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Sample records for subordinate social status

  1. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Susceptibility or resilience? Prenatal stress predisposes male rats to social subordination, but facilitates adaptation to subordinate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen A; de Kloet, Annette D; Smeltzer, Michael D; Krause, Eric G; Flak, Jonathan N; Melhorn, Susan J; Foster, Michelle T; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB) adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy. Dams were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during the last week of gestation, resulting in a robust and non-habituating glucocorticoid response that did not alter maternal food intake, body weight or litter size and weight. As adults, one prenatal CVS (PCVS) and one non-stressed (NS) male were housed in the VBS with adult females. Although there were no overt differences between PCVS and NS male offspring prior to VBS housing, a greater percentage of PCVS males became SUB. However, the depressive-like phenotype of SUB males was not exacerbated in PCVS males; rather, they appeared to better cope with SUB status than NS SUB males. They had lower basal plasma corticosterone than NS SUB males at the end of VBS housing. In situ hybridization for CRH in the PVN and CeA did not reveal any prenatal treatment or status effects, while NPY expression was higher within the MeA of dominant and subordinate males exposed to the VBS in comparison with controls, but with no effect of prenatal treatment. These data suggest that prenatal chronic variable stress may confer resilience to offspring when exposed to social stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Smeltzer, Michael D.; Scott, Karen A.; Scheurink, Anton J.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.; Sakai, Randall R.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their “stress coping style”, may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status an...

  4. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  5. Social subordination impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2012-09-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies organize and maintain stability in female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups regardless of group size. As a consequence of their low social status, subordinate females suffer from an array of adverse outcomes including reproductive compromise, impaired immune function, and poor cardiovascular health. However, data that differentiate limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA) parameters between dominant from subordinate female monkeys are inconsistent, bringing into question whether social subordination alters the LHPA axis in female macaques. One difficulty in examining LHPA function in macaques may be the confounding effects of cycling ovarian steroids that are known to modulate LHPA activity. The current study used ovariectomized dominant and subordinate female rhesus monkeys to examine the effect that social subordination has on LHPA function by measuring morning and diurnal serum cortisol levels, dexamethasone (Dex) suppression of cortisol, metabolic clearance of Dex, and ACTH stimulation of adrenal cortisol release and cortisol response following exposure to acute social isolation. Compared to dominant females, subordinate females showed diminished morning peak cortisol secretion, weakened glucocorticoid negative feedback, and decreased adrenal cortisol response to an ACTH challenge as well as a restrained cortisol response following social isolation. However, the metabolism of Dex did not account for differences in Dex suppression between dominant and subordinate females. These results indicate that the ability to mount and limit glucocorticoid release is significantly reduced by psychosocial stress in female rhesus macaques, suggesting a hyporesponsive LHPA phenotype which resembles that observed in several human psychopathologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Stuart K; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals ("rank-bias") has been proposed...... as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no "competing....... Finally, we report an innovation by a subordinate individual that built cumulatively on existing methods of opening the puzzle-box and was subsequently copied by a dominant observer. These findings illustrate that chimpanzees are motivated to copy rewarding novel behaviors that are demonstrated...

  7. Sociality and oxytocin and vasopressin in the brain of male and female dominant and subordinate mandarin voles.

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    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Wu, Ruiyong; Tai, Fadao; Hao, Ping; Cao, Yan; Wang, Jianli

    2014-02-01

    The dominant-subordinate hierarchy in animals often needs to be established via agonistic encounters and consequently affects reproduction and survival. Differences in brain neuropeptides and sociality among dominant and subordinate males and females remain poorly understood. Here we explore neuropeptide levels and sociality during agonistic encounter tests in mandarin voles. We found that dominant mandarin voles engaged in higher levels of approaching, investigating, self-grooming and exploring behavior than subordinates. Dominant males habituated better to a stimulus vole than dominant females. Dominant males displayed significantly less oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei, supraoptic nuclei, and the lateral and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Dominant females displayed significantly more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Sex differences were found in the level of oxytocin and vasopressin. These results indicate that distinct parameters related to central nervous oxytocin and vasopressin are associated with behaviors during agonistic encounters in a sex-specific manner in mandarin voles.

  8. Chronic social subordination stress modulates glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, Ryan; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Seroogy, Kim B.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic social subordination is a well-known precipitant of numerous psychiatric and physiological health concerns. In this study, we examine the effects of chronic social stress in the visible burrow system (VBS) on the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) mRNA in forebrain stress circuitry. Male rats in the VBS system form a dominance hierarchy, whereby subordinate males exhibit neuroendocrine and physiological profiles characteristic of chronic exposure to stress. We found that social subordination decreases GAD67 mRNA in the peri-paraventricular nucleus region of the hypothalamus and the interfascicular nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and increases in GAD67 mRNA in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsal medial hypothalamus. Expression of BDNF mRNA increased in the dorsal region of the BNST, but remained unchanged in all other regions examined. Results from this study indicate that social subordination is associated with several region-specific alterations in GAD67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits, whereas changes in the expression of BDNF mRNA are limited to the BNST. PMID:26066725

  9. The influence of status and the social environment on energy stores in a social fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, J K; Ligocki, I Y; O'Connor, C M; Reddon, A R; Farmer, T M; Marsh-Rollo, S E; Balshine, S; Hamilton, I M

    2016-04-01

    This study explores how muscle and liver energy stores are linked with social status and the social environment in Neolamprologus pulcher, a cooperatively breeding fish that lives in colonies comprised of up to 200 distinct social groups. Subordinate muscle energy stores were positively correlated with the number of neighbouring social groups in the colony, but this pattern was not observed in dominant N. pulcher. Furthermore, liver energy stores were smaller in dominants living at the edge of the colony compared with those living in the colony centre, with no differences among subordinates in liver energy stores. Subordinate N. pulcher may build up large energy stores in the muscles to fuel rapid growth after dispersal, which could occur more frequently in high-density environments. Dominant N. pulcher may use the more easily mobilized energy stores in the liver to fuel daily activities, which could be more energetically demanding on the edge of the colony as a result of the increased predation defence needed on the edge. Overall, this study demonstrates that both subordinate and dominant physiology in N. pulcher varies with characteristics of the social environment. Furthermore, dominant and subordinate energy storage strategies appear to differ due to status-dependent variation in daily activities and variation in the need to prepare for future reproductive or dispersal opportunities. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  11. The influence of social status on hepatic glucose metabolism in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Kathleen M; Kirkpatrick, Sheryn; Massarsky, Andrey; Pearce, Brenda; Saliba, Sarah; Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Moon, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    indicate that social status shapes liver metabolism and in particular glycogen metabolism, favoring accumulation of glycogen reserves from incoming energy in dominant fish and reliance on onboard fuels in subordinate fish.

  12. The subordinate's predicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, E H; Gypen, J

    1979-01-01

    How can subordinates improve relations with their superiors? And how can superiors help their subordinates feel comfortable in what is often a tense relationship? These questions have usually been dealt with only indirectly in management circles. Yet the relationship is so threatening to many subordinates that they react in ways that are damaging to themselves and their ogranizations. Drawing heavily on the work of psychologist Erik Erikson, the authors present dilemmas that commonly confront the subordinate. They point out that being aware of these dilemmas can make them more manageable and then offer advice to superiors to aid subordinates in handling such situations.

  13. Subordination stress: behavioral, brain, and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D C; Sakai, R R; McEwen, B; Weiss, S M; Blanchard, R J

    1993-12-20

    In mixed-sex rat groups consistent asymmetries in offensive and defensive behaviors of male dyads are associated with the development of dominance hierarchies. Subordinate males can be differentiated from dominants on the basis of both agonistic and non-agonistic behaviors, wound patterns, weight changes. Their behavior changes suggest chronic defensiveness and are also broadly isomorphic to many of the symptoms of depression; their voluntary alcohol consumption increases, and their life-spans are shortened. Both subordinate and dominant males tend to show organ change compared to non-grouped controls, with adrenal and spleen enlargement and thymus reduction. However, these changes appear to be more marked in subordinates, and only subordinates show reduced testes weights. Basal corticosterone (CORT) levels were sharply higher, and plasma testosterone (T) sharply lower, in subordinates compared to both dominants and controls, and reduced corticosterone binding globulin further enhanced free CORT for subordinates particularly. Many subordinates failed to show a normal CORT response to restraint stress. Subordinates also appear to show widespread changes in serotonin systems, with increased 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios in a number of brain areas, and alterations of 5-HT1A receptor binding at some sites. These changes suggest that subordination, a common and consistent feature of life for many animals living in social groups, may be a particularly relevant model for investigating the behavioral, neural and endocrine correlates of chronic stress.

  14. Psychological characteristics of the rules of subordination within the cultural and historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budyakova T.P.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the psychology of submission. Given psychological characteristic standards of submission historically embodied in the moral codes and legal sources. The subject of analysis are historical regulations XII—XX centuries, the customs, in which the fixed rate of submission, as well as the memoir literature. There are four basic psychological lines of development in the history of the rules of subordination, in particular: a special regulation of the rules of subordination and increasing social importance of the role of subordinate. It is proved that psychological acceptance of a subordinate role and the satisfaction of its implementation includes the requirement of special rules regulating authority and emphasis on the social importance of the role of subordinate. It was established that one of the reasons that the job satisfaction of employees of state structures higher than employees of private companies, a large schema definition of relations with management. Hierarchical role is considered in terms of two components: the role of attributes and rules, rules of conduct. The article focuses on the fact that the individual external signs, locking status subordination, increase the level of self-esteem of subordinate.

  15. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS.

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    Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled.

  16. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; STRAKA, PETER

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled. PMID:25045216

  17. Organizational environment factors associated with corporate social responsibility: effects on communication and guanxi relationship between supervisors and subordinates in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward WONG SEK KHIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication within an organization as part of CSR benchmarking factor that helps align employee expectations facilitates problem solving, builds cooperative relationships and channels employee efforts to achieve common goals. This paper seeks to determine how CSR benchmarking factors of the organizational environment (such as management style, organizational structure and workplace culture affect the effectiveness of intra-organizational communication and to examine the moderating effect of supervisor – subordinate guanxi. Data for the study was collected using self-administered questionnaires from working respondents in Kuala Lumpur in Selangor State, Malaysia. This study found that a more participative management style, less formalized organizational structure of SMEs and a healthier workplace culture are positively related to intra-organizational communication effectiveness. It was also discovered that the supervisor – subordinate relationship known as guanxi, has a positive moderating effect on all three relationships between management style, organizational structure and workplace culture with intra-organizational communication effectiveness. This study concludes that an organization’s management attitude towards employee participation, formalization of structure and healthiness of culture play important roles in encouraging effective communication and close supervisor – subordinate guanxi and further promotes communication, in addition to the mentioned environmental conditions.

  18. The moderating role of subordinate political skill on supervisors' impressions of subordinate ingratiation and ratings of subordinate interpersonal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Darren C; Ferris, Gerald R; Duke, Allison B; Adams, Garry L; Thatcher, Jason B

    2007-05-01

    Nearly 2 decades ago, social influence theorists called for a new stream of research that would investigate why and how influence tactics are effective. The present study proposed that political skill affects the style of execution of influence attempts. It utilized balance theory to explain the moderating effect of employee political skill on the relationships between self- and supervisor-reported ingratiation. Additionally, supervisor reports of subordinate ingratiation were hypothesized to be negatively related to supervisor ratings of subordinate interpersonal facilitation. Results from a combined sample of 2 retail service organizations provided evidence that subordinates with high political skill were less likely than those low in political skill to have their demonstrated ingratiation behavior perceived by targets as a manipulative influence attempt. Also, when subordinates were perceived by their supervisors to engage in more ingratiation behavior, the subordinates were rated lower on interpersonal facilitation. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future research directions are provided. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Peering is not a formal indicator of subordination in bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.M.G.; Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, L. van

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that peering behavior in bonobos is a formal signal acknowledging social dominance status. We investigated whether peering meets the published criteria for a formal signal of subordination in five captive groups of bonobos. The degree of linearity in the set of peering

  20. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female's motivation to interact with conspecifics. 2010 Elsevier

  1. Ownership as a social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W; Anderson, Craig D

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an individual, even a child. Children experience changes in ownership in a way they do not experience changes in other social facts (such as word meanings or social norms). Ownership is also an individual rather than a general property; two objects can be identical, but differ in ownership. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Targeted Advertising and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper shows how a firm can use non-targeted advertising to exploit consumers' desire for social status. A monopolist sells multiple varieties of a good to consumers who each care about what others believe about his wealth. Advertising allows consumers both to buy different varieties

  3. Social dominance in prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in continuous competitive dyads: Effects on body growth, metabolic status, and reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C; Carriquiry, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the body weight (BW) and size, metabolic status, and reproductive development of dominant and subordinate prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in competitive dyads. Sixteen Holstein and Jersey × Holstein prepubertal heifers (means ± SEM; 250.8 ± 9.8 d; 208.5 ± 13.9 kg of BW) were assigned to 8 homogeneous dyads according to breed, age, and BW. Dyads were housed in pens separated 1 m from each other during 120 d, receiving a total mixed ration on a 5% restriction of their potential dry matter intake, and had access to the same feeder (60 cm) throughout the experiment. Dominant and subordinate heifers were defined based on the winning agonistic interactions in each dyad. Body development was recorded every 20 d in all heifers, and blood samples were collected on the same days to determine endocrine and metabolic status. The maximum follicle diameter, number of follicles >6 mm, and the presence of corpus luteum were observed weekly by ultrasound. Heifer BW (269.3 vs. 265.3 ± 1.5 kg) and average daily gains (0.858 vs. 0.770 ± 0.02 kg/d) were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers. On d 30, 37, and 53, dominant heifers had more follicles than subordinate heifers, and maximum follicle diameter was greater in dominant than in subordinate heifers (10.0 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3 mm). Dominant heifers achieved puberty earlier than subordinate heifers (313.9 ± 4.9 vs. 329.6 ± 5.7 d) with similar BW (279.4 ± 2.6 vs. 277.4 ± 5.8 kg). Glucose concentrations were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers (89.2 vs. 86.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL), but cholesterol concentrations were greater in subordinate than dominant heifers (86.1 vs. 90.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL). We concluded that, under continuous competitive situations, dominant heifers were more precocious than subordinate ones, achieving an earlier puberty. Dominant heifers had greater body growth and glucose concentrations than subordinate heifers, which may be responsible, at least in part, for

  4. Dominant black-capped chickadees pay no maintenance energy costs for their wintering status and are not better at enduring cold than subordinate individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2012-04-01

    Winter requires physiological adjustments in northern resident passerines. Cold acclimatization is generally associated with an increase in physiological maintenance costs, measured as basal metabolic rate (BMR), and cold endurance, reflected by summit metabolic rate (M(sum)). However, several northern species also form social groups in winter and a bird's hierarchical position may influence the size of its metabolically active organs as well as its BMR. Winter metabolic performance in these species may therefore reflect a complex set of adjustments to both seasonal climatic variations and social environment. We studied the effect of social status on parameters of cold acclimatization (body mass, size of fat reserves and pectoral muscles, BMR and M(sum)) in free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Birds that were structurally large and heavy for their body size, mostly dominant individuals, carried more fat reserves and had larger pectoral muscles. However, social status had little effect on metabolic performance in the cold. Indeed, M(sum) was independent of social rank while mass-corrected BMR was slightly lower in dominant individuals, likely due to a statistical dilution effect caused by large metabolically inactive fat reserves. BMR and M(sum), whether considered in terms of whole-animal values, corrected for body mass or body size were nevertheless correlated, suggesting a functional link between these metabolic components. Our results therefore indicate that the energy cost of social dominance is not a generalized phenomenon in small wintering birds.

  5. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  6. Child health and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuonu, L; Starfield

    1982-05-01

    Available evidence regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status and health in childhood has been summarized. Only studies that used income, education, or occupation as measures of socioeconomic status and provided data obtained subsequent to legislation facilitating access to care have been cited. Data are presented on the prevalence and severity of illness (mortality, acute conditions as a group, chronic conditions as a group, and hospitalization), sequelae of prematurity, and specific common health problems and their sequelae. These specific health problems are lead poisoning, vision problems, otitis media and hearing loss, cytomegalic inclusion disease, asthma, psychosocial and psychosomatic problems, and iron deficiency anemia. All of the above (with the possible exception of asthma) are more prevalent among poor children than among nonpoor children. Even more striking is the evidence for consistently greater severity of problems or likelihood of sequelae among poor children. Although causality cannot be inferred from these data, the findings suggest a need for more basic research on the social correlates of disease, on the effect of social progress on disease prevalence and severity, and on the effect of medical care in overcoming the disadvantage associated with low socioeconomic status.

  7. Social Status Identity: Antecedents and Vocational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Subich, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the literature on potential antecedents and outcomes of perceived social status, or differential status identity (DSI). Fouad and Brown's DSI was used as a conceptual lens for examining the relation of supports and barriers to an individual's perceived social status and subsequent career indecisiveness and career decision…

  8. Subordination by convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosihan M. Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a fixed analytic function g(z=z+∑n=2∞gnzn defined on the open unit disk and γ<1, let Tg(γ denote the class of all analytic functions f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn satisfying ∑n=2∞|angn|≤1−γ. For functions in Tg(γ, a subordination result is derived involving the convolution with a normalized convex function. Our result includes as special cases several earlier works.

