WorldWideScience

Sample records for subphylum vertebrata class

  1. Analysis of the Appendicularia class (subphylum Urochordata) as a possible tool for biomonitoring four estuaries of the tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Freitas; Bonecker, Sérgio Luiz Costa; Nassar, Cristina Aparecida Gomes

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to characterize the differences between physical and chemical parameters of water quality indicators and eutrophication in four estuaries of the state of Rio de Janeiro and relate them to full density of the species that belong to the Appendicularia class with the purpose of seeking bioindicators for estuarine areas. The estuaries studied were from the rivers Macaé, São João, Bracuí, and Perequê-Açu. The physicochemical parameters monitored for evaluation of the water bodies and used for the correlation with the appendicularians were pH, temperature, nitrite, nitrate, N-ammonia, total nitrogen, phosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll a, heterotrophic bacteria, and fecal coliform. The estuaries Bracuí and São João showed enhanced qualities of water and lower degrees of eutrophication than Macae and Perequê-Açu estuaries. The species of the Appendicularia class found in this study were Oikopleura longicauda (Vogt, 1854), Oikopleura dioica Fol, 1872, Oikopleura fusiformis Fol, 1872, and Fritillaria haplostoma Fol, 1872. The density of appendicularians and O. longicauda was inversely related to the nutrient values and SPM; nonetheless, no species of appendicularians could be used as a bioindicator of any estuary in the current study. Studies on the quality of estuary waters and the search for other bioindicators belonging to other zooplankton groups are recommended to confirm the obtained results and to expand the knowledge of these coastal environments.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN BUKU SUPLEMEN PENDEKATAN MOLEKULAR TAKSONOMI HEWAN VERTEBRATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haqqi Anajili Setyanto

    2016-06-01

    Buku ajar merupakan buku yang digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. Salah satu jenis buku ajar adalah buku suplemen. Buku suplemen memiliki karakteristik tidak terintegrasi dengan tujuan pembelajaran secara langsung, namun memiliki tujuan untuk memperkuat konsep-konsep pada tujuan pembelajaran yang ingin dicapai. Buku suplemen yang dikembangkan menggunakan merupakan buku berisi pendekatan molekular untuk matakuliah Taksonomi Hewan Vertebrata dengan model pengembangan Borg and Gall. Buku suplemen divalidasi oleh ahli materi, ahli pengembangan, dan diuji coba perorangan pada 12 mahasiswa. Hasil validasi materi menunjukkan nilai 90,53%, validasi pengembangan buku 87,63%, dan hasil uji keterbacaan 85,06%. Secara keseluruhan buku yang dikembangkan dalam kategori valid dan baik.

  3. The New Red Algal Subphylum Proteorhodophytina Comprises the Largest and Most Divergent Plastid Genomes Known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A; Mejía-Franco, Fabián G; Durnin, Keira; Colp, Morgan; Grisdale, Cameron J; Archibald, John M; Slamovits, Claudio H

    2017-06-05

    Red algal plastid genomes are often considered ancestral and evolutionarily stable, and thus more closely resembling the last common ancestral plastid genome of all photosynthetic eukaryotes [1, 2]. However, sampling of red algal diversity is still quite limited (e.g., [2-5]). We aimed to remedy this problem. To this end, we sequenced six new plastid genomes from four undersampled and phylogenetically disparate red algal classes (Porphyridiophyceae, Stylonematophyceae, Compsopogonophyceae, and Rhodellophyceae) and discovered an unprecedented degree of genomic diversity among them. These genomes are rich in introns, enlarged intergenic regions, and transposable elements (in the rhodellophycean Bulboplastis apyrenoidosa), and include the largest and most intron-rich plastid genomes ever sequenced (that of the rhodellophycean Corynoplastis japonica; 1.13 Mbp). Sophisticated phylogenetic analyses accounting for compositional heterogeneity show that these four "basal" red algal classes form a larger monophyletic group, Proteorhodophytina subphylum nov., and confidently resolve the large-scale relationships in the Rhodophyta. Our analyses also suggest that secondary red plastids originated before the diversification of all mesophilic red algae. Our genomic survey has challenged the current paradigmatic view of red algal plastid genomes as "living fossils" [1, 2, 6] by revealing an astonishing degree of divergence in size, organization, and non-coding DNA content. A closer look at red algae shows that they comprise the most ancestral (e.g., [2, 7, 8]) as well as some of the most divergent plastid genomes known. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. First divergence time estimate of spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (subphylum: Chelicerata) inferred from mitochondrial phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (chelicerates) form one of the most diverse groups of arthropods on land, but their origin and times of diversification are not yet established. We estimated, for the first time, the molecular divergence times for these chelicerates using complete mitochondrial sequences from 25 taxa. All mitochondrial genes were evaluated individually or after concatenation. Sequences belonging to three missing genes (ND3, 6, and tRNA-Asp) from three taxa, as well as the faster-evolving ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S), tRNAs, and the third base of each codon from 11 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (COI-III, CYTB, ATP8, 6, ND1-2, 4L, and 4-5), were identified and removed. The remaining concatenated sequences from 11 PCGs produced a completely resolved phylogenetic tree and confirmed that all chelicerates are monophyletic. Removing the third base from each codon was essential to resolve the phylogeny, which allowed deep divergence times to be calculated using three nodes calibrated with upper and lower priors. Our estimates indicate that the orders and classes of spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks diversified in the late Paleozoic, much earlier than previously reported from fossil date estimates. The divergence time estimated for ticks suggests that their first land hosts could have been amphibians rather than reptiles. Using molecular data, we separated the spider-scorpion clades and estimated their divergence times at 397 +/- 23 million years ago. Algae, fungi, plants, and animals, including insects, were well established on land when these chelicerates diversified. Future analyses, involving mitochondrial sequences from additional chelicerate taxa and the inclusion of nuclear genes (or entire genomes) will provide a more complete picture of the evolution of the Chelicerata, the second most abundant group of animals on earth.

  5. Diverzita vybraných skupin obratlovců (Vertebrata) v Národním parku Podyjí

    OpenAIRE

    Bohuslavová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Main goal of this thesis, named "Diversity of selected groups of vertebrates (Vertebrata) in the National Park Podyjí" was to detect and research the existence of animal species in the area of individual biotope. There are 8 groups of biotopes in this area. The goal was to focus on the species that ranked amongst the endangered, highly endangered or critically endangered, according to the Ministry of Environment. There are also many plant communities besides the animal species, which are also...

  6. PEMBELAJARAN INTERAKTIF BERBASIS ICT (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY DALAM MATERI VERTEBRATA PADA SISWA MA MUHAMMADIYAH 1 MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurisma Afifatun Nisa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT in Indonesia increasing along with the time passed by. Hopefully little by little the teacher start to accustomed to used ICT based learning to adapt with the mushroom growth of time mowdays. Interactive learning media based on ICT hopefully be able to help students in comprehend the difficult materials which complicates to be mastered by the students especially in vertebrate material. In this interactive learing media development research at vertebrate material serve the purpose of learning media for student and teacher to facilitate teacher in deliver the material, also the researcher be able to know the usage of interactive learning media based on ICT in the effectiveness of student learning. This research codunsted at 10 March 2013 until 19 Octobeer 2013 in MA Muhammadiyah 1 Malang. The result of this development is produce interactive learning media product based on ICT (Information and Communication Technology that have been made.which is had pass through testing process and revised based on suggestion and input from material expert and media expert also comment from the trial run student. Student learning activity getting off the ground from dependent class to independent class. The effectiveness of learning result and process in interactive learning media development based on ICT to increasing student achievement grade X student of MA Muhammadiyah 1 Malang getting off the ground based the data that have been obtained.

  7. Physical constraints on body size in teleost embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Muller, M.; Gielen, J.L.W.; Verhagen, J.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    All members of the subphylum "Vertebrata" display the characteristics of the vertebrate body plan. These characteristics become apparent during the phylotypic period, in which all vertebrate embryos have a similar body shape and internal organization. Phylogenetic constraints probably limit the

  8. The vertebrate heart: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Andrea; Adams, Justin W; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2017-09-14

    Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia). Subsequent tetrapods, including crocodiles and alligators (Order Crocodylia, Subclass Crocodylomorpha, Class Reptilia), birds (Subclass Aves, Class Reptilia) and mammals (Class Mammalia) evolved a four-chambered heart. The structure and function of the circulatory system of each individual holds a vital role which benefits each species specifically. The special characteristics of the four-chamber mammalian heart are highlighted by the peculiar structure of the myocardial muscle. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  9. Class Schedules Need Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)

  10. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  11. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  12. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...

  13. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  14. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class setting. Some hospitals are beginning to offer online courses, too.Expect to be required to pay ... called The Mongan Method, HypnoBirthing helps women learn self-hypnosis techniques to deliver their babies in a ...

  15. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general....... Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas...

  16. [Effect of gluco- and mineralocorticoids on the structure and function of the insular apparatus of the pancreas in representatives of different classes of vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakova, T I

    1984-07-01

    By means of histological, historadioautographical and biochemical methods the effect produced by disturbances in hormonal balance of the adrenal cortex (corticosteroids) on the islet apparatus of the pancreas in the lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), the frog (Rana temporaria), the tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), the pigeon (Columbia livia), the white rat (Rattus rattus) has been studied during autumn-winter period. Chronic injections of hydrocortisone and desoxycorticosterone-acetate are used to change the hormonal balance in the adrenal cortex. In Cyclostomata, Amphibia and Reptilia gluco- and mineralocorticoids produce similar effects by increasing glycemia level. In birds and Mammalia glucocorticoids increase glycemia level, and mineralocorticoids do not change it. An increased glucose level in the organism of the representatives of various Mammalian classes after an excess injection of glucocorticoids is accompanied with a mainfested degranulation, hypertrophy of the Golgi complex, vacuolization of aldehydefuchsin-positive B-cell. Glucocorticoides increase the level of 35S-methyonine incorporation into B-cells of Langerhans islet in the representatives of all the vertebral classes studied. Mineralocorticoids act similarly as glucocorticoids stimulating protein metabolism only in Amphibia and birds. The level of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) in response to glucocorticoids injection increases in Amphibia and Mammalia and remains unchanged in Cyclostomata, Reptilia and birds. IRI remains unchanged after injection of mineralocorticoids in all representatives of Vertebrata, besides Cyclostomata in which IRI decreases.

  17. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  18. Further insights into the phylogeny of two ciliate classes Nassophorea and Prostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Yi, Zhenzhen; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Gong, Jun; Song, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    The Nassophorea and Prostomatea are two of the key classes in understanding the morphological diversification and higher classification of the phylum Ciliophora. However, their phylogenetic relationships with other ciliate groups within the subphylum Intramacronucleata remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the small and large subunit (SSU and LSU) rRNA gene-based phylogeny of these groups with sequences of additional taxa including several key species. The results show that: (1) the class Nassophorea remains polyphyletic, with the microthoracids clustering with the Phyllopharyngea, whereas the nassulids represent a basal group of the CONthreeP superclade in the SSU tree; (2) the Prostomatea is not depicted as a monophyletic group in phylogenetic trees, and the monophyly of this class is marginally rejected by statistical tree topology tests; (3) the nassulid genus Parafurgasonia is more closely related to the family Colpodidiidae than to Furgasonia; (4) Paranassula, which was previously thought to be a nassulid, is phylogenetically related to the oligohymenophorean peniculids in both the SSU and LSU trees; (5) the microthoracid genus Discotricha does not group with the other microthoracids in either SSU or LSU trees; (6) the family Plagiocampidae is closely related to the prostome parasite Cryptocaryon irritans and to the family Urotrichidae in the order Prorodontida; and (7) the family Placidae, represented by Placus salinus, is sister to the family Holophryidae in the order Prorodontida. Based on the present data, we consider the genus Discotricha to be an unclassified taxon within the CONthreeP. We also propose resurrecting the order Paranassulida and classifying it within the subclass Peniculia, class Oligohymenophorea. Primary and secondary structure signatures for higher taxa within Phyllopharyngea and Nassophorea are supplied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  20. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances......, not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  1. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which ar...

  2. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  3. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  4. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    , discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  5. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  6. Puppy socialization classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seksel, K

    1997-05-01

    Setting up a puppy training program is one of the most important services veterinarians can offer. Puppy socialization classes aim not only to socialize the puppies so that they learn to interact well with children, adults, and other dogs, but also to teach basic obedience exercises. The classes build a strong bond between puppy, owner, and veterinary clinic. This article covers the techniques used, the structure of the classes, and outlines benefits for the dog, owner, veterinarian, and community.

  7. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  8. Class II Microcins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  9. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  10. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy. The pa...

  11. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  12. The Potential for pathogenicity was present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete subphylum Pezizomycotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelen Kristof

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in Ascomycetes have shown that the function of gene families of which the size is considerably larger in extant pathogens than in non-pathogens could be related to pathogenicity traits. However, by only comparing gene inventories in extant species, no insights can be gained into the evolutionary process that gave rise to these larger family sizes in pathogens. Moreover, most studies which consider gene families in extant species only tend to explain observed differences in gene family sizes by gains rather than by losses, hereby largely underestimating the impact of gene loss during genome evolution. Results In our study we used a selection of recently published genomes of Ascomycetes to analyze how gene family gains, duplications and losses have affected the origin of pathogenic traits. By analyzing the evolutionary history of gene families we found that most gene families with an enlarged size in pathogens were present in an ancestor common to both pathogens and non-pathogens. The majority of these families were selectively maintained in pathogenic lineages, but disappeared in non-pathogens. Non-pathogen-specific losses largely outnumbered pathogen-specific losses. Conclusions We conclude that most of the proteins for pathogenicity were already present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete lineages we used in our study. Species that did not develop pathogenicity seemed to have reduced their genetic complexity compared to their ancestors. We further show that expansion of gained or already existing families in a species-specific way is important to fine-tune the specificities of the pathogenic host-fungus interaction.

  13. On stable Baire classes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlova, Olena; Mykhaylyuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study adhesive spaces. Using this concept we obtain a characterization of stable Baire maps $f:X\\to Y$ of the class $\\alpha$ for wide classes of topological spaces. In particular, we prove that for a topological space $X$ and a contractible space $Y$ a map $f:X\\to Y$ belongs to the $n$'th stable Baire class if and only if there exist a sequence $(f_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of continuous maps $f_k:X\\to Y$ and a sequence $(F_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of functionally ambiguous sets of the $n$'th...

  14. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... the central elements of the semantic analysis used in the Mjølner BETA compiler....

  15. Second-Class Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, Harold H.

    1972-01-01

    Those factors which motivate citizens to define themselves as first" or second" class are realistically discussed and alternatives to the present trends in the role of American citizenship are suggested. (JB)

  16. Special classes of semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Attila

    2001-01-01

    In semigroup theory there are certain kinds of band decompositions, which are very useful in the study of the structure semigroups There are a number of special semigroup classes in which these decompositions can be used very successfully The book focuses attention on such classes of semigroups Some of them are partially discussed in earlier books, but in the last thirty years new semigroup classes have appeared and a fairly large body of material has been published on them The book provides a systematic review on this subject The first chapter is an introduction The remaining chapters are devoted to special semigroup classes These are Putcha semigroups, commutative semigroups, weakly commutative semigroups, R-Commutative semigroups, conditionally commutative semigroups, RC-commutative semigroups, quasi commutative semigroups, medial semigroups, right commutative semigroups, externally commutative semigroups, E-m semigroups, WE-m semigroups, weakly exponential semigroups, (m,n)-commutative semigroups and n(2)...

  17. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated.......Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...

  18. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  19. One Class, Many Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Boutonne, Sylvie; Lucas, Keith B.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of a physics class in which few interactions occur among students. Concludes, through observations and interviews. that students describe both the social and physical world in different ways. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  20. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  1. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    GEERS, ALEXIE

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  2. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  3. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  4. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  5. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  6. Classes of Instructional Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David

    1979-01-01

    Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)

  7. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. The Class Number Problem - An Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. Rajat Tandon. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 28-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Charlo Class Scheduling Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Leo J.

    The design and implementation of a rotating class schedule which was put into effect in the Charlo High School, Charlo, Montana in September 1969 is discussed in this paper. The schedule, described in this report, consists of a 75-minute period followed by 2, 60-minute periods in the morning and 4, 45-minute afternoon periods. The program…

  9. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  10. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    -back of Adivasis against their age-old colonization or the work of ‘external’ agitators. Capitalist restructuring and ‘globalization’ was generally seen as simply the latest chapter in the suffering of these Adivasis. Little focused attention was paid to the recent class trajectory of their lives under changing...

  11. Class I Cytokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinocher, Helena

    The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce their intr......The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce...... their intracellular response. The overall goal of this thesis was to improve the understanding of class I cytokine receptor activation and regulation at an atomic level. Two members of the class I cytokine receptor family, the human growth hormone receptor (hGHR), and the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR) have...... the traptamers on the hEPOR TMD dimeric complex in detergent micelles. To gain a better understanding of hGHR regulation a point mutation in the hGHR intracellular domain (ICD), which has recently been linked to lung cancer, was characterized. The mutation was found to decrease binding of suppressor of cytokine...

  12. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  13. Generalized Frol\\'ik classes

    OpenAIRE

    Lipparini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The class $\\mathfrak C $ relative to countably compact topological spaces and the class $\\mathfrak P$ relative to pseudocompact spaces introduced by Z. Frol\\'ik are naturally generalized relative to every topological property. We provide a characterization of such generalized Frol\\'ik classes in the broad case of properties defined in terms of filter convergence. If a class of spaces can be defined in terms of filter convergence, then the same is true for its Frol\\'ik class.

  14. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  15. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytelling is mainly regarded to be grounded on imitation and repetition; nevertheless many creative activities can be implemented in the classroom since this method directs learners to use their imaginations. This study discusses the importance of storytelling as a teaching method, and it outlines the advantages of storytelling in EFL classes.

  16. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  17. FY98 Class Convening Schedule for Coast Guard Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-12

    This Notice publishes the FY98 class convening schedule of Coast Guard Class "A" : and "C" resident and exportable training courses defined by program/force : managers as essential or directly related to mission accomplishment for : achievement of pr...

  18. Using Dynamic Classes and Role Classes to Model Object Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; de Jonge, Wiebren; Spruit, Paul

    1995-01-01

    n this paper, we argue that object-oriented models must be able to represent three kinds of taxonomic structures: static classes, dynamic classes, and role classes, that behave differently with respect to object migration. If CAR is a static subclass of V EHICLE, then a vehicle that is not a car can

  19. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  20. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  1. Class field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2009-01-01

    This classic book, originally published in 1968, is based on notes of a year-long seminar the authors ran at Princeton University. The primary goal of the book was to give a rather complete presentation of algebraic aspects of global class field theory, and the authors accomplished this goal spectacularly: for more than 40 years since its first publication, the book has served as an ultimate source for many generations of mathematicians. In this revised edition, two mathematical additions complementing the exposition in the original text are made. The new edition also contains several new foot

  2. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  3. Defeminization and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, J

    1985-02-01

    The hypothesis that there might occur selective defeminization by social class between childhood and adulthood among homosexual men was explored. Interview data on 686 homosexual men were employed. It was found that there is a greater tendency for cross-gender propensities to persist into adulthood among respondents from blue-collar backgrounds. Effeminate respondents from such backgrounds were found to be disproportionately involved in same-sex sexual activities during adolescence. They were also sexually responsive to same-sex persons earlier. The interpretation is offered that early homosexual experiences reinforce cross-gender propensities among blue-collar respondents because of the greater gender role dichotomization found in blue-collar culture. Such reinforcement may explain the tendency for there to be greater persistence of cross-gendering among blue-collar men.

  4. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  5. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  6. A new Groenlandaspidid Arthrodire (Vertebrata: Placodermi) from the Famennian of Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Janvier, P; Clément, G

    2005-01-01

    A new species of the arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis is described from the upper part of the Evieux Formation (Upper Famennian), based on several specimens collected from quarries at Modave and Villers-le-Temple,Liège Province, Belgium. It is the first occurrence of this widespread genus in continental Europe. This new species is characterized by an almost smooth dermal armour, except for some scattered tubercles on its skull roof, median dorsal and spinal plates. Its median dorsal plate is t...

  7. The early evolution of Synapsida (Vertebrata, Amniota) and the quality of their fossil record

    OpenAIRE

    Brocklehurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Synapsiden erscheinen erstmals im Fossilbericht im Oberkarbon (späten Pennsylvanium) und dominierten terrestrische Ökosysteme bis zum Ende des Paläozoikums. Diese Arbeit ist die erste detaillierte Betrachtung der frühen Evolution der Synapsiden. Modifizierte Versionen zuvor publizierter Vollständigkeitsmaße werden benutzt, um die Vollständigkeit von Pelycosaurier Fossilien einzuschätzen. Zudem wird eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Methoden genutzt, um die Übereinstimmung von Fossilbericht und Phy...

  8. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure......) and the advantage of integrating equivalent rules into a European rule set. The Danish rules, which have now been in effect for some years, are then considered....

  9. Adaptive Base Class Boost for Multi-class Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ping

    2008-01-01

    We develop the concept of ABC-Boost (Adaptive Base Class Boost) for multi-class classification and present ABC-MART, a concrete implementation of ABC-Boost. The original MART (Multiple Additive Regression Trees) algorithm has been very successful in large-scale applications. For binary classification, ABC-MART recovers MART. For multi-class classification, ABC-MART considerably improves MART, as evaluated on several public data sets.

  10. ClassPrep: A Peer Review System for Class Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyong

    2017-01-01

    Class preparation is recommended by instructors in most college courses, but checking whether a student does so is not easy. A new blended learning system, named ClassPrep, has been proposed and implemented. The usability of the system was examined for two undergraduate psychology courses: one advanced course (n = 11) and one introductory course…

  11. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  12. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  13. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  14. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...

  15. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    . In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation...

  16. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the ...

  17. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  18. Bringing the Brain to Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Carmany

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for encouraging the gifted child's brain to make the most of learning opportunities. Strategies include offering programming enrichment classes, accelerated classes, and teachers trained in differentiating instruction. The importance of providing enrichment, challenges, and feedback are stressed and the game…

  19. GENERIC PROPERTIES OF HOMOCLINIC CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS MARIA CARBALLO

    2001-01-01

    Uma classe homoclínica de um campo vetorial é o fecho do conjunto de pontos homoclínicos transversais associados a uma órbita periódica hiperbólica. Provamos as propriedades seguintes. 1. As classes homoclínicas de campos vetoriais C¹ genéricos em variedades de dimensão n são conjuntos transitivos maximais, saturados, e isolados se e somente se omega-isolados. 2. Os campos vetorias C¹ genéricos não têm ciclos formados por classes homoclínicas. 3. A...

  20. Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Kharal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the concept of a mapping on classes of fuzzy soft sets and study the properties of fuzzy soft images and fuzzy soft inverse images of fuzzy soft sets, and support them with examples and counterexamples.

  1. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  2. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccucci, Matteo; D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Festa, Felice; Polimeni, Antonella; Tecco, Simona

    2012-12-14

    Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. 200 Caucasian patients (15-30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  3. Actions of mapping class groups

    OpenAIRE

    PAPADOPOULOS, ATHANASE

    2014-01-01

    This paper has three parts. The first part is a general introduction to rigidity and to rigid actions of mapping class group actions on various spaces. In the second part, we describe in detail four rigidity results that concern actions of mapping class groups on spaces of foliations and of laminations, namely, Thurston's sphere of projective foliations equipped with its projective piecewise-linear structure, the space of unmeasured foliations equipped with the quotient topology, the reduced ...

  4. Less than a Class Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  5. The theory of social classes Maurice Halbwachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kozlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic thesis of Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of social classes outlined in the “Social classes and morphology” (1942: the concept of class is revealed as the object of collective representation, the main characteristics of classes, the criteria for its selection and conditions for classes formation are analyzed.

  6. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-01-01

    ...; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter...

  7. Classes subalternas, lutas de classe e hegemonia: uma abordagem gramsciana Subaltern classes, class struggles and hegemony: a gramscian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura resgatar, no pensamento de Antonio Gramsci, a concepção de classes subalternas e a sua relação com outras categorias, especialmente, o Estado, a sociedade civil e a hegemonia, como suportes da luta de classes na realidade contemporânea. Aborda, ainda, as relações entre classes subalternas, senso comum e ideologia, bem como as formas de superação tematizadas por Gramsci, através da cultura e da filosofia da práxis. Nesse sentido, num movimento de totalidade, busca recuperar a discussão das classes subalternas, a partir da original formulação gramsciana no âmbito do marxismo, mediante a interação dialética entre estrutura e superestrutura, economia e política. Além do resgate conceitual, apontam-se alguns elementos como subsídios à discussão das formas de subalternidade presentes na realidade contemporânea e as possibilidades de fortalecimento das lutas de tais camadas de classe, sobretudo em momentos de forte desmobilização da participação popular.This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of "overcoming" conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  8. Honoring Class: Working-Class Sensitivities in Honors Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of social class rarely injects itself into assignments in honors English composition courses. The students take few chances with structure, analysis, voice, or audience invocation. Clearly bright students, they seemed baffled when asked for complication in their thinking or to take a chance with an unconventional structure. It was time…

  9. Are Ghanaian Diaspora Middle Class? Linking Middle Class to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, since the return to constitutional rule in 1992, Ghana has emerged as one of the most stable countries in the West African sub-region and has become a beacon of democracy for other African countries to emulate. This political stability has been largely attributed to the positive role of the educated middle class ...

  10. Two classes of metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Garrido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.

  11. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  12. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  13. Chiral algebras of class S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beem, Christopher [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Rees, Balt C. van [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-05

    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  14. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified in...

  15. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms of...... and segmented in societies shapes the type of civil war....

