. Can imaging methods help predict further progression of disease?; Fibrosi polmanare idiopatica con grado 3 di Wells all'esordio: possono le metodiche di diagnostica per immagini aiutare a predire la progressione ulteriore della malattia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasano, L.; Pacilli, A. M.G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria; Zompatori, M.; Monetti, N. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Battista, G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia, Radiodiagnostica 1; Di Scioscio, V.; Sciascia, N.

    1999-10-01

    Three different grades of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be identified by HRCT pattern. Patients with predominant ground-glass opacity (grade 1) usually improve after treatment and may have a better prognosis. The subjects with a predominant reticular pattern and honeycombing (grade 3.) have irreversible fibrosis and usually do not improve after immunosuppressive therapy. Nevertheless, these patients may worsen even in the absence of HRCT features of the so-called alveolitis. The aim of this report is to investigate the predictive role of some noninvasive imaging methods (HRCT with visual score of disease extent; Gallium scintigraphy; DTPA scintigraphy) in patients with idiopathic fibrosis and a prevalent macroscopic fibrosis at HRCT study. [Italian] La fibrosi polomare idiopatica viene distinta in 3 gradi con diversa prognosi in base alla predominanza di opacita' a vetro smerigliato da alveolite o di fibrosi irreversibile. La fibrosi irreversibile tuttavia non e' necessariamente una situazione stabile ma puo progredire ed evolvere ulteriormente. In particolare i pazienti che gia all'esordio presentano solo i segni della fibrosi possono peggiorare a distanza di tempo nonostante la terapia. Scopo del lavoro e' stato quello di individuare in un gruppo di pazienti con prevalente fibrosi macroscopica quale possa essere un parametro preditivo della successiva evoluzione della malattia.

  19. Hazards of the ‘Hard Cash’: Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Kupeli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report is the first to describe ‘hard cash HP’, possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.

  20. Role of bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnosing pulmonary infection in patients with rheumatic autoimmune diseases and lung infiltrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Feng; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xiao, Yi; Xu, Wen-Bing

    2014-10-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for diagnosing pulmonary infection in patients with rheumatic autoimmune diseases and lung infiltrates and to evaluate factors that affect the diagnostic yield. A retrospective study was performed in patients with rheumatic autoimmune diseases and lung infiltrates whose BALs were sent for microbial assays at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to June 2013. Patient characteristics, clinical symptoms, medication history, laboratory parameters, radiographic findings, lung lobe lavaged, and diagnostic yield were retrieved. Seventy BALs were performed in 69 patients. The overall diagnostic yield of BAL for pulmonary infection was 17.1% (12/70), sensitivity was 35.5%, and specificity was 97.4%. Twelve microorganisms were isolated from 12 different BALs conforming to diagnostic criteria, including 4 Aspergillus, 3 Pneumocystis jirovecii, 3 gram-negative bacilli, 1 gram-positive coccus, and 1 mycobacterium. Patients with clinical symptoms of fever, cough, or expectoration had a higher diagnostic yield than patients without either symptom (25.6% vs 3.7%, P = 0.042). Patients with ground-glass opacity, mass, or consolidation radiographically had a higher yield than did patients with reticular or nodular infiltrates (20.3% vs 0, P rheumatic autoimmune diseases and lung infiltrates, especially in cases where initial antimicrobial therapy is ineffective. Opportunistic pathogens are important in patients with rheumatic autoimmune diseases and lung infiltrates and should be considered when antibacterial treatment is ineffective.