  9. Interpersonal sensitivity, status, and stereotype accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, David A; Snook, Amanda; Boucher, Eliane M; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2010-12-01

    A classic question in social and organizational psychology is whether low-status persons are more accurate in the perception of their high-status partners than the latter are in their perception of their subordinates. In a series of studies, Snodgrass (1985, 1992) tested this idea. She found that subordinates were more accurate at judging how their bosses viewed them than bosses were at judging how their subordinates viewed them, but that bosses were more accurate at judging how subordinates viewed themselves than subordinates were at judging how bosses viewed themselves. We believe, however, that these results were obscured by stereotype accuracy. Using previously collected data, we found that stereotype accuracy does lead to the pattern previously observed by Snodgrass. We also discovered that when we controlled for stereotype accuracy, subordinates' perceptions were generally more accurate than those of their bosses, which supports Snodgrass's original hypothesis.

  10. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  11. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruintjes, Rick; Bonfils, Danielle; Heg, Dik; Taborsky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship. We show that: (i) male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii) if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male) were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour. This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  12. Hierarchical Status Predicts Behavioral Vulnerability and Nucleus Accumbens Metabolic Profile Following Chronic Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Thomas; Cherix, Antoine; Duque, Aranzazu; Rodrigues, João; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-07-24

    Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress. Here, we investigated whether behavioral factors, emerging from preexisting dominance hierarchies, could predict vulnerability to chronic stress [9, 13-16]. We applied a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the predictive power of hierarchical status to pinpoint which individuals will exhibit susceptibility to CSDS. Given that the high social status of dominant mice would be the one particularly challenged by CSDS, we predicted and found that dominant individuals were the ones showing a strong susceptibility profile as indicated by strong social avoidance following CSDS, while subordinate mice were not affected. Data from (1)H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the metabolic profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) relates to social status and vulnerability to stress. Under basal conditions, subordinates show lower levels of energy-related metabolites compared to dominants. In subordinates, but not dominants, levels of these metabolites were increased after exposure to CSDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies non-invasively the origin of behavioral risk factors predictive of stress-induced depression-like behaviors associated with metabolic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subjective social status moderates cortisol responses to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, Tara L; Kemeny, Margaret E; Aziz, Najib

    2006-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between social status, physiology and health in humans and animals. However, perceptions of social status within a specific social group have rarely been studied in this area and may provide additional relevant information. The current investigation examines subjective perceptions of social status as a moderator of cognitive, emotional and cortisol responses to stressor tasks characterized by social-evaluative threat or its absence. As part of a larger study, 81 college students living in a residential dormitory completed a measure of their subjective perceptions of their social status within their dormitory floor. They were randomly assigned to undergo a standard performance stressor task either with or without social evaluation. It was hypothesized that individuals who perceived that they were of low status within their dorm group would show greater increases in negative self-evaluative emotions (i.e., shame) and cognitions (low social self-esteem) and greater cortisol responses to the stressor under conditions of social-evaluative threat. Subjective social status moderated cortisol responses to the social-evaluative stressor, but in a direction opposite that hypothesized. Individuals who perceived themselves to be of high status showed sizable and significant cortisol increases (both peak and recovery), while those who perceived themselves to be of low status did not mount a significant cortisol response to the stressor. Both groups showed increased negative self-evaluative responses to the tasks. A discussion of the possible health implications of the robust cortisol responses of high status individuals and the hyporesponsive cortisol reactions of low status individuals is provided.

  14. SUBORDINATE GAPS IN MANDARIN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of subordinate gaps in Mandarin Chinese casts doubt on analyses built on canonical coordinate gapping. We observe that the minimality of contrastive focus and the type of subordinate clause determine the acceptability of a missing gap in subordinate structure. Along this vein, we propose that a semantic-based deletion account can be used to interpret gapping in Mandarin. Such account relies on two violable constraints, AvoidF and Focus condition on gapping (Schwarzchild 1999, Merchant 2001 to compute the acceptability of a gap.

  15. Sweet success, bitter defeat: a taste phenotype predicts social status in selectively bred rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Eaton

    Full Text Available For social omnivores such as rats and humans, taste is far more than a chemical sense activated by food. By virtue of evolutionary and epigenetic elaboration, taste is associated with negative affect, stress vulnerability, responses to psychoactive substances, pain, and social judgment. A crucial gap in this literature, which spans behavior genetics, affective and social neuroscience, and embodied cognition, concerns links between taste and social behavior in rats. Here we show that rats selectively bred for low saccharin intake are subordinate to high-saccharin-consuming rats when they compete in weight-matched dyads for food, a task used to model depression. Statistical and experimental controls suggest that differential resource utilization within dyads is not an artifact of individual-level processes such as apparatus habituation or ingestive motivation. Tail skin temperature measurements showed that LoS rats display larger hyperthermic responses to social interaction after status is established, evidence linking taste, social stress, autonomic reactivity, and depression-like symptoms. Based on regression using early- and late-competition predictors to predict dyadic disparity in final competition scores, we tentatively suggest that HiS rats emerge as dominant both because of an "early surge" on their part and because LoS acquiesce later. These findings should invigorate the comparative study of individual differences in social status and its relationship to mental and physical health.

  16. The Intestinal Eukaryotic and Bacterial Biome of Spotted Hyenas: The Impact of Social Status and Age on Diversity and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitlinger, Emanuel; Ferreira, Susana C M; Thierer, Dagmar; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, two factors likely to affect the diversity and composition of intestinal bacteria (bacterial microbiome) and eukaryotes (eukaryome) are social status and age. In species in which social status determines access to resources, socially dominant animals maintain better immune processes and health status than subordinates. As high species diversity is an index of ecosystem health, the intestinal biome of healthier, socially dominant animals should be more diverse than those of subordinates. Gradual colonization of the juvenile intestine after birth predicts lower intestinal biome diversity in juveniles than adults. We tested these predictions on the effect of: (1) age (juvenile/adult) and (2) social status (low/high) on bacterial microbiome and eukaryome diversity and composition in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), a highly social, female-dominated carnivore in which social status determines access to resources. We comprehensively screened feces from 35 individually known adult females and 7 juveniles in the Serengeti ecosystem for bacteria and eukaryotes, using a set of 48 different amplicons (4 for bacterial 16S, 44 for eukaryote 18S) in a multi-amplicon sequencing approach. We compared sequence abundances to classical coprological egg or oocyst counts. For all parasite taxa detected in more than six samples, the number of sequence reads significantly predicted the number of eggs or oocysts counted, underscoring the value of an amplicon sequencing approach for quantitative measurements of parasite load. In line with our predictions, our results revealed a significantly less diverse microbiome in juveniles than adults and a significantly higher diversity of eukaryotes in high-ranking than low-ranking animals. We propose that free-ranging wildlife can provide an intriguing model system to assess the adaptive value of intestinal biome diversity for both bacteria and eukaryotes.

  17. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.

  18. Social status and voluntary alcohol consumption in mice: interaction with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilakivi-Clarke, L; Lister, R G

    1992-01-01

    Dominant rats are found to consume less alcohol than their subordinate cage-mates. It is unclear whether the difference is due to dominant, aggressive animals consuming low levels of alcohol or whether social stress increases alcohol intake in subordinate animals. The present study investigated alcohol drinking patterns in aggressive alpha mice, their fight-stressed submissive cage-mates and non-fighting control mice before and after the establishment of social hierarchies. The results revealed that both moderately and severely fight-stressed submissive mice showed increased consumption of 5% alcohol, expressed as g/kg, but only severely wounded submissive mice showed increased alcohol preference over total fluid consumption, as compared with alpha mice. The difference in alcohol consumption was not seen prior to the establishment of submissive and alpha status, indicating that the submissive mice increased their alcohol consumption only after experiencing fight-stress. The amount of alcohol consumed did not differ between alpha and non-fighting control mice. To further investigate the possible connection between alcohol intake and aggressivity, the mice were studied in the resident-intruder test before group-housing. The results failed to show a consistent pattern of correlations between the time spent in aggression in this test and subsequent alcohol intake measures. The data indicate that severe fight-stress increases alcohol consumption in mice. Alcohol intake of aggressive, dominant alpha mice is not significantly altered, as compared with non-fighting animals. Furthermore, the level of aggressiveness prior to the establishment of social status does not directly affect alcohol consumption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. An analysis of social status and social participation of farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From a sampling frame of 1800 farmers, three hundred soybean farmers were selected, using a simple random sampling. The result shows that 34% of the respondents are leaders of different social organizations with a mean income of N6,809 per annum. Majority (60%) of the respondents have low socio-economic status, ...

  20. Why European Subordinates Trust their Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Jon Aarum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of why subordinates trust their managers based on the responses from 108 subordinates of seven Slovenian managers and from 138 subordinates of eight Swedish managers. The subordinates of these managers responded to a 20-item instrument tested for reliability and validity. In both samples the managers enjoyed different degrees of trust. The level of trust vested in Slovenian managers was higher than in Swedish ones. The kinds of managers’ actions that enhanced trust were similar amongst Swedish and Slovenian subordinates. Different socio-cultural contexts may theoretically explain why some other kinds of actions had contrasting effects between the samples. On the whole, the actions of managers explain trust in both countries. Subordinates’ trust in managers declines with the increasing hierarchical distance in both national samples. Managers need to show in action that they trust their subordinates, promote their interests, demonstrate appreciation of their subordinates, and solve problems.

  1. Online Social Activity Reflects Economic Status

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  2. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  3. Involuntary Subordination and Its Relation to Personality, Mood, and Submissive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    According to social rank theory, involuntary subordination may be adaptive in species that compete for resources as a mechanism to switch off fighting behaviors when loss is imminent (thus saving an organism from injury). In humans, major depression is thought to occur when involuntary subordination becomes prolonged. The present study sought to…

  4. Brain levels of arginine-vasotocin and isotocin in dominant and subordinate males of a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Olinda; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-02-01

    to communicate social status and since AVT is known to have an antidiuretic effect, we have also investigated the effect of social status on urine storage. As predicted, dominant males stored significantly more urine than subordinates. Given these results we suggest that AVT/IT play a key role in orchestrating social phenotypes, acting both as central neuromodulators that promote behavioral plasticity and as peripheral hormones that promote integrated physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader's social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates' optimism: A multi-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this multi-method study, we examined the relationships of leader's social responsibility with different aspects of ethical leadership (morality and fairness, role clarification, and power sharing) as well as with despotic leadership. We also investigated how these leadership behaviors relate to

  6. Relationship Patterns Between Leader-Subordinate Similarity and Subordinate Satisfaction: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Zin, Razali bin; Fahd, King

    2006-01-01

    The leadership literature is voluminous. This study adopted the contingency model to explain the relationship between the leader-subordinate similarity and subordinate satisfaction. The effects of selected intervening variables namely age, educational level, race and sex were also analyzed. The findings showed that there is a significant relationship between leader-subordinate similarity and subordinates' satisfaction. However, this significance was determined only after accounting for the de...

  7. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Vandeleest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also

  8. Low social status decreases the neural salience of unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eHu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social hierarchy exists in almost all social species and affects everything from resource allocation to the development of intelligence. Previous studies showed that status within a social hierarchy influences the perceived fairness of income allocation. However, the effect of one’s social status on economic decisions is far from clear, as are the neural processes underlying these decisions. In this study, we dynamically manipulated participants’ social status and analyzed their behavior as recipients in the ultimatum game, during which event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. Behavioral results showed that acceptance rates for offers increased with the fairness level of offers. Importantly, participants were less likely to accept unfair offers when they were endowed with high status than with low status. In addition, cues indicating low status elicited a more positive P2 than cues indicating high status in an earlier time window (170 – 240 ms, and cues indicating high status elicited a more negative N400 than did cues indicating low status in a later time window (350 – 520 ms. During the actual reception of offers, the late positivity potential (LPP, 400 – 700 ms for unfair offers was more positive in the high status condition than in the low status condition, suggesting a decreased arousal for unfair offers during low status. These findings suggest a strong role of social status in modulating individual behavioral and neural responses to fairness.

  9. Subordination in Cholón

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander-Bakkerus, A.; van Gijn, R.; Haude, K.; Muysken, P.

    2011-01-01

    In Cholón, an indigenous language from northern Peru, subordinate clauses are formed by means of nominalizers or subordinators. Most of these markers attach to reduced verb forms, but some nominalizers are attached to a fully inflected form. Nominalizers can be followed by a case marker or by a

  10. The role of leadership perception as a mediator between managers' self-monitoring and subordinate attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp Türetgen, Ilknur; Unsal, Pinar; Dural, Uzay

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of social cognition in leadership perception has been emphasized frequently in recent years, research using this approach in an organizational context is rare. This study investigated subordinates' perceptions of their managers as leaders (that is, to what extent they perceive their manager as a leader) as a potential mediating factor explaining the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' attitudes toward their organizations. The study was carried out with middle-level managers (N = 64) and their subordinates (N = 210) from various business organizations in Turkey. Results indicate that subordinates' leadership perceptions of their managers mediate the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' affective and normative organizational commitment. These results provide insight into some of the antecedents and outcomes of leadership perception.

  11. Social status and the academic achievement gap: A social dominance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sidanius, Jim; Van Laar, Colette

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we sketch several mechanisms by which low social status is transformed into low academic performance. Using the perspective of social dominance theory, we review three processes by which this transformation takes place. These processes include: (a) the effects of lower economic, cultural, and social capital; (b) the effects of personal and institutional discrimination; and (c) reactions to low social status by members of low status groups. It is argued that members of low status...

  12. Social Network Influence and Personal Financial Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Makse, Hernan

    Networks of social ties emerging from individual economic needs display a highly structured architecture. In response to socio-economic demands, people reshape their circle of contacts for maximizing their social status, and ipso facto, the pattern of their interconnections is strongly correlates with their personal financial situation. In this work we transform this qualitative and verbal statement into an operative definition, which allows us to quantify the economic wellness of individuals trough a measure of their collective influence. We consider the network of mobile phone calls made by the Mexican population during three months, in order to study the correlation of person's economic situation with her network location. Notably, we find that rich people tend to be also the most influential nodes, i.e., they self-organize to optimally position themselves in the network. This finding may be also raised at the level of a principle, a fact that would explain the emergence of the phenomenon of collective influence itself as the result of the local optimization of socio-economic interactions. Our method represents a powerful and efficient indicator of socio-economic robustness, which may be applied to maximize the effect of large scale economic intervention and stimulus policies

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Sarah; Malspeis, Susan; Adler, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS), a person's sense of their (or for youth, abstract their family's) position in the socioeconomic hierarchy, is strongly related to health in adults but not health in adolescence. Understanding this developmental discrepancy requires first understanding the developmental trajectory of SSS. The objective of this study was to identify the number and shape of SSS trajectories as adolescents transition to adulthood and explore if trajectory membership affects health. Using data from 7436 assessments from the Princeton School District Study, a decade long cohort study of non-Hispanic black and white youth, latent class growth models with 3 to 7 SSS trajectories were developed. Model fit, trajectory structure, and shape were used to guide optimal model selection. Using this optimal model, the associations of trajectory membership with BMI and depressive symptoms in young adulthood were explored. The 5-class model was optimal. In this model, trajectories were persistent high (7.8%),mid–high (32.2%), middle (43.4%), low–lower (7.4%), and high–low (9.1%). Non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, lower household income, and low parent education were associated with membership in this high–low trajectory. High–low trajectory membership was associated with higher BMI and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white subjects but was not associated with depressive symptoms. It was associated with lower BMI only after adjustment for BMI in adolescence in non-Hispanic black subjects. SSS is relatively stable in adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and it generally reflects objective markers of social advantage. However, socially disadvantaged youth with high SSS in early adolescence may be at increased health risk.

  14. Populism vs. elitism: social consensus and social status as bases of attitude certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus.

  15. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    -subordinate relations and thus for organizing an institution. References Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and management: The developing research agenda. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74:473-487. Cooren, F., Taylor, J.R., & Van Every, E.J. (Eds.) (2006). Communication as organizing...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  16. Social Capital, Socioeconomic Status and Self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Han; Xiaoyuan Chu; Huicun Song; Yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    This study internalized social capital on the basis of traditional study of the influence of economic factors on self-efficacy, and studied the relationship among the family socio-economic status, social capital and self-efficacy. Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, the paper studied the intermediate effect of social capital in the relationship between the socioeconomic status and self-efficacy. We draw on the following conc...

  17. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  18. Noblesse oblige? Social status and economic inequality maintenance among politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.

  19. Association of subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyla Thais Dias de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p591   Subjective social status comprises the perception of individuals about their social status. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators (age, educational level, marital status and economic level in athletes from Santa Catharina. A total of 593 athletes of both sexes and mean age of 21.18 (± 5.58 years, 371 men, randomly selected, practitioners of individual and collective sport modalities, federated in clubs in the western region of Santa Catarina participated in the study. Social status perception was assessed using the MacArthur scale version for young people adapted to the sports context. For the association between perceived status and sociodemographic indicators, the Chi-square and Multinomial Logistic Regression tests were used, stratified by gender and adjusted for age variables, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic status. Dissatisfaction with status was found in 85% of the sample. Moreover, 46.9% of participants perceived themselves with low family status and 46% perceived themselves with intermediate status in their clubs. The association between groups showed statistically significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and marital status. The association between sociodemographic variables and status according to sex indicated that younger men, with less education, and single were more likely to be dissatisfied with their status. There is need for greater attention by health professionals regarding younger male athletes, with lower education and single regarding their status perception.

  20. High & mighty: Implicit associations between space and social status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGagnon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Figurative language, the built environment, and our perceptuo-motor experiences frequently associate social status with physical space. Linguistic references such as high status or climbing the corporate ladder, and built places such as the U.S. Capitol building link social and physical hierarchies. In three experiments we examine the source and extent of these associations by testing whether people implicitly associate abstract social status indicators with concrete representations of spatial topography (level versus mountainous land and relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north. Experiment 1 demonstrates speeded performance during an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998 when average social status is paired with level topography and high status with mountainous topography. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate a similar effect but with relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north, with speeded performance when average and powerful social status are paired with south and north coordinate space, respectively. Abstract concepts of social status are perceived and understood in an inherently spatial world, resulting in powerful associations between abstract social concepts and concrete and abstract notions of physical axes. These associations may prove influential in guiding daily judgments and actions.