  16. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  17. Developing a Student Leadership Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sandy

    The purpose of this guidebook is to encourage activities advisors and directors to teach their student advisees, in the regular classroom setting, how to become effective leaders, and to provide school administrators and curriculum directors with a sound rationale for leadership classes. The booklet describes the need for leadership instruction…

  18. Nonobtuse simplices & special matrix classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cihangir, A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of certain special classes of n-simplices that occur in the context of numerical analysis, linear algebra, abstract algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. The type of simplex that is of central interest is the nonobtuse simplex, a simplex without any obtuse dihedral

  19. Active Learning in Large Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    the lectures in the course. The main idea is to use inductive, case-based learning, with many small exercises/ discussions during the lectures. We describe a framework for the lectures, that most lectures in the class were based on. The framework contains the conceive, design, and implement stage from the CDIO...

  20. Creating Presentations on ICT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on the creation of presentations on ICT classes. The first part highlights the most important steps when creating a presentation. The main idea is, that the computer presentation shouldn't consist only from the technological part, i.e. the editing of the presentation in a computer program. There are many steps before and after…

  1. Social Class and School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…

  2. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...

  3. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    M R Yelampalli; M R Rachala

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of p...

  4. STUDENTS’ ANXIETIES IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyuzar Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research discussed the anxieties the students of semester 3, English Department, IAIN STS Jambi faced during the speaking class. The result of the research indicated that the causes of the students’ anxieties were the lack of grammar mastery, pronunciation problem, lack of vocabulary, unconfident feeling, fear of making mistakes and feared of being laughed by other students. But the dominant factors found were the lack of grammar, the lack of good pronunciation, and lack of vocabulary mastery. The lecturer had taken part to overcome these problems by giving them motivation not to give up easily, how to cope with vocabulary problems, and how to prepare well before coming into the class.

  5. New class of radio pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpar, M.A.; Ruderman, M.A.; Shaham, J. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.); Cheng, A.F. (Rutgers--the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1982-12-01

    It is proposed that the recently discussed millisecond pulsar 4C21.53, together with the binaries PSRs 1913 + 16, 0820 + 02 and 0655 + 64, a well as possibly several isolated pulsars such as PSRs 1952 + 29 and 1804 + 08, belong to a new class of fast accretion-spun-up pulsars. The spin-down rate, life-time and accretion time of such pulsars, are examined.

  6. Resistance to novel drug classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Calvez, Vincent

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie resistance development to novel drugs is essential to a better clinical management of resistant viruses and to prevent further resistance development and spread. Integrase inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists are the more recent antiretroviral classes developed. The HIV-1 integrase, responsible for the chromosomal integration of the newly synthesized double-stranded viral DNA into the host genomic DNA, represents a new and important target; and two integrase inhibitors (INIs), raltegravir and elvitegravir, have been shown promising results in clinical trials. Viral entry is also an attractive step for the development of new drugs against HIV variants resistant to current antiretroviral drugs, and two CCR5 antagonists have been designed to inhibit HIV-1 binding to R5 co-receptor and are under clinical investigation. Drug resistance to INIs occurs through the selection of mutations within HIV integrase. The kinetic of selection seems rapid and one mutation alone is able to confer resistance to integrase inhibitor, suggesting that this class of drug has a low genetic barrier. Two ways could explain the failure of the CCR5 antagonist class: a rapid outgrowth of pre-existing archived X4 virus or the selection of a resistance to CCR5 antagonists through amino acid changes in V3 loop.

  7. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  8. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...

  9. Investment Company Series and Class Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...

  10. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  11. On a class of nonstationary stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miamee, A. G.; Hardin, Jay C.

    1989-01-01

    A new class of nonstationary stochastic processes is introduced and some of the essential properties of its members are investigated. This class is richer than the class of stationary processes and has the potential of modeling some nonstationary time series. The relation between these newly defined processes with other important classes of nonstationary processes is investigated. Several examples of linearly correlated processes which are not stationary, periodically correlated, or harmonizable are given.

  12. Comprehending text in literature class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Daliborka S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of understanding a text and the contribution of methodological apparatus in the reader book to comprehension of a text being read in junior classes of elementary school. By using the technique of content analysis from methodological apparatuses in eight reader books for the fourth grade of elementary school, approved for usage in 2014/2015 academic year, and surveying 350 teachers in 33 elementary schools and 11 administrative districts in the Republic of Serbia we examined: (a to what extent the Serbian language text book contents enable junior students to understand a literary text; (b to what extent teachers accept the suggestions offered in the textbook for preparing literature teaching. The results show that a large number of suggestions relate to reading comprehension, but some of categories of understanding are unevenly distributed in the methodological apparatus. On the other hand, the majority of teachers use the methodological apparatus given in a textbook for preparing classes, not only the textbook he or she selected for teaching but also other textbooks for the same grade.

  13. The Wisdom of Class-Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Hatch, Kelly; Rao, Kalpana; Oen, Denise

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore the implementation of a statewide class-size reduction program in nine high-poverty schools. Through qualitative methods, they examined how schools used class-size reduction to change staffing patterns and instructional programs. Requiring changes in space allocation, class-size reduction was accomplished through…

  14. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  15. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  16. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  17. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Schedule program is considered to be a class deviation. Each award under such a solicitation is considered... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 501.404... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class...

  18. A Latent Class Model for Rating Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    A latent class model for rating data is presented which provides an alternative to the latent trait approach of analyzing test data. It is the analog of Andrich's binomial Rasch model for Lazarsfeld's latent class analysis (LCA). Response probabilities for rating categories follow a binomial distribution and depend on class-specific item…

  19. Conceptualizing "Homework" in Flipped Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Zandra; Otten, Samuel; Birisci, Salih

    2017-01-01

    Flipped instruction is becoming more common in the United States, particularly in mathematics classes. One of the defining characteristics of this increasingly popular instructional format is the homework teachers assign. In contrast to traditional mathematics classes in which homework consists of problem sets, homework in flipped classes often…

  20. The character strengths of class clowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by

  1. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  2. AAMI advice on Class 6 indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Martha

    2010-12-01

    Class 6 emulating indicators may be used as internal chemical indicators and in PCDs to release nonimplant loads. Class 6 CIs could be used in BI PCDs for routine sterilizer efficacy monitoring and sterilizer qualification testing and along with BIs inside products undergoing product testing. In all applications, the Class 6 CIs/CI PCDs must be labeled for the specific cycle you are monitoring. Class 6 CIs and/or Class 6 CI PCDs are available from Getinge, Steris, SteriTec, and 3M.

  3. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning of a certain class to be assisted by data points from other classes in a context-dependent fashion. The result is that overlap across sub-classes (both within- and across class) is greatly reduced. ICC is particularly useful when combined with algorithms that assume that each class has a unimodal Gaussian distribution (e.g., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), quadratic classifiers), an assumption that is not always true in many real-world situations. ICC can help partition non-Gaussian, multimodal distributions to overcome such a problem. In this sense, ICC works as a preprocessor. Experiments with our ICC algorithm on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicated that it can significantly improve the performance of LDA and quadratic classifiers. We expect our approach to be applicable to a broader class of pattern recognition problems where class-conditional densities are significantly non-Gaussian or multi-modal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    if the Malays constitute the largest and fastest growing section of the middle class in Malaysia. Based on research projects I have carried out from the mid-1990s to the present, this article argues that an unpacking of the Malay Muslim middle class over time is important in order to understand the broader...... picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...... research projects that each in their own way examine how Malay Muslim informants understand and practice “middle-classness” in different spatial and temporal contexts. In short, my findings show how Malay Muslim middle-class projects such as Islamic consumption shape local class culture in Malaysia....

  5. New specimens and records of chondrichthyan fishes (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes off the Mexican Pacific coast Nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes de la costa del Pacífico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available New specimens and new records of occurrence for 10 species of chondrichthyan (elasmobranch and chimaeroid fishes previously unknown or little documented for the continental shelf of the Mexican Pacific are reported. This contribution provides the first record of Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, and Bathyraja trachura for the Mexican Pacific, as well as new specimens of Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, and Raja velezi for the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, including the intermediate record within the known distribution range for Apristurus kampae, and the southernmost record for Raja inornata.Se reportan nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de concurrencia para 10 especies de elasmobranquios previamente desconocidos o con muy poca documentación en aguas del Pacífico mexicano. Esta contribución ofrece el primer registro de Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, y Bathyraja trachura en el Pacífico mexicano; así como nuevos ejemplares de Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai y Raja velezi en la costa occidental de la península de Baja California, con la inclusión del registro intermedio en el ámbito de distribución conocida para Apristurus kampae, y el registro más meridional para Raja inornata.

  6. We are all ordinary people : Perceptions of class and class differences in personal relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines people’s perceptions of class and class differences—in general and with regard to personal relationships. Data from an original survey on personal networks (n=195) shows that most people think they are middle class, although many lower class respondents classify themselves as

  7. Teaching the Class with "The Class": Debunking the Need for Heroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The French film "Entre Les Murs" ("The Class") is a somewhat unusual film in its portrayal of a Parisian working class school and its protagonist, Mr. Marin, who attempts to teach an unruly class of young and very diverse teenagers. This article explores the ways the author used the film "The Class" as a culminating…

  8. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV...

  9. Class-E Amplifier Design Improvements for GSM Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nadir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient power amplifiers are essential in portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones. Also, the power amplifier (PA is the most power-consuming building block in the transmitter of a portable system. This paper investigates how the efficiency of the power amplifier (which is beneficial for multiple applications in communcation sector can be improved by increasing the efficiency of switching mode class E power amplifiers for frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The paper tackles modeling, design improvements and verification through simulation for higher efficiencies. This is the continuation of previous work by the authors. These nonlinear power amplifiers can only amplify constant-envelope RF signals without introducing significant distortion. Mobile systems such as Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM use modulation schemes which generate constant amplitude RF outputs in order to use efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers. Improvements in designs are suggested and higher efficiencies are achieved, to the tune of 67.1% (for 900 MHz and 67.0% (1800 MHz.

  10. Residents' Class Status and Social Political Attitude: Two Cases of Middle-Class Community in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Lipeng  ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    According to the data in two type of middle class community, this paper finds out that differences on residents' objective class status exist, so does subjective class status. The type of the community, occupation, and annual household income influences residents' subjective class status. This paper also compares people's social political attitude in two types of communities. People value some social political issues according to their subjective class status.

  11. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  12. The phylogenetic trunk: maximal inclusion of taxa with missing data in an analysis of the lepospondyli (Vertebrata, Tetrapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J S

    2001-04-01

    The importance of fossils to phylogenetic reconstruction is well established. However, analyses of fossil data sets are confounded by problems related to the less complete nature of the specimens. Taxa that are incompletely known are problematic because of the uncertainty of their placement within a tree, leading to a proliferation of most-parsimonious solutions and "wild card" behavior. Problematic taxa are commonly deleted based on a priori criteria of completeness. Paradoxically, a taxon's problematic behavior is tree dependent, and levels of completeness are not directly associated with problematic behavior. Exclusion of taxa on the basis of completeness eliminates real character conflict and, by not allowing incomplete taxa to determine tree topology, diminishes the phylogenetic hypothesis. Here, the phylogenetic trunk approach is proposed to allow optimization of taxonomic inclusion and tree stability. The use of this method in an analysis of the Paleozoic Lepospondyli finds a single most-parsimonious tree, or trunk, after the removal of one taxon identified as being problematic. Moreover, the 38 trees found at one additional step from this primary trunk were reduced to 2 by removal of one additional taxon. These trunks are compared with the trees that were found by excluding taxa with various degrees of completeness, and the effects of incomplete taxa are explored with regard to use of the trunk. Correlated characters associated with limblessness are discussed regarding the assumption of character independence; however, inclusion of intermediate taxa is found to be the single best method for breaking down long branches.

  13. New class of neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

  14. Regulation of class V myosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Yao, Lin-Lin; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Class V myosin (myosin-5) is a molecular motor that functions as an organelle transporter. The activation of myosin-5's motor function has long been known to be associated with a transition from the folded conformation in the off-state to the extended conformation in the on-state, but only recently have we begun to understand the underlying mechanism. The globular tail domain (GTD) of myosin-5 has been identified as the inhibitory domain and has recently been shown to function as a dimer in regulating the motor function. The folded off-state of myosin-5 is stabilized by multiple intramolecular interactions, including head-GTD interactions, GTD-GTD interactions, and interactions between the GTD and the C-terminus of the first coiled-coil segment. Any cellular factor that affects these intramolecular interactions and thus the stability of the folded conformation of myosin-5 would be expected to regulate myosin-5 motor function. Both the adaptor proteins of myosin-5 and Ca2+ are potential regulators of myosin-5 motor function, because they can destabilize its folded conformation. A combination of these regulators provides a versatile scheme in regulating myosin-5 motor function in the cell.

  15. Speech-based Class Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor

    2017-11-01

    In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.

  16. Two-Class Weather Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cewu; Lin, Di; Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2017-12-01

    Given a single outdoor image, we propose a collaborative learning approach using novel weather features to label the image as either sunny or cloudy. Though limited, this two-class classification problem is by no means trivial given the great variety of outdoor images captured by different cameras where the images may have been edited after capture. Our overall weather feature combines the data-driven convolutional neural network (CNN) feature and well-chosen weather-specific features. They work collaboratively within a unified optimization framework that is aware of the presence (or absence) of a given weather cue during learning and classification. In this paper we propose a new data augmentation scheme to substantially enrich the training data, which is used to train a latent SVM framework to make our solution insensitive to global intensity transfer. Extensive experiments are performed to verify our method. Compared with our previous work and the sole use of a CNN classifier, this paper improves the accuracy up to 7-8 percent. Our weather image dataset is available together with the executable of our classifier.

  17. Class of probe brane universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2013-06-01

    I examine the idea that our world is a branelike object of negligible influence on the bulk spacetime. No particular action functional is specified. Instead, the probe brane dynamics is derived from the universally valid stress-energy conservation equations. As an example, I study the case of a three-sphere in the five-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The resulting four-universe turns out to depend on the equation of state of the brane constituent matter but differs from that of general relativity. One observes that, for every general relativistic universe, there exists a brane universe of equal geometry but a slightly different equation of state. As for the stability of brane universes, I find that no equation of state leads to a stable solution. However, the situation changes if the bulk spacetime has a Euclidean signature. In this case, a class of stable cosmological solutions is obtained. The brane vibrations are guided by the covariant Klein-Gordon equation with an effective metric of the Minkowski signature. It is this effective metric that local observers actually detect. As a consequence, the detected Universe is of bouncing type, with an accelerating expanding phase.

  18. Towards a class library for mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujo, Oliver; Smith, Simon T.; Starkey, Paul; Wolff, Thilo

    1994-01-01

    The PASTEL Mission Planning System (MPS) has been developed in C++ using an object-oriented (OO) methodology. While the scope and complexity of this system cannot compare to that of an MPS for a complex mission one of the main considerations of the development was to ensure that we could reuse some of the classes in future MPS. We present here PASTEL MPS classes which could be used in the foundations of a class library for MPS.

  19. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  20. The capitalist class of modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 People’s Republic of China has been carrying out the policy of reforms. As the result of these reforms, the powerful capitalist class has emerged. This class has transformed into a junior partner of the party-state bureaucracy of China. The author analyzes the capitalist class of China from different perspectives - number, wealth, age, gender, style of life. The author compares the capitalist class of China with capitalist classes of other countries - the USA, Germany, Japan, Russia, and India and so on. The author highlights the importance of the branch specialization of the capitalist class of China. The development of this class generates causes the industrialization and modernization. By contrast, the formation of the capitalist class causes the deindustrialization of Russia. The author highlights the main contradictions of the development of modern China. The situation of the capitalist class of China is contradictory. On one side, it needs the strong socialist state, on the other side, it needs the dismantlement of socialism.

  1. Investigation of Class 2b Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2002-04-03

    The popularity of trucks in the class 2 category--that is, those with a 6,000 to 10,000 pounds (lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)--has increased since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine vehicles in the upper portion of the class 2 weight range (designated as vehicle class 2b) and to assess their impact. Vehicles in class 2b (8,500-10,000 lbs GVWR) include pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and large vans (i.e., not minivans). Oak Ridge National Laboratory researched each individual truck model to determine which models were class 2b trucks and arrived at four methodologies to derive sales volumes. Two methods--one for calendar year and one for model year sales--were recommended for producing believable and reliable results. The study indicates that 521,000 class 2b trucks were sold in calendar year 1999--6.4% of sales of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Eighty-two percent of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were pickups; one third of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were diesel. There were 5.8 million class 2b trucks on the road in 2000, which amounts to 7.8% of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Twenty-four percent of the class 2b truck population is diesel. Estimates show that class 2b trucks account for 8% of annual miles traveled by trucks under 10,000 lbs and 9% of fuel use. Data on class 2b trucks are scarce. As the Tier 2 standards, which apply to passenger vehicles in the 8,500-10,000 lb GVWR category, become effective, additional data on class 2b trucks may become available--not only emissions data, but data in all areas. At the moment, distinguishing class 2b trucks from class 2 trucks in general is a substantial task requiring data on an individual model level.

  2. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-09-15

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. Presence of third molar germs in orthodontic patients with class II/2 and class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady Maricić, Barbara; Legović, Mario; Slaj, Martina; Lapter Varga, Marina; Zuvić Butorac, Marta; Kapović, Miljenko

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of third molar germs in patients with Class II/2 and Class III malocclusions. The study comprised 146 examinees from Zagreb and Istria. Examinees with Class II/2 malocclusions amounted to 77 and those with Class III 69. With regard to development of dentition the examinees were divided into two groups: Group I subjects with early mixed dentition (23 subjects with Class II/2 and 21 subjects with Class III), and Group II subjects with late mixed dentition (54 subjects with Class II/2 and 48 subjects with Class III). Assessments were made from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms. The Pearson chi2-test and Fisher's exact test was used to determine statistical significance in differences. Assessments showed that third molar germs were present significantly more often in the upper jaw in Class II/2 (58% vs. 44%) and in the lower jaw in Class III (83% vs. 69%). In subjects with Class II/2 all third molar germs were present statistically more often in late mixed dentition, which was also determined for maxillary third molar germs in Class III. The presence of mandibular third molar germs in Class III examinees was almost equal in both periods of mixed dentitions. The study confirmed correlation between the presence of third molar germs and sagital maxillomandibular relationship and encourages investigation of the differences in calcifications of all permanent teeth in such malocclusions.

  4. A conceptualisation of whole-class scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Eerde, H.A.A.; Bakker, A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding refers to temporary and adaptive support, originally in dyadic adult– child interaction. It has become widely used, also in whole-class settings, but often in loose ways. The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically ground a conceptualisation of whole-class

  5. Estimating Stability Class in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas G. Lavdas

    1997-01-01

    A simple and easily remembered method is described for estimating cloud ceiling height in the field. Estimating ceiling height provides the means to estimate stability class, a parameter used to help determine Dispersion Index and Low Visibility Occurrence Risk Index, indices used as smoke management aids. Stability class is also used as an input to VSMOKE, an...

  6. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Farias,Vanessa Costa; Tesch,Ricardo de Souza; Denardin,Odilon Victor Porto; Ursi,Weber

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 2...

  7. Science Perceptions of Prospective Class Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucinar Sagir, Safak

    2017-01-01

    The perceptions of class teachers, who will deliver science education at the elementary school, of information and science are significant as these affect the quality of education received by children. The aim of this research is to determine perceptions of prospective class teachers of science. The sample group of the research consists of 120…

  8. Researcher Perspectives on Class Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue's (1999) position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes…

  9. International Master Classes in health informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatewood, L.; Limburg, M.; Gardner, R.; Haux, R.; Jaspers, M.; Schmidt, D.; Wetter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Master Classes arose within the performing arts and are now being offered in system sciences. The IPhiE group of faculty from six universities in Europe and the United States has offered Master Classes in health informatics to provide an integrative forum for honors students. Featured are

  10. Cheating in Online Classes: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker Bemmel, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    This applied dissertation was an inquiry into the phenomenon of cheating among students who take their classes online. There is a common perception that cheating is rampant in online classes and the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the accreditation association in the South, implemented policies, which mandate stricter monitoring of…

  11. Stress in Professional Classes: Causes, Manifestations, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether students in professional journalism and mass communication classes experience class-related stress, what factors contribute to the stress, and whether that stress changes over time. Finds that students perceive stress in their professional course work, and reveals general stress patterns over the 15-week semester. (SR)

  12. 7 CFR 29.2505 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2505 Class. A major division of tobacco... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.2505 Section 29.2505 Agriculture Regulations...

  13. The YouTube Makeup Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, David G.

    2009-01-01

    When a college instructor goes out of town and must miss a lecture, the standard options are to cancel the class meeting or to enlist a colleague to fill in. In the former case a teaching opportunity is lost; in the latter the substitute may not lead the class in the same way as the instructor. Some students routinely skip lectures by a guest…

  14. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype.

  15. CEPHALOMETRIC FEATURES OF CLASS III MALOCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegan, Georgeta; Dascălu, Cristina; Mavru, R B; Anistoroaei, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify quantitative and relational characteristics of bone, dental and soft tissue structures for Class III malocclusion, according to gender and age range. 60 conventional lateral cephalograms were divided into two groups according to ANB angle: the group of cases with skeletal Class III (n = 36) and a control group with skeletal Class I (n = 24). There were performed 53 digital cephalometric measurements according to Steiner, Tweed and Jarabak analyzes. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t-student and Levene tests were used to find the characteristics of Class III, using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. We found 14 parameters that distinguished the two classes disorders (the angles SNB, SND, FMA, IMPA, MeGoOcP, Mand 1-MeGo, NSAr, ArGoMe, NGoMe and SNPog; the distances Ao-Bo and lu-NPog; Holdaway and AFH ratios) and 3 parameters for the Class III age ranges (NGoAr angle, Ls-NsPog' distance and S-Ar:Ar-Go ratio) (p ≤ 0.05). There were found no significant differences between genders for skeletal Class III. Emphasizing the cephalometric characteristics of Class III malocclusion, with the overall growth together with dental and occlusion development, requires early orthodontic therapy.

  16. Software Training Classes Now Open | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer                                            Data Management Services, Inc. (DMS), has announced the opening of its spring session of software training classes, available to all employees at NCI at Frederick. Classes begin on March 31 and run through June 30.

  17. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of…

  18. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  19. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  20. Class and Pedagogies: Visible and Invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Basil

    This paper defines the "invisible pedagogy," a teaching model used in British infant schools, and discusses its relationship to middle class culture, working class culture, and "visible" pedagogy. The invisible pedagogy is characterized by several features including (1) implicit rather than explicit control over the child by…

  1. Structural (Performance) class Potential for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones; David E. Kretschmann; Kevin Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Structural class systems are species-independent product classification systems for structural timber. They are used throughout the world to reduce the number of species and grade choices that face the designer of wood construction projects. Structural class systems offer an opportunity to simplify timber specification in North America and to encourage more effective...

  2. Higher Education and Class: Production or Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with questions relating to the role of education and especially Higher Education in the reproduction of class division in society. Social classes and how they are formed and reproduced has always been one of the greatest challenges for Marxism and social theory in general. The questions regarding the role of education, and…

  3. Using Mobile Phone Technology in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat

    2008-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) who want to develop successful lessons face numerous challenges, including large class sizes and inadequate instructional materials and technological support. Another problem is unmotivated students who refuse to participate in class activities. According to Harmer (2007), uncooperative and…

  4. Introduction to Latent Class Analysis with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Mariano; Giambona, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to group individuals (cases, units) into classes (categories) of an unobserved (latent) variable on the basis of the responses made on a set of nominal, ordinal, or continuous observed variables. In this article, we introduce LCA in order to demonstrate its usefulness to early adolescence…

  5. Our Class as an Icosahedral Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Elizabeth Ann

    Multicultural study, visual and language arts, social studies, and geometry are integrated into this 2-month unit for the elementary classroom. The unit is divided into 3 segments, centering around the creation of a class icosahedron in which each of the shape's 20 faces represents 1 class member. Actual construction of the icosahedron constitutes…

  6. Connections up to homotopy and characteristic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this note is to clarify the relevance of \\connections up to homotopy" [4, 5] to the theory of characteristic classes, and to present an application to the characteristic classes of algebroids [3, 5, 7] (and of Poisson manifolds in particular [8, 13]). We have already remarked [4] that

  7. Connections up to homotopy and characteristic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this note is to clarify the relevance of connections up to homotopy to the theory of characteristic classes and to present an application to the characteristic classes of algebroids and of Poisson manifolds in particular We have already remarked that such connections up to

  8. Characteristic Classes for Curves of Genus One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taelman, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compute the cohomology of the stackM1 over C with coefficients in Z[12 ], and in low degrees with coefficients in Z. Cohomology classes onM1 give rise to characteristic classes, cohomological invariants of families of curves of genus one. We prove a number of vanishing results for those

  9. Performance of TCP with multiple Priority Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, R.; van der Mei, R.D.; Kooij, R.E.; van den Berg, Hans Leo

    2002-01-01

    We consider the dimensioning problem for Internet access links carrying TCP traffic with two priority classes. To this end, we study the behaviour of TCP at the flow level described by a multiple-server Processor Sharing (PS) queueing model with two customer classes, where the customers represent

  10. Python Classes for Numerical Solution of PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Mushtaq, Asif; Olaussen, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    We announce some Python classes for numerical solution of partial differential equations, or boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations. These classes are built on routines in \\texttt{numpy} and \\texttt{scipy.sparse.linalg} (or \\texttt{scipy.linalg} for smaller problems).