  1. Social status moderates the relationship between facial structure and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Stefan M M; Shattuck, Kraig S; Miller, Robert M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Weisfeld, Glenn E; Carré, Justin M

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked individual differences in facial structure-in particular, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR)-to social behaviors, including aggression, cheating, and nonreciprocation of trust. In the research reported here, we extended this work by demonstrating that the association between FWHR and aggression is moderated by subjective and objective measures of social status. In Study 1 (N = 237 college students), FWHR was positively correlated with aggressive behavior, but only among men reporting relatively low social status. In Study 2 (N = 891 professional hockey players), FWHR was positively correlated with penalty minutes, but only among players who earned relatively low salaries. Collectively, these studies provide compelling evidence for the role of social status in moderating the relationship between facial structure and aggression, indicating that FWHR is a robust predictor of aggressive behavior, but only in the context of relatively low social status.

  2. How Social Status Shapes Person Perception and Evaluation: A Social Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattan, Bradley D; Kubota, Jennifer T; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity. This framework distinguishes between five key concepts: (1) strategic pathways to status acquisition for agents, (2) status antecedents (i.e., perceptual and knowledge-based cues that confer status rank), (3) status dimensions (i.e., domains in which an individual may be ranked, such as wealth), (4) status level (i.e., one's rank along a given dimension), and (5) the relative importance of a given status dimension, dependent on perceiver and context characteristics. Against the backdrop of this framework, we review multiple dimensions of status in the nonhuman and human primate literatures. We then review the behavioral and neuroscientific literatures on the consequences of perceived status for attention and evaluation. Finally, after proposing a social neuroscience framework, we highlight innovative directions for future social status research in social psychology and neuroscience.

  3. Social Status Attainment during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Camillia K.; Chung, Paul J.; Wallace, Steven P.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents’ and one’s own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n=8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3% females and 70.2% Whites, 15.3% Blacks, 11.0% Hispanics, and 3.5% Asians ages 12 to 18 at Wave 1 and 25 to 31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents’ social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period. PMID:24129883

  4. Neural mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to social stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M.; Jarcho, Michael R.; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Bower, Julienne E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2016-01-01

    Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. PMID:26979965

  5. Neural mechanisms linking social status and inflammatory responses to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatell, Keely A; Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M; Jarcho, Michael R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-06-01

    Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Oxidative status and social dominance in a wild cooperative breeder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cram, Dominic L; Blount, Jonathan D; Young, Andrew J; Grindstaff, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    .... This is important, as rank‐related differences in reproductive effort in many social species have the potential to generate, or indeed arise from, differences in oxidative status across dominance classes...

  7. Measuring Social Status and Social Behavior with Peer and Teacher Nomination Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    Sociometric nomination methods are used extensively to measure social status and social behaviors among children and adolescents. In the current study, the correspondence between teacher and peer nomination methods for the identification of preference and popularity was examined. Participants were

  8. Male is Greater than Female: The Socialization of Status Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Rhoda K.

    1976-01-01

    This review focuses on the socialization of status inequality in male and female children and the implications of this process for adult behavior. It notes that sexual equality is generally the exception rather than the rule, and that gender differences are often in fact status differences. (NG)

  9. Parental social status and intrasexual competitiveness among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Stulp, Gert; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    A study among 1,881 adolescents (52.3% girls) with a mean age of 19.1 years examined the effects of parental social status upon intrasexual competitiveness. Whereas females were consistently more intrasexually competitive the higher the socio-economic status of their parents, males with parents of

  10. Meta-Times and Extended Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Jan

    The problem of defining subordination of a homogeneous Lévy basis by a non-negative homogeneous Lévy basis is discussed. An explicit construction, generalizing the usual one-dimensional case, is given. This construction involves certain random meta-time changes.......The problem of defining subordination of a homogeneous Lévy basis by a non-negative homogeneous Lévy basis is discussed. An explicit construction, generalizing the usual one-dimensional case, is given. This construction involves certain random meta-time changes....

  11. Social Support, Environmental Condition and Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Support, Environmental Condition and Nutritional Status of the Elderly in Ibadan. ... The respondents depend mainly on their children for financial and social support. None of the respondents had access to water sewage system, 88.0% and 82.7% had no access to portable water and electricity respectively.

  12. Pathways from Depressive Symptoms to Low Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…

  13. Anonymous Social Network Ecological Status and Governance Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhi-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous social network has attracted ever-increasing attention from research community in recent years, however, it also brings some complications to ours daily life. We want to clarify the status of anonymous social network and put forward some governance strategies. In this paper we focus our attention on analyzing shortcomings of current regulatory strategies by comparing and analyzing the data from anonymous social network application Secret and social network application Sina Weibo. Combining with the characteristics of information dissemination in anonymous social network, we mainly put forward an governance strategy based on geographical location.

  14. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

  15. Enhancing Supervisor and Subordinate Communication in Diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provides for the institutionalisation of diversity management by integrating it with the organisation's management practices. This article proposes that communication between supervisors and subordinates in the public service must be strengthened to enhance diversity management. It argues that diversity management is an ...

  16. Matrix subordinators and related Upsilon transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Pérez-Abreu, V.

    2008-01-01

    A class of upsilon transformations of Lévy measures for matrix subordinators is introduced. Some regularizing properties of these transformations are derived, such as absolute continuity and complete monotonicity. The class of Lévy measures with completely monotone matrix densities is characterized....... Examples of infinitely divisible nonnegative definite random matrices are constructed using an upsilon transformation....

  17. subordination across ghanaian and british newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical research in this area is scanty, though this theoretical argumentation is not without contention, especially cross-culturally. Empirical investigation is therefore ... Frimpong: Subordination Across Ghanaian and British Newspaper Editorials: A Register. Perspective. 78. Figure 1: The Components in a register analysis.

  18. Women's social status and social justice in contemporary Tswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research revealed that certain provisions of the statutory laws continue to discriminate against women, adversely impact on their life chances and contravene their human rights. The quest for social justice and gender equality in Botswana has implications for a social policy that must override any practices that humiliate ...

  19. Inferring personal economic status from social network location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-05-01

    It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.

  20. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  1. Supervisor-Subordinate Relationship, Differentiation, and Employee Creativity: A Self-Categorization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdan; Kessel, Maura; Kratzer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore the effect of the quality of supervisor-subordinate relationship (i.e., leader-member exchange; LMX) on employee creativity by examining a moderated-mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of perceived insider status and the moderating role of perceived LMX differentiation in influencing the mediation.…

  2. The social income inequality, social integration and health status of internal migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2017-08-04

    To examine the interaction between social income inequality, social integration, and health status among internal migrants (IMs) who migrate between regions in China. We used the data from the 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey in China, which sampled 15,999 IMs in eight cities in China. The Gini coefficient at the city level was calculated to measure social income inequality and was categorized into low (0.2 0.5). Health status was measured based upon self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perceptions of stress and mental health. Social integration was measured from four perspectives (acculturation and integration willingness, social insurance, economy, social communication). Linear mixed models were used to examine the interaction effects between health statuses, social integration, and the Gini coefficient. Factors of social integration, such as economic integration and acculturation and integration willingness, were significantly related to health. Social income inequality had a negative relationship with the health status of IMs. For example, IMs in one city, Qingdao, with a medium income inequality level (Gini = 0.329), had the best health statuses and better social integration. On the other hand, IMs in another city, Shenzhen, who had a large income inequality (Gini = 0.447) were worst in health statues and had worse social integration. Policies or programs targeting IMs should support integration willingness, promote a sense of belonging, and improve economic equality. In the meantime, social activities to facilitate employment and create social trust should also be promoted. At the societal level, structural and policy changes are necessary to promote income equity to promote IMs' general health status.

  3. Investigating the Status of Social Capital in Tehran in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yahya shadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Today, the role of social capital has been proved to be undeniable in the health . The World Health Organization (WHO in 2000 declared that almost 60% of the causes of disease and mortality were related to the social factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the status of social capital as one of the social determinants of health in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods:   The study participants, who aged over 18 years, lived in 22 districts of Tehran in 2010. The study data were collected on social capital and socioeconomic variables in Iran. Different dimensions of social capital as well as the mean score of social capital was measured in various groups using the SC-IQ. The study data were analyzed using Stata statistical software: release 13.0. Results: In this study, 2.484 participants were selected via multistage random sampling. The mean age of participants was 41.38±17.7, and the mean score of social capital was slightly more in men (31.18 than women (30.41. Social capital was demonstrated to be lower within poor participants than other groups. In terms of marital status, the divorced had the lowest social capital (26.50. The mean social capital in those with university education was higher compared to individuals with other levels of education. Conclusion: Social capital is regarded as one of the factors affecting health. To promote the level of this valuable capital, the factors affecting the  social capital level should be identified and all appropriate measures should be taken into account in order to ultimately enhance the level of public health.

  4. Seeing red: How perceptions of social status and worth influence hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James R; Reyna, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Within social hierarchies, low social status is associated with increased vigilance, hostile expectations, and reactive aggression. We propose that societal devaluation is common across many low social status groups and produces a sense of threatened social worth. Threatened social worth may lead those of low status to be more vigilant towards social threats, thereby increasing the likelihood of hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression. Integrating theory on belongingness, social rejection, and stigma compensation, two studies test a sequential process model demonstrating that threatened social worth mediates the relationship between status, hostile attributions, and endorsement of aggression. Employing a relative status manipulation, Study 2 reveals a causal effect of status and highlights the importance of perceptions of low social status on threatened social worth. These data demonstrate the role of social worth in explaining the link between status and hostility and have implications for research in the social, health, and developmental domains. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. SOCIAL POLICY AS FACTOR OF STATE INSTITUTIONAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Zhukova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of social policy as the factor of institutional state statuses. Methodology. The researching in institutional providing of state social policy which may be considered as the base for performance of correspond reforms which are directed to the life level increasing, is enough popular task in scientific, theoretical and practical aspects. The scientific search of social policy as the factor of institutional status of state is carried out at the base of classical, neoclassical and institutional methodology. At the base of classical methodology it were defined the general approaches with help of dialectical analysis tools and synthesis of social relations array as historical action. With the help of system, structurally-functional analysis of social policy tasks, it’s opened its internal nature and ways of institutional providing. Institutional and neoclassical approaches allowed the specials analysing tools in modelling of dynamics and institute of social policy institute results in the conditions of market transformations. Also in the research process it were used the economic articles about the question of analysis in state social policy and given the statistic data about the analytical report to the annual President’s of Ukraine message to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine „About internal and external condition of Ukraine in year 2015”. Research results showed what in the conditions of socially-economic and political instability, the social sphere Ukraine became the hostage of common crisis in economic, catastrophic decreasing of life level, increasing of social confrontation and rough system mistakes in the process of social institution formation. All of this neutralizes the methods efficiency about improvement of socially-economic condition of population and prevents to the implementation of necessary reforms. Practical value lays in the clear definition of

  6. Attitudes Of Subordinates Toward Women In Leadership Position ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The t-test of independent sample was used to analyse the research data. The findings revealed that: (a) Male subordinates have negative attitude toward women leader; (b) Subordinates with higher educational qualification have positive attitude towards women leaders; (c) Young subordinates have negative attitudes ...

  7. Social Network Centrality and Leadership Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina; Putallaz, Martha; Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    Seventh-grade students (N = 324) completed social cognitive maps to identify peer groups and peer group leaders, sociometric nominations to describe their peers’ behaviors, and questionnaires to assess their own behaviors. Peer group members resembled one another in levels of direct and indirect aggression and substance use; girls’ cliques were more behaviorally homogenous than were boys’ cliques. On average, leaders (especially if they were boys) were perceived as engaging in more problem behaviors than were nonleaders. In girls’ cliques, peripheral group members were more similar to their group leader on indirect aggression than were girls who were more central to the clique. Peer leaders perceived themselves as being more able to influence peers but did not differ from nonleaders in their perceived susceptibility to peer influence. The findings contribute to our understanding of processes through which influence may occur in adolescent peer groups. PMID:19763241

  8. Schizophrenic, alcoholic, felon and management factor compositions of social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishkin, V; Thorne, F C

    1981-04-01

    Administered the Social Status Study scale to four different groups: 174 incarcerated felons, 125 alcoholics, 278 management consultants, and 388 chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics. Five factors were derived fro each of the four populations. Major finding is that factorial composition of the groups is dependent upon specific population characteristics, and the overall factors are not sufficient for clinical judgment of individuals from different subgroups. The resulting factors were clearly unique in depicting social adjustment maladjustment styles in each of the clinical groups.

  9. Managers can drive their subordinates mad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kets de Vries, M F

    1979-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of "folie à deux"--an aberrant relationship between manager and subordinates that is characterized by shared delusions. Though most visible among public figures like Adolf Hitler, J. Edgar Hoover and Jim Jones, the problem also surfaces among private managers and their associates with dangerous implications for the firm. In folie à deux, the unusual behavior patterns of a manager in an isolated setting become mirrored by dependent subordinates, and the organization loses touch with its original goals and strategies. The author describes the dynamics of this phenomenon and details steps to remedy the situation. Once recognized, he suggests that the manager establish a trusting relationship with the instigator as a prelude to altering the behavior patterns, then transfer the subordinates and reorient the work climate so that independence and responsibility are encouraged. If the instigator is a powerful executive, the author suggests enlisting the support of a countervailing force, such as the government or a union, to guide the organization away from possible self-destructive adventures.

  10. Gender, Ethnic Status, and Ideological Asymmetry: A Social Dominance Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidanius, Jim; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Two studies involving 686 college students examined the relationship between desire for group-based dominance, gender, and group attachment. For members of high-status groups, there were positive relationships between desire for group-based dominance and group affiliation. Males have a higher level of social-dominance orientation than females…

  11. Social capital dimensions and its implications on poverty status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...

  12. Social Activities And Socio-Economic Status Of Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate and establish relationship between some variables (social activities and socio-economic status) of farmers who cultivated improved maize in rural areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 125 respondents who constituted growers of maize were purposively and randomly sampled.

  13. Social Status, Traditional Food Taboos and Food Security: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...

  14. Mental Health Status Ratings Among Selected Social Service Couriers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the wake of Nigeria's recent legislation against the prevalent corrupt and unhealthy practices among her citizenry, it has become important to examine the mental health status of the various social services couriers who are indeed the vendors of the new orientation. This paper therefore is a report of the level of ...

  15. Paternal personality and social status influence offspring activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Susanne; Herbert-Read, James E; Abbasi, Nasir M; Zajitschek, Felix; Immler, Simone

    2017-07-03

    Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the non-genetic transmission of plastic behavioural traits from parents to offspring. We investigated the relative effect of personality and of social dominance as indicators at the opposite ends of the plasticity range on offspring behaviour in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We assessed male boldness, a behavioural trait that has previously been shown previously to possess genetic underpinnings, and experimentally manipulated male social status to assess the association between the two types of behaviour and their correlation with offspring activity. We found a clear interaction between the relatively stable and putative genetic effects based on inherited differences in personality and the experimentally induced epigenetic effects from changes in the social status of the father on offspring activity. Our study shows that offspring behaviour is determined by a combination of paternal personality traits and on-genetic effects derived from the social status of the father.

  16. Temporal dynamics underlying the modulation of social status on social attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Dalmaso

    Full Text Available Fixating someone suddenly moving the eyes is known to trigger a corresponding shift of attention in the observer. This phenomenon, known as gaze-cueing effect, can be modulated as a function of the social status of the individual depicted in the cueing face. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the temporal dynamics underlying this modulation. To this end, a gaze-cueing paradigm was implemented in which centrally-placed faces depicting high- and low-status individuals suddenly shifted the eyes towards a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with that occupied by a subsequent target stimulus. Social status was manipulated by presenting fictive Curriculum Vitae before the experimental phase. In Experiment 1, in which two temporal intervals (50 ms vs. 900 ms occurred between the direct-gaze face and the averted-gaze face onsets, a stronger gaze-cueing effect in response to high-status faces than low-status faces was observed, irrespective of the time participants were allowed for extracting social information. In Experiment 2, in which two temporal intervals (200 ms vs. 1000 ms occurred between the averted-gaze face and target onset, a stronger gaze cueing for high-status faces was observed at the shorter interval only. Taken together, these results suggest that information regarding social status is extracted from faces rapidly (Experiment 1, and that the tendency to selectively attend to the locations gazed by high-status individuals may decay with time (Experiment 2.

  17. Sex of leader, sex of subordinate and leader behaviour type as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex of leader, sex of subordinate and leader behaviour type as predictors of task performance. Jackson I Osu. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.4(2) 1999: 245-258. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  19. Regulation of energy metabolism during social interactions in rainbow trout: a role for AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Craig, P M; Dhillon, R S; Lau, G Y; Richards, J G

    2017-11-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which subordinate fish typically experience fasting and high circulating cortisol levels, resulting in low growth rates. The present study investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mediating metabolic adjustments associated with social status in rainbow trout. After 3 days of social interaction, liver AMPK activity was significantly higher in subordinate than dominant or sham (fish handled in the same fashion as paired fish but held individually) trout. Elevated liver AMPK activity in subordinate fish likely reflected a significantly higher ratio of phosphorylated AMPK (phospho-AMPK) to total AMPK protein, which was accompanied by significantly higher AMPKα1 relative mRNA abundance. Liver ATP and creatine phosphate concentrations in subordinate fish also were elevated, perhaps as a result of AMPK activity. Sham fish that were fasted for 3 days exhibited effects parallel to those of subordinate fish, suggesting that low food intake was an important trigger of elevated AMPK activity in subordinate fish. Effects on white muscle appeared to be influenced by the physical activity associated with social interaction. Overall, muscle AMPK activity was significantly higher in dominant and subordinate than sham fish. The ratio of phospho-AMPK to total AMPK protein in muscle was highest in subordinate fish, while muscle AMPKα1 relative mRNA abundance was elevated by social dominance. Muscle ATP and creatine phosphate concentrations were high in dominant and subordinate fish at 6 h of interaction and decreased significantly thereafter. Collectively, the findings of the present study support a role for AMPK in mediating liver and white muscle metabolic adjustments associated with social hierarchy formation in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. RETRATISTAS DE MARIPOSAS. ACERCA DEL LUGAR SUBORDINADO DE LA COMPARACIÓN EN LA ANTROPOLOGÍA SOCIAL Y CULTURAL CONTEMPORÁNEA / Portrayers of butterflies. The subordination of comparison in today's Social and Cultural Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alberto Balbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En la antropología social y/o cultural actual, la comparación tiende a ser considerada  como un recurso auxiliar de la etnografía cuya utilidad se limita a la detección y el análisis de la diversidad. En este artículo se argumenta que ello tiene efectos negativos sobre el control de los procedimientos comparativos, la productividad de la etnografía, la capacidad de los antropólogos para producir generalizaciones teóricas y, en consecuencia, la relevancia de la propia disciplina. Se sugiere que, con el objeto de recuperar la capacidad de la disciplina para formular generalizaciones, es necesario restablecer a la comparación en su condición originaria de recurso analítico por derecho propio y desnaturalizar su relación con la diversidad. Asimismo, se esbozan los fundamentos epistemológicos de dicha empresa, para finalmente pasar a delinear dos formas posibles de combinar a la comparación y la etnografía que facilitarían la producción simultánea de análisis de casos y de recursos teórico-metodológicos.  Abstract  In today’s social and/or cultural anthropology, there is a trend to consider comparison as an auxiliary resource to ethnography whose usefulness is restricted to the detection and analysis of diversity. This paper argues that such situation has negative effects on the control of comparative procedures, on ethnography’s productivity, on the ability of anthropologists to produce theoretical generalizations and, consequently, on the relevance of the discipline itself. It is suggested that, in order to recover anthropology’s ability to formulate generalizations, comparison needs to be restored to its original condition of analytical resource in its own right and overcome the naturalization of its connection with diversity. The epistemological foundations of this enterprise are outlined in order to trace two possible ways to combine comparison and ethnography which would facilitate the simultaneous production of

  1. Social Status in Norway and the Law of Jante: An Analysis of ISSP Social Inequality Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. PALAMARA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines International Social Survey Programme data from the 1999 social inequality module for evidence of Janteloven (‘the law of Jante’ in Norway – a widely known though often disputed description for aspects of Norwegian (and Scandinavian society relating to equality, norming and envy. Income equality and social status were examined using survey data across 26 countries. Norwegian respondents did not show a marked preference for income equality when asked to consider the actual and deserved income of high- versus low-status occupations. However, they did stand out in reporting a distinctly and significantly smaller mean difference in social status between a high-status occupation (the chairman of a large national corporation and a low-status occupation (an unskilled factory worker. Linear regression shows that the attitude towards social status is affected by the respondent’s level of education, but not by other personal factors. These attitudes could potentially be attributed to Janteloven, and are considered alongside the results of a small (n=30 online survey as well as popular media and academic portrayals.

  2. It's cool to be dominant: social status alters short-term risks of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan J; Thompson, Michelle L; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2017-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to trigger social change. As a first step towards understanding mechanisms determining the vulnerability of animal societies to rising temperatures, we investigated interactions between social rank and thermoregulation in three arid-zone bird species: fawn-coloured lark (Mirafra africanoides, territorial); African red-eyed bulbul (Pycnonotus nigricans, loosely social) and sociable weaver (Philetairus socius, complex cooperative societies). We assessed relationships between body temperature (Tb), air temperature (Ta) and social rank in captive groups in the Kalahari Desert. Socially dominant weavers and bulbuls had lower mean Tb than subordinate conspecifics, and dominant individuals of all species maintained more stable Tb as Ta increased. Dominant bulbuls and larks tended to monopolise available shade, but dominant weavers did not. Nevertheless, dominant weavers thermoregulated more precisely, despite expending no more behavioural effort on thermoregulation than subordinates. Increasingly unequal risks associated with heat stress may have implications for the stability of animal societies in warmer climates. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN THE CONTEXT OF STUDENTS SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT HIGH SOCIAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Sachkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of social representations in students about the high status in a society where psychological well-being acts as an integral component. During the analysis of literature it has been revealed that at youthful age, a key factor in determining psychological well-being is a successful self-identity in society, as well as the achievement of a certain status. In addition, during this period there can be observed the formation of social representations in the context of personal and professional self-determination. The object of our research was to study the structure and specificity of the social representations in students about the high status in modern society. We hypothesized that the perceptions of students about the high position in society must include the components of psychological well-being. In the course of the research P. Verges’ method was used to study the structure of social representations. The 594 associations obtained were subjected to a categorical analysis. In the study it was found out that the structural components of psychological well-being (K. Riff are reflected in the characteristics of the social representations of high status. It was concluded that according to the social representations of the modern young people a person of a high status is represented as a psychologically prosperous person, which confirms the hypothesis of the study.

  4. Lebanon in the Middle East Subordinate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    the land of Aram;4 the "people of the sea," became the Philistines ; and the Hebrews created their kingdom under the scepter of King David), the ...legislative. Before sunrise, they were taken to an ancient fort at Rashaya to be . held in separate cells. On the same day, M. Helleu, French delegate...R AD-138 031 LEBANON IN THE MIDDLE EAST SUBORDINATE SYSTEM(U) RRMY 1/3, COMMRAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS N S EID 03 JUN 83 SBI-AD

  5. Predicting social influence with faction sizes and relative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V

    2013-09-01

    Building on a recent theoretical development in the field of sociological social psychology, we develop a formal mathematical model of social influence processes. The extant theoretical literature implies that factions and status should have non-linear effects on social influence, and yet these theories have been evaluated using standard linear statistical models. Our formal model of influence includes these non-linearities, as specified by the theories. We evaluate the fit of the formal model using experimental data. Our results indicate that a one-parameter mathematical model fits the experimental data. We conclude with the implications of our research and a discussion of how it may be used as an impetus for further work on social influence processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The (Biological or Cultural Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soylu Yalcinkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research links (racial essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action among people with dominant (White and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  7. The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Paris, Monique; Macdonald, David W; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Johnson, Paul J; Farstad, Wenche; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2013-10-02

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, differ from other cooperatively breeding canids in that they combine intense sociality with solitary foraging, making them a suitable species in which to study the physiology of cooperative breeding. The reproductive physiology of twenty wild female Ethiopian wolves (eleven dominant and nine subordinate) in Ethiopia's Bale Mountains National Park was studied non-invasively through the extraction and assaying of estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoids in collected fecal samples using enzyme and radioimmunoassays. All dominant females showed increased estradiol concentrations and/or mating behavior during the annual mating season. In contrast, none of the subordinate females showed increased estradiol concentrations or mating behavior during the mating season. However, two subordinate females came into estrus outside of the mating season. Both dominant and subordinate females had higher average progesterone concentrations during the dominant female's pregnancy than at other times of the year, and two subordinate females allosuckled the dominant female's pups. No statistically significant differences in glucocorticoid concentrations were found between dominant and subordinate females. These results suggest that subordinate females are reproductively suppressed during the annual mating season, but may ovulate outside of the mating season and become pseudopregnant. No evidence was found to suggest that reproductive suppression in subordinate females was regulated through aggressive behaviors, and no relationship was found between fecal glucocorticoids and dominance status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fleet leaders' attitudes about subordinates' use of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Richard J

    2007-11-01

    Mental disorders are a significant source of medical and occupational morbidity for sailors. Stigma, fear of negative career impact, and subordinates concern about leaders' attitudes are significant barriers to the use of mental health services. Semistructured interviews and military policies were data sources used to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health treatment using Foucault's concept of discourse analysis. A discourse is a system of knowledge that influences language, perceptions, values, and social practices. The results showed that leaders' concerns about sailors' mental combat readiness, not mental illness stigma, was the dominant discourse about mental illness and mental health services use. In particular, organizational differences between the surface warfare and the mental health communities may influence leaders' attitudes more than stigma. This study provides an elaborated view of mental health knowledge and power within a Navy community.

  9. Subjective Social Status and Self-Reported Health Among US-born and Immigrant Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-02-01

    Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.

  10. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences

  11. Teacher-Classified Peer Social Status: Preliminary Validation and Associations with Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; King, Sara; Thurston, Catherine; McNutt, Lisa; Terrio, Branka

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether teacher ratings may be a valid alternative measure of social status in elementary school children, and whether teacher social status ratings are distinct from their disruptive behavior ratings. Participants were 1,596 elementary school children in seven schools in eastern Canada. Teacher ratings of social status and…

  12. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani; Mostafa Rajabi; Mohammad Golnari Abbasi; Hajar Jannesari

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior...

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Health Insurance, Social Connectedness, and Subjective Social Status among Residents of O'ahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social determinants that influence social status, including social connectedness. Data were drawn from a convenience sample of 728 O'ahu residents in 2011-12. Social connectedness was measured if participants stated that family, friends, or community were strengths that could address their social and health concerns. In the final adjusted linear regression model, those with Medicaid/Quest insurance (β -0.40; Pstrong community and family ties as one of Hawai'i's greatest strengths. However, these strengths were not found to be statistically associated with subjective social status in our sample. Future studies should assess whether reinforcing social connectedness through public health and educational interventions improves subjective social status among low-income and ethnically diverse communities in Hawai'i.

  14. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  15. Where do intra-organizational advice relations come from? The role of informal status and social capital in social exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, Filip; Wittek, Rafael

    Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective,

  16. Employment status, social ties, and caregivers' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Colditz, Graham A; Rimm, Eric B; Berkman, Lisa F; Jones, Camara P; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2004-04-01

    status did not seem to confer additional mental health risk or benefit to informal caregivers, while access to extensive social ties was associated with more favorable caregiver health outcomes.

  17. Irregular Migration - between legal status and social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Arnfinn H. and Rogstad, Jon 2.Book reviews by null 3.INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization by Leinonen, Johanna 4.Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State by Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken 5.TOWARD AN IDENTITY STRESS....... Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...

  18. Helpful female subordinate cichlids are more likely to reproduce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dik Heg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, subordinates assist a dominant pair to raise the dominants' offspring. Previously, it has been suggested that subordinates may help in payment for continued residency on the territory (the 'pay-to-stay hypothesis', but payment might also be reciprocated or might allow subordinates access to reproductive opportunities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured dominant and subordinate female alloparental brood care and reproductive success in four separate experiments and show that unrelated female dominant and subordinate cichlid fish care for each other's broods (alloparental brood care, but that there is no evidence for reciprocal 'altruism' (no correlation between alloparental care received and given. Instead, subordinate females appear to pay with alloparental care for own direct reproduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest subordinate females pay with alloparental care to ensure access to the breeding substrate and thereby increase their opportunities to lay their own clutches. Subordinates' eggs are laid, on average, five days after the dominant female has produced her first brood. We suggest that immediate reproductive benefits need to be considered in tests of the pay-to-stay hypothesis.

  19. 46 CFR 67.243 - Requirements for instruments subordinating mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for instruments subordinating mortgages. 67... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-Mortgages, Preferred Mortgages, and Related Instruments § 67.243 Requirements for instruments subordinating mortgages. An...

  20. Gender, Leadership Style, and Subordinate Satisfaction: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushell, Elliot; Newton, Rae

    1986-01-01

    Reports on an experiment that analyzed the effects of gender and leadership style on subordinate satisfaction. While subjects were more satisfied in democratically led groups, gender of leader did not significantly affect satisfaction. Female subordinates were more dissatisfied than males in autocratically led groups. (KH)

  1. Leaders' achievement goals and their reactions to subordinates' creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    The present experimental research examined the impact of leaders' achievement goals on their reactions to creative input provided by their subordinates. In Experiment 1, performance goal leaders were found to be less receptive to subordinates' creative input than mastery goal leaders. In Experiment

  2. Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engag...

  3. Adaptive changes in zebrafish brain in dominant-subordinate behavioral context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Michail; Sundvik, Maria; Chen, Yu-Chia; Panula, Pertti

    2011-12-01

    Male zebrafish were held in dyadic social stress situation for a period of 5 days, to characterize stress coping styles and to investigate the role of the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms in establishing dominant-subordinate relationships. A strong consistent dominant-subordinate relationship was formed in ten out of the sixteen pairs of fish (62.5%). Both dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) individuals showed statistically significant higher trunk cortisol concentration than controls. Expression of genes encoding proteins involved in the functioning of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-interrenal axis (corticotropin releasing factor, CRF; glucocorticoid receptor, GR; mineralocorticoid receptor, MR); arginine vasotocin, AVT), in the biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamines (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH1 and TH2; DOPA decarboxylase, DDC), dopamine β-hydroxylase, DBH; catechol-O-methyl transferase, COMT), in the biosynthesis of histamine (histidine decarboxylase, HDC) and in the general stress response (galanin, GAL; hypocretin/orexin, Hcrt) was examined. The MR/GR ratio was higher in dominant and subordinate fish than in controls (P=0.016). The mRNA levels of TH2 and HDC were up-regulated in DOM, of AVT in SUB, while COMT mRNA levels were down-regulated in both DOM and SUB compared to control fish. In addition, mRNA levels of hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) were up-regulated in dominant compared to subordinate and control males. There was a statistically significant correlation between mRNA expression levels of TH2, HDC, Hcrt, GR, MR and CRF genes. The obtained results provide new evidences for the use of zebrafish as an animal model to study social stress and allostasis in vertebrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of gender stereotypic characteristics in leaders and subordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was realized to analyze the way leaders and subordinates describe themselves in relation to perceived gender stereotypic characteristics and, to verify if exists differences in these characteristics according position (leader/ subordinate. Participate 612 individuals, 329 male (54% y 283 female (46%, age average = 37,54 years (DE=11,88. 59 % of the participants occupied executive positions and the rest were subordinates. It was utilized and abbreviate version of the Bem Sex Roles (Bem, 1974 to data recollection. The obtained results show that male leaders describe themselves mainly with agentic-masculine attributes (e.g. dominant, compared with subordinates who describe themselves with communal- feminine characteristics (e.g. submission. On the other hand, the female leaders describe themselves mainly with androgyny attributes combining qualities of both genders (e.g. dominant and sensible to the needs of others; however the female subordinates show communal attributes (e.g. submission

  5. [Nutritional status by social stratification in Venezuelan school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Nayka; Páez, María Concepción; Solano, Liseti

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed nutritional status of 590 children from Naguanagua, Valencia, attending school, aged between 4 and 14 years and its relation to social stratification, age and gender. Body dimension indicators were used for nutritional diagnosis. NCHS/OMS and Frisancho references were used for height/age (HA) weight/height (WH) cut-off points, and body mass index (BMI). Graffar modified by Mendez was used to establish socioeconomic status. Statistical analyses included descriptives, x2 and student-test. 91% of the children were in poverty, (71% relative and 20% critical). For HA, 6.4% classified as short, 27.6% in risk, and 4.9% tall for age without significative differences between sex. For WH, 0.6% were in nutritional deficit, 10.2% in risk and 22.1% in excess. For BMI, 12.9% had nutritional deficit, 7.3% excess but no significative differences for sex. Stunting and deficit were present in all age groups, but more significantly in those older than 10 years (12%; 23.9% respectively). Social stratification was associated with WH and BMI being deficit more prevalent in III and V class, predominating excess in IV class. The high prevalence of obesity makes this group as a high risk one for chronic degenerative diseases.

  6. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peer Status in Emerging Adulthood: Associations of Popularity and Preference with Social Roles and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…

  8. Interactive Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity and Subjective Social Status on Psychological Symptomatology in Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Childress, Sarah D; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Garey, Lorra; Vidrine, Damon J; McNeill, Lorna H; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related sensations and subjective social status is a self-perception of social standing relative to others: both constructs have been linked to psychological symptomatology. This study investigated the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptomatology expression among 124 black adults. Participants provided sociodemographics and completed self-report questionnaires. The interactive associations between anxiety sensitivity and social status on anxiety symptomatology and depressive symptomatology were examined with hierarchical linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographics and negative affectivity. Significant interactions between anxiety sensitivity and social status were evident only for anxiety symptoms: specifically, the association between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms was much stronger for individuals with lower (versus higher) subjective social status. Black adults with this higher anxiety sensitivity/lower social status phenotype may be at heightened risk for the expression of anxiety symptomatology, and may benefit from interventions to reduce anxiety sensitivity.