  11. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhilei; CLASS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes that observe Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization over ~65% of the sky from the Atacama Desert, Chile in frequency bands at 40 GHz, 90 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz. Multi-frequency observation enables CLASS to distinguish CMB from galactic foregrounds. CLASS is making large angular scale CMB polarization measurements as part of a five-year survey that will constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the 0.01 level by measuring both the reionization and recombination peaks. CLASS will measure the optical depth to last scattering to near the cosmic variance limit, significantly improving on current constraints. Combining the CLASS optical depth measurement with higher resolution data will improve constraints on the sum of neutrino masses. CLASS will also provide the deepest wide-sky-area Galactic microwave polarization maps for Galactic studies. CLASS has been observing for over one year at 40 GHz frequency band. In my talk, I will introduce the science, design, and current status of the CLASS experiment.

  12. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  13. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class determinations. 2.207 Section 2.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.207 Class determinations. (a) The General Counsel may make and issue a...

  14. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  15. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    logit model suggests significant changes in the price sensitivity and the utility from environmental claims between both experimental waves. A pooled scale adjusted latent class model is estimated jointly over both waves and the relative size of latent classes is compared across waves, resulting...

  16. Conservatoire Students' Perceptions of Master Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Gaunt, Helena; Hallam, Susan; Robertson, Linnhe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the value and purpose of Master Classes, from the perspective of Conservatoire students. Thirty-seven UK Conservatoire students responded to a questionnaire, providing information about their prior experiences of Master Classes, the factors that they considered to be important in a successful Master…

  17. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-01-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations...

  18. Venomous and poisonous arthropods: identification, clinical manifestations of envenomation, and treatments used in human injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review presents the main species of venomous and poisonous arthropods, with commentary on the clinical manifestations provoked by the toxins and therapeutic measures used to treat human envenomations. The groups of arthopods discussed include the class Arachnida (spiders and scorpions, which are responsible for many injuries reported worldwide, including Brazil; the subphylum Myriapoda, with the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda (centipedes and millipedes; and the subphylum Hexapoda, with the class Insecta and the orders Coleoptera (beetles, Hemiptera (stink bugs, giant water bugs, and cicadas, Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees, and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths.

  19. 78 FR 5754 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Class E Airspace; Reading, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class D and Class E Airspace at Reading... Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Reading Regional/Carl A. Spaatz Field. This action would enhance the safety...

  20. 78 FR 21044 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA... D and Class E Airspace at Reading, PA, as the SHAPP OM navigation aid has been decommissioned, requiring the modification of Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Reading Regional/Carl A...

  1. Self-Education, Class and Gender in Edwardian Britain: Women in Lower Middle Class Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…

  2. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wiesław; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Sliwińska, Ewa B; Kindberg, Jonas; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-10-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South-north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  3. Postura de cabeça nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e classe III Head posture in the presence of class II and class III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga se existe diferença entre grupos com diferentes deformidades dentofaciais (padrão classe II e classe III e o grupo sem a deformidade em relação à postura de cabeça. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 16 e 40 anos. Dez pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 15 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 15 voluntários sadios, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Primeiramente foi realizada a inspeção da postura de cabeça. Logo em seguida foi realizada a avaliação postural de cabeça por meio da fotografia postural (fotogrametria. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos em relação à avaliação postural utilizando-se a fotogrametria. Já em relação à avaliação postural pela inspeção clínica, observou-se uma postura anterior de cabeça nos indivíduos com a deformidade dentofacial padrão classe II, comparados ao padrão classe III (p = 0,001 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. Foi visto também que o grupo deformidade classe II apresentou um percentual inferior de indivíduos com posição neutra de cabeça comparado ao grupo deformidade classe III (p = 0,008 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial classe II podem apresentar uma anteriorização de cabeça. Não há influência da deformidade no aumento ou na redução do ângulo cabeça-pescoço, analisado por meio da fotogrametria.PURPOSE: this study investigates whether there is a difference in head posture between groups with different dentofacial deformities (class II and class III and a group with no deformity. METHOD: 25 volunteers aged from 16 to 40 year old took part in the study. Ten patients had a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 15 had a diagnosis of class III skeletal deformity, and 15 healthy volunteers matched for sex and

  4. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  5. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Yelampalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  6. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  7. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  8. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  9. Automatic Identification Systems the Effects of Class B on the Use of Class A Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andy

    2006-05-01

    The standards for CSTDMA Class B AIS will shortly be published by the International Electrotechnical Commission and equipment will become available during 2006. The perceived benefits that Class B brings to leisure craft users and its relatively low cost will make it attractive in the market place. A rapid take-up of Class B use can therefore be expected. This paper considers the impact that increased use of Class B will have on users of Class A AIS that are compulsorily fitted to larger vessels to meet the requirements of the International Maritime Organization Safety of Life at Sea convention. The CSTDMA Class B system has been designed to prevent overloading of the AIS VHF data link. This is briefly reviewed but there are a number of other aspects that need to be considered. These include: the increased garbling of Class B messages compared to those of Class A; the problems accruing from the low update rate of Class B information; the increase in display information that will need to be managed; and the possible increase in inappropriate manoeuvres of leisure craft caused by misplaced reliance on AIS. As a result of the investigation the paper highlights the fact that Class B users must not assume that their own presence, in the form of Class B transmissions, will be particularly visible on the bridge of many SOLAS vessels. This will continue to be the case for many years into the future, until such vessels are mandated to carry radar with AIS target overlay capability.

  10. VIRTUAL CLASS FOR STUDENTS’ INDIVIDUAL TRAINING ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lytvynova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of modernization of individual studies of students rises by modern facilities of computer-reference educational environment. The criteria of determination of level of ІКТ-компетентності of teachers-предметників which work with a virtual class are given, the model of integration of virtual class is described in an educational-educate process. Research of virtual class is in-process presented as a computer-reference educational environment.

  11. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  12. Considerations when using videos in lamaze classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner's attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the culture of the class participants. Finally, the author provides a list of some of the many wonderful videos available to Lamaze birth educators.

  13. Marking the Moral Boundaries of Class

    OpenAIRE

    John Kirk

    2006-01-01

    This article welcomes the recent renewed interest in the topic of class within sociology and cultural studies. This comes after a long period – from around the middle part of the 1980s and into the 1990s – during which social class was dismissed as a mode of understanding socio-economic and cultural conditions on the part of both academics and mainstream political organisations alike. Working-class formations in particular came under scrutiny, increasingly seen to be in terminal decline a...

  14. Malocclusion class III treatment in teething decidua.

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Sevillano, Manuel Gustavo; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica, sección Ortodoncia. Facultad de Odontología UNMSM. Lima – Perú.

    2014-01-01

    According as age increases, growth decreases and Class III skeletal patterns become more stable. The objective of Class III malocclusion’s treatment in primary dentition is to get a favorable environment to achieve a better dentofacial development. This article’s objective is to give a theorical summary about treatment of Class III malocclusions in primary dentition, and to present a case report. A medida que aumenta la edad, la cuantía de crecimiento disminuye y las clases III esquelética...

  15. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can......The abilities to extend a software module and to integrate a software module into an existing software system without changing existing source code are fundamental challenges in software engineering and programming-language design. We reconsider these challenges at the level of language...... be provided. We also pinpoint several limitations of type classes in this context....

  16. Class 3 Tracking and Monitoring System Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safely, Eugene; Salamy, S. Phillip

    1999-11-29

    The objective of Class 3 tracking system are to assist DOE in tracking and performance and progress of these projects and to capture the technical and financial information collected during the projects' monitoring phase. The captured information was used by DOE project managers and BDM-Oklahoma staff for project monitoring and evaluation, and technology transfer activities. The proposed tracking system used the Class Evaluation Executive Report (CLEVER), a relation database for storing and disseminating class project data; GeoGraphix, a geological and technical analysis and mapping software system; the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) database; and MS-Project, a project management software system.

  17. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  18. Automated Object Classification with ClassX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchkov, A. A.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Postman, M.; Donahue, M. E.; McGlynn, T. A.; Angelini, L.; Corcoran, M. F.; Drake, S. A.; Pence, W. D.; White, N.; Winter, E. L.; Genova, F.; Ochsenbein, F.; Fernique, P.; Derriere, S.

    ClassX is a project aimed at creating an automated system to classify X-ray sources and is envisaged as a prototype of the Virtual Observatory. As a system, ClassX creates a pipeline by integrating a network of classifiers with an engine that searches and retrieves multi-wavelength counterparts for a given target from the worldwide data storage media. At the start of the project we identified a number of issues that needed to be addressed to make the implementation of such a system possible. The most fundamental are: (a) classification methods and algorithms, (b) selection and definition of classes (object types), and (c) identification of source counterparts across multi-wavelength data. Their relevance to the project objectives will be seen in the results below as we discuss ClassX classifiers.

  19. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion...

  20. Gems: Nutrition Education in Childbirth Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easches, Janet G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a nutrition education packet for natural childbirth (Lamaze) classes. The packet consists of four 15- to 20-minute lessons, each containing goal, objectives, questions (with answers), activities, and pamphlets. List of goals and sample activities are included. (JN)

  1. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  2. Clafer: Unifying Class and Feature Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bąk, Kacper; Diskin, Zinovy; Antkiewicz, Michal

    2015-01-01

    We present Clafer (class, feature, reference), a class modeling language with first-class support for feature modeling. We designed Clafer as a concise notation for meta-models, feature models, mixtures of meta- and feature models (such as components with options), and models that couple feature...... models and meta-models via constraints (such as mapping feature configurations to component configurations or model templates). Clafer allows arranging models into multiple specialization and extension layers via constraints and inheritance. We identify several key mechanisms allowing a meta......-modeling language to express feature models concisely. Clafer unifies basic modeling constructs, such as class, association, and property, into a single construct, called clafer. We provide the language with a formal semantics built in a structurally explicit way. The resulting semantics explains the meaning...

  3. Student Attitudes: A Study of Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)

  4. Distributed optimization of multi-class SVMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Alber

    Full Text Available Training of one-vs.-rest SVMs can be parallelized over the number of classes in a straight forward way. Given enough computational resources, one-vs.-rest SVMs can thus be trained on data involving a large number of classes. The same cannot be stated, however, for the so-called all-in-one SVMs, which require solving a quadratic program of size quadratically in the number of classes. We develop distributed algorithms for two all-in-one SVM formulations (Lee et al. and Weston and Watkins that parallelize the computation evenly over the number of classes. This allows us to compare these models to one-vs.-rest SVMs on unprecedented scale. The results indicate superior accuracy on text classification data.

  5. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  6. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno T. Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Class D β-lactamases have emerged as a prominent resistance mechanism against β-lactam antibiotics that previously had efficacy against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially by Acinetobacter baumannii and the Enterobacteriaceae. The phenotypic and structural characteristics of these enzymes correlate to activities that are classified either as a narrow spectrum, an extended spectrum, or a carbapenemase spectrum. We focus on Class D β-lactamases that are carried on plasmids and, thus, present particular clinical concern. Following a historical perspective, the susceptibility and kinetics patterns of the important plasmid-encoded Class D β-lactamases and the mechanisms for mobilization of the chromosomal Class D β-lactamases are discussed.

  7. Designing Class Methods from Dataflow Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Peretz; Kabeli-Shani, Judith

    A method for designing the class methods of an information system is described. The method is part of FOOM - Functional and Object-Oriented Methodology. In the analysis phase of FOOM, two models defining the users' requirements are created: a conceptual data model - an initial class diagram; and a functional model - hierarchical OO-DFDs (object-oriented dataflow diagrams). Based on these models, a well-defined process of methods design is applied. First, the OO-DFDs are converted into transactions, i.e., system processes that supports user task. The components and the process logic of each transaction are described in detail, using pseudocode. Then, each transaction is decomposed, according to well-defined rules, into class methods of various types: basic methods, application-specific methods and main transaction (control) methods. Each method is attached to a proper class; messages between methods express the process logic of each transaction. The methods are defined using pseudocode or message charts.

  8. How Tweens View Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Spielhagen reports on her interviews with students in Hudson Valley Middle School, a middle school in a rural district in upstate New York that has offered voluntary single-sex classes for three years. The 24 6th, 7th, and 8th graders whom she interviewed had chosen to take all-boy or all-girl academic classes for at least one year. All Hudson…

  9. A new Class of Extremal Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    and for both well- and non-well-ordered isotropic constituent phases. The new class of composites constitutes an alternative to the three previously known extremal composite classes: finite rank laminates, composite sphere assemblages and Vigdergauz microstructures. An isotropic honeycomb-like hexagonal...... material phases in a periodic isotropic material structure such that the effective properties are extremized. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Functions of class V myosins in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, John A; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-10-04

    This minireview focuses on recent studies implicating class V myosins in organelle and macromolecule transport within neurons. These studies reveal that class V myosins play important roles in a wide range of fundamental processes occurring within neurons, including the transport into dendritic spines of organelles that support synaptic plasticity, the establishment of neuronal shape, the specification of polarized cargo transport, and the subcellular localization of mRNA.

  11. Optical iconic filters for large class recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D; Mahalamobis, A

    1987-06-01

    Approaches are advanced for pattern recognition when a large number of classes must be identified. Multilevel encoded multiple-iconic filters are considered for this problem. Hierarchical arrangements of iconic filters and/or preprocessing stages are described. A theoretical basis for the sidelobe level and noise effects of filters designed for large class problems is advanced. Experimental data are provided for an optical character recognition case study.

  12. New universality class in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    We study the Blume-Capel universality class in d=103-ϵ dimensions. The renormalization group flow is extracted by looking at poles in fractional dimension of three loop diagrams using MS. The theory is the only nontrivial universality class which admits an expansion to three dimensions with ϵ=13......theory results. Finally we discuss a family of nonunitary multicritical models which includes the Lee-Yang and Blume...

  13. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Treatment planning in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Grant T

    2004-01-01

    In Class III malocclusion, the overjet is reduced and may be reversed, with one or more incisor teeth in lingual crossbite. In the early mixed dentition, and in older patients with mild skeletal discrepancies, orthodontic treatment usually involves proclining the maxilliary anterior teeth into positive overjet. When the permanent dentition has established, orthodontic therapy is usually aimed at compensating for the underlying mild-moderate Class III skeletal discrepancy by proclining and retroclining the maxillary and mandibular incisors, respectively. In contrast, adolescent and non-growing patients with severe Class III skeletal discrepancies require a combination of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery to correct the underlying skeletal pattern. Adolescent patients with moderately severe skeletal discrepancies require careful treatment planning because they are often at the limits of orthodontic compensation, and further mandibular growth may prevent a stable Class I occlusion from being maintained with growth. In this situation, treatment should be limited to aligning the maxillary arch, accepting that orthognathic surgery will be required to correct the underlying Class III skeletal discrepancy when skeletal growth has been completed. This article will inform dental professionals about the aetiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of patients with Class III malocclusions. Specifically, the types of orthodontic treatment that can be completed at the various stages of dental development and skeletal growth will be discussed.

  15. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  16. Mandibular condyle dimensions in Peruvian patients with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zegarra-Baquerizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare condylar dimensions of young adults with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: 124 CBCTs from 18-30 year-old patients, divided into 2 groups according to skeletal patterns (Class II and Class III were evaluated. Skeletal patterns were classified by measuring the ANB angle of each patient. The anteroposterior diameter (A and P of the right and left mandibular condyle was assessed from a sagittal view by a line drawn from point A (anterior to P (posterior. The coronal plane allowed the evaluation of the medio-lateral diameter by drawing a line from point M (medium to L (lateral; all distances were measured in mm. Results: In Class II the A-P diameter was 9.06±1.33 and 8.86±1.56 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 8.71±1.2 and 8.84±1.42. In Class II the M-L diameter was 17.94±2.68 and 17.67±2.44 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 19.16±2.75 and 19.16±2.54. Conclusion: Class III M-L dimensions showed higher values than Class II, whereas these differences were minimal in A-P.

  17. Mapping the social class structure: From occupational mobility to social class categories using network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus......, unlike dominant, theoretically defined class schemes, this article derives social class categories from observed patterns in a mobility network covering intra-generational mobility. The network is based on a mobility table of 109 occupational categories tied together by 1,590,834 job shifts on the Danish...... labour market 2001–2007. The number of categories are reduced from 109 to 34 by applying a new clustering algorithm specifically designed for the study of mobility tables (MONECA). These intra-generational social class categories are related to the central discussions of gender, income, education...

  18. A self-oscillating detuning-insensitive class-E transmitter for implantable microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaie, B; Rose, S C; Nardin, M D; Najafi, K

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes a low-cost, self-oscillating, detuning-in-sensitive, class-E driver for transcutaneous power and data transmission to implantable microsystems. A voltage feedback scheme using a fast comparator for zero-crossing detection and a CMOS start-up circuit were used to stabilize the class-E operation for various transmitter coil inductance values. This technique solves the common problem of mismatch between the switching frequency of the driving device and the resonant frequency of the load network, which can cause excessive power loss and damage to the active device. Data is transmitted by AM modulation of the carrier through switching the power supply between two levels. The transmitter uses a 9-V supply, consumes 212 mA, operates at 3.9 MHz, and has an efficiency of 71%. The efficiency is stable (Biomedical microsystems, class-E transmitter, implantable electronics, inductive powering, transcutaneous links.

  19. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  20. Physical activity in youth dance classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Peck, Emma; Bracy, Nicole L; Bonilla, Edith; Rincon, Patricia; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  2. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  3. APPLICATION OF INCREASED BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE SWITCH TO CLASS-E AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SÖNMEZ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Class-E amplifier consist of a switching device (BJT or FET and a rezonant circuit. The power of amplifier depends on current and supply voltage of the transistor. The breakdown voltage of the transistor is increased to the maximum level in order to increase the power of the amplifier. Because of increasing the current increases the reverse induction, the reverse voltage creates a problem for the transistor. In this work, the increased breakdown voltage transistor Configuration is applied to class-E power amplifiers. Therefore, the reverse voltage problem is solved and supply voltage.

  4. Classes, cultura e ação coletiva Classes, culture and collective action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasílio Sallum Jr.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma revisão da literatura sobre classes e conflito social, analisando seus impasses. Em seguida, faz uma incursão aos legados de Pierre Bordieu e Marx sobre a matéria, indicando como poderiam ser integrados numa teoria renovada das classes sociais.The article surveys the literature on class and social conflict, focusing its theoretical dilemmas. Then it discusses Pierre Bordieu's and Marx's legacies on the subject, pointing out how they could be integrated in a renewed theory of social classes.

  5. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meloti, Aparecida Fernanda; Gonçalves, Renata de Cássia; Silva, Ertty; Martins, Lídia Parsekian; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare...

  6. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  7. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2012-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) was successfully employed for predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with respect to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), drug transporters and their interplay. The major assumption of BDDCS is that the extent of metabolism (EoM) predicts high versus low intestinal permeability rate, and vice versa, at least when uptake transporters or paracellular transport are not involved. We recently published a collection of over 900 marketed drugs classified for BDDCS. We suggest that a reliable model for predicting BDDCS class, integrated with in vitro assays, could anticipate disposition and potential DDIs of new molecular entities (NMEs). Here we describe a computational procedure for predicting BDDCS class from molecular structures. The model was trained on a set of 300 oral drugs, and validated on an external set of 379 oral drugs, using 17 descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction the accuracy was 82% in training and 79% in external validation. The actual BDDCS class corresponded to the highest ranked calculated class for 55% of the validation molecules, and it was within the top two ranked more than 92% of the times. The unbalanced stratification of the dataset didn’t affect the prediction, which showed highest accuracy in predicting classes 2 and 3 with respect to the most populated class 1. For class 4 drugs a general lack of predictability was observed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirmed the degree of accuracy for the prediction of the different BDDCS classes is tied to the structure of the dataset. This model could routinely be used in early drug discovery to prioritize in vitro tests for NMEs (e.g., affinity to transporters

  8. Researcher perspectives on class size reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue’s (1999 position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes political histories of, contextual details about, and assumptions undergirding the conversation. We find divergent (and sometimes competing perspectives on identifying beneficiaries of class size reduction (or CSR and the correct context in which to view CSR research. By contrasting the logic and assumptions embedded in pupil-teacher ratio (PTR, class size (CS, and class size reduction studies, we conclude that sometimes research conflates these constructs and their associated theories of action, and such distortion poorly serves the needs of policymakers and stakeholders in education. We recommend that future inquiry focus on mechanisms of change, particularly instruction—both in terms of instructional strategies that capitalize on the resource of a smaller group and the types of support needed for teacher and administrator professional development.

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  10. Disease concepts and the logic of classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F K

    1981-09-01

    Four different disease concepts are examined. In pre-scientific times, diseases were regarded as independent entities outside and inside the body of patients. This view is still alive in such expressions as "disease carrier' and similar idioms. Sydenham's disease entity was akin to a Platonic "idea'; namely as "species', "substantial form' or "essence' which had a singular independent existence in some metaphysical realm. Therefore, the talk at the time was that a patient suffered from, say, "the' pox. Virchow's disease entities were semi-independent parasitic parts in the bodies of different patients. Therefore, patients were said to suffer from, say "a' pneumonia. In modern times diseases are no longer regarded as independent or semi-independent entities. They are merely attribute complexes in patients. As such, they require no grammatical article. Patients are said to suffer from, say, pneumonia. The different views of disease concepts are finally examined within a framework provided by the modern logic of classes. The pre-scientific and Virchowian disease entities are members in a class "extension'. Sydenham's disease entity corresponds to a class entity abstracted from class members. Modern diseases are attributes listed in the class "intension'. The different disease concepts thus have different logical implications.

  11. VC-dimensions of random function classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ycart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For any class of binary functions on [n]={1, …, n} a classical result by Sauer states a sufficient condition for its VC-dimension to be at least d: its cardinality should be at least O(n d-1. A necessary condition is that its cardinality be at least 2 d (which is O(1 with respect to n. How does the size of a `typical' class of VC-dimension d compare to these two extreme thresholds ? To answer this, we consider classes generated randomly by two methods, repeated biased coin flips on the n-dimensional hypercube or uniform sampling over the space of all possible classes of cardinality k on [n]. As it turns out, the typical behavior of such classes is much more similar to the necessary condition; the cardinality k need only be larger than a threshold of 2 d for its VC-dimension to be at least d with high probability. If its expected size is greater than a threshold of O(log (which is still significantly smaller than the sufficient size of O(n d-1 then it shatters every set of size d with high probability. The behavior in the neighborhood of these thresholds is described by the asymptotic probability distribution of the VC-dimension and of the largest d such that all sets of size d are shattered.

  12. Social class, anxieties and mothers' foodwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire

    2015-03-01

    In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  13. COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION IN ART CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Hrvanović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous indicators affect communication and interaction in art classes. For every teacher, as pedagogue, his successful educational activity is very important as some indicators influence the two-way exchange of information in art classes. Teaching art is very specific way of teaching process, because it is mostly based on exchange of visual information of artistic type which represents a special form of communication. The specificity of artistic information, way of acting on the viewer and intense emotional charge in the process of communication should be used as visual stimulus. The richness of imagery, stimulation of reality, abstraction and other cognitive processes in art classes experientially and visually improve students’ awareness and should be represented and diversified by origin and multiplied by quantity. The research paper aims to demonstrate the importance of connectivity between judgment of taste and ability to evaluate the quality of the work of art in art and non-art schools. Teaching and education in art classes is being realized precisely inside communicative relations and appropriate socio-emotional climate. In this research, visual communication in art classes is defined over the structure of the inventory that will examine the differences between abilities to evaluate the quality of artistic information and the judgment of taste.

  14. Third Class Resolver: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Attilio, M; Festa, F; Filippakos, A; Comparelli, U; Tripodi, D

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the use of Third Class Resolver (TCR), a new fixed and functional orthopaedic appliance for the treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in adolescents and young adults. Study design: Retrospective analysis. Twenty subjects, 10 females and 10 males, affected by Class III malocclusion were treated with a new fixed orthopaedic appliance: the Third Class Resolver (TCR). The mean age was 7 years at the beginning of treatment and 9 years at the end of treatment. The mean treatment time was 6 months. Digital cephalometric superimpositions on lateral radiographs taken at the start and end of treatment were assessed. The cephalometric values were statistically analysed. Cephalometric analysis of changes during treatment shows a statistically significant increase of ANB angle (mean 1°) (P = 0.045); increase of Witts Index (mean 3.5 mm) (P = 0.003); decrease of Maxillo-Mandibular angle (MM) (mean -2.3°) (P = 0.047); increase of Upper incisor-Maxilla Plane angle (angle mean 10.5°) (P = 0.02); increase of the distance between Upper Incisor and A-Pg line (mean 2.4 mm) (P = 0.021); increase of the mandibular branch length (mean 4.8 mm) (P = 0.004). TCR can be used fully for treatment of Class III malocclusions.

  15. Effects of emotion on different phoneme classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Min; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Busso, Carlos; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of emotion on different phoneme classes using short-term spectral features. In the research on emotion in speech, most studies have focused on prosodic features of speech. In this study, based on the hypothesis that different emotions have varying effects on the properties of the different speech sounds, we investigate the usefulness of phoneme-class level acoustic modeling for automatic emotion classification. Hidden Markov models (HMM) based on short-term spectral features for five broad phonetic classes are used for this purpose using data obtained from recordings of two actresses. Each speaker produces 211 sentences with four different emotions (neutral, sad, angry, happy). Using the speech material we trained and compared the performances of two sets of HMM classifiers: a generic set of ``emotional speech'' HMMs (one for each emotion) and a set of broad phonetic-class based HMMs (vowel, glide, nasal, stop, fricative) for each emotion type considered. Comparison of classification results indicates that different phoneme classes were affected differently by emotional change and that the vowel sounds are the most important indicator of emotions in speech. Detailed results and their implications on the underlying speech articulation will be discussed.