  9. 'Bioethics' is subordinate to morality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Noritoshi

    1996-07-01

    Disputes over brain death and euthanasia are used to illuminate the question whether there really is a Japanese way of thinking in bioethics. In Japanese thought, a person does not exist as an individual but as a member of the family, community or society. I describe these features of Japanese society as 'mutual dependency'. In this society, an act is 'good' and 'right' when it is commonly done, and it is 'bad' and 'wrong' when nobody else does it. Thus, outsiders to this ring of mutual dependency encounter ostracism. One feature of this society is a lack of open discussion which leads to the existence of multiple standards. This Japanese morality even prevails over written laws. In Japan, there is a public stance that euthanasia does not exist. On the other hand, there are certain decisions which have permitted euthanasia. Similarly, organ transplants were performed from brain dead donors, while that procedure was not accepted officially by the medical profession. In this situation, there is a danger that human rights will be neglected. So far bioethical approaches have not helped to work out these problems. This may be because Japanese think that bioethics is subordinate to morality. The current dispute over brain death involves a struggle for the establishment of a rational society in Japan. Overcoming mutual dependency and ostracism is essential to resolve this struggle and to lead Japan into a society of mutual respect where all individuals, families and communities are esteemed.

  10. Inferring social status and rich club effects in enterprise communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy.

  11. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M; Gilby, Ian C; Feldblum, Joseph T; Walker, Kara K; Pusey, Anne E

    2016-10-14

    Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits.

  12. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  13. Subjective social status, social network and health disparities: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-02-27

    Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.

  14. Childhood Social Status in Society and School: Implications for the Transition to Higher Levels of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist, Ylva; Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca

    2010-01-01

    While research into educational inequalities emphasizes childhood socio-economic status, this study adds another dimension of status into the analysis; namely, the child's own social position among its peers. The aim was to examine whether socio-economic status and peer status can both be linked to educational transitions and, if so, whether they…

  15. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real...... and apparent time, as well as geographical variation. The results show that V2 word order in subordinate clauses is much more frequent than commonly assumed. Furthermore, they indicate that the most decisive factors predicting word order in subordinate clauses are the syntactic function of the clause...

  16. A CATEGORIA STATUS EM MARSHALL: contrlbuicóes para os estudos dos direitos socials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bazi Brandáo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thls article aims to demonstrate the contributions 01 the use 01 category status for studies on social rights and social policies. The paper reviews concepts and analyzes of Marshall about status and social rights. To do so, it investigates the determinants 01 capltalíst society and the emergence 01 social rights in this contex!. Discusses the tendency 01 debate about rights in the literature of Brazilian social policy and identifies the analysis gaps that can be harnessed from the use of the category status. Then presents and discusses the marxist critic formulated by Brazilian researchers on the concepts of Marshall, while pointing out the Iimits 01 this critico Finally, índlcates some contributions that the category status can present for studies on social pollcy and social rights, such as the possibility 01 identilying the implications 01 access to social rights in the social posítlon 01 groups and indlviduals.

  17. Handicap and social status of adults with spina bifida cystica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathleen; Hickman, Veronica; Carter, C. O.

    1974-01-01

    The present physical handicaps and social status of 202 survivors of spina bifida cystica attending The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street before 1954 are described. Ninety-three of the patients, mostly with uncomplicated meningocele, had escaped serious disability and were living normal lives. But 109 had a serious disability, including three who are mentally retarded. Some of the difficulties of living with spina bifida are described, and a record of work, marriage, and reproduction in the whole group of survivors is shown. Of the 106 with serious locomotor problems and/or incontinence, 58 work regularly, 17 have long spells off work, and 31 have never worked at all; 24 have married, 16 have 26 children none of whom has spina bifida. Of the 96 without physical handicap, 93 work regularly, 47 are married, and 34 have 75 children one of whom has spina bifida cystica and one anencephaly. PMID:4604518

  18. Residents' Class Status and Social Political Attitude: Two Cases of Middle-Class Community in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Lipeng  ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    According to the data in two type of middle class community, this paper finds out that differences on residents' objective class status exist, so does subjective class status. The type of the community, occupation, and annual household income influences residents' subjective class status. This paper also compares people's social political attitude in two types of communities. People value some social political issues according to their subjective class status.

  19. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  20. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake.

  1. On Certain Subclasses of Analytic Functions Defined by Differential Subordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Mahzoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study certain subclasses of analytic functions which are defined by differential subordination. Coefficient inequalities, some properties of neighborhoods, distortion and covering theorems, radius of starlikeness, and convexity for these subclasses are given.

  2. Supervisor's HEXACO personality traits and subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; de Vries, Reinout Everhard

    2017-01-01

    Abusive supervision is detrimental to both subordinates and organizations. Knowledge about individual differences in personality related to abusive supervision may improve personnel selection and potentially reduce the harmful effects of this type of leadership. Using the HEXACO personality

  3. Rehabilitation Agency Leadership Style: Impact on Subordinates' Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Susan H.; Kauppi, Dwight R.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred five rehabilitation employees were surveyed on the effect of leadership style on subordinates' perceptions of their work environment and on their job satisfaction. Findings suggest that leadership style affects service delivery. (Author/MKA)

  4. Superiors' Argumentativeness and Verbal Agressiveness as Predictors of Subordinates' Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Dominic A.; Gorden, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Supported the hypothesis that the more employees perceive their supervisors as high in argumentativeness and low in verbal aggressiveness, the more the subordinates also will be argumentative (i.e., assertive) and have job satisfaction. (PD)

  5. 32 CFR 776.54 - Responsibilities of a subordinate attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part or the duty of a judge advocate to exercise independent professional judgment as to the best interest of an individual client. (3) A subordinate covered attorney does not violate this part if that...

  6. The Latina Birth Weight Paradox: the Role of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jill; Sunil, Thankam

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight. Pregnant women had higher subjective social status scores than non-pregnant women. The difference in scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women was smaller in Mexican immigrant women than Mexican-American women. Pregnancy intendedness did not influence subjective social status in pregnant women of either sample, but having children (parity) in both samples was associated with higher subjective social status scores. Among Mexican-American women, community subjective social status was correlated with levels of depressive symptoms and perceived social stress. Subjective social status, depression, and perceived social stress were not correlated among Mexican immigrant women. Our results suggest that incorporation into the USA influences maternal mental health vis-à-vis changes in how women of reproductive age think about themselves and their gender roles in relation to others. Theoretically, our work supports mixed-method approaches to document how culture change as a result of immigration may impact maternal and infant health. Future research should test whether the effect of subjective social status on birth weight occurs when subjective social status does not correlate with depression or stress.

  7. A taxonomy of supervisor–subordinate exchanges across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Khatri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Major concerns, both theoretical and methodological, have been raised about the adequacy of the leader-member exchange (LMX theory, the existing model on supervisor–subordinate exchanges. This paper seeks to overcome three main theoretical shortcomings of the LMX theory as documented in past research. First, that the LMX theory does not describe the exchange process sufficiently, and second, that it does not capture the cross-cultural influences on supervisor–subordinate exchanges. This paper deals with these weaknesses by providing a comprehensive description of supervisor–subordinate exchanges across cultures using two theoretical frameworks, Fiske’s relational theory and Triandis’s cultural syndromes. A third problem with the LMX theory is that it assumes all close relationships between supervisors and subordinates to be beneficial for the organisation. However, a stream of research has emerged that documents the downside of close relationships between supervisors and their subordinates. Utilising a recent cross-cultural framework on cronyism, this paper sheds light on the dysfunctional organisational consequences of close relationships between supervisors and their subordinates across cultures.

  8. Understanding social hierarchies: The neural and psychological foundations of status perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica E; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R

    2015-01-01

    Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review, we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are sociocultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents.

  9. Understanding Social Hierarchies: The Neural and Psychological Foundations of Status Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2017-01-01

    Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184

  10. Social engagement in adolescence moderates the association between weight status and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Laura J; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6909 students in grades 6-10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status×social engagement). Adolescents' overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  12. Faster but Less Careful Prehension in Presence of High, Rather than Low, Social Status Attendees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee.

  13. Well-connected leaders: the impact of leaders' social network ties on LMX and members' work attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Green, Stephen G; Schleicher, Deidra J

    2010-11-01

    We examined the proposition that leaders' social network ties in the larger organization influence the quality of their leader-member exchange (LMX) with their employees, which, in turn, impacts these employees' job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Using multilevel, multisource data from a field study of 184 bank employees nested within 42 branch managers, we found that leaders who had higher quality relationships with their bosses and who were more central in their peer networks were perceived by their subordinates as having greater status in the organization and, therefore, were able to form higher quality relationships with them. Further, the effects of the leaders' perceived status on LMX were stronger when subordinates were less central in their own peer network. Finally, LMX mediated the impact of leaders' perceived status in the organization on subordinates' job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Subjective social status and shaming experiences in relation to adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslund, Cecilia; Leppert, Jerzy; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the associations among social status, shaming experiences, and adolescent depression using a status-shaming model. Population-based, self-report cohort study. Västmanland, Sweden. A cohort of 5396 students in grade 9 (age 15-16 years) and the second year of high school (age 17-18 years). Intervention Participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland-2006 during class hours. We investigated the prevalence of depression according to the Depression Self-Rating Scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision), A-criterion, regarding subjective social status, shaming experiences, and social background. Social status was measured as (1) attributed status of a family's socioeconomic and social standing and (2) acquired status of peer group and school. Binary logistic regressions were used for the analyses. Shaming experiences and low social status interacted with depression. If shaming experiences were present, participants with both high and low attributed status were at increased risk for depression (odds ratio [low and high groups, respectively], 5.4-6.9), whereas medium status seemed to have a protective function. For acquired status, the highest elevated risk was found in participants with low status (odds ratio [girls and boys, respectively], 6.7-8.6). Social status may influence the risk for depression when an individual is subjected to shaming experiences. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of social status on health and may have essential implications for understanding, preventing, and treating adolescent depression.

  15. Status differentiation : New insights from agent-based modeling and social network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, André

    2016-01-01

    Status is an important aspect of social life that affects people from the day they are born until the day they die. In this dissertation, André Grow examines the processes by which status inequality can emerge between individuals and between social groups, such as men/women, whites/non-whites, and

  16. The Role of Sport as a Social Status Determinant for Children: Thirty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Melissa A.; Machida, Moe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport as a social status determinant among racially diverse children. Participants were 1,233 fourth- to seventh-grade children. Results indicated there were gender, grade, and racial differences for the selection of social status determinants. Boys placed more importance than girls on being…

  17. Peer status in emerging adulthood: Associations of popularity and preference with social roles and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with

  18. Effects of "face" consciousness on status consumption among Chinese consumers: perceived social value as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Xin-An; Sun, Gong

    2015-02-01

    Chinese consumers are interested in status consumption, i.e., in striving to enhance their social standings through the consumption of luxury products. This study investigates how face consciousness, one's social self-esteem, and desire to be respected influences status consumption behavior in China. The Consciousness of Social Face Scale, the Social Value Scale, and the Status Consumption Scale were administered to 192 MBA students from a university in east China (117 men, 69 women, 6 unreported sex). The results revealed that face consciousness was positively related to Chinese consumers' status consumption. Moreover, the results showed that the effects of face consciousness on status consumption were partly mediated by consumer social value. The findings highlight the importance of face consciousness in understanding Chinese consumer behaviors.

  19. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Öst

    Full Text Available Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality, or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  20. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  1. A fully subordinated linear flow model for hillslope subsurface stormflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Baeumer, Boris; Chen, Li; Reeves, Donald M.; Sun, HongGuang

    2017-04-01

    Hillslope subsurface stormflow exhibits complex patterns when natural soils with multiscale heterogeneity impart a spatiotemporally nonlocal memory on flow dynamics. To efficiently quantify such nonlocal flow responses, this technical note proposes a fully subordinated flow (FSF) equation where the time- and flow-subordination capture the temporal and spatial memory, respectively. Results show that the time-subordination component of the FSF model captures a wide range of delayed flow response due to various degrees of soil heterogeneity (especially for low-conductivity zones), while the model's flow-subordination term accounts for the rapid flow responses along preferential flow paths. In the FSF model, parameters defining spatiotemporal memory functions may be related to soil properties, while other parameters such as scalar factors controlling the overall advection and diffusion are difficult to predict and can be estimated from subsurface stormflow hydrographs. These parameters can be constants at the hillslope scale because the spatiotemporal subordination, an upscaling technique, can capture the impact of system heterogeneity on flow dynamics, leading to a linear FSF model that might be applicable for various slopes. Valid scale, limitation and extension of the FSF model, and modification of the model for other complex hydrological dynamics are also discussed.

  2. Identification of an oxytocinase/vasopressinase-like leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP) in teleost fish and evidence for hypothalamic mRNA expression linked to behavioral social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Emma A; Walti, Kayla A; Newberry, Kathryn E; Lema, Sean C

    2017-09-01

    The vasotocin/vasopressin and isotocin/mesotocin/oxytocin family of nonapeptides regulate social behaviors and physiological functions associated with reproductive physiology and osmotic balance. While experimental and correlative studies provide evidence for these nonapeptides as modulators of behavior across all classes of vertebrates, mechanisms for nonapeptide inactivation in regulating these functions have been largely overlooked. Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP) - also known as vasopressinase, oxytocinase, placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) - is a membrane-bound zinc-dependent metalloexopeptidase enzyme that inactivates vasopressin, oxytocin, and select other cyclic polypeptides. In humans, LNPEP plays a key role in the clearance of oxytocin during pregnancy. However, the evolutionary diversity, expression distribution, and functional roles of LNPEP remain unresolved for other vertebrates. Here, we isolated and sequenced a full-length cDNA encoding a LNPEP-like polypeptide of 1033 amino acids from the ovarian tissue of Amargosa pupfish, Cyprinodon nevadensis. This deduced polypeptide exhibited high amino acid identity to human LNPEP both in the protein's active domain that includes the peptide binding site and zinc cofactor binding motif (53.1% identity), and in an intracellular region that distinguishes LNPEP from other aminopeptidases (70.3% identity). Transcripts encoding this LNPEP enzyme (lnpep) were detected at highest relative abundance in the gonads, hypothalamus, forebrain, optic tectum, gill and skeletal muscle of adult pupfish. Further evaluation of lnpep transcript abundance in the brain of sexually-mature pupfish revealed that lnpep mRNAs were elevated in the hypothalamus of socially subordinate females and males, and at lower abundance in the telencephalon of socially dominant males compared to dominant females. These findings provide evidence of an association between behavioral social

  3. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here, we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol we tested the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair-feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall, these results support the validity of our CSS to model BED allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake. PMID:25621284

  4. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  5. Social competitive status of a country and means of its maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chornodid Igor S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the “social competitive status” category. It marks that competitiveness is more and more identified by society socialisation factors. It proves that the social competitive status is a characteristic of social competitiveness of the national economy and is ensured through achievement of such indicators as social security, development of the society, level and quality of life, level of correspondence of the potential of organisation of the “optimal” strategy of its development. The article shows positive and negative features of the international image of Ukraine. It offers a formula for calculation of the social competitive status. It characterises such categories as the “national brand”, “international image of the state” and “competitiveness of the nation” by definition of world organisations. It offers effects of ensuring and maintaining the social competitive status of a country, which influence formation of social competitive advantages of countries.

  6. The Subordination of Women in Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Laura

    1986-01-01

    The emphasis on motherhood among Latin-American women and the anti-motherhood position of many American feminists are both appropriate adaptations to male dominance. Motherhood in the U.S. has traditionally isolated women and weakened their social position, whereas in Mexico it is the basis of successful female political action. (VM)

  7. Effects of Serotonergic and Opioidergic Drugs on Escape Behaviors and Social Status of Male Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, V. E.; Schürmann, F.-W.; Sakharov, D. A.

    We examined the effects of selective serotonin depletion and opioid ligands on social rank and related escape behavior of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Establishment of social rank in a pair of males affected their escape reactions. Losers showed a lower and dominants a higher percentage of jumps in response to tactile cercal stimulation than before a fight. The serotonin-depleting drug α-methyltryptophan (AMTP) caused an activation of the escape reactivity in socially naive crickets. AMTP-treated animals also showed a lower ability to become dominants. With an initial 51.6+/-3.6% of wins in the AMTP group, the percentage decreased to 26+/-1.6% on day 5 after injection. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone affected fight and escape similarly as AMTP. In contrast to naloxone, the opioid agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin decreased escape responsiveness to cercal stimulation in naive and subordinate crickets. We suggest that serotonergic and opioid systems are involved in the dominance induced depression of escape behavior.

  8. Parents' Social Status and Children's Daily Physical Activity: The Role of Familial Socialization and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Michael; Albrecht, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is a health relevant factor, particularly in affluent societies where overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent, even among children. Understanding the development of physical activity patterns in childhood is thus an important issue for health promotion. Following socialization theory, this study describes and explains differences in objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a socially and ethnically mixed sample of 6- to 11-year-old children in Germany. MVPA levels were objectively measured with accelerometers over the course of six consecutive days (Wednesday to Monday). Parents' attitudes and practices as well as the family's socio-economic status (SES) were assessed from the parents via questionnaires. Results indicate that MVPA levels of children vary with gender, but not with age and ethnicity. Moreover, parental SES, parental support for the child's sports activities, parents' own sport activities and the parents' belief in sports' capacities to foster personality development, character building and social integration significantly predict the MVPA level of children. It is concluded that interventions to promote MVPA among children need to take family interactions and lifestyles into account and should address families in socio-economically underprivileged areas.

  9. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  10. A Subordination Principle on Wright Functions and Regularized Resolvent Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Abadias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a vector-valued subordination principle for gα,gβ-regularized resolvent families which unified and improves various previous results in the literature. As a consequence, we establish new relations between solutions of different fractional Cauchy problems. To do that, we consider scaled Wright functions which are related to Mittag-Leffler functions, the fractional calculus, and stable Lévy processes. We study some interesting properties of these functions such as subordination (in the sense of Bochner, convolution properties, and their Laplace transforms. Finally we present some examples where we apply these results.