  16. Novamene: A new class of carbon allotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, Larry A; Fahim, Mohamed Al; Wittman, Richard S; Delodovici, Francesco; Manini, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    We announce a new class of carbon allotropes. The basis of this new classification resides on the concept of combining hexagonal diamond (sp 3 bonded carbon - lonsdaleite) and ring carbon (sp 2 bonded carbon - graphene). Since hexagonal diamond acts as an insulator and sp 2 bonded rings act as conductors, these predicted materials have potential applications for transistors and other electronic components. We describe the structure of a proposed series of carbon allotropes, novamene , and carry out a detailed computational analysis of the structural and electronic properties of the simplest compound in this class: the single-ring novamene. In addition, we suggest how hundreds of different allotropes of carbon could be constructed within this class.

  17. Novamene: A new class of carbon allotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A Burchfield

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We announce a new class of carbon allotropes. The basis of this new classification resides on the concept of combining hexagonal diamond (sp3 bonded carbon − lonsdaleite and ring carbon (sp2 bonded carbon − graphene. Since hexagonal diamond acts as an insulator and sp2 bonded rings act as conductors, these predicted materials have potential applications for transistors and other electronic components. We describe the structure of a proposed series of carbon allotropes, novamene, and carry out a detailed computational analysis of the structural and electronic properties of the simplest compound in this class: the single-ring novamene. In addition, we suggest how hundreds of different allotropes of carbon could be constructed within this class.

  18. TEACHER’S POLITENESS IN EFL CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Sülü

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Politeness is considered to promote effective interaction between people. In the context of language teaching, it is believed to enhance learning by providing a lively and friendly atmosphere in classroom (Jiang, 2010. This study investigates an EFL classroom in terms of interaction between English learners and a native English speaking teacher. The aim of the study is to see whether the effects of politeness strategies differ when students and teacher do not share the same culture and native language. Two hours of classes were observed and taperecorded by the researcher. The recordings were transcribed and analyzed by making use of related politeness strategies and functions of speech. Also, three randomly chosen students were interviewed after the class. The findings showed that politeness existed in that EFL classroom and it helped students to have positive feelings towards the lesson and motivated them to participate more in classes.

  19. Management of Skeletal Class II, deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorya Naik Dhenu Shilya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II, Division 2 malocclusion is a clinical entity, which presents a considerable difficulty in the provision of the stable result. Management of deep bite in adults has always been critical and requires proper diagnosis, individualized treatment planning and efficient application of treatment technique. Treatment modality depends on various types of skeletal, dental, and soft tissue problems. The correction of deep bite includes one or more of maxillary incisor intrusion, mandibular incisor intrusion, mandibular incisor proclination, maxillary posterior tooth extrusion, mandibular posterior tooth extrusion, or an increase of the lower face height. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, who had presented a skeletal Class II, hypo divergent jaw pattern, skeletal deep bite, angles Class II Division 2 Malocclusion. The patient was treated with a combination of orthodontics and surgical line of treatment.

  20. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  1. Class field theory from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gras, Georges

    2003-01-01

    Global class field theory is a major achievement of algebraic number theory, based on the functorial properties of the reciprocity map and the existence theorem. The author works out the consequences and the practical use of these results by giving detailed studies and illustrations of classical subjects (classes, idèles, ray class fields, symbols, reciprocity laws, Hasse's principles, the Grunwald-Wang theorem, Hilbert's towers,...). He also proves some new or less-known results (reflection theorem, structure of the abelian closure of a number field) and lays emphasis on the invariant (/cal T) p, of abelian p-ramification, which is related to important Galois cohomology properties and p-adic conjectures. This book, intermediary between the classical literature published in the sixties and the recent computational literature, gives much material in an elementary way, and is suitable for students, researchers, and all who are fascinated by this theory. In the corrected 2nd printing 2005, the author improves s...

  2. On HNBUE class after specific age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Mahmoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce new classes of life distributions namely harmonic new better (worse than used in expectation after specific age t0 HNBUE∗t0 (HNWUE∗t0. The closure properties under various reliability operations such as convolution, mixture, mixing and the homogeneous Poisson shock model of these classes are studied. Furthermore, nonparametric test is proposed to test exponentiality vs. the HNBUE∗t0 class. The critical values and the powers of this test are calculated to assess the performance of the test. It is shown that the proposed test have high efficiencies for LFR and Weibull distributions. Sets of real data are used as examples to elucidate the use of the proposed test for practical problems.

  3. THE LYGEO-STIPETEA CLASS IN SICILY

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    C. BRULLO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Basing on literature data and unpublished relevés from Sicily, a survey of the syntaxa belonging to the class Lygeo-Stipetea Rivas-Martínez 1978 is presented. This perennial vegetation is characterized by the dominance of big caespitose hemicryptophytes, and it is widely distributed in Sicily from the sea level up to 1500 m a.s.l. The class is represented in Sicily by two orders, floristically and ecologically well differentiated: Lygeo-Stipetalia, including the sole alliance Moricandio-Lygeion exclusively of clayey substrates, and Hyparrhenietalia hirtae, including five alliances (Hyparrhenion hirtae, Avenulo cincinnatae-Ampelodesmion mauritanici, Thero-Brachypodion ramosi, Bromo-Oryzopsion miliaceae, and Arundion collinae occurring on various substrates. Within the class, 50 associations have been recognized. To support the syntaxonomic proposal, a multivariate numerical analysis, considering literature and personal data, has been performed. Nomenclature, floristic settlement, ecology, syndynamism and chorology are examined for each syntaxon.

  4. PEER SUGGESTIVE FEEDBACK IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Widyaningrum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Students learn English in Speaking Class should get enjoyable learning atmosphere in order to help them improve their speaking skill. Teacher‘s role as facilitator contributes in reducing students‘ anxiety when they have chance to speak. Nunan (1995 and Richards (2008 argue that speaking is an important skill in language learning whether it is as EFL or ESL that enable language learners to communicate not only in expressing view point but also in giving responses in their communication. This classroom study supports the idea to give positive suggestion as students‘ feedback given by their peers. Each student has their own chance to review and to be reviewed so that they can perform better in speaking class. This study is conducted in order to improve students‘ speaking skill in speaking class.

  5. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...... consuming process. This article demonstrates how to compile such a diagram into Java code and later, by reverse engineering, produce a class diagram. The process from state diagram via intermediate SAX parsed xml file to Apache Velocity generated Java code is described. The result is a fast reproducible...

  6. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Diversity and New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Cui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research.

  7. SOME REFLECTIONS ABOUT LEADING LARGE CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANY SUÁREZ PINILLA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides some strategies for teachers to deal with large classes having into account that this is a very common situation in different educational levels. Some teaching methods that have been used to make significant progress in the learning and teaching process are presented here, with the aim of getting more efficient and effective educational environment. Under these circumstances, teachers need to assure that they provide an interactive learning environment to their students. Finally, a lesson plan example for a mathematics class considering all these aspects is presented at the end of this paper.

  8. Social Class, Family Background and Intergenerational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James

    is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was .rst collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classi.cation scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classi.cation schemes...

  9. A class of symmetric controlled quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, John A.; Steuernagel, O.; Huelga, S.F. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-07

    Certain quantum gates, such as the controlled-NOT gate, are symmetric in terms of the operation of the control system upon the target system and vice versa. However, no operational criteria yet exist for establishing whether or not a given quantum gate is symmetrical in this sense. We consider a restricted, yet broad, class of two-party controlled gate operations for which the gate transforms a reference state of the target into one of an orthogonal set of states. We show that for this class of gates it is possible to establish a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the gate operation to be symmetric. (author)

  10. Education, class and vernacular awareness on Tyneside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reports on a questionnaire study investigating Tyneside residents’ vernacular awareness and attested language use. Participant performance is interpreted on the basis of a cross-tabulation of participants’ social class as determined by their level of education and participants’ own....... This group consisted of mainly older female speakers and results are interpreted in light of first wave studies on the patterning of language use by class, age and gender. Finally, the issue of vernacular awareness is linked to social indexicality and it is suggested that an interpretation of participants...

  11. Student impressions of an art therapy class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Desiree; Bradburn, Taylor Caitlin; Kelly, Amy; Manahan, Isabel; Merriman, Hannah; Metzinger, Faith; Moore, Heather

    2012-12-01

    Art therapy facilitates the expression of thoughts and feelings and thus may serve as a self-care strategy. This paper describes the implementation of an expressive art therapy class to teach self-care during a required sophomore level nursing wellness course and the outcomes of the class through the eyes of six students. While students were initially reluctant to engage in the activity, the shared stories revealed feelings of relaxation, empowerment, value clarification, and increased self-awareness. The implication for nursing education is that the integration of art therapy into curricula may serve as an effective strategy to teaching self-care and core professional values.

  12. Talking about consumption. How an Indian middle class dissociates from middle-Class life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the middle class in the Indian city of Baroda employ a common moral discourse on consumption, one that is shaped through the operationalization of historically rooted ideals of community, family solidarity and asceticism. These ideals are set against the experience of urban middle-class

  13. 78 FR 51138 - Designation of Muncie (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation of Muncie (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION..., Acting Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  14. Invariant generalized ideal classes – structure theorems for p-class ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -fcomte.fr/1998/Maire.pdf. [64] Mayer D C, Principalization algorithm via class group structure, J. Théorie des. Nombres de Bordeaux 26(2) (2014) 415–464, arXiv:1403.3839v1.pdf. [65] Mayer D C, The second p-class group of a number field, ...

  15. Social class and substance use disorders: the value of social class as distinct from socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.; van den Brink, W.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between social class and substance use disorders (SUDs) is explored and compared to the relationship between SES and SUDs. Social class and SES are two different conceptualizations of socioeconomic inequality (SEI) which emanate from two different theoretical orientations in

  16. Linking Classes: Learning Communities, "High" Culture, and the Working Class Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ginger G.; Buczinsky, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    How do you teach the humanities to working class students living in the shadow of a BP oil refinery? Calumet College uses freshman learning communities that link humanities, social justice, and English composition classes to provide a foundation for college success to predominantly first-generation students who are often underprepared for…

  17. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  18. 75 FR 51171 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... E airspace at Kaneohe Bay Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Kaneohe, HI. The FAA is taking this... upward from 700 feet above the surface at Kaneohe Bay MCAS, Kaneohe Bay, HI. The geographic coordinates...

  19. Quem é Classe Média no Brasil? Um Estudo sobre Identidades de Classe*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Salata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca contribuir para o debate atual sobre a classe média no Brasil, tendo como foco as identidades de classe e percepções dos brasileiros sobre a classe média. Na última década milhares de indivíduos atingiram níveis intermediários de renda, e passaram a fazer parte da camada mediana da população. No entanto, partimos da hipótese de que esses indivíduos não seriam aqueles que mais tipicamente se identificariam com essa classe. A fim de testá-la, trabalhamos com os dados provenientes da “Pesquisa sobre Classe Média” (Cesop/Unicamp, 2008, fazendo uso de estatísticas descritivas e modelos multivariados. Os resultados alcançados mostram que os indivíduos de perfil socioeconômico intermediário não são aqueles que habitualmente se percebem como classe média. De fato, é apenas entre aqueles mais privilegiados que podemos verificar uma identificação mais provável com esta classe. Além disso, também fica evidente que a imagem que se faz da classe média no Brasil diz respeito aos setores mais abastados, e não intermediários, da população.

  20. Airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern: A computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Deepthi; Varma, Sapna; Ajith, V V

    2015-01-01

    A normal airway is required for the normal growth of the craniofacial structures. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern and to see if there is any association between the airway and maxillomandibular relationship. Peripheral nervous system computed tomography scans of 30 patients were divided into two groups as Class I (ANB ≤ 4.5°), Class II (ANB ≥ 4.5°). The Dolphin three-dimensional version 11 was used to assess the airway. Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the averages between the two groups. P skeletal pattern showing a reduced airway in Class II patients with a high ANB angle.

  1. Classes sociais, relações de classe e trabalho: política e teoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Amorim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na célebre passagem do Manifesto do Partido Comunista (1848: "A história de toda sociedade até hoje é a história de luta de classes" (1996, p. 66 podemos notar o peso histórico da luta de classes e das classes sociais e a relevância teórica do tema para Karl Marx e Friedrich Engels. Só isso já nos valeria um dossiê concentrado na discussão das classes sociais e do trabalho. Não obstante, devemos fugir de um suposto argumento de autoridade e refletirmos sobre os problemas sociais concretos que figuram como síntese das relações de classe nas sociedades capitalistas contemporâneas.

  2. Structural properties of MHC class II ligands, implications for the prediction of MHC class II epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Winther Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule, allowing binding of peptides extending out of the binding groove. Furthermore, only a few HLA-DR alleles have been characterized with a sufficient number of peptides (100-200 peptides per allele to derive accurate description of their binding motif. Little work has been performed characterizing structural properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC class II ligands by integrating prediction of MHC- peptide binding with prediction of surface exposure and protein secondary structure. This combined prediction method was shown to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction method when used to identify MHC class II ligands. We also tried to integrate N- and O-glycosylation in our prediction methods but this additional information was found not to improve prediction performance. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that local structural properties influence antigen processing and/or the accessibility of peptides to the MHC class II molecule.

  3. Single-Sex Classes. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The research that has been conducted on single-sex schools and classes, has for the most part, been done in the private school and college realm, primarily because very few public schools established single-sex programs. One of the consistent findings has been that with so much emphasis having been placed on the development of girls, that boys are…

  4. The Promise of Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is…

  5. Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in…

  6. Obsolescence Management for Virginia-Class Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    mast contains several high-resolution cameras with light-intensification and infrared sen- sors, an infrared laser range tinder , and an integrated... BENEFITS Since the program’s inception in October 2001, the TR IPT has opened more than 1,000TRIs for I ’irginia—class nonpropulsion electronic

  7. Integrating Creativity into Online University Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a concise discussion on creativity, defining the term, sharing theoretical background information and offering insights into promoting creativity in online university classes. Emphasis will be placed on relevant ways to integrate creativity into instructional activities across the academic disciplines. He…

  8. The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Based on responses from 20,000 college seniors nationwide, "The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report" gives you hard numbers "plus" the analysis you need to develop your college recruiting strategy and build your brand among college students. Align your recruiting strategies tactics with students' wants, needs, attitudes, and behaviors--you'll get…

  9. Liquidity Constraints of the Middle Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Among U.S. middle-class households, the marginal propensity to consume is either invariant to household wealth or a U-shaped function thereof. In contrast, precautionary savings models predict that wealth reduces the marginal propensity to consume. We bridge this gap between theory and data with

  10. Technology and the Class of 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The class of 2020 includes some of the youngest members of the millennial generation. Most having been born in 1998, these students are so-called "digital natives." The academy must be ready to accept, welcome, and instruct these students. Doing so effectively may mean increasing the understanding of the issues that have shaped their…

  11. On a Class of Solvable Difference Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of difference equations which can be solved in closed form is presented in this paper. Obtained formulas for the solutions are used in the study of the asymptotic behavior of their solutions in a particular case.

  12. Mainstreaming Visually Handicapped Students in Mathematics Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, M. Michael; Wise, Joe L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop on teaching high school geometry to the blind. Includes general suggestions for teachers with a blind student in their classes as well as suggestions related to lecture assignments, homework, and testing. Information on equipment and resource materials is also included. (JN)

  13. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore

    2014-01-01

      The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion...

  14. Increasing Class Participation in Social Phobic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Michael V.

    2008-01-01

    The "Find Your Classroom Voice Program" has been offered at Kingsborough Community College for the past three years. Its purpose is to enable students who are consistently inactive in class discussions (and who might be called "classroom-specific social phobic") to develop the ability to take a more active role in the classroom. With its success,…

  15. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  16. Disseny d'un amplificador classe D

    OpenAIRE

    Sangüesa Cremades, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Diseny i muntatge en circuit imprés d'un amplificador commutat classe D. Disseny i testeig dels subsistemes i muntatge i verificació final. Permet treballar amb electrònica analògica i amb commutada, i amb dispositius de potencia mitjana. Potencia de sortida (aprox): 5 - 10 W.

  17. Using Nonverbal Communication in Efl Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenil Barabar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing information about nonverbal communication and to state its use in EFL classes. Briefly, this paper introduces the definition, aspects and importance of nonverbal communication. Especially, this study explains some ways of using nonverbal communication in EFL classes, in order to have good classroom management in the class. Based upon this assumption, we aimed to shed light on this area of research, by showing that teachers’ nonverbal behaviour plays a highly significant and essential role in foreign language classrooms for managing the students’ behaviour. This study was conducted in Lefke, Northern Cyprus. The participants were two female English language teachers who were working at the English Preparatory School of Lefke. The study was qualitative in design and the data was gathered through interviews and reflective reports. A triangulation technique was used to enhance confidence in the ensuing findings. Cross-case analysis was used to examine and identify common themes between the cases. The results showed that nonverbal communication has a pivotal role in classroom management. In EFL classes in Northern Cyprus, in order to guide teachers to use nonverbal communication before verbal communication, some seminars or workshops should be organized regarding the use of body language in classroom management to improve teachers professionally.

  18. 29 CFR 1614.204 - Class complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that discriminates against the group on the basis of their race, color, religion, sex, national origin...; (ii) A description of the issues accepted as part of the class complaint; (iii) An explanation of the... entitled to reasonable development of evidence on matters relevant to the issues raised in the complaint...

  19. 12 CFR 268.204 - Class complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discriminates against the group on the basis of their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or... of the complaint; (ii) A description of the issues accepted as part of the class complaint; (iii) An.... Both parties are entitled to reasonable development of evidence on matters relevant to the issues...

  20. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  1. Cyclic cohomology and characteristic classes for foliations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the cohomology theories and the theory of characteristic classes for leaf spaces of foliations, as well as with the interaction between the classical approach (of Grothendieck, Bott-Haefliger) and the non-commutative approach (of Connes-Moscovici) to these theories.

  2. Can Gamification Be Introduced within Primary Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Veronica; López, Magdalena; Maldonado, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Training through gamification is everyday a more evident reality in Primary Education classes. The teachers' view about this has been modified as it is shown in the study published by aDeSe in 2012. However, does it really have place in the students' curricular development in the primary education stage? For the sake of responding to this…

  3. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A

  4. SMA observations of Class 0 Protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2013-01-01

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 μm dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance <500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in...

  5. From class society to the individualized society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    which the sociology of individualization puts on ‘‘liberation’’, choice and social change is challenged by the sociology of stratification and power (Bourdieu, Dean, and others) with its greater emphasis on class, power and social reproduction. This paper seeks to ‘‘overcome’’ this schism between social...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION THROUGH ORNITHOLOGY LIKE OPTIONAL CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    GACHE, Carmen; ZBUGHIN, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Students from theprimary and secondary schools manifest a huge curiosity for nature and specialhigh interest for the animals’ life and behaviours. Unfortunately, the ordinarycurriculum in Biology classesprovides just summary information about animals’ ecology, while data on theirbehaviour and complex interspecific relations established inside the ecosystemsare completely missing. The Ornithology classes can be included inthe students’ curriculum through the curriculumin schools’ deci...

  7. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...

  8. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM... forth in § 73.211. If a station has an ERP and an antenna HAAT such that it cannot be classified using...

  9. GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Uitert, Miranda

    2002-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for

  10. Cultural Consciousness in a Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Haimanti

    1997-01-01

    Acknowledging that the Suggestopedia approach is not very popular, this paper focuses on the use of Suggestopedia's distinctive features to promote awareness of the linguistic and cultural features of the target culture in a language class. The role of the classroom environment in this approach is also examined. The context considered here is a…

  11. On identifiability of certain latent class models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    Blischke [1962. Moment estimators for the parameters of a mixture of two binomial distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33, 444-454] studies a mixture of two binomials, a latent class model. In this article we generalize this model to a mixture of two products of binomials. We show when this

  12. Technology Uptake in Chinese EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Walsh, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from what we believe to be the first large-scale study of its kind on the use of ICT (information and communications technology) in English language classes in China. Participants are 400 EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers from different types of schools in Beijing. The purpose of the study was to examine…

  13. Economies of Scale and Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Making classes larger saves money--and public universities across the country have found it a useful strategy to balance their budgets after decades of state funding cuts and increases to infrastructure costs. Where this author teaches, in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge (CSUN),…

  14. Getting Students to Prepare for Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Z. T.

    2004-05-01

    Why, oh why won't the students crack their textbook until the night before the test? How can you get your class of over 100 students to engage in the material without having to grade over 100 homework assignments? If you are tired of having students look at you with blank faces in class because they didn't do the assigned reading, this talk is for you. You CAN make students read the textbook before coming to class with Just In Time Teaching (JiTT). Although Just In Time is a phrase borrowed from best industry practices, it may soon be taken over by educators as one of the best practices. Learn how quickly you can have students in your classroom ready to ask good questions and eager to know what you have to say in class. I am a recent covert to JiTT after attending the New Faculty in Physics and Astronomy Workshop sponsored in part by the AAS. I have taught a large lecture format Astrobiology course and Calculus based Physics using the JiTT method.

  15. Student Debt and the Class of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Student Debt and the Class of 2011 is the seventh annual report on the cumulative student loan debt of recent graduates from four-year public and private nonprofit colleges. The authors' analysis found that the debt levels of students who graduate with loans continued to rise, with considerable variation among states as well as among colleges. The…

  16. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  17. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201...) Diminish any preference given small business concerns by the FAR or DFARS; or (D) Extend to requirements imposed by statute or by regulations of other agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the...

  18. Perspectives on a Whole Class Mindfulness Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Atkinson, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to establish pupil and teacher views about a six-hour, whole-class mindfulness programme called Paws.b. Pupil post-intervention focus groups and teacher semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain what was interesting and useful about Paws.b, and how it could be developed. Audio recordings were transcribed and thematically…

  19. Utilization of Social Media in Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to highlight how instructors may integrate the different social media into various marketing classes. The paper will address the major social networks, and then follow with discussions of microblogging, media sites, and social gaming. Given that there is a great deal of research highlighting the effectiveness of utilizing…

  20. Computer Graphics Instruction in VizClass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Douglas; Warschauer, Mark; Hutchinson, Tara; Kuester, Falko

    2005-01-01

    "VizClass" is a university classroom environment designed to offer students in computer graphics and engineering courses up-to-date visualization technologies. Three digital whiteboards and a three-dimensional stereoscopic display provide complementary display surfaces. Input devices include touchscreens on the digital whiteboards, remote…

  1. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  2. A Climbing Class' Reinvention of Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    A previous study shows how a twelve-year-old girl discovers angles in her narrative from a climbing trip. Based on this research, the girl's class takes part in one day of climbing and half a day of follow-up work at school. The students mathematise their climbing with respect to angles and they express themselves in texts and drawings. Their…

  3. First-class rules and generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.; Visser, Eelco

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a functional language supporting first-class rules and generic traversal. This is achieved by generalizing the pattern matching constructs of standard functional languages. The case construct that ties rules together and prevents their reuse, is replaced by separate,

  4. Measuring the Community in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Beth; Fernandes, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes both theoretical and empirical approaches to differentiating the community of inquiry (CoI) in online classes at individual and group levels. Following the example of research on organizational climate, it assesses the strength of shared perceptions of teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence. The paper…

  5. Saharan Africa: A Latent Class Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1University of Southern California School of Social Work, 669 W. 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA; 2University of ... Abstract. While studies have examined factors associated with condom use behaviors, few have assessed risk perception and condom use among SSA .... approach (latent class analysis) to identify.

  6. JAVA CLASSES FOR NONPROCEDURAL VARIOGRAM MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of Java classes was written for variogram modeling to support research for US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA). The modeling objectives of this research program are to use conceptual programming tools for numerical analysis for regional risk assessm...

  7. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  8. Using Drama in the Composition Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radavich, David A.

    Dramatic texts are an ideal pedagogical tool for clarifying certain aspects of communication such as authorial stance, point of view, role, persona, impersonation, ethos, shared communal values, cultural assumptions, genre expectations, audience, performance, dialogue, and enactment. Using dramatic texts in a composition class can broaden student…

  9. Virtual Teamwork in Very Large Undergraduate Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative work is an important part of tertiary education but it is very difficult to arrange and supervise for extremely large classes of students in their first year. The possibility that computer-mediated communication can be used to facilitate this type of learning is appealing from a pragmatic organisational point of view. This paper…

  10. A novel SINE family occurs frequently in both genomic DNA and transcribed sequences in ixodid ticks of the arthropod sub-phylum Chelicerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reassociation kinetics indicates that ixodid tick genomes are large, relative to most arthropods, containing =(greater than or equal to) 10^9 base pairs, although the molecular basis for this is currently unknown. We have identified a novel small interspersed element with features of a tRNA-derived...