  11. Social Determinants of Alcohol Consumption: The Effects of Social Interaction and Model Status on the Self-Administration of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. Lorraine; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two studies assessed variables related to social determinants of alcohol consumption. Moderate- and heavy-drinking male undergraduates were exposed to various social status conditions crossed with light versus heavy consumption. Results provided support for the existence of modeling effect that can be disrupted by lack of rapport between drinking…

  12. Contextualizing nativity status, Latino social ties, and ethnic enclaves: an examination of the 'immigrant social ties hypothesis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A; Morenoff, Jeffrey D; Williams, David R; House, James S

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts, may be the strength of social ties and social support among immigrants. We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study's Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed-effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition and our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants' length of time in the USA. After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their US-born counterparts for all the outcomes, except informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for US-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. US-born Latinos maintained a significant social ties advantage over immigrants - regardless of length of time in the USA - for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their US-born counterparts. Our study

  13. Structure Matters: The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality

    OpenAIRE

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal c...

  14. Update Status: The State of Social Media Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Caroline Lego; Wood, Natalie T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how the topic of social media has been integrated and executed within academic institutions and marketing courses. An exploratory survey of marketing educators that taught social media in their course(s) was undertaken. The survey addressed how social media was embedded within an institute's curriculum,…

  15. Peer Clique Participation and Social Status in Preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Coie, John D.; Terry, Robert A.; Lochman, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Assessed fourth-graders' peer clique characteristics as a function of socioeconomic status, gender, and aggressiveness. Found that rejected youth were less central group members than average-status peers; aggressive preadolescents were no less involved than nonaggressive peers; rejected preadolescents belonged to smaller cliques and cliques…

  16. Social Status and the Demand for Security and Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossklags, Jens; Barradale, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    High-status decision makers are often in a position to make choices with security and privacy relevance not only for themselves but also for groups, or even society at-large. For example, decisions about security technology investments, anti-terrorism activities, and domestic security, broadly...... shape the balance between security and privacy. However, it is unclear to what extent the mass of individuals share the same concerns as high-status individuals. In particular, it is unexplored in the academic literature whether an individual’s status position shapes one’s security and privacy concerns....... The method of investigation used is experimental, with 146 subjects interacting in high- or low-status assignments and the subsequent change in the demand for security and privacy being related to status assignment with a significant t-statistic up to 2.9, depending on the specification. We find that a high...

  17. Structure Matters : The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is

  18. Dynamic Social Networks and Physical Aggression: The Moderating Role of Gender and Social Status Among Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L; Gest, Scott D; Loken, Eric

    2013-09-01

    We examined three interrelated questions: (1) Who selects physically aggressive friends?; (2) Are physically aggressive adolescents influential?; and (3) Who is susceptible to influence from these friends? Using stochastic actor-based modeling, we tested our hypotheses using a sample of 480 adolescents (ages 11-13) who were followed across four assessments (fall and spring of 6th and 7th grade). After controlling for other factors that drive network and behavioral dynamics, we found that physically aggressive adolescents were attractive as friends, physically aggressive adolescents and girls were more likely to select physically aggressive friends, and peer-rejected adolescents were less likely to select physically aggressive friends. There was an overall peer influence effect, but gender and social status were not significant moderators of influence.

  19. Social status level and dimension interactively influence person evaluations indexed by P300s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurovski, Ivo; Kubota, Jennifer; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2017-05-15

    Functional neuroimaging research suggests that status-based evaluations may not solely depend on the level of social status but also on the conferred status dimension. However, no reports to date have studied how status level and dimension shape early person evaluations. To explore early status-based person evaluations, event-related brain potential data were collected from 29 participants while they indicated the status level and dimension of faces that had been previously trained to be associated with one of four status types: high moral, low moral, high financial, or low financial. Analysis of the P300 amplitude (previously implicated in social evaluation) revealed an interaction of status level and status dimension such that enhanced P300 amplitudes were observed in response to targets of high financial and low moral status relative to targets of low financial and high moral status. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of our current understanding of status-based evaluation and, more broadly, of the processes by which person knowledge may shape person perception and evaluation.

  20. ADOLESCENTS’ SELF-CONCEPT AND SOCIAL STATUS IN THEIR SCHOOL CLASS AND PEER CLIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Ļevina, Jeļena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...

  1. Patriarchy and the subordination of women among the Abagusii of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the role of private patriarchy in the subordination of women among the Abagusii of western Kenya. It identifies customs and practices governing marriage such as the payment of dowry, circumcision, the gender division of labour within the household and polygamy as the main factors contributing to the ...

  2. Supervisors' and subordinates' perception of the Impact of Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a descriptive survey, which ascertained supervisors and subordinates perception of the impact of Botswana College of Agriculture training programme on graduates' job behaviour. The study was carried out in the Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana, which is composed of six departments. All BCA ...

  3. Stable Lévy motion with inverse Gaussian subordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wyłomańska, A.; Gajda, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the stable Lévy motion subordinated by the so-called inverse Gaussian process. This process extends the well known normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) process introduced by Barndorff-Nielsen, which arises by subordinating ordinary Brownian motion (with drift) with inverse Gaussian process. The NIG process found many interesting applications, especially in financial data description. We discuss here the main features of the introduced subordinated process, such as distributional properties, existence of fractional order moments and asymptotic tail behavior. We show the connection of the process with continuous time random walk. Further, the governing fractional partial differential equations for the probability density function is also obtained. Moreover, we discuss the asymptotic distribution of sample mean square displacement, the main tool in detection of anomalous diffusion phenomena (Metzler et al., 2014). In order to apply the stable Lévy motion time-changed by inverse Gaussian subordinator we propose a step-by-step procedure of parameters estimation. At the end, we show how the examined process can be useful to model financial time series.

  4. Health care managers learning by listening to subordinates' dialogue training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, C; Ahlborg, G; Wikström, E

    2014-01-01

    Middle managers in health care today are expected to continuously and efficiently decide and act in administration, finance, care quality, and work environment, and strategic communication has become paramount. Since dialogical communication is considered to promote a healthy work environment, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which health care managers experienced observing subordinates' dialogue training. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and documents from eight middle managers in a dialogue programme intervention conducted by dialogue trainers. Focus was on fostering and assisting workplace dialogue. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used. Managers' experiences were both enriching and demanding, and consisted of becoming aware of communication, meaning perceiving interaction between subordinates as well as own silent interaction with subordinates and trainer; Discovering communicative actions for leadership, by gaining self-knowledge and recognizing relational leadership models from trainers--such as acting democratically and pedagogically--and converting theory into practice, signifying practising dialogue-promoting conversation behaviour with subordinates, peers, and superiors. Only eight managers participated in the intervention, but data afforded a basis for further research. Findings stressed the importance of listening, and of support from superiors, for well-functioning leadership communication at work. Studies focusing on health care managers' communication and dialogue are few. This study contributes to knowledge about these activities in managerial leadership.

  5. On a differential subordination of some certain subclass of Univalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    convex functions using Briot-Bouquet differential subordination method. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 181-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jonamp.v10i1.40124 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Children's Communication of Basic Level and Subordinate Level Semantic Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossan, Nancy E.

    Developmental differences in preschool children's abilities to communicate about basic and subordinate level semantic contrasts were examined in a referential communication situation. Twenty-four three, four, and five-year-old children communicated with children of the same age and adults about pictures' referents. Speakers talked about one…

  7. Pyrrhic victories: the need for social status drives costly competitive behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van den Bos, Wouter; Golka, Philipp J M; Effelsberg, David; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-01

    .... We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions...

  8. Social benefits of luxury brands as costly signals of wealth and status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; Meijers, M.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from costly signaling theory, we predicted that luxury consumption enhances status and produces benefits in social interactions. Across seven experiments, displays of luxury — manipulated through brand labels on clothes — elicited different kinds of preferential treatment, which even

  9. Method of Property Acquisition and Social Status in Post-Communist Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Reznik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to peculiarities of social stratification in post-communist society. The nature of relations between the subjective social status and possession of property objects depends on the method of their acquisition. The expensive property objects, which often do not correspond to an individual’s financial position but are acquired on his or her own initiative, have the capacity for differentiating people by status indication. Instead, the unintentional acquisition of property under the effect of outer factors has no essential influence on the social status. In the course of privatization of state habitation and land, most Ukrainians became homeowners and landowners. However, property objects acquired on the initiative of government have not become the factors of social stratification. Only with real institutional transformations in economy, liberalization of land market, and legitimation of the institute of private property will the acquired property objects become full-value material assets affecting status characteristics of an individual.

  10. Group status is related to group prototypicality in the absence of social identity concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Based on self-categorization theory, group status should be positively related to group prototypicality when the relevant superordinate category is positively valued. In this case, high-status groups should be perceived to be more prototypical than low-status groups even in the absence of concerns about maintaining a positive social identity. To test this hypothesis, a minimal group study was conducted in which participants (N = 139) did not belong to any of the groups involved. Consistent with predictions, participants perceived high-status groups to be significantly more prototypical than low-status groups. Consistent with self-categorization theory's cognitive analysis, these results demonstrate that the relation between group status and group prototypicality is a relatively basic and pervasive effect that does not depend on social identity motives.

  11. Involvement in alcohol-related verbal or physical aggression. Does social status matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus Ludwig; Tryggvesson Kalle; Pabst Alexander; Room Robin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION -The analyses (1) assessed the association between social status variables and aggression when controlling for volume of alcohol consumption and episodic heavy drinking (EHD), (2) tested whether social status moderates the association between volume or EHD and verbal as well as physical aggression, and (3) investigated whether EHD moderates the effect of volume on aggression. METHODS - Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003 to 2011); N=104,316 current drinkers; response rate: 51...

  12. Social disparities in dentition status among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Zhiwu; Walker, Mary P

    2014-02-01

    To assess the overall dentition status of American adults, to investigate disparities and changes in dentition using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 and to study the effects of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language on dentition after adjusting for other demographics. Descriptive statistics were used to explore and summarise dentition status. The prevalence of dentition markers over two surveys were compared using tests of proportions and a series of regressions were used to estimate the strength of association of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language with the four markers of dentition status. Overall, dentition status has improved in adults. However, gaps exist in that non-Hispanic Black and Mexican-Americans have a higher prevalence of dental decay and lower restoration rates than other races. After adjusting for selected demographics, adults with less education (education (≥12 years) and those with higher family incomes. This study indicates that disparities in dentition associated with race/ethnicity, education and income still exist among adults in the USA. The results also indicate that to improve overall oral health and close the existing gaps in oral health, increased access to dental care would be needed for people who have low incomes and low levels of education. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Involvement in alcohol-related verbal or physical aggression. Does social status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION -The analyses (1 assessed the association between social status variables and aggression when controlling for volume of alcohol consumption and episodic heavy drinking (EHD, (2 tested whether social status moderates the association between volume or EHD and verbal as well as physical aggression, and (3 investigated whether EHD moderates the effect of volume on aggression. METHODS - Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003 to 2011; N=104,316 current drinkers; response rate: 51 to 38%. Alcohol-related aggression was defined as involvement in a quarrel or physical fight while drinking. Social status was defined as the highest education, monthly income and marital status. RESULTS - The associations between social status variables and aggression showed mixed results. Verbal aggression was associated with education in males and with marital status in both genders. Physical aggression was associated with education in both genders. No associations with aggression were found for income. With few exceptions, these associations remained significant when controlling for drinking patterns; social status did not moderate the association between drinking and aggression; EHD moderated the effect of volume on physical aggression in males. CONCLUSIONS - Groups of lower educated and nonmarried individuals experience verbal or physical aggression over and above different levels of consumption. Individual differences in aggression vulnerability rather than differences in aggression predisposition account for higher risks of aggression in these groups.

  14. Critical Analysis of the Impact of Job on the Social Status of Women in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Uzma; Abro, Allahdino; Khawaja, Mumtaz; Siddiqui, Abida; Farshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Although the larger portion of the world population is women but hardly 25% women are employed. Furthermore, they have been given second class status. Considering the need and importance of job for women, a survey regarding the impact of job on the social status of women has been conducted. A sample of 100 employed and 100 unemployed women was…

  15. The Social Status of Elderly Women and Men within the Filipino Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindy; Domingo, Lita J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined how control over resources, social interaction with children, gender, health, age, employment status, and marital status influence decision-making power of older Filipino adults (n=1,321). Subjects who were younger, employed, well educated, and who owned their homes, provided economic transfer to children and were in more frequent contact…

  16. Teacher Behavior and Peer Liking and Disliking: The Teacher as a Social Referent for Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Marloes M. H. G.; Mainhard, Tim; Oudman, Sophie; Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    According to social referencing theory, cues peers take from positive and negative teacher behavior toward a student affect the student's peer liking and disliking status. The present study was the first to test the hypothesized mediation model connecting teacher behavior with peer liking and disliking status, via peer perceptions of teacher…

  17. Features of Social Status Perception in the Youth and Student Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova S.V.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents socio-psychological analysis of the phenomenon of social status, which is not seen as a sociological category, but as a component of the image of the object of learning. The author hypothesized that social status defined by another person depends on a number of the social object indicators (gender, age and socio-demographic criteria and the characteristics of the subject of learning (gender, age, job, self-evaluations on various parameters. The study involved 141 people (83 female, 58 male, aged 18 to 30 years, mean=23. Methodological tools were the method of questionnaires and interviews with stimulus material. The author identified the components of the social status phenomenon and characteristics of the object and the subject of learning that are important for determining the position of the individual in society. Features of the social status assessment in the original perception were determined. The obtained data can be used in the educational process for determining group structure in the students of higher educational institutions, high-status and low-status members, as well as for understanding the value structures and important components in the social life of young people

  18. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxiety questionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the

  20. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  1. Abusive Supervision and Subordinate Performance : Instrumentality Considerations in the Emergence and Consequences of Abusive Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Lam, Catherine K.; van der Vegt, Geert; Huang, X.; Miao, Q.

    Drawing from moral exclusion theory, this article examines outcome dependence and interpersonal liking as key boundary conditions for the linkage between perceived subordinate performance and abusive supervision. Moreover, it investigates the role of abusive supervision for subordinates' subsequent,

  2. Employment status and subjective well-being: The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  3. The Impact of Clique Membership on Children's Social Behavior and Status Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Lease, A. Michele; Hoffman, Lesa

    2012-01-01

    The impact of children's clique membership on their peer nominations for social behaviors and status was examined in a sample of 455 third- through fifth-grade children. Social identity theory (SIT) and children's peer group affiliation and context served as primary conceptual frameworks for this investigation. As suggested by SIT, results…

  4. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  5. The Self-Identification of Provincial Young People in the Context of Social-Status Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukin, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    A survey conducted in two provincial areas of Russia provides the basis for an examination of the relation between the self-identification and the social status affiliation of young people. Self-assessments serve as the basis for a model of the social structure and a typology of the younger generation in these regions, in accordance with their…

  6. Characteristics of Academically-Influential Children: Achievement Motivation and Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…

  7. School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

  8. Personality and Problem Behaviours as Predictors of Adolescents' Social Status: Academic Track and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubers, Mireille D.; Burk, William J.; Segers, Eliane; Kleinjan, Marloes; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent personality and problem behaviours as predictors of two types of social status: social preference and popularity. Academic track (college preparatory and vocational) and gender were expected to moderate these associations. The sample included 693 students (49.0% female; M = 15.46 years) attending classrooms in two…

  9. Employment status and subjective well-being : The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  10. Social Prominence and the Heterogeneity of Rejected Status in Late Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Estell, David B.; Brooks, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of peer rejection was examined as a function of social prominence in fifth grade classrooms. From an overall sample of 3,891 (1,931 girls) students, 721 youth (424 boys) were identified with rejected status. Social prominence was determined from the aggregation of peer nominations for "leader", "athletic", "cool", and "popular".…

  11. Psychosocial Empowerment and Social Support Factors Associated with the Employment Status of Immigrant Welfare Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Manuel; Martinez, Manuel F.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Albar, Maria-Jesus; Dominguez, Eugenia; Santolaya, Francisco J.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the role that psychosocial empowerment and social support factors play in the employment status of immigrants who participate in job-readiness programs financed by the European Social Funds and the Welfare Services of Andalusia, a region in the south of Spain. The goal of these programs is to find new ways to improve immigrants'…

  12. The spirit of capitalism, social status, money, and accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the unambiguous existence of the Tobin portfolio-shift effect in the wealth-is-status and the spirit-of-capitalism models of growth. Namely, higher inflation leads to higher capital stock in the long run, and inflation increases the endogenous-growth rate of the economy.

  13. Characteristics of the Social Status of Students at Military Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlova, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the motivations of Russian college students in military training centers and military departments, and cadets enrolled in military service academies shows that the first two occupy a marginal position. This is reflected in the ambiguity of their status and the fact that they are at the interface between two cultures, manifested in…

  14. The Perceived Leader Support Behavior for Subordinate's Creativity: The Moderating Effect of Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Hsiung Chen; Jui-Mei Yien; Chien-Jung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The main goal behind this study tries to figure out whether or not the leaders supportive behavior will influence subordinates creativity and is there any affection of trust between leaders supportive behavior and subordinates creativity? Approach: This study was conducted to examine the relationships between leader support behavior and subordinate creativity and the moderating effect of trust on subordinates' creativity under the leader support behavior...

  15. Structure Matters: The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René

    2015-12-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal clique hierarchy. The sample consists of 2674 adolescents (49.8% boys), with a mean age of 14.02. We focused specifically on physical and relational aggression, and practical and emotional support, because these behaviors have shown to be of great importance for social relationships and social standing among adolescents. The internal status hierarchy of cliques was based on the variation in individual social status between clique members (i.e., clique hierarchization) and the structure of status scores within a clique (pyramid shape, inverted pyramid, or equal distribution of social status scores) (i.e., clique status structure). The results showed that differences in aggressive and prosocial behaviors were particularly moderated by clique status structure: aggression was stronger related to individual social status in (girls') cliques where the clique status structure reflected an inverted pyramid with relatively more high status adolescents within the clique than low status peers, and prosocial behavior showed a significant relationship with individual social status, again predominantly in inverted pyramid structured (boys' and girls') cliques. Furthermore, these effects differed by types of gender cliques: the associations were found in same gender but not mixed-gender cliques. The findings stress the importance of taking into account internal clique characteristics when studying adolescent social status in relationship to aggression and prosociality.

  16. Cross-Situational Specificity in Managers' Perceptions of Subordinate Performance, Attributions, and Leader Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lawrence R.; White, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Examined managers' perceptions of subordinates' performance, causes (attributions) of subordinates' performance, and the leader behaviors they employed toward subordinates from the standpoint of cross-situational consistency versus cross-situational specificity. Empirical results for 377 Navy managers provided strong support for cross-situational…

  17. Cone-Parameter Convolution Semigroups and Their Subordination

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Jan; Sato, Ken-iti

    2003-01-01

    Convolution semigroups of probability measures with parameter in a cone in a Euclidean space generalize usual convolution semigroups with parameter in $[0,\\infty)$. A characterization of such semigroups is given and examples are studied. Subordination of cone-parameter convolution semigroups by cone-valued cone-parameter convolution semigroups is introduced. Its general description is given and inheritance properties are shown. In the study the distinction between cones with an...

  18. Subordinated diffusion and continuous time random walk asymptotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2010-12-01

    Anomalous transport is usually described either by models of continuous time random walks (CTRWs) or, otherwise, by fractional Fokker-Planck equations (FFPEs). The asymptotic relation between properly scaled CTRW and fractional diffusion process has been worked out via various approaches widely discussed in literature. Here, we focus on a correspondence between CTRWs and time and space fractional diffusion equation stemming from two different methods aimed to accurately approximate anomalous diffusion processes. One of them is the Monte Carlo simulation of uncoupled CTRW with a Lévy α-stable distribution of jumps in space and a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution of waiting times. The other is based on a discretized form of a subordinated Langevin equation in which the physical time defined via the number of subsequent steps of motion is itself a random variable. Both approaches are tested for their numerical performance and verified with known analytical solutions for the Green function of a space-time fractional diffusion equation. The comparison demonstrates a trade off between precision of constructed solutions and computational costs. The method based on the subordinated Langevin equation leads to a higher accuracy of results, while the CTRW framework with a Mittag-Leffler distribution of waiting times provides efficiently an approximate fundamental solution to the FFPE and converges to the probability density function of the subordinated process in a long-time limit. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Shively

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum.

  20. Bullying: Young Children's Roles, Social Status, and Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…

  1. Empirical study of the degrees to which social support, social status and gender affect the academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov A.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.

  2. FEATURES OF FORMATION OF A YOUNG FAMILY SOCIAL STATUS UNDER THE ETHNIC INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vladimirovna Anafianova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structure of the social status of parental and young families was considered. We considered such families as: students’ families, families of employee, workers’ families, peasants’ families, military personnel families, families of businessmen, dependants’ families.We found out that during the formation of young families the structure of parental families had been already created and in both groups of parental families the share of the families having the social status – "a family of the worker" prevailed. In the structure of young families the social status "the family of the worker" prevails considerably among other groups, with a tendency to increase in dynamics.The obtained data specify that the formation of the social status of a young family according to a standard of parental families in their ethnic cohort becomes apparent among young families of cohorts "the Russians" and "the mixed with Russians", mainly living in an urban area. "Other" young families accept a standard of the social status of parental families for a reference point only to a certain extend. The opposite result is found in the cohorts of the young families such as: "Russian-speaking families", "the Khakasses" and "Others".DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-8

  3. Stress, depressive status and telomere length: Does social interaction and coping strategy play a mediating role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Jia; Wei, Ya Bin; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2017-11-01

    Telomeres have been reported to be shorter in individuals exposed to psychosocial stress and in those with depression. Since negative environmental stress is a risk factor for depression, the present study tested whether stressors in childhood (CA) and recent adulthood (NLE) predicted telomere attrition directly and/or indirectly through individuals' depressive status 3-6 years before TL measurement; and then if social interaction and coping strategies in adulthood influenced the relationship between depressive status and TL. Participants were 337 individuals with a recent depression diagnosis and 574 screened controls that derived from a longitudinal population-based cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden. Relative TL was determined using qPCR. Relationships between the key variables stressors, depressive status, social interaction, coping strategies and TL were explored by path analysis in males and females, adjusting for age. The key variables were correlated in expected directions. In females, depressive status and age had direct negative effects on TL (p social interaction (p = 0.005) and the coping strategy worry (p = 0.005). In females, no mediation effect of social interaction and coping strategy was detected. Only little of the TL variation was explained by the models. The environmental stress information was limited. Our findings propose gender-specific paths from environmental stressors through depressive status, social interaction and coping strategy to TL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of social ranks and gestation housing systems on oxidative stress status, reproductive performance, and immune status of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Flowers, W L; Saraiva, A; Yeum, K-J; Kim, S W

    2013-12-01

    Ninety-six multiparous sows were randomly assigned into 2 different gestation housing systems on d 35 of gestation: individual gestational crates (n = 24) or small groups with 3 sows in gestational pens (n = 24). Sows were classified into 4 treatments based on gestation housing systems and social ranks within each gestational pen: sows housed in individual gestational crates were in control treatment (CON), and sows destined to high, middle, or low social ranks within each pen were classified into high social rank treatment (HR), middle social rank treatment (MR), and low social rank treatment (LR). The social rank of sows within a pen was determined by their winning percentage during aggressive interactions observed for a 4-d period after mixing on d 35 of gestation. Plasma samples collected from each sow on d 35, 60, 90, and 109 of gestation and d 1 and 18 of lactation were used to determine concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), IgG, and IgM. Sows in HR had higher (P gestation and lactation, smallest (P gestation, d 3 and 18 of lactation, and greater (P gestation and lactation. Collectively, the reproductive performance, oxidative stress status, and immune status did not differ between sows housed in gestational crates (CON) and pens (HR + MR + LR). Sows in CON and MR did not show inferior reproductive performance during gestation and lactation. Sows in HR and LR had increased oxidative damage during late gestation and lactation which could contribute to the reduced litter size and litter weight in HR and lower farrowing rate in LR.

  5. Ethnicity and nativity status as determinants of perceived social support: testing the concept of familism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joanna; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2009-05-01

    Research has demonstrated a protective effect of social support on health. Social support is most often treated as an independent variable. However, as with disease risk factors, which are not randomly distributed, health-promoting resources such as social support are also systematically patterned. For example, in the USA, family support is thought to be high among Latinos, Mexican Americans in particular. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, we explored the relationships between ethnicity/nativity status, socioeconomic status (SES) and perceived social support from family and friends. We also assessed the role of retention of culture-measured as primary language spoken at home-on social support. Finally, we tested whether SES moderated the relationship between ethnicity/nativity status and social support. Foreign and US-born Latinos, most notably, foreign-born Mexicans, reported higher family support compared to non-Latino whites. Primary language spoken at home seems to account for the relationship between ethnicity/nativity and familial social support. Mexican-born and US-born Latino immigrants reported lower social support from family at higher levels of SES. Each ethnic minority group reported lower perception of friend support compared to non-Latino whites. There was a strong SES gradient in subjective support from friends with higher support reported among those with higher SES. This study provides evidence for the notion that Latinos in the USA, specifically foreign-born Mexicans, may rely on family ties for support more than do non-Latino whites. Findings also help identify ethnicity/nativity status, primary language spoken and SES as determinants of social support. Specifically, the higher familial social support found among Latino immigrants may be due to retention of culture. Effect modification by SES suggests that Latinos of lower and higher SES may differ with regard to the traditionally-held value of familism.

  6. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  7. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sigle-Rushton

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  8. Social status and the pursuit of positive social identity: Systematic domains of intergroup differentiation and discrimination for high- and low- status groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Julian A; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-07-01

    Research on intergroup discrimination has focused on the cognitive and motivational mechanisms involved, but the role of stereotype content has been neglected. Drawing on social identity theory and stereotype content research, the current studies investigated the role of stereotype content in intergroup differentiation and discrimination. Across two studies, students from high- and low-status groups differentiated themselves positively on stereotypes of competence and warmth respectively, and in allocations of resources in domains relevant to competence (academics, research) and warmth (sports, community outreach). Furthermore, there was evidence that discrimination by high- and low-status groups was driven by their respective stereotypes of competence and warmth. It is argued that stereotypes of competence and warmth, derived from status and power relations between groups, define the domains in which groups pursue positively distinct identities.

  9. Differences in nutritional status of preschool children in the context of the maternal social characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-07-14

    It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821.

  10. The Effects of Experimentally Manipulated Social Status on Acute Eating Behavior: A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, MI; Johnson, SL; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, AD; Tomczik, AC; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, DM; Muller, K; Piff, PK; Peters, JC; Hill, JO; Allison, DB

    2016-01-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19–25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30 kg/m2). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of ‘privilege’ depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status

  11. Reform of social services provision in Ukraine: current statuse and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dubych

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the reforming progress in the social services provision in Ukraine have been analysed; its features and consequences under the present conditions have been revealed; the key problems that arise in the course of the reforms implementation in the social services provision system have been outlined as well as their possible solutions have been determined.The attention is focused on the basic forms of social protection of population in Ukraine (social benefits. The main drawbacks that slow down the progress of reforming the system of providing social services to the population in Ukraine: legislative and regulatory unsettled; the inefficiency and irrationality in approaches to financing and governance; government monopolization of the market of social services; failure mechanisms for the implementation of norms of the law on social services. Was determined that social service system characterized by poorly targeted of receiving the social benefits. Also is scattered budgetary social spending. This leads to significant differences of incomes and increasing income inequality. Researched that despite the ongoing modernization reforms the efficiency system of social protection in Ukraine remains quite low. Financial and economic crisis and other destructive processes taking place in Ukrainian society. This situation is unacceptable and requires a detailed study to key decisions for its improvement. Keywords: social protection, social services, the current status of reform, legal and regulatory framework, national model, financing, optimization.

  12. Social status modulates prosocial behavior and egalitarianism in preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinote, Ana; Cotzia, Ioanna; Sandhu, Sanpreet; Siwa, Pramila

    2015-01-20

    Humans are a cooperative species, capable of altruism and the creation of shared norms that ensure fairness in society. However, individuals with different educational, cultural, economic, or ethnic backgrounds differ in their levels of social investment and endorsement of egalitarian values. We present four experiments showing that subtle cues to social status (i.e., prestige and reputation in the eyes of others) modulate prosocial orientation. The experiments found that individuals who experienced low status showed more communal and prosocial behavior, and endorsed more egalitarian life goals and values compared with those who experienced high status. Behavioral differences across high- and low-status positions appeared early in human ontogeny (4-5 y of age).

  13. Discrimination between dominant and subordinate groups: the positive-negative asymmetry effect and normative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bourhis, Richard Y

    2005-06-01

    Research using the minimal group paradigm (MGP) demonstrates that categorization and in-group identification can suffice to foster intergroup discrimination. However, the positive- negative asymmetry effect (PNAE) shows that less discrimination occurs when negative than when positive outcomes are distributed between group members. Combining the polarization paradigm and the MGP, this study investigated the discriminatory behaviour of dominant and subordinate group members ( N = 197) on positive and negative outcome distributions. During private outcome distributions at pre-consensus, dominant groups discriminated more than subordinate groups while the PNAE was not replicated. Positive/negative outcome distributions were sought during intragroup discussion in the consensus phase, while post-consensus involved private outcome distributions. The PNAE emerged in both consensus and post-consensus phases: group members discriminated less on salary cuts than on salary increases, whereas the power effect disappeared in those phases. The emergence of in-group norms during face-to-face discussions at consensus as well as social identity processes help account for the results obtained in this study.

  14. Educational status, social economic status and evaluation of some dimensions of octogenarians' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Keika; Pedrazzani, Elisete Silva

    2007-01-01

    To describe the profile of a sample of octogenarians (n=80) attended at the municipal health network of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil; evaluate their perception regarding quality of life dimensions (QoL); identify correlations between socio economic status, education level and QoL. It is an exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative analysis of data. The results revealed that this population is predominantly female, widowed, illiterate, sedentary and poor, who need health services and leisure opportunities, and whose main support is religion. The socio economic status did not interfere in the QoL perception, though, higher education and participation in physical activities result in higher satisfaction.

  15. Maternal social status, early health capital, and young adults' economic attainment: Early life course investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyoung; Wickrama, K A S

    2017-01-01

    Using survey data collected from 12,278 adolescents and their mothers over 13 years in a nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined how maternal social status influenced young adults' economic attainment over the early life course. We found that weight at birth and height at adolescence as early health capital mediated the influence of maternal social status on young adults' economic attainment. Also, adolescents' educational attainment and psychological vulnerabilities mediated the relation between early health capital and young adults' economic attainment. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention to prevent the persistent influence of adverse maternal social status on youths' developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Family and ability correlates of academic grades: social status group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bacete, Francisco-Juan; Oliver Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2004-08-01

    In a continuation of work by Marjoribanks (2003), using a sample of 150 seventh grade students, relationships among Parent Involvement as defined by factor scores of four measures of parents' involvement completed by teachers: teacher-parent contacts, teacher-parent communication, parents' involvement at home, and parents' participation in school, Intellectual Ability as defined by Verbal Intelligence using the Yuste's Differential and General Aptitudes Battery-M, and Academic Grades as defined by the average grade for all subject matter were examined. Analysis showed different predictive models for children's academic achievement as a function of social status. For children of low and middle social status, Intellectual Ability was the single predictor. For children of high social status the predictors were Parents' Involvement and the interaction of Parents' Involvement and Intellectual Ability.

  17. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2014-12-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.

  18. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  19. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader’s Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, F.M.; De Cremer, D.; van Dijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader–subordinate relationships, and whether a leader’s self-interest functions as a boundary condition to this effect. A

  20. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader's Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Cramwinckel (Florien); D. de Cremer (David); M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader-subordinate relationships, and whether a leader's self-interest functions as a boundary condition to

  1. Association between the older adults' social relationships and functional status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kumi; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Chen, Wencan; Wu, Bailiang; Ito, Sumio; Okumura, Rika; Anme, Tokie

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that social relationships positively contribute to the functioning of older adults. However, the particular aspects of social relationships that are most predictive remain unknown. Consequently, the current study aimed to clarify what elements of social relationships impacted the maintenance of functioning among older adults. The present study used baseline data collected in 2011, and follow-up surveys were carried out 3 years later. Participants included individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in a suburban community in Japan. A total of 434 participants met inclusion criteria for the study and were included in analysis. The Index of Social Interaction measure consists of five subscales (independence, social curiosity, interaction, participation and feeling of safety), and was used to assess the multiple elements of social relationships. After controlling for age, sex, disease status and mobility in 2011, the results showed that the social curiosity subscale was significantly associated with functional status after 3 years (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63). Other Index of Social Interaction subscales were non-significant. The current study suggests that interaction with environment and multifaceted social relationships have the strongest impact on functional ability for older adults in Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1522-1526. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. [Health behaviour and changes in health behaviour - are education and social status relevant?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Philippi, M; Böcken, J

    2014-01-01

    Individual health behaviour counts as an important factor for health status. A healthier lifestyle substantially contributes to better health. People burdened with lower health and with lower socio-economic status could benefit notably. So far it is not known exhaustively to what extent education and social status contribute to changes in health behaviour and which motifs play a decisive role. Based on cross-sectional data from the seventh wave of the "Gesundheitsmonitor", Bertelsmann Foundation, (n=1 436), the influence of social status and education on health behaviour and changes in behaviour was analysed. Specific health behaviour correlates with level of education and socio-economic status. In contrast, regarding health behaviour changes in the last 12 months prior to survey, no social class- or education-specific effect was found. Age, health status as well as fears and wishes in relation to health seem to be important causalities for changes of health-related behaviour. Interventions to foster healthy lifestyles should include class differences in specific health-related behaviour and personal reasons for behavioural changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  4. THE LEGITIMACY OF INCLUDING THE SOCIAL PARAMETERS IN EVALUATING THE HEALTH STATUS IN THE SOCIAL ASSURANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The social state crisis encouraged a reductionist tendency which had recently developed in the evaluations of the health status in the social assurance system. A holistic, psycho-medical approach, which took in consideration the implications of the social factors regarding disability, was confronted with a strictly medical model, in which the illness is exclusively considered a person’s problem; therefore, the references towards the „social” are irrelevant. In this context, the present paper states the question of the legitimacy of using some sociological concepts, in medical expertise, considered relevant in this area, such as: „occupational access” or the „social functioning of the person”. The present study doesn’t stop at offering as arguments of legitimacy the authority of some recommendations regarding the use of the social-medical model, including the evaluation of the health status, recommendations received from the behalf of OMS and the European Council (see CIF. The paper presents the construction of specific evaluation instruments and tries to identify the sense in which using the references regarding the „social” could influence the pressures in the social assurance system.