  11. Childbirth and parenting preparation in antenatal classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, M; Forslund Frykedal, K; Rosander, M; Berlin, A

    2018-02-01

    to describe topics (1) presented by midwives' during antenatal classes and the amount of time spent on these topics and (2) raised and discussed by first-time parents and the amount of time spent on these topics. qualitative; data were gathered using video or tape recordings and analysed using a three-pronged content analysis approach, i.e., conventional, summative, and directed analyses. 3 antenatal courses in 2 antenatal units in a large Swedish city; 3 midwives; and 34 course participants. class content focused on childbirth preparation (67% of the entire antenatal course) and on parenting preparation (33%). Childbirth preparation facilitated parents' understanding of the childbirth process, birthing milieu, the partner's role, what could go wrong during delivery, and pain relief advantages and disadvantages. Parenting preparation enabled parents to (i) plan for those first moments with the newborn; (ii) care for/physically handle the infant; (iii) manage breastfeeding; (iv) manage the period at home immediately after childbirth; and (v) maintain their relationship. During the classes, parents expressed concerns about what could happened to newborns. Parents' questions to midwives and discussion topics among parents were evenly distributed between childbirth preparation (52%) and parenting preparation (48%). childbirth preparation and pain relief consumed 67% of course time. Parents particularly reflected on child issues, relationship, sex, and anxiety. Female and male participants actively listened to the midwives, appeared receptive to complex issues, and needed more time to ask questions. Parents appreciated the classes yet needed to more information for managing various post-childbirth situations. while midwifery services vary among hospitals, regions, and countries, midwives might equalise content focus, offer classes in the second trimester, provide more time for parents to talk to each other, allow time in the course plan for parents to bring up new

  12. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipset, Mark A.; Lemery, Jay; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A long-duration exploration class mission is fraught with numerous medical contingency plans. Herein, we explore the challenges of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring during an exploration class mission. The actions and resources required to ameliorate the situation, including the availability of appropriate pharmaceuticals, monitoring devices, treatment modalities, and communication protocols will be investigated. Challenges of Atrial Fibrillation during an Exploration Mission: Numerous etiologies are responsible for the initiation of AF. On Earth, we have the time and medical resources to evaluate and determine the causative situation for most cases of AF and initiate therapy accordingly. During a long-duration exploration class mission resources will be severely restricted. How is one to determine if new onset AF is due to recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, fluid overload, thyrotoxicosis, cardiac structural abnormalities, or CO poisoning? Which pharmaceutical therapy should be initiated and what potential side effects can be expected? Should anti-coagulation therapy be initiated? How would one monitor the therapeutic treatment of AF in microgravity? What training would medical officers require, and which communication strategies should be developed to enable the best, safest therapeutic options for treatment of AF during a long-duration exploration class mission? Summary: These questions will be investigated with expert opinion on disease elucidation, efficient pharmacology, therapeutic monitoring, telecommunication strategies, and mission cost parameters with emphasis on atrial fibrillation being just one illustration of the tremendous challenges that face a long-duration exploration mission. The limited crew training time, medical hardware, and drugs manifested to deal with such an event predicate that aggressive primary and secondary prevention strategies be developed to protect a multibillion-dollar asset like the

  13. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; Santhanakrishnan, K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e., Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusion. The sample was selected according to angles classification. All patients were Indian nationals, between the age group of 12 to 20 years and Bolton’s analysis done on all the casts. Results: Statistically no significant difference in all types of malocclusion except anterior Bolton’s discrepancy in Class III. Conclusion: Mean Bolton’s anterior ratio for angles Class III subjects was significantly greater than for Class I and Class II subjects. When Bolton’s overall ratio was compared there was no statistically significant difference among Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusions. PMID:26435619

  15. Amalgam matrix for class II and class V preparations connected at the proximal box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoun, John S; Ahmed, Mairaj K

    2006-02-01

    The authors present a technique for placing and reinforcing an amalgam matrix around combined Class II and Class V preparations that connect at the proximal box. First, the dentist fills the Class V aspect of the preparation, using a temporary resin-based composite wall at the line angle to support amalgam condensation. The dentist then removes the wall and places a matrix band around the tooth, internally reinforcing the band with smaller pieces of matrix band and resin-saturated cotton balls that are light-polymerized and externally reinforcing the band with fast-polymerizing vinyl polysiloxane. Finally, the dentist condenses the line angle amalgam through the proximal box and condenses the proximal box and occlusal aspects. For connected Class II and Class V preparations, this matrix technique permits controlled amalgam condensation, even at the line angle aspect, where it is difficult to condense amalgam without voids or microleakage. This technique allows dentists to provide a stable, inexpensive direct restoration for teeth with connected Class II and Class V preparations, providing an alternative for patients who do not wish to have crowns placed.

  16. Soft Classes and Soft Rough Classes with Applications in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karaaslan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set was defined by Pawlak in 1982. Concept of soft set was proposed as a mathematical tool to cope with uncertainty and vagueness by Molodtsov in 1999. Soft sets were combined with rough sets by Feng et al. in 2011. Feng et al. investigated relationships between a subset of initial universe of soft set and a soft set. Feng et al. defined the upper and lower approximations of a subset of initial universe over a soft set. In this study, we firstly define concept of soft class and soft class operations such as union, intersection, and complement. Then we give some properties of soft class operations. Based on definition and operations of soft classes, we define lower and upper approximations of a soft set. Subsequently, we introduce concept of soft rough class and investigate some properties of soft rough classes. Moreover, we give a novel decision making method based on soft class and present an example related to novel method.

  17. Single-sex Classes: Female Physics Students State Their Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Examines data collected from a girls-only physics class in a public coeducational high school. Interview and observation data from this class, as well as from coeducational physics classes taught by the same teacher, illustrate that the girls in the single-sex class made substantial gains in both academic achievement and in perceptions of…

  18. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  19. 76 FR 51257 - First-Class Package Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Package Service, Periodicals, and Package Services pieces addressed to a discontinued Post Office may be... have all Express Mail, Priority Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service, Periodicals, and... Personnel All Express Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service, Periodicals, and Package Services...

  20. Using Storytelling Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rasby Marlene; Murray, Ottis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that presenting class material in story formats can improve student learning in lecture classes. This pilot study of eight sociology classes investigates the efficacy of using storytelling as a means to improve student comprehension in online classes. Our findings show that when material is presented in story format rather…

  1. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  2. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  3. ClassWide Peer Tutoring. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "ClassWide Peer Tutoring" is a teaching strategy that involves the entire class in tutoring using a game format. "ClassWide Peer Tutoring" typically uses existing curriculum materials and can be adapted across different grade levels and content areas. The class is divided into two competing teams, and pairs of students are…

  4. Class Size and College Teaching: Attitudes and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michal C.

    What effect would the manipulation of class size have on students, faculty, and institutional productivity? By providing each student with a class schedule of varying sized classes (at least one very large and at least one small class per student per semester), the student would derive educational benefits and maintain feelings of community in…

  5. Laptop Use during Class: A Review of Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Romulus; Cismaru, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Laptop use in class is a characteristic of universities that is changing rapidly. Although much of the attention and research regarding this issue has focused on the debate of whether to impose mandatory laptop programs, the reality of wireless campuses allows students to use their laptops in class for class related and non-class related…

  6. 7 CFR 1610.9 - Class B stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class B stock. 1610.9 Section 1610.9 Agriculture... POLICIES § 1610.9 Class B stock. Borrowers receiving loans from the Bank shall be required to invest in class B stock at 5 percent of the total amount of loan funds advanced. Borrowers may purchase class B...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Kiswahili and Echijita Noun Classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (ii) The class is indicated by a prefix on the noun. (iv) Plural is indicated by a change of prefix of a singular noun. The singular or plural prefix of a noun is a class marker for that noun, hence singular and plural forms constitute different noun classes. (v) A noun class marker is always attached to an adjective or locative where ...

  8. Social Class in English Language Education in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gopar, Mario E.; Sughrua, William

    2014-01-01

    This article explores social class in English-language education in Oaxaca, Mexico. To this end, first, we discuss social class in Mexico as related to coloniality; second, for illustration, the paper presents the authors' own social-class analysis as language educators in Oaxaca; third, we discuss how social class impacts English education…

  9. 7 CFR 985.104 - Changed classes of spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changed classes of spearmint oil. 985.104 Section 985... Regulations § 985.104 Changed classes of spearmint oil. Pursuant to § 985.4, the classes of spearmint oil contained in that section are changed by deleting the term and definition Class 2 Oil and changing the...

  10. Multiple meanings of the middle class in Soweto, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the meanings of middle class amongst those who label themselves middle class. 2559 people were surveyed in Soweto, South Africa biggest township. The study revealed that a diverse number of people call themselves middle class and defined class in terms of ability to afford basic goods.

  11. Understanding the Quality of Out-of-Class English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Zhu, Weimin; Gong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. However, not all out-of-class experiences are equally beneficial to learning, and it is of paramount importance to understand what quality out-of-class English language…

  12. "Our class does not smoke"; the Czech version of the "smoke-free class competition" programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubá, Drahoslava; Zachovalová, Veronika; Matejová, Halina; Danková, Irena

    2007-12-01

    The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" programme stems from a theory of the consequences of cultural and social miming in the onset of smoking addiction: it initiates non-smokers' active encouragement in supporting a non-smoking environment in class groups of teenagers. The first experience with the programme (Our Class Does Not Smoke) in the Czech Republic was obtained from a set of 13 classes from 6 primary schools with 261 14-year-olds who had been acquainted with the programme rules and voluntarily agreed to abide by them. Methodological instruction for teachers, school psychologists, pupils and parents providing motivation to various activities (discussion, craft projects, group therapy with smokers, demonstrations of ascertaining exposure and health consequences of smoking) were compiled to support the programme. The one-year programme schedule had a number of control points for assessing its immediate and long-term effect on the prevalence of smoking: (1) prior to programme onset, (2) after a half-year of intensive intervention, (3) after a further 3 months, (4) in the 12th month from programme onset. A complete abstaining condition in the four-months of the competition period was observed by all pupils in 31% of the classes; the number of smokers dropped in other 23% classes, remained unchanged in the same number of classes and increased in the same number of classes. In the second half of the programme, 38.5% of classes dropped out of the competition; the prevalence of smoking children was identical in 15.5% and higher in 46%, in the 12th month compared to the programme onset. However, the final prevalence of regular smokers in the competition set is only at the level of one third (10.3% versus 29.7%) compared to the same age group of the Czech population. The programme successfully swayed the smoking habits of children.

  13. Class and Politics in Denmark: Are Both Old and New Politics Structured by Class?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Prieur, Annick; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    background, although in complex ways, which can only be discovered with a multidimensional conception of what class is. This conception may be found in Pierre Bourdieu's analytical approach, which we here apply in an analysis of survey data from a Danish city, Aalborg. Data from a survey of political...... the constructed space of attitudes to a set of indicators based on a two-dimensional conception of social class. On the basis of this analysis the article concludes that the political landscape appears as highly structured by the two principles of social differentiation from Bourdieu’s class model: volume...

  14. Conservative compensatory Angle Class III malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Angle's Class III malocclusion is a dental discrepancy in a sagittal view that may appear or not with an important skeletal discrepancy. Facial esthetics may be affected by this skeletal discrepancy and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who seek orthodontic treatment. Class III treatment, in adults, may be done by compensatory tooth movement, in simple cases, or through an association between orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, in more severe cases. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a non-extraction compensatory Class III treatment case, applying the Tweed-Merrifield mechanical principles with headgear (J-Hook in the mandibular arch. This case was presented at the V Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR Meeting, it was evaluated by members of Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and obtained third place in the general classification.INTRODUÇÃO: a má oclusão de Classe III se caracteriza por uma desarmonia dentária anteroposterior, podendo estar ou não acompanhada por discrepâncias esqueléticas. A estética facial pode se apresentar comprometida, em maior ou menor grau, a depender da magnitude da discrepância, constituindo um dos principais fatores motivadores da procura por tratamento ortodôntico. O tratamento da Classe III em pacientes adultos pode ser realizado mediante compensação dentária, nos casos mais simples, ou, em situações mais severas, mediante a associação entre Ortodontia e Cirurgia Ortognática. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo objetiva relatar um caso clínico caracterizado por uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, tratado de forma compensatória, com extração dos terceiros molares inferiores, mediante a utilização de aparelhagem extrabucal na arcada inferior (J-hook, aplicando-se princípios da técnica de Tweed-Merrifield. Esse caso foi apresentado no 5º Congresso da Associação Brasileira de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (ABOR, na categoria

  15. Orthopedic cervical headgear in Class II treatment: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Enoki Carla; Matsumoto Mírian Aiko Nakane; Ferreira José Tarcísio Lima

    2003-01-01

    Early treatment for Class II malocclusion was undertaken with the objective of correcting skeletal disproportion by altering the growth pattern. A case of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion in the mixed dentition was corrected to Class I molar relationship using orthopedic cervical headgear, with nonextraction edgewise therapy. Cephalometric analysis indicated a reduction in the maxillomandibular discrepancy (ANB) correcting the Class II malocclusion to Class I malocclusion. The treatment show...

  16. 78 FR 72001 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salisbury, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Class E Airspace; Salisbury, MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D and Class E airspace, and establishes Class E airspace at Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Regional Airport, Salisbury, MD, due to the decommissioning of the Salisbury VHF...

  17. 78 FR 33015 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TSTC-Waco Airport, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airspace at Waco, TX, by separating the Class D airspace at Waco Regional Airport from the Class D airspace...

  18. [A comparative study of the transverse dimensions of the dental arches between Class I dental occlusion and Class II1 and Class II2 malocclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, A; Azeroual, M F; Abouqal, R; Zaoui, F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare transverse dimensions of the maxillary and mandibular arches in the canine and molar region between three groups of patients: the first group had an occlusion in class II division 1, the second one a dental class II division 2 and the third one, a class I bite. Our sample is composed of 94 patients, with an average age of 20 +/- 3 years: 31 patients presented a class I occlusion, 33 a class III1 and 30 cases presented a dental class II2. For this study, we measured, on the maxillary and mandibular dental casts of each patient, the intercanine and intermolar canine (central inter fossa). Comparison of variables was conducted using the variance analysis ANOVA; the selected post-hoc test is the Bonferrroni test. On the basis of our study, we can get the following results: Maxillary intercanine distance is narrower in class II1 compared to class II2 of 2 mm "p < 0.05". Mandibular intercanine distance is narrower in class III1 compared to class II2 of 1, 3 mm "p < 0.05". Maxillary intermolar distance (inter fossa) is narrower in class II1 compared to class I of 2, 2 mm "p < 0.05".

  19. Asymmetry assessment using cone beam CT. A Class I and Class II patient comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Matthew M; Larson, Brent E; Gaillard, Philippe R; Wey, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    To estimate possible differences in skeletal asymmetry between patients with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II relationships. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were examined from 70 consecutive patients who presented for orthodontic care and fit the inclusion criteria. Asymmetry was quantified using an asymmetry index developed by Katsumata et al. Anatomic landmarks were defined and reference planes were established to determine the asymmetry of the landmarks using a constructed coordinate plane system. Thirty randomly selected patients were reanalyzed to assess the reliability of the method. Statistical analysis did not find any significant relationship between asymmetry and A-P skeletal relationship for any of the landmarks. Asymmetry index scores were reproducible within a certain range of agreement for each landmark. Based on this study, the discrepant jaw growth resulting in a Class II skeletal pattern results in no more skeletal asymmetry than Class I skeletal patterns.

  20. [Early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Salvadori, André

    2011-09-01

    Optimum treatment timing for orthodontic problems continues to be one of the more controversial topics in orthodontics. Especially regarding the correction of Class III malocclusion, there is little consensus as to proper timing or methods for correcting these problems. The orthopedic approach for growth modification is usually limited to children with growth remaining subjected to non hereditary pattern. If the skeletal malocclusion is within the range of an orthodontic treatment, fixed orthodontic appliances with dentoalveolar compensation mechanism can achieve a normal occlusion. Otherwise in patients with a severe skeletal discrepancy, it will be necessary to consider a combined surgical and orthodontic approach. The purpose of this study was to describe treatment planning according to the age and to the initial diagnosis. The management of skeletal Class III malocclusion is still a challenge to orthodontists especially because of relapse due to the late growth of the mandible. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2011.

  1. Perception of classroom climate in gym classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Zabukovec

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is a part of larger study among Slovene primary and secondary students and their sports' teachers, related to their attitude to gym classes. In this part the results of perception of classroom climate among students will be presented. In the research, 1152 students were participated; they were from fifth and seventh grade from primary school and first and third grade form secondary school. The questionnaire Classroom climate in sport classes was applied (actual and preferred form, which included seven dimensions: satisfaction, competitiveness, methods, students' activity, difficulty, adequateness and personal relationship. Results confirmed the changes in perception of classroom climate; they decreased form fifth grade of primary school to third grade of secondary school. The changes were more extensive in primary school, from primary to secondary school and became stable in secondary school. The differences in perception of classroom climate between boys and girls were confirmed, too.

  2. A strategy for nonextraction Class II treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianelly, A A

    1998-03-01

    Class II nonextraction treatment, which commonly includes distal movement of the maxillary molars to correct the molar relationship, most often can be successful when treatment is started in the late-mixed dentition stage of development. At least two factors contribute to this success. One is that the molars can be distalized routinely at this age. The second is that the "E" space is available and can be used either to help correct the molar relationship or to resolve any crowding that may exist. This article describes and illustrates the treatment of a late mixed-dentition patient with this type of Class II nonextraction treatment that includes distal movement of the maxillary molars with a 100 g NiTi coil system and the maintenance of the "E" space with a lip bumper.

  3. Social Class, Family Background and Intergenerational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James

    This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classification scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classification schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was first collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......-Goldthorpe classification system, raising doubts about the statistical validity of occupational classification systems in general. We also estimate regression models of occupational earnings, household earnings, and educational attainment using family background variables as covariates controlling for unobservables...

  4. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the produ......Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice...... of the production process on the strategic objectives for the plant is developed. This is followed by the selection of the type of production system and the operational methods which will support it. The final stage of the model concerns the human resource policies neede to implement the operational decisions...

  5. Social class and identity-based motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Oliver; O'Donnell, S Casey; Oyserman, Daphna

    2017-12-01

    Attainments often fall short of aspirations to lead lives of meaning, health, happiness and success. Identity-based motivation theory highlights how social class and cultural contexts affect likelihood of shortfalls: Identities influence the strategies people are willing to use to attain their goals and the meaning people make of experienced ease and difficulty. Though sensitive to experienced ease and difficulty, people are not sensitive to the sources of these experiences. Instead, people make culturally-tuned inferences about what their experiences imply for who they are and could become and what to do about it. American culture highlights personal and shadows structural causes of ease and difficulty, success and failure. As a result, people infer that class-based outcomes are deserved reflections of character. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Invisible Classes in High Stakes Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that what separates poor mothers from their middle class counterparts are many factors — not simply couples' ability to plan, the power of their choices, and agency. For example, power, social clout, and access to health care (and health information) influence status and parenting. Historically, for white women choice has been about abortion; for many women of color, choice is about being able to be a mother. This essay begs the question whether real parallels can be drawn on questions of contraception, abortion, and ART simply by examining class and to what extent race and sexual orientation matter in research on parenting. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able...... to have their situation – their affectedness - acknowledged in interactions with others and gain considerable attention right after the accident. In addition it demonstrates how the initial acknowledgement decreased over time. In this case the axes of differentiation did not relate to questions of gender......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  8. Contemporary solutions for managing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathamuni Rengarajan Krishnaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Class III malocclusions constitute a small percentage of the average orthodontic practice, providing them with optimal treatment is a daunting task. The treatment approach is dependent upon the growth status of the individual and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia. For growing individuals, facemask therapy to protract the maxilla is ineffective because of its dependence on dental anchorage to bring forth skeletal correction. Orthodontic camouflage in nongrowing mild skeletal Class III individuals is met with limited success because of the anatomical boundaries and the conventional biomechanics. Orthognathic surgery to correct the maxillomandibular relations is time-consuming, and the facial esthetics is compromised during the orthodontic decompensation period. Contemporary solutions to overcome these limitations are now viable with the use of temporary anchorage devices and by performing surgery prior to orthodontic decompensation. The rationale for employing these contemporary approaches will be discussed in this study with illustrative cases.

  9. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon layer draws at all scales. The labels draw at scales greater than or equal to 1:3 million. Data used to create this web service are available as a separate download at the secondary linkage listed above. Full FGDC metadata are available by clicking the layer name in the web service table of contents and clicking the Full Metadata link in the layer description. This dataset was developed by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) based on features originating from several data sources, including USEPA, USFS, USFWS, NPS and BIA.

  10. Global Elite as Transnational Capitalist Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kantor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the burgeoning field of multidisciplinary globalization studies, this article evaluates how IR grand theories can conceptualize the phenomenon of global elite. It compares and synthesizes (neoliberalism, constructivism, feminism and neo-Marxism. Liberal approaches use the analytical tool of transnational actors or transnational networks. In constructivist’s perspective, part of global elite falls into the category of epistemic community. Feminists offer the term Davos Men. Neo-Marxist conceptualization revolves around the notion of transnational capitalist class. The paper concludes that neo-Marxist IR theory best accounts for the global elite and therefore, the debates on the transnational capitalist class are thoroughly and critically reviewed.

  11. Sci-Fri PM: Planning-12: Class II division interpretation of the amended Class II regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, J

    2008-07-01

    The proposed amendments to the Class II regulations are expected to come into effect in May 2008. This presentation will provide highlights of the change to Class II regulations and how those changes will be interpreted by the CNSC during licence assessments and inspections. The changes to the regulations are designed to correct a number of regulatory deficiencies that have come to light since the regulations came into force. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Changes in Cranial Base Morphology in Class I and Class II Division 1 Malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Anirudh; Pandey, Harsh; Bajaj, Kamal; Pandey, Lavesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The cranial base plays a key role in craniofacial growth; it helps to integrate spatially and functionally different patterns of growth in various adjoining regions of the skull such as components of the brain, the nasal and oral cavity and the pharynx. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in cranial base flexure between skeletal and dental Class I and Class II division 1.

  13. Effects in “Introduction to Psychology” Class. : Could Students Enhance Metacognitive Skills through the Class?

    OpenAIRE

    荒木, 史代; Araki, Fumiyo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the implementation to enhance metacognitive skills for freshmen. The program incorporated the contents of developing metacognitive skills into “Introduction to Psychology” class. In the class, college students worked at exercises that reflect their styles and processes of cognitions, affections, and social problem solving through worksheets after receiving lectures about psychological theories. The results of pre- and post- tests demonstrated significantly i...

  14. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: A latent class analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Methods Latent clas...

  15. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Lin, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...

  16. Peer Reviewed Publications From Class Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Copenheaver, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    From 2001 to 2008, I coordinated the publication of 13 peer‐reviewed manuscripts stemming from group projects in a graduate‐level Advanced Forest Ecology class. The intention of the group projects was to immerse the students in actual forest ecology research and increase their professional development by personally involving them in the publication process. The student publications appeared in 11 different journals (American Midland Naturalist, Castanea, Dendrochronologia, Forest Ecology and ...

  17. Community College Class Devoted to Astronomical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, R. M.; Genet, C. L.

    2002-05-01

    A class at a small community college, Central Arizona College, was dedicated to astronomical research. Although hands-on research is usually reserved for professionals or graduate students, and occasionally individual undergraduate seniors, we decided to introduce community college students to science by devoting an entire class to research. Nine students were formed into three closely cooperating teams. The class as a whole decided that all three teams would observe Cepheid stars photometrically using a robotic telescope at the Fairborn Observatory. Speaker-phone conference calls were made to Kenneth E. Kissell for help on Cepheid selection, Michael A. Seeds for instructions on the use of the Phoenix-10 robotic telescope, and Douglas S. Hall for assitance in selecting appropriate comparison and check stars. The students obtained critical references on past observations from Konkoly Observatory via airmail. They spent several long night sessions at our apartment compiling the data, making phase calculations, and creating graphs. Finally, the students wrote up their results for publication in a forthcoming special issue of the international journal on stellar photometry, the IAPPP Communication. We concluded that conducting team research is an excellent way to introduce community college students to science, that a class devoted to cooperation as opposed to competition was refreshing, and that group student conference calls with working astronomers were inspiring. A semester, however, is a rather short time to initiate and complete research projects. The students were Sally Baldwin, Cory Bushnell, Bryan Dehart, Pamela Frantz, Carl Fugate, Mike Grill, Jessica Harger, Klay Lapa, and Diane Wiseman. We are pleased to acknowledge the assistance provided by the astronomers mentioned above, James Stuckey (Campus Dean), and our Union Institute and University doctoral committee members Florence Pittman Matusky, Donald S. Hayes, and Karen S. Grove.

  18. Celebrity chav : fame, femininity and social class.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Imogen; Bennett, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    There is nothing new about celebrity culture. It is an intrinsic feature of a world structured by mechanical reproduction. However, what has been visible over the last few years in Britain is a modulation of representations of celebrity figures in entertainment and news media through reality TV series, newspapers and gossip magazines. In this article, we argue that celebrity is an increasingly significant means by which reactionary class attitudes, allegiances and judgements are communicated....

  19. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  20. Another Class of Perfect Nonlinear Polynomial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfect nonlinear (PN functions have been an interesting subject of study for a long time and have applications in coding theory, cryptography, combinatorial designs, and so on. In this paper, the planarity of the trinomials xpk+1+ux2+vx2pk over GF(p2k are presented. This class of PN functions are all EA-equivalent to x2.

  1. Highly Accurate Prediction of Jobs Runtime Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Reiner-Benaim; Anna Grabarnick; Edi Shmueli

    2016-01-01

    Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...

  2. Gender divergence in physical education classes

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Felipe, Maura Lúcia; Hedegaard, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate a group of students, presumed by their physical education teachers to be gender divergent. This study suggests that PE teachers confuse "gender-divergence" with uncoordinated motor behaviors. This may be because PE classes emphasize motor abilities and coordination and PE teachers may pay particular attention to these characteristics and use them (wrongly) as a criterion for gender divergence. However, the 10 presumed "divergent students" differ from their peers by being more like...

  3. ON nth CLASS PRESERVING AUTOMORPHISMS OF n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    92

    of G which fix N element wise and act trivially on G/M. Let n be a positive integer. In this article we have shown that if G and H are two n-isoclinic groups, then there exists an isomorphism from Aut γn+1(G). Zn(G). (G) to Aut γn+1(H). Zn(H). (H), which maps the group of nth class preserving auto- morphisms of G to the group of ...

  4. Peptides: A new class of anticancer drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Smolarczyk; Tomasz Cichoń; Stanisław Szala

    2009-01-01

    Peptides are a novel class of anticancer agents embracing two distinct categories: natural antibacterial peptides, which are preferentially bound by cancer cells, and chemically synthesized peptides, which bind specifically to precise molecular targets located on the surface of tumor cells. Antibacterial peptides bind to both cell and mitochondrial membranes. Some of these peptides attach to the cell membrane, resulting in its disorganization. Other antibacterial peptides penetrate cancer cel...

  5. General class of multiparticulate dissolution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P V; Brown, K F

    1977-10-01

    The dissolution of multiparticulate systems under sink and nonsink conditions can be described rigorously according to a generally applicable formula on the basis of the single-particle dissolution model and the initial particle distribution. The kinetic model for log-normal systems dissolving under sink conditions is extended to nonsink conditions as a specific example. The equation presented describes a general class of multiparticulate models for various values of the dispersion parameter and the dissolution capacity coefficient.

  6. Back to the Future: Class of 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a generational view of first-year college students, emphasizing that each group of new students is no better or worse than past one, only different. Focuses on the class of 1996 and provides a year-by-year life history of first-yeat college students who were born in the year 1974. Examines changing first-year views and tracks trends.…

  7. New class of geodesic radiating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A. K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2017-11-01

    The Einstein field equations and junction conditions are studied for a radiating object in which particles are travelling in geodesic motion. The boundary condition at the surface of the star is a Riccati equation in general. We show that several new classes of exact solutions exist. The solutions have a simple form and can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Earlier models are regained which were found by direct integration of the differential equation and the Lie theory of extended groups.

  8. On a class of semicommutative modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let R be a ring with identity, M a right R-module and S = EndR(M). In this note, we introduce S-semicommutative, S-Baer, S-q.-Baer and S-p.q.-Baer modules. We study the relations between these classes of modules. Also we prove if M is an. S-semicommutative module, then M is an S-p.q.-Baer module if and only ...

  9. Root resorption in Class II malocclusion treatment with Class II elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Niederberger, Ana; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Caldas, Waleska

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the amount of apical root resorption in nonextraction treatment of Class II malocclusions with and without Class II elastics. A sample of 54 patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, retrospectively selected, was divided into 2 groups. The elastic group consisted of 27 patients who were exclusively treated with fixed appliances associated with elastics, and the headgear group consisted of 27 patients treated with fixed appliances and extraoral headgear. The groups were matched regarding initial age, treatment time, amount of overjet, initial malocclusion severity, final occlusal status, and severity of Class II molar relationship. Posttreatment periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular central and lateral incisors were used to evaluate root resorption. The amounts of resorption in the groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no statistically significant difference in the amounts of root resorption between the elastic and the headgear groups. Nonextraction treatment of Class II malocclusions with Class II elastics associated with fixed appliances causes similar root resorption as treatment with extraoral headgear and fixed appliances. Apical root resorption was predominantly mild and similar in the 2 groups. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Marginal seal stability of one bottle adhesives in Class V vs. Class I cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Juan R; Gregor, Ladislav; Campos, Edson A; Roig, Miguel; Krejci, Ivo

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the influence of two different cavity configurations on marginal stability of recent one bottle "etch & rinse" and "self-etch" adhesives in Class V vs. Class I cavities, before and after thermo-mechanical loading under simulation of dentinal fluid. Forty human upper molars were selected and assigned to five experimental groups. Intrapulpal pressure was maintained during cavity preparation, restoration placement, finishing and stressing. Standardized Class I and V-Shaped Class V cavities were prepared on each tooth. Half of the margins of Class V cavities were located in enamel and half in dentin. All cavities were restored with different adhesives systems and a nano-hybrid composite. Materials were light-cured using a LED unit. Restored teeth were loaded in a computer-controlled chewing machine with 1.2 million mechanical occlusal cycles simultaneously with 3,000 thermal cycles (5-50-5°C). Impressions were made with polyvinylsiloxane of each restoration before and after loading. Gold-coated epoxy replicas were prepared for SEM examination at ×200 magnification. Significant differences between materials were found both before and after loading (Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni, p Class I and V restorations (Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank Test, p < 0.05). Even before thermo-mechanical loading, none of the groups had 100% continuous margin. Marginal seal stability of recent one bottle "etch & rinse" and "self-etch" adhesives are significantly different and susceptible to cavity configuration.

  11. [Social class and health in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Rocha, Katia B; Borrell, Carme; Vallebuona, Clelia; Ibáñez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Sollar, Orielle

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews the principal concepts of social class, occupation, and social stratification, and their contribution to the analysis of the social determinants of health (SDH), and reviews empirical studies conducted in Latin America that use employment relations as an SDH. The review focuses on studies of the relationship between health and social class based on neo-Weberian or neo-Marxist perspectives. A search of the BIREME Virtual Health Library and the SciELO database found 28 articles meeting these characteristics. This relative dearth contrasts with the profusion of papers that use these approaches written in Europe and in the United States, with a long tradition in the analysis of SDH. In this regard, the political and programmatic implications of research on social class and employment relations are different from and complementary to studies of health gradients associated with income and education. Globalization of employment relations requires the development of new concepts to explain and measure the mechanisms of action of the SDH going beyond what is strictly labor related; in particular, the importance in the current Latin American reality of the impact of informal work on health.

  12. Rapport: Coding Class - Dokumentation og evaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet . Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates . Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og faglig leder af forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign, design...... tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for Kommunikation ved Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  13. The NRAO Observing for University Classes Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Van Moorsel, Gustaaf A.

    2017-01-01

    The NRAO "Observing for University Classes" program is a tremendous resource for instructors of courses in observational astronomy. As a service to the astronomical and educational communities, the NRAO offers small amounts of observing time on the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Very Long Baseline Array to such instructors. The data can be used by students and faculty to demonstrate radio astronomy theory with modern data products. Further, the results may lead to publication; this is a unique opportunity for faculty members to integrate research into the classroom. Previous experience with NRAO facilities is required for instructors; individuals without radio astronomy experience can take advantage of other NRAO educational opportunities (e.g., the Synthesis Imaging Workshop) prior to using the program. No previous experience with radio astronomy data is required for students; this is the primary target audience of the program. To demonstrate concept, this poster describes three different VLA observing programs that have been completed using the "Observing for University Classes" resource at Macalester College; undergraduate students have published the results of all three of these programs. Other recent "Observing for University Classes" programs are also described.

  14. Diagrammatic Reasoning with Classes and Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss a diagrammatic visualization and reasoning language coming about by augmenting Euler diagrams with higraphs. The diagrams serve (hierarchical as well as trans-hierarchical) classification and specification of various logical relationships between classes. The diagrams rely ...... road maps. As such they may facilitate ontological engineering, which often involves larger amounts of data. The underlying inference process is expressible in function-free definite clauses, datalog. We also discuss the relationship to similar diagram and logic proposals.......We present and discuss a diagrammatic visualization and reasoning language coming about by augmenting Euler diagrams with higraphs. The diagrams serve (hierarchical as well as trans-hierarchical) classification and specification of various logical relationships between classes. The diagrams rely...... on a well-defined underlying class-relationship logic, called CRL, being a fragment of predicate logic. The inference rules at the level of diagrams take form of simple diagrammatic ipso facto rules. The diagrams are intended for computerization by offering navigation and zooming facilities as known from...

  15. Poetic Texts in Polish Heritage Language Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gąsienica Byrcyn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of poetic texts in heritage Polish composition classes offers a resourceful, motivating, and original way of learning the language and culture, primarily by mastering writing skills and understanding Poland’s rich and complex culture. Moreover, poetic texts give an aesthetical beauty and moral values, and the students discover universal truths during their readings and discussions. A chosen poem, such as Adam Mickiewicz’s “Lelije” (Lilies, Teofil Lenartowicz’s “Złoty kubek” (A Golden Cup, or Bolesław Leśmian’s “Urszula Kochanowska” (Ursula Kochanowska, is presented in class for listening exercises, reading, recitation, discussion, and especially creative writing. The students are introduced to the captivating genre of poetry and learn about the cultural and historical content of this work. Then, they write their poem or a composition on the introduced theme. The assessment consists of the student’s originality, the content of the paper, the organization of the paper, and the employment of correct grammatical sentence structure and vocabulary. Consequently, poetic texts immersed in Polish intertextual space are open and may be read in many ways, beyond their initial context, presenting many fascinating interpretations and offering many intellectual attractions. A poem is an excellent learning source for the creativity stage in the art of writing, transmuting elements of the past Polish culture and literature in modern language classes. Students write their own intriguing stories, focusing on their knowledge of the language, and using resourcefulness and creativity.

  16. Group nutrition education classes for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck Higgins, Mary; Clarke Barkley, Mary

    2004-01-01

    A thorough search of the literature revealed only nine articles published since 1993 that focused on nutrition education for older adults attending group classes and that measured outcomes. A table summarizes the reports, including the theoretical bases, descriptions of interventions, participants and comparison groups, program outcomes, methods of verification, and follow-up after interventions. Only three of the studies explicitly indicated that elements of a stated behavioral change theory had been incorporated. All of the educators employed a variety of older adult educational strategies to enhance learning. Six research teams reported on classes where nearly half or more of the participants represented minority groups. Six studies included comparison groups. Types of outcomes included measurements of change in knowledge, attitudes/ beliefs, behaviors, and/or physiological measures, but the actual variables examined differed among reports. No consistent patterns were detected among reported outcomes. The longest follow-up after interventions ceased was seven months. The review addresses issues raised from an analysis of the quantity, quality and findings of the articles and makes suggestions for future research and offers preliminary ideas for developing group nutrition education classes for older adults. This is one of a series of reviews of recent literature on nutrition education for older adults.

  17. The Effect of Class Size on Teacher Attrition: Evidence from Class Size Reduction Policies in New York State

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Pas Isenberg

    2010-01-01

    Starting in 1999, New York State implemented class size reduction policies targeted at early elementary grades, but due to funding limitations, most schools reduced class size in some grades and not others. I use class size variation within a school induced by the policies to construct instrumental variable estimates of the effect of class size on teacher attrition. Teachers with smaller classes were not significantly less likely to leave schools in the full sample of districts but were less ...

  18. A escolarização das classes abastadas The schooling of the affluent classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio David Cattani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Após indicar a inadequação do termo elite ou burguesia para designar os detentores de grandes fortunas, este artigo sustenta que as classes dominantes se constroem continuamente e se mobilizam de todas as formas para assegurar sua reprodução ampliada, sua existência cotidiana com vistas à preservação e à transmissão das posições dominantes para seus descendentes. A formação ideológica na família e o período de formação nas instituições escolares são parte importantes do processo de construção de classe. O artigo considera que os estudos sobre a escolarização das classes dedicam-se, de modo geral, à formação universal, com ênfase nos problemas que acometem a população menos privilegiada. Os estudos sobre a formação da classe dominante são recentes e apresentam resultados inusitados tais como a relação instrumental com a educação o que distinguiria o caso brasileiro das estratégias das classes abastadas dos países economicamente mais avançados. Entretanto, como as classes dominantes são heterogêneas elas podem se valer de outras estratégias de escolarização para garantir suas posições e a reprodução de classe.After pointing out the inadequacy of the terms elite or bourgeoisie to label those in possession of great wealth, this article maintains that the dominant classes are constantly constructing and mobilizing themselves in every way to assure their extended reproduction and their everyday coexistence with the aim of preserving and transmitting dominant positions to their descendents. Ideological development within the family and the school years are important elements in the process of class construction. Studies on schooling of class generally address universal education, stressing the problems that afflict the underprivileged population. The education of the dominant class is not often explored as a topic and the few studies available present original results, such as the instrumental

  19. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  20. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during

  1. Class I and class II histone deacetylases are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; He, Jing; Zhao, Jianyun; Yun, Wenting; Xie, Chengzhi; Taub, Jeffrey W; Azmi, Asfar; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Dong, Yan; Kong, Wei; Guo, Yingjie; Ge, Yubin

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have shown promising antitumor activities against preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we sought to identify clinically relevant histone deacetylases (HDACs) to guide the selection of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) tailored to the treatment of pancreatic cancer. HDAC expression in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells was determined by Western blotting. Antitumor interactions between class I- and class II-selective HDACIs were determined by MTT assays and standard isobologram/CompuSyn software analyses. The effects of HDACIs on cell death, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, and histone H4, alpha-tubulin, p21, and γH2AX levels were determined by colony formation assays, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting, respectively. The majority of classes I and II HDACs were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, albeit at variable levels. Treatments with MGCD0103 (a class I-selective HDACI) resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, accompanied by induction of p21 and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In contrast, MC1568 (a class IIa-selective HDACI) or Tubastatin A (a HDAC6-selective inhibitor) showed minimal effects. When combined simultaneously, MC1568 significantly enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest, while Tubastatin A only synergistically enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest. Although MC1568 or Tubastatin A alone had no obvious effects on DNA DSBs and p21 expression, their combination with MGCD0103 resulted in cooperative induction of p21 in the cells. Our results suggest that classes I and II HDACs are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, treating pancreatic

  2. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Abualrous, Esam T; Sticht, Jana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell's own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors-tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II-contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity.

  3. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Abualrous, Esam T.; Sticht, Jana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell’s own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors—tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II—contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity. PMID:28367149

  4. Social power and social class: conceptualization, consequences, and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D

    2017-12-01

    This article offers a primer on social power and social class with respect to their theoretical importance, conceptual distinction, and empirical relationship. We introduce and define the constructs of social power, social class, and one's psychological sense of power. We next explore the complex relationship between social power and social class. Because social class can produce a sense of power within an individual, studies on social power can inform theory and research on social class. We conclude with a discussion of the current challenges and future opportunities for the study of social power and social class. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two classes of region III flagellar genes in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoh, H; Ozeki, H.

    1981-01-01

    We infected various nonflagellated mutants of Escherichia coli with fla-transducing phages and followed the kinetics of the appearance of motility. Our analysis revealed two distinct classes of region III fla genes. Class II fla genes (hag, flaD) functioned 15 min later than class I fla genes (flaN, flaB, flaC, flaO, flaA, flbD, flaQ, flaP) in flagellar morphogenesis. We suggest that the two classes of fla genes are involved in two different stages, initiation (class I) and completion (class ...

  6. Dyslipidemias as generating issue in Biochemistry classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional didactic model is based on the transmission of the teacher's encyclopedic knowledge. In this model, the teaching of Science aims at the transmission of dominant values, regarded as absolute truths. The teacher is seen is an expert on scientific contents who transmits them to students without motivating them, and without taking into consideration their previous ideas and life experience. This model contributes to the formation of professionals who accept those values uncritically. An effective approach to break up this traditional teaching model in Biochemistry is the use of a generating issue. A Generating Issue is the starting point to the knowledge construction process which, in turn, replaces traditional models. Thus, this study aimed at developing a lesson for a 12th grade class at IF Fluminense on the following content: alcohol, carboxylic acid, ester, and esterification reaction, using dyslipidemias as the Generating Issue. To verify the value of such methodology in Biochemistry classroom, data was collected by applying a questionnaire and images with texts produced by students. In addition, they had a class based on the methodology known as Three Pedagogical Moments, proposed by Delizoicov et al. (2007. Several didactic resources designed by the authors were used, such as slide presentation, tridimensional molecular models, and a roulette game named “Bioquimicados”, based on the Facebook game “Perguntados” ("Trivia Crack". After this, students developed more grounded scientific concepts, making use of terms common in scientific language. This suggests that the use of the Generating Issue in a lesson based on problematization, and supported by a ludic activity, provided a meaningful contribution to improve the students' understanding of the scientific content. This type of non-traditional class promotes greater student motivation, resulting in meaningful learning.

  7. GOALS OF PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ramzaninezhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical education in school life and for health points to the need to the better understands goal's participation of students in school education classes. This study was an attempt to investigate students' goals for participates in physical education (PE classes. 455 random out of 72673 students of junior and senior high schools with the age range of 11 to 19 years (M=14.67. A 28-items survey was administrated to assess (a demographics and (b Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity (PEPAS, on a 5-point Likert scale [23]. A panel of experts (n=10 reviewed the translated from of survey and provided feedback and comments on content validity of the instrument, and 50 student participated in pilot study. The analysis of the result indicated that the Individual development (the physiological efficiency and Psychic equilibrium was rated the highest goal of participating in physical activity followed by the social interaction (the group interaction and cultural involvement and the environmental coping (the spatial orientation and object manipulation. One-way Tukeys' post hoc comparison revealed significant difference between groups of subject differentiated on the basis gender age, Junior/senior high school, physical activity out of school, school team member ships, and physical activity on summer & holidays as Independent factors. The multivariate effect of these factors on some of the student's purpose was significant. The unvaried analyses showed that these factors had a significant effect on some of goals. These findings indicate the importance of ranking of students' purposes for engaging in PE classes. It is also necessary that these goals to be considered by the parents & teachers point of view.

  8. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.

    2012-01-01

    descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction...... chemistry compounds (over 30,000 chemicals). Based on this application, we suggest that solubility, and not permeability, is the major difference between NMEs and drugs. We anticipate that the forecast of BDDCS categories in early drug discovery may lead to a significant R&D cost reduction....

  9. What makes a science class introductory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L. M.

    2001-11-01

    Most academic institutions offer "introductory" courses in the space sciences. Most often, the offering is either a one-semester astronomy course or one semester each on the solar system and on stellar astronomy. The designation of these courses as "introductory" presumably indicates that students are expected to have had little or no exposure to the subjects before. However, the mathematical sophistication of the students is an important determininant of how well they will perform in the class. Some topics are appropriate and instructive for students with weak preparation in mathematics, while others are not. Examples of both kinds of topics will be given.

  10. Renverser la classe inversée

    OpenAIRE

    Nagels, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pédagogie universitaire; Cette année, j'ai vécu une expérience renversante de formation. Plus fort encore que la classe inversée, j'ai renversé totalement mon enseignement à distance consacré à l'initiation à la psychologie cognitive pour les auditeurs du CNAM de Bretagne. Le slogan du cours était « un élève, cinquante professeurs ». Compte rendu à trois voix…

  11. A FESA Class Control Flow graph generator

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the work that was done during a summer student internship in the CERN BE-BI-SW group in the summer of 2015. The project proposal was to improve an existing tool for generating flowcharts from the design of a class and then create a GUI for the tool. The end result of the project is the improvement of the tool, so that the developer can have an overall image of the class’s design. Also, the GUI is functional at its current state and it can be extended with further work in order to be more user-friendly and offer more options to the user.

  12. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... III price; (4) The Class III skim milk price; (5) The Class IV price; (6) The Class IV skim milk price... the following month: (1) The Class I price; (2) The Class I skim milk price; (3) The Class I butterfat price; (4) The Class II skim milk price; (5) The Class II nonfat solids price; and (6) The advanced...

  13. On classes of T0 spaces admitting completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Giuli

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For a given class X of T0 spaces the existence of a subclass C, having the same properties that the class of complete metric spaces has in the class of all metric spaces and non-expansive maps, is investigated. A positive example is the class of all T0 spaces, with C the class of sober T0 spaces, and a negative example is the class of Tychonoff spaces. We prove that X has the previous property (i.e., admits completions whenever it is the class of T0 spaces of an hereditary coreflective subcategory of a suitable supercategory of the category Top of topological spaces. Two classes of examples are provided.

  14. Hev b 11, a peculiar class I chitinase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The recently identified rubber allergen Hev b 11, which is a class I chitinase, may be a cytosolic (C-serum) protein. This is a rather unique feature, as all other known plant class I chitinases are vacuolar proteins.

  15. Recursive estimation of inventory quality classes using sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aggoun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new discrete time discrete state inventory model for perishable items of a single product. Items in stock are assumed to belong to one of a finite number of quality classes that are ordered in such a way that Class 1 contains the best quality and the last class contains the pre-perishable quality. By the end of each epoch, items in each inventory class either stay in the same class or lose quality and move to a lower class. The movement between classes is not observed. Samples are drawn from the inventory and based on the observations of these samples, optimal estimates for the number of items in each quality classes are derived.

  16. Class Size and Student Ratings of Teaching Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of how class size may affect student ratings of teaching presentation strongly supported the conclusions that: (1) there is only a weak relationship between class size and student ratings; and (2) the relationship is nonlinear in nature. (EV)

  17. Suggestopedia, Sophrology and the Traditional Foreign Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1982-01-01

    Describes suggestopedia and sophrology techniques and shows how to apply them within the limitations of the traditional foreign language classroom. Cites beginning French classes at Scarborough College as an example of these techniques improving class atmosphere and student motivation. (EKN)

  18. Class Cohesion Metrics for Software Engineering: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Izadkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Class cohesion or degree of the relations of class members is considered as one of the crucial quality criteria. A class with a high cohesion improves understandability, maintainability and reusability. The class cohesion metrics can be measured quantitatively and therefore can be used as a base for assessing the quality of design. The main objective of this paper is to identify important research directions in the area of class cohesion metrics that require further attention in order to develop more effective and efficient class cohesion metrics for software engineering. In this paper, we discuss the class cohesion assessing metrics (thirty-two metrics that have received the most attention in the research community and compare them from different aspects. We also present desirable properties of cohesion metrics to validate class cohesion metrics.

  19. Modernity, Cosmopolitanism, and the Emergence of Middle Classes in Tonga

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niko Besnier

    2009-01-01

    The formation of social classes in Pacific Islands societies and in their diasporas continues to raise theoretical questions about the nature of social classes and their relationship to prior forms...

  20. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).

  1. Structural Properties of MHC Class II Ligands, Implications for the Prediction of MHC Class II Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Buus, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    class II ligands by integrating prediction of MHC- peptide binding with prediction of surface exposure and protein secondary structure. This combined prediction method was shown to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction method when used to identify MHC...... class II ligands. We also tried to integrate N- and O-glycosylation in our prediction methods but this additional information was found not to improve prediction performance. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that local structural properties influence antigen processing and......, allowing binding of peptides extending out of the binding groove. Furthermore, only a few HLA-DR alleles have been characterized with a sufficient number of peptides (100–200 peptides per allele) to derive accurate description of their binding motif. Little work has been performed characterizing structural...

  2. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder

    2004-01-01

    , identifying the correct alignment is a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. In this context, we wish to describe a novel Gibbs motif sampler method ideally suited for recognizing such weak sequence motifs. The method is based on the Gibbs sampling method, and it incorporates...... novel features optimized for the task of recognizing the binding motif of MHC classes I and II. The method locates the binding motif in a set of sequences and characterizes the motif in terms of a weight-matrix. Subsequently, the weight-matrix can be applied to identifying effectively potential MHC...... binding peptides and to guiding the process of rational vaccine design. Results: We apply the motif sampler method to the complex problem of MHC class II binding. The input to the method is amino acid peptide sequences extracted from the public databases of SYFPEITHI and MHCPEP and known to bind...

  3. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  4. Dancing beyond exercise: young people's experiences in dance classes

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, SM; Komesaroff, P; Fensham, R.

    2008-01-01

    Dance classes in urban settings may have a role in health-promotion programmes seeking to increase physical activity amongst young people. However, little is so far known about the motivations, experiences or health outcomes of those participating in dance classes. This qualitative study of young people attending recreational dance classes addressed motivations, the nature of the class experience, and implications for health and well-being. Data show that young dance participants' experiences...

  5. Class - III malocclusion: Genetics or environment? A twins study

    OpenAIRE

    Jena A; Duggal R; Mathur V; Parkash H

    2005-01-01

    Etiology of class-III malocclusion is generally believed to be genetic. A wide range of environmental factors have been suggested as contributing factors for the development of class-III malocclusion. Twin study is one of the most effective methods available for investigating genetically determined variables of malocclusion. Discordancy for class-III malocclusion is a frequent finding in dizygotic twins. However, class-III malocclusion discordancy in monozygotic twins is a rare finding. The p...

  6. Moving with Ease: Feldenkrais Method Classes for People with Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Webb; Luis Eduardo Cofré Lizama; Galea, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method classes on gait, balance, function, and pain in people with osteoarthritis. Design. Prospective study with pre-/postmeasures. Setting. Community. Participants. Convenience sample of 15 community-dwelling adults with osteoarthritis (mean age 67 years) attending Feldenkrais Method classes. Intervention. Series of Feldenkrais Method classes, two classes/week for 30 weeks. Main outcome measures: Western Ontario and McMaster U...

  7. Satisfaction classes in nonstandard models of first-order arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    A satisfaction class is a set of nonstandard sentences respecting Tarski's truth definition. We are mainly interested in full satisfaction classes, i.e., satisfaction classes which decides all nonstandard sentences. Kotlarski, Krajewski and Lachlan proved in 1981 that a countable model of PA admits a satisfaction class if and only if it is recursively saturated. A proof of this fact is presented in detail in such a way that it is adaptable to a language with function symbols. The idea that a ...

  8. HUMANISTIC STRATEGIES IN THE EFL SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa J. Mardijono

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the humanistic strategies woven into the EFL speaking class activities. The speaking class, which the writer used for her study, is the highest level of speaking course offered in the curriculum of the English Department of Petra Christian University, to develop students' English speaking skills, particularly in public speaking. The humanistic strategies are based on the assumption that a "supportive and co-operative group atmosphere" ((Hadfield, 1995, p.15 will enhance learning to bring out the best of the students. The primary aims are to help the students, through active participation, to develop more positive feelings about themselves and their classmates, to co-operate and support each other to grow and excel at their speech performance. Based on the students' evaluation and the teacher's observation of the students' public speech performance and their academic achievement, it can be concluded that the humanistic strategies have created a co-operative and supportive group atmosphere and has given positive effects on the students' speech performance. This is also a rewarding experience for the teacher.

  9. Four classes of interactions for evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Bodó, Kinga S; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-08-01

    The symmetric four-strategy games are decomposed into a linear combination of 16 basis games represented by orthogonal matrices. Among these basis games four classes can be distinguished as it is already found for the three-strategy games. The games with self-dependent (cross-dependent) payoffs are characterized by matrices consisting of uniform rows (columns). Six of 16 basis games describe coordination-type interactions among the strategy pairs and three basis games span the parameter space of the cyclic components that are analogous to the rock-paper-scissors games. In the absence of cyclic components the game is a potential game and the potential matrix is evaluated. The main features of the four classes of games are discussed separately and we illustrate some characteristic strategy distributions on a square lattice in the low noise limit if logit rule controls the strategy evolution. Analysis of the general properties indicates similar types of interactions at larger number of strategies for the symmetric matrix games.

  10. Epigenetic codes programming class switch recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat eVaidyanathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Class switch recombination imparts B cells with a fitness-associated adaptive advantage during a humoral immune response by using a precision-tailored DNA excision and ligation process to swap the default constant region gene of the antibody with a new one that has unique effector functions. This secondary diversification of the antibody repertoire is a hallmark of the adaptability of B cells when confronted with environmental and pathogenic challenges. Given that the nucleotide sequence of genes during class switching remains unchanged (genetic constraints, it is logical and necessary therefore, to integrate the adaptability of B cells to an epigenetic state, which is dynamic and can be heritably modulated before, after or even during an antibody-dependent immune response. Epigenetic regulation encompasses heritable changes that affect function (phenotype without altering the sequence information embedded in a gene, and include histone, DNA and RNA modifications. Here, we review current literature on how B cells use an epigenetic code language as a means to ensure antibody plasticity in light of pathogenic insults.

  11. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  12. From first class to third class: recent upheaval in antiarrhythmic therapy--lessons from clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, R

    1996-08-29

    In recent years, the results of large randomized and controlled trials of antiarrhythmic agents for primary and secondary prevention of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have changed perceptions of the actions of antiarrhythmic agents regarding both efficacy and risk. The premature termination of the CAST trials of primary prevention in postinfarct patients highlighted the proarrhythmic risk and inefficacy of the sodium channel blockers (class I action), encainide, flecainide, and moricizine, in patients at relatively low risk for death in the long term. The excess mortality with therapy was attributed to proarrhythmia due to facilitation of reentry, especially during acute ischemia. About the same time, European trials with amiodarone, a complex agent with antiadrenergic action and powerful action to prolong refractoriness (class III action), indicated enhanced survival after infarction with amiodarone but not with agents with class I action. Recent verbal reports of larger and placebo-controlled trials (EMIAT and CAM-IAT) confirm a significant reduction in arrhythmia mortality, possibly with a favorable trend in total mortality. While an older trial with dl-sotalol (class III and beta-blocking actions) showed a trend toward improved survival after infarction, a recent trial with d-sotalol in patients with recent infarction or remote infarction and heart failure was prematurely terminated because of excess mortality attributed to proarrhythmia (torsades de pointes), indicating the importance of beta-blocking properties of a class III agent. A secondary prevention trial (ESVEM) in patients surviving an episode of VT or VF showed significant superiority of dl-sotalol compared to an array of agents that block sodium channels with respect to both efficacy and tolerance. Occurrence rates of arrhythmias treated with drugs tested for efficacy either by suppression of inducible arrhythmias or by suppression of spontaneous ectopy were higher and

  13. Judging Fairness in Class Action Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Piché

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe the face of modern civil justice and discuss four paradoxes which justify re-evaluating the role of the judge responsible for reviewing class action settlements, in light of modern judicial culture. I also critically evaluate the existing procedures applicable to the fairness review as well as the judicial role described in the caselaw and doctrine, before suggesting a revised, three-parted role for the reviewing judge in the class action settlement context. Ultimately, I suggest that to reach fairness of process and outcome in class action settlements, judges should remain active and creative in their inquisitorial assessment of proposed class action settlements. They should also remain conciliatory, participating in the search for solutions regarding the proposed settlement, always seeking to find the truth (and what is “just” about the proposed settlement, in the utmost respect for the rights of absent class members, the respect of their interests, and the additional consideration of the interests of the defendants and of the public. Dans cet article, je présente l’état de la face de la justice civile moderne et je discute quatre paradoxes qui justifient une réévaluation du rôle du juge responsable de la révision et de l’approbation d’un règlement de recours collectif, à la lumière de la culture juridique moderne. Je propose aussi une évaluation critique des procédures en place s’appliquant à l’évaluation du caracters équitable de la transaction, de même que le rôle du juge décrit dans la jurisprudence et la doctrine, avant de suggérer un rôle révisé. Ce rôle modifié se décline en trois parties. Finalement, je suggère que pour atteindre l’équité de procédure et de résultat dans le cas de règlements en recours collectif, les juges devraient demeurer actifs et créatifs en enquêtant pour évaluer des règlements proposés dans les cas de recours collectifs. Ils et elles

  14. 34 CFR 106.34 - Access to classes and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities, if— (i) Each single-sex class or extracurricular activity is based on the recipient's important... policy to provide diverse educational opportunities, provided that the single-sex nature of the class or..., identified educational needs of its students, provided that the single-sex nature of the class or...

  15. Conformers and pretenders: The case of middle class political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From soon after the Second World War this class has been vocal in advocating for a political dispensation opposed to traditional politics centred on the monarchy. Up to now no coherent study has attempted a critical analysis of middle class opposition politics in Swaziland. This is in spite of the fact that the middle class ...

  16. The Synergy of Class Size Reduction and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica; Sherfinski, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    A contextual approach to understanding class size reduction includes attention to both educational inputs and processes. Based on our study of a class size reduction program in Wisconsin we explore the following question: How do class size reduction and classroom quality interact to produce learning opportunities in early elementary classrooms? To…

  17. 40 CFR 205.155 - Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle class and manufacturer...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.155 Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation. (a) Motorcycles must be grouped into classes determined by...

  18. Comparing Multimedia and Traditional Approaches in Undergraduate Psychology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, T. Dary; Rieppi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of multimedia and traditional classes. Results show that (1) students in both classes did not differ on abilities before enrollment; (2) students in the multimedia class averaged higher examination scores; and (3) there are no consistent patterns between learning preferences and final examination scores in either case.…

  19. Processing of MHC class II in dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Broeke, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    In the past years we performed studies to gain more insight into the processing of major histocompatibility class II (MHC class II) in dendritic cells. We focused on the sorting mechanisms of MHC class II, the degradation of its associated Ii and peptide loading at the endosomal system. In addition,

  20. Student Graffiti and Social Class: Clues for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    Executed systematic content analysis on written symbols (graffiti) in a school for delinquent high school boys. Compared graffiti themes by social class. Identified three classes of graffiti: love-courtship-sex; belonging-identity; and extremism. Found little difference between classes on love-courtship-sex theme but significant differences in…

  1. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as follows...

  2. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  3. A Qualitative Assessment of a Foreign Language Whole Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, David

    2003-01-01

    Provides insights on how to assess a whole language foreign language class (WLFLC) and to field test qualitative research methods for a WLFLC. The Hebrew language class was assessed through analysis of semistructured interviews with four students, students' reflective mid-term papers and final class evaluations, and teacher journal notes. (VWL)

  4. 17 CFR 270.18f-3 - Multiple class companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple class companies. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.18f-3 Multiple class companies... registered open-end management investment company or series or class thereof established in accordance with...

  5. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL AGENCY... amends Class E Airspace in the Montgomery, AL area, by recognizing the name change of Prattville-Grouby... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 amends Class E airspace for the Montgomery, AL, area at the request...

  6. Optimizing Dynamic Class Composition in a Statically Typed Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2008-01-01

    In statically typed languages the set of classes and similar classifiers is commonly fully determined at compile time. Complete classifier representations can then be loaded at run-time, e.g., from a an executable file or a class file. However, some typing constructs-such as virtual classes...

  7. Strategies for Teaching and Managing Large Classes in University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following extensive debate on management of large classes and its effectiveness; the current study sought to address (1) strategies used by lecturers to manage large classes (2) required skills needed to effectively teach large classes by lecturers and lastly (3) effective assessment practices used by lecturers in large ...

  8. Comparative Analyses of Discourse in Specialized STEM School Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Nadelson, Louis S.

    2017-01-01

    The authors detail the discourse patterns observed within mathematics and science classes at specialized STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) high schools. Analyses reveal that teachers in mathematics classes tended to engage their students in authoritative discourse while teachers in science classes tended to engage students…

  9. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1... STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized capital stock of a Bank shall consist of the following instruments: (a) Class A stock, which shall: (1) Have a...

  10. 40 CFR 144.24 - Class V wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class V wells. 144.24 Section 144.24... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.24 Class V wells. (a) A Class V injection well is authorized by rule, subject to the conditions in § 144.84 (b) Duration of well...

  11. Class and Culture: Sources of Confusion in Educational Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This paper reiterates the centrality of economics (relations of production) in Marxist models of class, while avoiding the crude determinism which results from a neglect of cultural aspects of class formation. It explores the confusion in education and educational sociology arising from non-Marxist conceptions of class which place an exaggerated…

  12. 26 CFR 1.167(m)-1 - Class lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class lives. 1.167(m)-1 Section 1.167(m)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(m)-1 Class lives. (a) For rules regarding the election to use the class life system authorized by section 167(m), see...

  13. In-Class Purposes of Flipped Mathematics Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Lindsay A.; Taylor, Cynthia E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides empirical findings from a study that examined how three grade 7-12 flipped mathematics educators utilized class time when implementing a flipped learning model. Additionally, the researchers investigated the educators' purposes for various in-class tasks as well as their general use of class time. The data revealed flipped…

  14. Modernity, cosmopolitanism, and the emergence of middle classes in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of social classes in Pacific Islands societies and in their diasporas continues to raise theoretical questions about the nature of social classes and their relationship to prior forms of social organization. In Tonga, middle classes both reproduce aspects of the older rank-based system

  15. Multiple meanings of the middle class in soweto, south Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market Soweto shopping centre in 2006). This paper focuses on what middle class identity means to .... of individual virtue which includes good money management' (Urciuoli 1995). Middle class also implied possible advance through ..... London: Routledge Taylor and Francis. Bozzoli, B and History Workshop, 1987. Class ...

  16. Writing in Undergraduate Geography Classes: Faculty Challenges and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lynn M.; Slinger-Friedman, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown both anecdotal and formal evidence of the benefits students obtain from doing writing activities in classes. Little formal discussion exists about how student writing in geography classes professionally affects faculty. In this article, focus shifts from student-derived benefits of writing in classes to faculty…

  17. Mathematical model of epidemics with intermediate classes | Inyama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical model of epidemics with intermediate classes. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... In this paper we present a Mathematical model for diseases that place some new recruits from the susceptible class into an “exposed but not yet infectious” class which we denote by E. The rest of ...

  18. 78 FR 13014 - Designation of West Lafayette (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation of West Lafayette (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration..., Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  19. Late to Class: Social Class and Schooling in the New Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This essay outlines several ways in which educators might better prepare young people of all backgrounds to understand, enter, and eventually act upon the changing economic landscape. The contributors to this article, which presents perspectives on social class and education in the United States, suggest that one might learn some lessons from the…

  20. Marx and Dahrendorf on Income Inequality, Class Consciousness and Class Conflict: An Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert V.; Kelley, Jonathan

    The issue addressed by this paper is the lack of empirical research on the class theories of Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf. In order to bridge this gap, data are analyzed on the theoretical and statistical implications of Marx's theory (which focuses on ownership of the means of production) and Dahrendorf's theory (which focuses on authority in…

  1. A Reflection on the Class Teaching Sequence with Particular Reference to History Classes in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valcárcel, Nicolás; Miralles-Martínez, Pedro; Alfageme-González, M. Begoña

    2008-01-01

    This contribution reflects empirical data arising from a study based on the testimony of 1523 students referring to the time when they studied history in secondary school. It forms part of an on-going inter-disciplinary research project. By means of open activities, information was compiled on the History classes received by students studying…

  2. HLA class I and class II associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Mahmoud Hamdi

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population.A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated control. Patients and control groups were typed by SSOP lumenix techniques. The alleles positively associated to the ESRD were: HLA-B*15, B*18, B*49 - DRB1*03, negatively associated alleles were A*26, HLA-B*39, B*50. The haplotypes positively associated with ESRD were: HLA-A*01-DRB1*13 and HLA-A*30-DRBI*03. The negatively associated haplotypes were: HLA-A*02-B*39, A*02-B*50, A*24-B*35, A*24-B*58, A*24-DRB1*16, A*68-DRB1*04, A*02-DQB1*03, A*29-DQB1*02, A*29-DOB1*05 and B*27-DRB1*07 and the last one is the most significant protective haplotypes.The high Relative Risk (RR observed and its statistical correlation reflect the strength of the described association between HLA antigens and ESRD.

  3. HLA Class I and Class II Associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Nuha Mahmoud; Al-Hababi, Fadel Hassan; Eid, Amr Ekhlas

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic renal failure (CRF) leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population. Methodology A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated control. Patients and control groups were typed by SSOP lumenix techniques. The alleles positively associated to the ESRD were: HLA-B*15, B*18, B*49 - DRB1*03, negatively associated alleles were A*26, HLA-B*39, B*50. The haplotypes positively associated with ESRD were: HLA-A*01-DRB1*13 and HLA-A*30-DRBI*03. The negatively associated haplotypes were: HLA-A*02-B*39, A*02-B*50, A*24-B*35, A*24-B*58, A*24-DRB1*16, A*68-DRB1*04, A*02-DQB1*03, A*29-DQB1*02, A*29-DOB1*05 and B*27-DRB1*07 and the last one is the most significant protective haplotypes. Conclusion The high Relative Risk (RR) observed and its statistical correlation reflect the strength of the described association between HLA antigens and ESRD. PMID:25380295

  4. Where Has Class Gone? The Pervasiveness of Class in Girls' Physical Activity in a Rural Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, John; Mooney, Amanda; Casey, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to animate discussion around how social class operates with adolescent girls from low socio-economic status backgrounds to shape and inform their decisions about participation in physical activity (PA) inside and outside of school. Examining the instance of girls in a single secondary school in an Australian regional town, the…

  5. Connecting in Class? College Class Size and Inequality in Academic Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Irenee R.; Thiele, Megan

    2016-01-01

    College students who interact with professors and peers about academic matters have better college outcomes. Although institutional factors influence engagement, prior scholarship has not systematically examined whether class sizes affect students' academic interactions, nor whether race or first-generation status moderate such effects. We…

  6. Big Class Size Challenges: Teaching Reading in Primary Classes in Kampala, Uganda's Central Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewaza, Samuel; Welch, Myrtle I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on reading has established that reading is a pivotal discipline and early literacy development dictates later reading success. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate challenges encountered with reading pedagogy, teaching materials, and teachers' attitudes towards teaching reading in crowded primary classes in Kampala,…

  7. Can Technology Improve Large Class Learning? The Case of an Upper-Division Business Core Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Larger classes are often associated with lower student achievement. The author tested the hypothesis that the introduction of personal response systems significantly improves scores in a 250-seat classroom, through the channels of improved attendance and engagement. She focused on how continuous participation with the technology could change…

  8. Craniofacial morphology in Chinese and Swedish children with Angle Class I and Class II occlusal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X L; Forsberg, C M; Linder-Aronson, S

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the craniofacial morphology of a group of Chinese children from northern China with a group of Swedish children. Each ethnic group comprised 20 boys and 20 girls with Class I occlusion, and 20 boys and 20 girls with Class II occlusion. The ages of the children ranged from eight to ten years. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used for the recording of a number of skeletal, dental, nasopharyngeal airway, and hyoid bone variables. The results of the comparisons of the two ethnic groups showed that the antero-posterior dimensions of the anterior cranial base and the maxilla in the Chinese children were significantly smaller than the corresponding dimensions in the Swedish children. The mean values of anterior and posterior face heights, inclination of the upper incisors, and protrusion of the lower incisors, were significantly greater in the Chinese than in the Swedish samples. In the median plane, the size of the nasopharyngeal airway was significantly greater in the Chinese than in the Swedes. This difference was due to the fact that the soft tissues covering the posterior nasopharyngeal wall were thinner in the Chinese children than in the Swedish children. In general, the ethnic differences were the same in the Class I and the Class II groups. The differences in some of the dental and skeletal characteristics found between northern Chinese and Caucasian-children are similar to previously described differences between southern Chinese and Caucasian children.

  9. 78 FR 57545 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace and Class E Airspace; Laguna AAF, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...-mile radius of the airfield, with a segment extending from the 8.8-mile radius to 13.5 miles northwest...--DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS 0 1... Designations and Reporting Points, dated August 7, 2013, and effective September 15, 2013 is amended as follows...

  10. Are Face-to-Face Classes More Effective than Online Classes? An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Gopala; Paswan, Audhesh; Sun, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a unique undergraduate marketing math course offered in both traditional and online formats, this study looks at four dimensions of course evaluation: overall evaluation, perceived competence, perceived communication, and perceived challenge. Results indicate that students rate traditional classes better on all four dimensions.…

  11. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of

  12. A class-cum-class estimators for population ratio in poststratified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditions under-which some of the estimators in the proposed class perform better than the others (in terms of having smaller mean square errors) are obtained for repeated samples of fixed sizes. Keywords: Successive sampling, poststratified sampling, ratio estimation, matching (or replacement) fraction, repeated ...

  13. 75 FR 57848 - Revocation of Class E Airspace, Brunswick, ME; and Establishment of Class E Airspace, Wiscasset, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace, Brunswick, ME; and Establishment of Class E Airspace, Wiscasset, ME AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class E Airspace at Brunswick NAS, Brunswick, ME, as the...

  14. 77 FR 40492 - Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class D Airspace at Andalusia, AL, as the Air Traffic Control... remove Class D airspace at South Alabama Regional Airport at Bill Benton Field (formerly Andalusia-Opp...

  15. 78 FR 48290 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TSTC-Waco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TSTC-Waco Airport, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D airspace at Waco, TX, by separating the...

  16. Orthopedic cervical headgear in Class II treatment: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoki Carla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early treatment for Class II malocclusion was undertaken with the objective of correcting skeletal disproportion by altering the growth pattern. A case of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion in the mixed dentition was corrected to Class I molar relationship using orthopedic cervical headgear, with nonextraction edgewise therapy. Cephalometric analysis indicated a reduction in the maxillomandibular discrepancy (ANB correcting the Class II malocclusion to Class I malocclusion. The treatment showed that this was achieved by downward displacement and inhibition of the forward growth of the maxilla and growth of the mandible. There was no downward rotation of the mandible nor maxillary first molar extrusion. There was improvement in the jaw relationship.

  17. Orthopedic cervical headgear in class II treatment: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Carla; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima

    2003-01-01

    Early treatment for Class II malocclusion was undertaken with the objective of correcting skeletal disproportion by altering the growth pattern. A case of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion in the mixed dentition was corrected to Class I molar relationship using orthopedic cervical headgear, with nonextraction edgewise therapy. Cephalometric analysis indicated a reduction in the maxillomandibular discrepancy (ANB) correcting the Class II malocclusion to Class I malocclusion. The treatment showed that this was achieved by downward displacement and inhibition of the forward growth of the maxilla and growth of the mandible. There was no downward rotation of the mandible nor maxillary first molar extrusion. There was improvement in the jaw relationship.

  18. Class I and class II histone deacetylases are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs have shown promising antitumor activities against preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we sought to identify clinically relevant histone deacetylases (HDACs to guide the selection of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs tailored to the treatment of pancreatic cancer. METHODOLOGY: HDAC expression in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells was determined by Western blotting. Antitumor interactions between class I- and class II-selective HDACIs were determined by MTT assays and standard isobologram/CompuSyn software analyses. The effects of HDACIs on cell death, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, and histone H4, alpha-tubulin, p21, and γH2AX levels were determined by colony formation assays, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: The majority of classes I and II HDACs were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, albeit at variable levels. Treatments with MGCD0103 (a class I-selective HDACI resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, accompanied by induction of p21 and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. In contrast, MC1568 (a class IIa-selective HDACI or Tubastatin A (a HDAC6-selective inhibitor showed minimal effects. When combined simultaneously, MC1568 significantly enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest, while Tubastatin A only synergistically enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest. Although MC1568 or Tubastatin A alone had no obvious effects on DNA DSBs and p21 expression, their combination with MGCD0103 resulted in cooperative induction of p21 in the cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that classes I and II HDACs are potential therapeutic targets for

  19. Antigen presentation pathways to class I and class II MHC-restricted T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braciale, T J; Morrison, L A; Sweetser, M T; Sambrook, J; Gething, M J; Braciale, V L

    1987-08-01

    Our observations on the cellular immune response to type-A influenza suggest the existence of two distinct pathways of protein antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. One of these pathways is involved with presentation of antigens introduced into the presenting cell from without. This exogenous presentation pathway is the well-recognized route of presentation of soluble and particulate antigens to T lymphocytes. This pathway probably involves uptake of antigen into endocytic vesicles, alteration of antigen within an intracellular compartment, and subsequent display of antigen on the presenting cell surface (Unanue 1984). The second pathway is one which we have tentatively designated as an endogenous presentation pathway. The constraints on this pathway have yet to be fully defined. At a minimum, this pathway appears to involve the presentation of antigens which are synthesized de novo in the presenting cell utilizing the cell's biosynthetic machinery. This pathway may also handle preformed antigens located within the cytosolic compartment of the presenting cell. Perhaps the most striking feature of these two antigen presentation pathways is the close association between the MHC restriction of an antigen-specific T lymphocyte and the pathway of antigen presentation to that T lymphocyte. Our data suggest that this association holds both at the effector level and at the level of induction of T lymphocytes. Thus, presentation of a given antigen by the endogenous pathway preferentially triggers a response from class I MHC-restricted T lymphocytes directed to that antigen. The molecular basis for this link of class I MHC-restriction to the endogenous pathway and MHC class II restriction to the exogenous pathway is unknown. It seems likely that interactions between MHC molecules and antigen within the presenting cell may be critical for the demarcation of these pathways. Thus, for example, antigen presented by the endogenous route may only be able to associate

  20. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space, allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. To be able to predict the immune response to given pathogens, a number of methods have been...... developed to predict peptide-MHC binding. However, few methods other than the pioneering TEPITOPE/ProPred method have been developed for MHC-II. Despite recent progress in method development, the predictive performance for MHC-II remains significantly lower than what can be obtained for MHC-I. One reason...... in the predictions. All attempts to make ab initio predictions based on protein structure have failed to reach predictive performances similar to those that can be obtained by data-driven methods. Thousands of different MHC-II alleles exist in humans. Recently developed pan-specific methods have been able to make...

  1. Gender divergence in physical education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    Full Text Available We evaluate a group of students, presumed by their physical education teachers to be gender divergent. This study suggests that PE teachers confuse "gender-divergence" with uncoordinated motor behaviors. This may be because PE classes emphasize motor abilities and coordination and PE teachers may pay particular attention to these characteristics and use them (wrongly as a criterion for gender divergence. However, the 10 presumed "divergent students" differ from their peers by being more likely to have friends of the opposite sex, interacting with groups of the opposite sex, preferring physical activities typical of the opposite sex, demonstrating less knowledge of sex, preferring interactive rather than collaborative activities and preferring more individual, less complex, less aggressive activities with less body contact.

  2. Raltegravir: first in class HIV integrase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Temesgen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Zelalem Temesgen1, Dawd S Siraj21Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2East Carolina University Greenville, NC, USAAbstract: On October 16, 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved raltegravir for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents in treatment-experienced adult patients who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir is first in a novel class of antiretroviral drugs known as integrase inhibitors. It has demonstrated potent anti HIV activity in both antiretroviral treatment-naïve and experienced patients. The most common adverse events reported with raltegravir during phase 2 and 3 clinical trials were diarrhea, nausea, and headache. Laboratory abnormalities include mild elevations in liver transaminases and creatine phosphokinase.Keywords: raltegravir, HIV, antiretroviral agents, integrase inhibitors

  3. Predicting protein structure classes from function predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, I.; Rahnenfuhrer, J.; de Lichtenberg, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to using the information contained in sequence-to-function prediction data in order to recognize protein template classes, a critical step in predicting protein structure. The data on which our method is based comprise probabilities of functional categories; for given...... query sequences these probabilities are obtained by a neural net that has previously been trained on a variety of functionally important features. On a training set of sequences we assess the relevance of individual functional categories for identifying a given structural family. Using a combination...... of the most relevant categories, the likelihood of a query sequence to belong to a specific family can be estimated. Results: The performance of the method is evaluated using cross-validation. For a fixed structural family and for every sequence, a score is calculated that measures the evidence for family...

  4. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, A.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a `real time` environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs.

  5. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  6. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Molgaard; Vach, Werner; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent class analysis (LCA) is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP......), the aim of this study was to explore and descriptively compare the application of LCA when using questionnaire summary scores and when using single items to subgrouping of patients based on multidimensional data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from 928 LBP patients in an observational study were....... The resulting subgroups were descriptively compared using statistical measures and clinical interpretability. RESULTS: For each health domain, the preferred model solution ranged from five to seven subgroups for the summary-score strategy and seven to eight subgroups for the single-item strategy...

  7. Class 1E digital systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Tai, A.T.; Tso, K.S. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is furnished as part of the effort to develop NRC Class 1E Digital Computer Systems Guidelines which is Task 8 of USAF Rome Laboratories Contract F30602-89-D-0100. The report addresses four major topics, namely, computer programming languages, software design and development, software testing and fault tolerance and fault avoidance. The topics are intended as stepping stones leading to a Draft Regulatory Guide document. As part of this task a small scale survey of software fault avoidance and fault tolerance practices was conducted among vendors of nuclear safety related systems and among agencies that develop software for other applications demanding very high reliability. The findings of the present report are in part based on the survey and in part on review of software literature relating to nuclear and other critical installations, as well as on the authors` experience in these areas.

  8. New class of bacterial membrane oxidoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanyushin, Mikhail F; del Rosario, Melissa C; Brune, Daniel C; Blankenship, Robert E

    2005-08-02

    A new class of bacterial multisubunit membrane-bound electron-transfer complexes has been identified based on biochemical and bioinformatic data. It contains subunits homologous to the three-subunit molybdopterin oxidoreductases and four additional subunits, two of which are c-type cytochromes. The complex was purified from the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, and putative operons for similar complexes were identified in a wide range of bacteria. In most cases, the presence of the new complex is anticorrelated with the cytochrome bc or bf electron-transfer complex, suggesting that it replaces it functionally. This appears to be a widespread yet previously unrecognized protein complex involved in energy metabolism in bacteria.

  9. Photoisomerization in different classes of azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, H M Dhammika; Burdette, Shawn C

    2012-03-07

    Azobenzene undergoes trans→cis isomerization when irradiated with light tuned to an appropriate wavelength. The reverse cis→trans isomerization can be driven by light or occurs thermally in the dark. Azobenzene's photochromatic properties make it an ideal component of numerous molecular devices and functional materials. Despite the abundance of application-driven research, azobenzene photochemistry and the isomerization mechanism remain topics of investigation. Additional substituents on the azobenzene ring system change the spectroscopic properties and isomerization mechanism. This critical review details the studies completed to date on the 3 main classes of azobenzene derivatives. Understanding the differences in photochemistry, which originate from substitution, is imperative in exploiting azobenzene in the desired applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  10. [Peptides: a new class of anticancer drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarczyk, Ryszard; Cichoń, Tomasz; Szala, Stanisław

    2009-07-22

    Peptides are a novel class of anticancer agents embracing two distinct categories: natural antibacterial peptides, which are preferentially bound by cancer cells, and chemically synthesized peptides, which bind specifically to precise molecular targets located on the surface of tumor cells. Antibacterial peptides bind to both cell and mitochondrial membranes. Some of these peptides attach to the cell membrane, resulting in its disorganization. Other antibacterial peptides penetrate cancer cells without causing cell membrane damage, but they disrupt mitochondrial membranes. Thanks to phage and aptamer libraries, it has become possible to obtain synthetic peptides blocking or activating some target proteins found in cancer cells as well as in cells forming the tumor environment. These synthetic peptides can feature anti-angiogenic properties, block enzymes indispensable for sustained tumor growth, and reduce tumor ability to metastasize. In this review the properties of peptides belonging to both categories are discussed and attempts of their application for therapeutic purposes are outlined.

  11. Peptides: A new class of anticancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Smolarczyk

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are a novel class of anticancer agents embracing two distinct categories: natural antibacterial peptides, which are preferentially bound by cancer cells, and chemically synthesized peptides, which bind specifically to precise molecular targets located on the surface of tumor cells. Antibacterial peptides bind to both cell and mitochondrial membranes. Some of these peptides attach to the cell membrane, resulting in its disorganization. Other antibacterial peptides penetrate cancer cells without causing cell membrane damage, but they disrupt mitochondrial membranes. Thanks to phage and aptamer libraries, it has become possible to obtain synthetic peptides blocking or activating some target proteins found in cancer cells as well as in cells forming the tumor environment. These synthetic peptides can feature anti-angiogenic properties, block enzymes indispensable for sustained tumor growth, and reduce tumor ability to metastasize. In this review the properties of peptides belonging to both categories are discussed and attempts of their application for therapeutic purposes are outlined.

  12. PROMOTING AUTONOMOUS LEARNING IN READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sholeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To have good acquisition and awareness in reading, the learners need a long and continuous process, and therefore, they are required to have autonomy in learning reading. This study aims to promote learner autonomy in reading class by combining learner-centered reading teaching and extensive reading teaching. Learner-centered reading teaching was carried out through group discussion, presentation, and language awareness activities. Meanwhile, extensive reading teaching was done to review the learners‘ materials in presentation and reinforce their acquisition. Those two different approaches were applied due to differences on learner's characteristics and needs. The result showed some success in the practice of autonomy, indicated by changes on learners' attitude. However, many learners showed that they focused more on obtaining score than on developing their language acquisition. By implementing the approach, the teacher can assist learners to be aware of their ability to learn independently and equip them with the skill needed for long-life learning.

  13. Differential geometry connections, curvature, and characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Loring W

    2017-01-01

    This text presents a graduate-level introduction to differential geometry for mathematics and physics students. The exposition follows the historical development of the concepts of connection and curvature with the goal of explaining the Chern–Weil theory of characteristic classes on a principal bundle. Along the way we encounter some of the high points in the history of differential geometry, for example, Gauss' Theorema Egregium and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem. Exercises throughout the book test the reader’s understanding of the material and sometimes illustrate extensions of the theory. Initially, the prerequisites for the reader include a passing familiarity with manifolds. After the first chapter, it becomes necessary to understand and manipulate differential forms. A knowledge of de Rham cohomology is required for the last third of the text. Prerequisite material is contained in author's text An Introduction to Manifolds, and can be learned in one semester. For the benefit of the reader and to establ...

  14. Soapbox: Class matters in parenting interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Class and income level influence parenting styles and values, yet are rarely discussed in treatment approaches and parenting interventions with families. In this soapbox article, I argue that discrepancies in outcome, retention, and participation could be fruitfully addressed through a fuller understanding of the needs, realities, and parenting goals of families struggling with financial disadvantage. I compare and contrast ethnographic studies of parenting in low socioeconomic environments with the types of strategies and interventions commonly advanced in parent training programs and suggest that clinicians must become more aware of the cultural and socioeconomic overtones of those interventions in determining whether, how, and when to use them with families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. New classes of modified teleparallel gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Böhmer, Christian G.; Krššák, Martin

    2017-12-01

    New classes of modified teleparallel theories of gravity are introduced. The action of this theory is constructed to be a function of the irreducible parts of torsion f (Tax ,Tten ,Tvec), where Tax ,Tten and Tvec are squares of the axial, tensor and vector components of torsion, respectively. This is the most general (well-motivated) second order teleparallel theory of gravity that can be constructed from the torsion tensor. Different particular second order theories can be recovered from this theory such as new general relativity, conformal teleparallel gravity or f (T) gravity. Additionally, the boundary term B which connects the Ricci scalar with the torsion scalar via R = - T + B can also be incorporated into the action. By performing a conformal transformation, it is shown that the two unique theories which have an Einstein frame are either the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity or f (- T + B) = f (R) gravity, as expected.

  16. Physical activity levels of adolescent girls during dance classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the physical activity levels of girls during dance classes and to identify factors associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in those classes. Participants were 137 girls (11 to 18 years-old) enrolled in ballet, jazz, or tap dance classes from 11 dance studios. Participants wore an accelerometer during the selected dance class on 2 separate days. Factors hypothesized to be associated with MVPA were dance style, instructional level, instructor's experience, percent of class time spent in choreography, and participants' age, race/ethnicity, BMI-for-age percentile, and years of dance training. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Girls engaged in 9.8 minutes of MVPA, 6.0 minutes of moderate, 3.8 minutes of vigorous, 39.3 minutes of light, and 10.9 minutes of sedentary behavior per hour of dance class participation. Jazz/tap classes provided more MVPA than ballet classes, and intermediate level classes provided more MVPA than advanced level classes. Girls with more dance training obtained more MVPA than girls with less dance training. Dance classes provide valuable opportunities for adolescent girls to be physically active.

  17. Different black box warning labeling for same-class drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Papanikolaou, Panagiotis N; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Ioannidis, John P A

    2011-06-01

    Black box warnings (BBWs) are the strongest medication-related safety warnings in a drug's labeling information and highlight major risks. Absence of a BBW or asynchronous addition of a BBW among same-class drugs could have major implications. We identified the 20 top-selling drugs in 2008 (10 with BBWs and 10 without BBWs on their label) that belonged to different drug classes. We collected labeling information on all drugs belonging in these 20 classes, and recorded differences in the presence and timing of acquisition of BBWs for same-class drugs. Across the 20 evaluated drug classes, we identified 176 different agents, of which 7 had been withdrawn for safety reasons. The reasons for the withdrawals became BBWs in other same-class agents only in two of the seven cases. Differences were identified in 9 of the 20 classes corresponding to 15 BBWs that were not present in all drugs of the same class. The information for 10 of the 15 different BBWs were included in the labels of same-class drugs as simple warnings or text, while it was absent entirely in 5 BBWs. The median interval from the time the BBW had appeared in another drug of the same class was 66 months. Differences in BBW labeling in same-class drugs are common and shape impressions about the safety of similar agents. BBW labeling needs to become more systematic.

  18. Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Elisabetta; Travaglione, Antonella; Chaurasia, Gautam; Futschik, Matthias; Capobianco, Enrico

    2010-07-23

    The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated) data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.

  19. Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia Gautam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. Results We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Conclusions Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.

  20. Measuring rural women's work and class position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, C D; León de Leal, M

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of experience gained in researching the economic roles of rural women in a national level study in Colombia and in a regional level study in Peru, some of the methodological problems of measuring rural women's economic participation by sample survey are considered. The specific objective of the sample surveys was to quantify the existing sexual division of labor among the peasant population. The rural household was the unit of analysis, and the focus of measurement was the division of labor by sex in such activities as daily maintenance, household production, and income-generating activitives pursued outside the household. The focus of the survey questionnaire is on the sexual division of labor, but it necessarily must be related to another series of socioeconomic or cultural variables for analysis. The selection of these variables needs to be derived from the hypotheses guiding the study, yet much attention must be given to narrowing the range of inquiry. The time constraint on the length of the questionnaire requires that certain choices be made in terms of the complementary variables to be included. The most important problem in the design of a representative sample survey is the selection of the population to be sampled. The choice of population needs to be compatible with the theoretical framework. Since the interest was to measure the sexual division of labor in terms of class formation, the sample had to be representative of the different class strata in the rural areas. The measurement of access to means of production ideally should be quantitative and qualitative. The choice of the population to be sampled is also constrained by the available data base, a particular problem in rural areas.

  1. Social praxis, party, and class relations today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s political sociologists are once again interested in the study of the crisis of mass-based parties, anti-politics and anti-parliamentarism, crisis in the authority of the political class, prevailing corporate interests within republican institutions, and populism. Political sociology however, takes the party, as a construct of political sociology alone, without consideration upon its militancy and action, as the party, which objectifies the foundation of a State, and as a result the party becomes, simply an historical category. We approach the problem of the modern state from many angles; analysing the nature of a political party as such; the ideological dangers of determinism and spontaneism which a party necessarily must struggle with; the type of non-administrative internal regime which is necessary for a party to be effective and so on. The problem we seek to elaborate is the specific character of the collective action that makes possible the passage from a sectored, corporate and subordinate role of purely negative opposition, to a leading role of conscious action towards not merely a partial adjustment within the system, but posing the issue of the State in its entirety. In developing this theme – as a study of the real relations between the political party, the classes and the State – a two-fold consideration is devoted to the study of Machiavelli and Marx: first from the angle of the real relations between the two, as thinkers of revolutionary politics, of action; and secondly from a perspective which would derive from the Marxist doctrines an articulated system of contemporary politics, as found in The Prince.

  2. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. STIMULATING STUDENT INTEREST IN DESIGN HISTORY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasoulla Hadjiyanni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With history being an established course in design education and sparking creativity being one of design education’s primary objectives, questions arise as to: What forms of history teaching capture student interest? How can the lessons of history resonate with youth in ways that tie the past to the present? How can assignments spark excitement in students and engender a passion for the subject? And, where can faculty draw inspiration from in re-envisioning the role that history can play in their program and profession? Two interior design educators from the University of Minnesota share techniques, assignments, and pedagogies that respond to the above questions and help set a trajectory for both creatively teaching design history and sparking students’ interest and creative potential. Going beyond traditional methodologies and discourses around the teaching of history, these educators take a unique perspective and strive for a diverse set of objectives. Employing techniques such as digital games and free-hand sketching, they challenge students to engage with the material first hand. By tying a design project into a history course, they present students with the opportunity to conceive of ways to bridge the past, present, and future. Infusing history classes with creative and critical thinking that encompasses and responds to pressing social concerns reinforces the meaning of history classes and makes history relevant to students’ lives. Through this sharing, the authors aim to spark a dialogue across the disciplines around the teaching of history and makes history relevant to students’ lives. Through this sharing, the authors aim to spark a dialogue across the disciplines around the teaching of history and the renewed role it can play in design education.

  4. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  5. Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Maria Deon Rizzatto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at reporting the clinical case of a patient with Class III skeletal malocclusion with severe maxillary deficiency, producing a reduced midface associated with severe mandibular prognathism. The pre-surgical orthodontic preparation was composed mainly by dentoalveolar expansion and repositioning of the incisors in the lower arch. Then, a combined maxillary and mandibular orthognathic surgery was performed. The treatment objectives were achieved, with significant improvement in facial esthetics and occlusion, followed by post-treatment stability. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of Diplomate by BBO.O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso clínico de um paciente portador de má oclusão de Classe III esquelética com acentuada deficiência maxilar, causando redução do terço médio da face, associada a severo prognatismo mandibular. O preparo ortodôntico pré-cirúrgico foi composto, principalmente, pela expansão dentoalveolar da maxila e o reposicionamento dos incisivos na arcada inferior. Depois, foi realizada a cirurgia ortognática combinada maxilomandibular. Os objetivos do tratamento foram atingidos, com significativa melhora da oclusão e da estética facial, seguida de estabilidade pós-tratamento. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.

  6. Class Association Rule Pada Metode Associative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Karyawati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining.  Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms.  This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs.  There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method.  A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset.  It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules.  This technique may reduce the size of generated rules.  Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value.  This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset.  This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset.   However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.

  7. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...... lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1...

  8. Post-Retention Changes in Class II Correction With the Forsus (trademark) Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Class I malocclusion , Class II malocclusion , and Class III malocclusion . In a Class II malocclusion , the lower molar is distally positioned relative... Class II malocclusion in children 8-10 years of age. Angle Orthod. 1981;51:177-202. 4) Jones G, Buschang PH, Kim KB, Oliver DR. Class II non...1 A. Class II Malocclusion

  9. The Model Construction of English Ecological Class in the High School in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The Ecological class is a kind of class in which the system of class teaching is in a state of dynamic balance and it can enhance the efficiency of class teaching. The article analyzes the feature of English ecological class, illustrates the non-ecological class teaching problems and explores the ways to establish English ecological class from the…

  10. Comparing a Yoga Class with a Resistance Exercise Class: Effects on Body Satisfaction and Social Physique Anxiety in University Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Kimberley L; Drouin, Breanne; Lamarche, Larkin

    2016-11-01

    The current study compared a single yoga group exercise class and a resistance group exercise class for their effects on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women. A pretest-posttest design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance exercise class and yoga class in a counterbalanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class. A 2 (time) × 2 (class type) repeatedmeasures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall Time × Class Type interaction (F2,44 = 5.69, P physique anxiety, but the magnitude of the change was larger after the yoga class than after the resistance class. Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, but there were greater improvements after the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting that yoga is particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.

  11. Latent trajectory classes of depressive and anxiety disorders from adolescence to adulthood: descriptions of classes and associations with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Klein, Daniel N; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R

    2010-01-01

    This study used person-oriented analyses to identify subgroups of individuals who exhibit different patterns of depressive and anxiety disorders over the course of adolescence and young adulthood. Using latent class growth analysis, six trajectory classes were identified. Two classes were mainly characterized by depressive disorders; one class was mainly characterized by anxiety disorders; two classes were characterized by temporally different patterns of comorbidity; and one class was characterized by the absence of psychopathology. Classes characterized largely by depressive disorders differed in persistence and degree of comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Classes that were characterized by anxiety disorders differed in persistence, age of onset, and constellation of specific anxiety disorders. Female participants were more likely to belong to classes characterized by fluctuations in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders; sex differences were not observed in classes characterized by persistent depressive and anxiety disorders. Offspring of parents with depression were more likely to have a depressive course, whereas offspring of parents with anxiety disorders tended to have a course characterized by anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that several subgroups of adolescents exist with distinct longitudinal trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders, and these trajectory classes are associated with different risk factors. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Survey of wastewater indicators and human pathogen genomes in biosolids produced by class a and class B stabilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the infectious aerosol risk associated with the land application of biosolids requires an in-depth knowledge of the magnitudes and changes in pathogen concentrations for a variety of class A and class B stabilization methods. The following survey used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture assays to detect environmentally resistant bacterial and viral pathogens and biosolid indicator organisms for 36 biosolid grab samples. Biosolids were collected from 14 U.S. states and included 16 class B mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) samples and 20 class A biosolid samples from temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), MAD plus composting (COM), and MAD plus heat pelletization processes. The indicator concentrations of fecal coliforms and male-specific coliphages as well as pathogen genome concentrations for human adenovirus species, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile were significantly lower in the class A samples, and a multivariate analysis of variance ranked the stabilization processes from the lowest pathogen/indicator load to the highest as (i) class A COM, (ii) class A TPAD, and (iii) class B MAD. Human adenovirus genomes were found in 88% of the class B samples and 70 to 100% of the class A samples. L. pneumophila, S. aureus, and C. difficile genomes were detected at the qPCR assay detection limits in 19 to 50% of the class B and class A anaerobic digestion samples, while L. pneumophila was detected in 50% of the class A compost samples. When considering all the stabilization methods, both the fecal coliform and the male-specific coliphage concentrations show a significant linear correlation with the pathogen genome concentrations. This survey provides the necessary pathogen concentrations to add to biosolid aerosol risk and pathogen exposure analyses and clarifies the effectiveness of class A stabilization methods with the pathogen and indicator loads in biosolids.

  13. Can I Trust My One-Class Classification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mack

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to binary and multi-class classifiers, the purpose of a one-class classifier for remote sensing applications is to map only one specific land use/land cover class of interest. Training these classifiers exclusively requires reference data for the class of interest, while training data for other classes is not required. Thus, the acquisition of reference data can be significantly reduced. However, one-class classification is fraught with uncertainty and full automatization is difficult, due to the limited reference information that is available for classifier training. Thus, a user-oriented one-class classification strategy is proposed, which is based among others on the visualization and interpretation of the one-class classifier outcomes during the data processing. Careful interpretation of the diagnostic plots fosters the understanding of the classification outcome, e.g., the class separability and suitability of a particular threshold. In the absence of complete and representative validation data, which is the fact in the context of a real one-class classification application, such information is valuable for evaluation and improving the classification. The potential of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by classifying different crop types with hyperspectral data from Hyperion.

  14. Typicality effects in contingency-shaped generalized equivalence classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizio, Mark; Stewart, Katherine L; Pilgrim, Carol

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted using match-to-sample methodologies in an effort to model lexical classes, which include both arbitrary and perceptual relations between class members. Training in both experiments used a one-to-many mapping procedure with nonsense syllables as samples and eight sets of abstract stimuli as comparisons. These abstract stimuli differed along a number of dimensions, four of which were critical to the experimenter-defined class membership. Stimuli in some comparison sets included only one of the class-defining features, but stimuli in other sets included two, three, or all four of the critical features. After mastery of the baseline training, three types of probe tests were conducted: symmetry, transitivity/equivalence, and novel probe tests in which the training nonsense syllables served as samples, and comparisons were novel abstract stimuli that included one or more of the class-defining features. Symmetry and transitivity/equivalence probe tests showed that the stimuli used in training became members of equivalence classes. The novel stimuli also became class members on the basis of inclusion of any of the critical features. Thus these probe tests revealed the formation of open-ended generalized equivalence classes. In addition, typicality effects were observed such that comparison sets with more critical features were learned with fewer errors, responded to more rapidly, and judged to be better exemplars of the class. Contingency-shaped stimulus classes established through a match-to-sample procedure thus show several important behavioral similarities to natural lexical categories.

  15. Creative class as the leading group of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Sakalo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the modern approaches to the social structure of the society is considered. The creative class is determined as the main driving force and as a leading social class of modern society. The author studies the history of the concept of creative class, and R. Florida’s concept in particular, and determines its characteristics and peculiarities. The influence of the creative class on the society, on its transformation processes, and the system of social values is analyzed. The role of creative class in developing creative and innovative economy of the post­industrial society era is found out. The author considers the relationship between the creative class and the other social classes of modern society. The essence of the concept of creativity is defined, and one of the most important problems of the modern era that is a constant conflict between creativity and organization is examined. The comparative historical analysis of the so­called «institutional»/ «industrial» and «creative»/ «post­industrial» era is made. The role of the creative class in developing and social changing the modern American society is studied. The questions of forming and developing creative class in modern Ukrainian society are analyzed, and the peculiarities and problems of this process are figured out. The need of state support for forming national creative class, for its strengthening and growth is emphasized.

  16. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  17. HLA class I and class II HLA DRB profiles in Egyptian children with rheumatic valvular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hagrassy, Nashwa; El-Chennawi, Farha; Zaki, Maysaa El-Sayed; Fawzy, Hossam; Zaki, Adel; Joseph, Nabeil

    2010-07-01

    Poststreptococcal sequelae, especially acute rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease continues to occur in significant proportions in many parts of the world, especially in less developed countries. An important factor in the study of rheumatic heart disease is the human genetic susceptibility to the disease. The aim of the present study was to detect the most prevalent HLA class I and class II types associated with risk of rheumatic heart disease in Egyptian children. Our study was performed on 100 patients with rheumatic valvular heart diseases and 71 control subjects. Patients were recruited from the Heart Institute, Embaba, Egypt. HLA typing for HLA class I was performed by serotyping and HLDR allele genotyping was performed using INNO-LiPA kits. In the study of HLA class I, there was a statistically significant increase in the B5 allele (P = 0.03; odds ratio, 3.46 [1.12-10.72]) in patients compared to controls, while B49 and B52 alleles (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02) were found in controls only. There was a statistically significant increase in HLA DR* 04-02, 3.46 (1.12-10.72) and HLA DR *10-0101 5.75 (1.27-25.98) in patients. Meanwhile HLA DR*1309120 was found only in controls (P = 0.02). Our study provides further information on the genetic predisposition for rheumatic valvular disease and the protective genotypes in rheumatic heart disease. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms of the disease will be a useful tool for predicting clinical outcome in those patients and, thus, potentially offer new means and approaches to treatment and prophylaxis, including a potential vaccine.

  18. Comparison of Small-Class Versus Large-Class Tutorial Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Ridawati, Indah Dewi; Prihatiningsih, Titi Savitri; Widyandana, Widyandana

    2017-01-01

    Background: Not all small tutorial discussion groups discuss national integrated antenatal care. Tutorial discussion in a large class provide discussion together among small discussion groups of the seventh jump.Method: This study was an explanatory design, mixed-methods study. The research sample amounted to 60 students of 2.6 block in the Gadjah Mada University Bachelor Nursing Program and semi-structured interviews conducted on 10 respondents were included in the quantitative study. The da...

  19. Early Intervention in Skeletal Class II and dental Class II division I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Class II malocclusion may occur as a result of mandibular deficiency, maxillary excess, or a combination of both. However, the most common finding is mandibular skeletal retrusion. The use of functional jaw orthopedics, at the right time during growth, can ultimately result in malocclusion patients achieving an excellent functional occlusion, a broad beautiful smile, a full face with a beautiful jaw line, and profile. Functional jaw orthopedic (FJO appliances are designed to encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position. The activator developed by Andresen is one of the most widely used for this purpose. A 12-year-old boy with skeletal Class II malocclusion and dental Class II div I malocclusion, a low mandibular plane angle was treated with growth modulation using an activator followed by molar distalization using fixed orthodontics for detailing of the occlusion. The major effects of the activator treatment in this case have been due to increase in condylar growth and also an increase in mandibular base length. Further, non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for proper interdigitation of the dentition also helped to maintain the stability of the satisfactory results achieved.

  20. Association between Cryptosporidium infection and human leukocyte antigen class I and class II alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Haque, Rashidul; Duggal, Priya; Mondal, Dinesh; Larsson, Cathy; Peterson, Kristine; Akter, Jasmin; Lockhart, Lauren; Khan, Salwa; Petri, William A

    2008-02-01

    Cryptosporidium species are a common cause of diarrhea, which can be severe and protracted in young children and immunocompromised individuals. A cohort of 226 Bangladeshi children aged 2-5 years was prospectively followed for >3 years to study the role of host genetics in susceptibility to infection, as well as the community impact of cryptosporidiosis on this population. Ninety-six children (42.5%) received a diagnosis of Cryptosporidium infection. A total of 51 (22.6%) had asymptomatic infection. Fifty-eight (25.7%) had cryptosporidiosis, of whom 17 (29.3%) had recurrent disease. Children with cryptosporidiosis presented early, and most had abdominal pain and a short course of diarrhea. Infected children were more likely to carry the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQB1*0301 allele, particularly those with both asymptomatic and symptomatic infection (P = .009); a strong association was found between carriage of the DQB1*0301/DRB1*1101 haplotype and development of both asymptomatic and symptomatic infection (P = .009). Infected children were also more likely to carry the B*15 HLA class I allele. This is the first study to describe a possible genetic component of the immune response to Cryptosporidium infection, which includes HLA class I and II alleles. Cryptosporidiosis in Bangladeshi children aged 2-5 year is common and often recurrent, but the duration is shorter and the abdominal pain greater than that described in children aged <2 years.