  5. Use of social support during communication about sickle cell carrier status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Lisa; Roedl, Sara J; Christopher, Stephanie A; Farrell, Michael H

    2012-08-01

    To examine the use of social support behaviors by primary care providers during delivery of positive newborn screening results for Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status. Transcripts from 125 primary care providers who conveyed Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status to standardized parents were content analyzed using categories derived from Cutrona and Suhr's social support taxonomy. Frequencies and cross-tabulation matrices were calculated to study providers' social support utilization. Results showed most primary care providers (80%) incorporate social support behaviors into delivery of Sickle Cell Anemia carrier results and most frequently employed social network (61.6%) and informational support (38.4%) behaviors. Providers used tangible aid (8%), esteem (1.6%), and emotional support (9.6%) behaviors less frequently. Cutrona and Suhr's taxonomy may be a useful tool for assessing supportive communication during the delivery of Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status and could be incorporated into population scale assessments of communication quality assurance. Primary care providers may need training in how to adapt supportive behaviors to parents' needs during communication of Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status. They also may benefit from specific training about how to use esteem and emotional support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Social Support during Communication about Sickle Cell Carrier Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Lisa; Roedl, Sara J.; Christopher, Stephanie A.; Farrell, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of social support behaviors by primary care providers during delivery of positive newborn screening results for Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status. Methods Transcripts from 125 primary care providers who conveyed Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status to standardized parents were content analyzed using categories derived from Cutrona and Suhr’s social support taxonomy. Frequencies and cross-tabulation matrices were calculated to study providers’ social support utilization. Results Results showed most primary care providers (80%) incorporate social support behaviors into delivery of Sickle Cell Anemia carrier results and most frequently employed social network (61.6%) and informational support (38.4%) behaviors. Providers used tangible aid (8%), esteem (1.6%), and emotional support (9.6%) behaviors less frequently. Conclusion Cutrona and Suhr’s taxonomy may be a useful tool for assessing supportive communication during the delivery of Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status and could be incorporated into population scale assessments of communication quality assurance. Practice Implications Primary care providers may need training in how to adapt supportive behaviors to parents’ needs during communication of Sickle Cell Anemia carrier status. They also may benefit from specific training about how to use esteem and emotional support. PMID:22658247

  7. The Influence of Chronic and Situational Social Status on Stereotype Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pillaud

    Full Text Available We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition, favor girls (women superiority condition, or show no gender preference (control condition. Both experiments found that women's (Experiment 1 and girls' performance (Experiment 2 suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys' ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group. Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations.

  8. The Influence of Chronic and Situational Social Status on Stereotype Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaud, Vincent; Rigaud, David; Clémence, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition), favor girls (women superiority condition), or show no gender preference (control condition). Both experiments found that women's (Experiment 1) and girls' performance (Experiment 2) suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys' ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group) were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group). Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations.

  9. The Influence of Chronic and Situational Social Status on Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaud, Vincent; Rigaud, David; Clémence, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition), favor girls (women superiority condition), or show no gender preference (control condition). Both experiments found that women’s (Experiment 1) and girls’ performance (Experiment 2) suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys’ ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group) were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group). Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations. PMID:26645829

  10. Readiness for Hospital Discharge, Health Literacy, and Social Living Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrea S; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Bohr, Nicole L; Chung, Sophia Jihey

    2016-10-01

    Patient characteristics and lack of preparedness are associated with poor outcomes after hospital discharge. Our purpose was to explore the association between patient characteristics and patient- and nurse-completed Readiness for Hospital Discharge Scale (RHDS). We conducted a prospective study of 70 Veterans being discharged from medical and surgical units. Differences in RHDS knowledge subscale scores were found among literacy levels, with lower perceived knowledge reported for those with marginal or inadequate literacy (p = .03). Differences in RHDS expected support subscale scores were also found, with those who were unmarried and/or living alone (p discharge. No other differences were found. Similar differences were found for the RHDS completed by nurses. These findings suggest that the RHDS appears responsive to differences in health literacy and social environment, adding to evidence of its utility as a tool to identify, and plan interventions for, those at risk for readmission. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Subjective Social Status in select Ukrainians, Vietnamese, and Mongolians living in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Veleminsky, Milos; Brabcová, Iva; Záleská, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998. SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05. When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency). The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to

  12. Effects of farmer social status and plant biocultural value on seed circulation networks in Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed circulation among farmers, which is embedded in composite social networks, is a key process in the dynamics of seed systems that shape crop diversity. We analyzed the daily circulation of biological objects, i.e., cultivated plants (31 species, 284 landraces, within a community of first-generation migrants (16 households, 30 persons living on the island of Vanua Lava in the South Pacific archipelago nation of Vanuatu. By combining participant observation, ethnobiological inventories, and social network analysis, we investigated how farmer social status and plant biocultural value affect plant circulation. Plant biocultural value was estimated by referring to their local classification according to uses, cultivation practices, growing environments, and biological properties. An aggregate plant circulation network (577 events and three subnetworks (i.e., for starchy, side dish, or snack food categories sharing the same 30 nodes were analyzed using exponential random graph models. Evidence that farmer social status influences the patterns of plant circulation was found through the distribution of structural parameters of the network, including: dyadic reciprocity; in-degree, out-degree, and their correlation; triadic cycling; and transitivity. At the scale of the aggregate network, direct or indirect reciprocity was not observed. Instead, a high out-degree (i.e., being a more frequent giver and a negative correlation between in-degree and out-degree both confer prestige and reinforce hierarchy. These results suggest that some of the social dynamics of the Melanesian-type Big Man political system may persist, even though the system itself no longer exists in traditional form. Moreover, based on our comparative analysis of the three subnetworks, farmer social status appears to influence greatly the circulation of plants with high biocultural value while having little influence on plants with low biocultural value. Farmer social status and plant

  13. Constructing Identities in the Roman Dalmatia: Gladiators of Salona and their Social Status

    OpenAIRE

    Marko A. Janković

    2016-01-01

    Inscriptions on stone urns of the gladiators buried in the immediate vicinity of the amphitheatre in Salona offer insight into their social status. Information gained from these inscriptions testifies about the ambivalent attitude of the Roman society towards marginal groups, in this case gladiators. On one hand, these are slaves deprived of the Roman civil rights, with limited field of social action, while on the other hand the mode of burial (stone urn with inscription and image) does not d...

  14. On the Fractional Poisson Process and the Discretized Stable Subordinator

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    Rudolf Gorenflo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the renewal counting number process N = N(t as a forward march over the non-negative integers with independent identically distributed waiting times. We embed the values of the counting numbers N in a “pseudo-spatial” non-negative half-line x ≥ 0 and observe that for physical time likewise we have t ≥ 0. Thus we apply the Laplace transform with respect to both variables x and t. Applying then a modification of the Montroll-Weiss-Cox formalism of continuous time random walk we obtain the essential characteristics of a renewal process in the transform domain and, if we are lucky, also in the physical domain. The process t = t(N of accumulation of waiting times is inverse to the counting number process, in honour of the Danish mathematician and telecommunication engineer A.K. Erlang we call it the Erlang process. It yields the probability of exactly n renewal events in the interval (0; t]. We apply our Laplace-Laplace formalism to the fractional Poisson process whose waiting times are of Mittag-Leffler type and to a renewal process whose waiting times are of Wright type. The process of Mittag-Leffler type includes as a limiting case the classical Poisson process, the process of Wright type represents the discretized stable subordinator and a re-scaled version of it was used in our method of parametric subordination of time-space fractional diffusion processes. Properly rescaling the counting number process N(t and the Erlang process t(N yields as diffusion limits the inverse stable and the stable subordinator, respectively.

  15. Generational status and social factors predicting initiation of partnered sexual activity among Latino/a youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Patricia; Wallander, Jan L; Song, Anna V; Elliott, Marc N; Tortolero, Susan R; Reisner, Sari L; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    Examine the longitudinal association of generational status (first = child and parent born outside the United States; second = child born in the United States, parent born outside the United States; third = child and parent born in the United States) and parent and peer social factors considered in 5th grade with subsequent oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse initiation by 7th and 10th grade among Latino/a youth. Using data from Latino/a participants (N = 1,790) in the Healthy Passages™ study, the authors measured generational status (first = 18.4%, second = 57.3%, third-generation = 24.3%) and parental (i.e., monitoring, involvement, nurturance) and peer (i.e., friendship quality, social interaction, peer norms) influences in 5th grade and oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse initiation by 7th and 10th (retention = 89%) grade. Among girls, parental monitoring, social interaction, friendship quality, and peer norms predicted sexual initiation. Among boys, parental involvement, social interaction, and peer norms predicted sexual initiation (ps social influences on vaginal and oral intercourse initiation. Moreover, Latinas and Latinos differ in which social influences predict sexual intercourse initiation. Preventive efforts for Latino/a youth may need to differ by gender and generational status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Social relationships play a role in sleep status in Chinese undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulian; Ding, Zheyuan; Fei, Ying; Jin, Wen; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zexin; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Zhaopin; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether social relationships were associated with sleep status in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in November 2012 at Huzhou Teachers College, China. The questionnaire involved demographic characteristics, personal lifestyle habits, social relationships and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The associations between social relationships and sleep status were analyzed by using regression models after adjustment for potential factors. Poor sleep quality was prevalent among Chinese undergraduate students. Men tended to have better sleep than women. Lower social stress, better management of stress and good social support were correlated with better sleep status, and stress or support from friends, family and classmates were all related with sleep variables. While only weak associations between number of friends and sleep were detected. The results were consistent in men and women. Educators and instructors should be aware of the importance of social relationships as well as healthy sleep in undergraduates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ¿Clases sociales o status? Las relaciones sociales en la antigüedad desde Karl Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The struggles in the interpretation of ancient societies from the materialistic conception of history are related to the misunderstanding of Marx’s method. The author understood that economic categories of capitalist society can not be applied directly for previous societies, as in the case of the concept of capital, since this leads to a distortion of the historical relations. Regarding the concept of social class, Marx analyzed it according to levels of abstraction, closely linked to the dialectical method. Thus, when analyzing ancient societies using the concept of social class, it is of great importance to remember the levels of abstraction, that will reveal the social relationships from the point of view of totality. In this sense, alternative concepts of Moses Finley (orders and status are not out of the concept of social class, but are concretions of analysis

  18. Does socioeconomic status affect the association of social relationships and health? A moderator analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus Susanne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations have repeatedly been found to be an important determinant of health. However, it is unclear whether the association between social relations and health is consistent throughout different status groups. It is likely that health effects of social relations vary in different status groups, as stated in the hypothesis of differential vulnerability. In this analysis we explore whether socioeconomic status (SES moderates the association between social relations and health. Methods In the baseline examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, conducted in a dense populated Western German region (N = 4,814, response rate 56%, SES was measured by income and education. Social relations were classified by using both structural as well as functional measures. The Social Integration Index was used as a structural measure, whilst functional aspects were assessed by emotional and instrumental support. Health was indicated by self-rated health (1 item and a short version of the CES-D scale measuring the frequency of depressive symptoms. Based on logistic regression models we calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI which indicates existing moderator effects. Results Our findings show highest odds ratios (ORs for both poor self-rated health and more frequent depressive symptoms when respondents have a low SES as well as inappropriate social relations. For example, respondents with low income and a low level of social integration have an OR for a high depression score of 2.85 (95% CI 2.32-4.49, compared to an OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.12-1.86 amongst those with a low income but a high level of social integration and an OR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.45-2.03 amongst respondents with high income but a low level of social integration. As reference group those reporting high income and a high level of social integration were used. Conclusions The analyses indicate that the association of social relations and subjective

  19. Intergroup biases of the intermediate-status group: the effect of stability and instability of social stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Monacelli, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, the effect of instability of social stratification on intergroup behaviour of the intermediate-status group was investigated. In both studies, participants were categorised in the intermediate-status group. In Study 1, perceived instability was measured. Results show that the more social stratification was perceived as stable, the more intermediate-status group members were biased against the high-status group. Biases against both high- and low-status groups tended to become similar as social stratification was perceived as more unstable. In Study 2, instability was manipulated in upward and downward conditions. Results showed that, in the upwardly unstable condition, intermediate-status group members were more biased against high-status group, while in the downwardly unstable condition they were more biased against the low-status group.

  20. The politics of social status: economic and cultural roots of the populist right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidron, Noam; Hall, Peter A

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the factors that have recently increased support for candidates and causes of the populist right across the developed democracies, especially among a core group of working-class men. In the context of debates about whether the key causal factors are economic or cultural, we contend that an effective analysis must rest on understanding how economic and cultural developments interact to generate support for populism. We suggest that one way to do so is to see status anxiety as a proximate factor inducing support for populism, and economic and cultural developments as factors that combine to precipitate such anxiety. Using cross-national survey data from 20 developed democracies, we assess the viability of this approach. We show that lower levels of subjective social status are associated with support for right populist parties, identify a set of economic and cultural developments likely to have depressed the social status of men without a college education, and show that the relative social status of those men has declined since 1987 in many of the developed democracies. We conclude that status effects provide one pathway through which economic and cultural developments may combine to increase support for the populist right. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. Crisis of corporate social responsibility and its status in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly J. Ozira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper picked a topic - the global financial crisis- to highlight several related problems. The current crisis was not caused by failed economic policies. The root cause is failed leadership. People sometimes forget that business ethics at its core is about excellence and high attainment rather than misdeeds and malfeasance.In recent years, however, more attention has been paid to the positive side of ethics. More managers in Russia are waking up to the ways in which positive values contribute to a company's effective day-to-day functioning, as well as its reputation and long-term sustainability.Contrary to Western Europe and Scandinavia, Corporate Social Responsibility is a relatively new concept in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Cultural gaps between Westerners and Locals have gradually been narrowing and becoming less divisive. Improved knowledge by foreign investors on how to operate successfully in a post-communist region, on "how to bridge the gap", greatly decreases the risk of the East-West joint venture.The views expressed in the paper are the author's own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting the official position paper on Corporate Governance.En este trabajo se enfoca la crisis financiera global con el fin de destacar los problemas más importantes relacionados con ésta. La presente crisis no fue provocada por causas meramente económicas. La causa fundamental radica en el liderazgo. A veces, la gente olvida que la ética de las relaciones juega un papel importante a la hora de llevar a cabo un negocio. Últimamente, no obstante, se presta más atención al aspecto positivo de la ética profesional. Un número creciente de gestores rusos emprenden el camino en el que los valores positivos conducen a un eficaz funcionamiento diario así como su prestigio y sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A diferencia de la concepción de la Europa occidental y escandinava de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa, en la

  2. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  3. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  4. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  5. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first

  6. The influence of marital status on the social dysfunction of schizophrenia patients in community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-jie Li

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirmed that bad marital status is associated with higher odds of social dysfunction among patients with schizophrenia living in the community. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders.

  7. Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

  8. Examining Cyberbullying Tendency and Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Status of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Faruk; Taçgin, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    The teachers have a substantial role for students through consciously the Internet usage and struggle with cyberbullying. The purpose of this study is to investigate cyberbullying tendency and multidimensional perceived social support status of the teacher candidates. The participants of this research have become 412 teacher candidates as…

  9. Looking up to others: Social status, Chinese honorifics, and spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Zhang, Honghong; He, Guanghui; Zheng, Dongping; Hodges, Bert H

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether social status encoded in Chinese honorifics has metaphorical effects on up-down spatial orientation. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether a word was an elevating or denigrating term immediately prior to judging whether an arrow was pointing up or down. Arrow orientation was identified faster when its direction was congruent with the perceived social status of the preceding honorific (e.g., elevating word and up arrow). In Experiment 2, participants identified the letter p or q after judging whether honorifics were elevating or denigrating terms. Letters were identified faster when placed at the top of the screen following elevating terms, and faster at the bottom following denigrating terms. These results suggest that the mere activation of social status differences by honorific terms orients attention toward schema-congruent space. Social status appears to have pragmatic effects, not only for lexical decision-making, but also in where Chinese speakers are most likely to look.

  10. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  11. Social, Academic, and Behavioral Competence of Depressed Children: Relationship to Diagnostic Status and Family Interaction Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Elizabeth Burney; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The social adjustment and academic performance of 15 children hospitalized for depression were compared to 14 children with schizophrenia and 20 normal children, ages 7 to 14. Analyses reveal an association between children's adaptive functioning and both diagnostic status and family transactional processes. (SLD)

  12. Social support as a predictor of perceived health status in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krokavcova, Martina; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate whether different levels of perceived social support are associated with different levels of perceived health status in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Two hundred and seven MS patients (38.4 +/- 10.6 years, 66.2% female) completed

  13. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  14. Anxiety and Depression in Transgender Individuals: The Roles of Transition Status, Loss, Social Support, and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Stephanie L.; Adelson, Jill L.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine facilitative and avoidant coping as mediators between distress and transition status, social support, and loss. Method: A total of 351 transgender individuals (n = 226 transgender women and n = 125 transgender men) participated in this study. Participants completed measures on transgender…

  15. Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Fenne Große; Mehl, Matthias R

    2013-09-01

    Online social networking is a pervasive but empirically understudied phenomenon. Strong public opinions on its consequences exist but are backed up by little empirical evidence and almost no causally-conclusive, experimental research. The current study tested the psychological effects of posting status updates on Facebook using an experimental design. For one week, participants in the experimental condition were asked to post more than they usually do, whereas participants in the control condition received no instructions. Participants added a lab "Research Profile" as a Facebook friend allowing for the objective documentation of protocol compliance, participants' status updates, and friends' responses. Results revealed (1) that the experimentally-induced increase in status updating activity reduced loneliness, (2) that the decrease in loneliness was due to participants feeling more connected to their friends on a daily basis and (3) that the effect of posting on loneliness was independent of direct social feedback (i.e. responses) by friends.

  16. Sexual attraction status and adolescent suicide proneness: the roles of hopelessness, depression, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between sexual attraction status (same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex) and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,533 youth). Adolescents with attractions to both sexes reported greater suicide proneness, recent and lifetime suicidal ideation, and past suicide attempts than those with exclusively opposite-sex attractions; individuals reporting same-sex attractions generally demonstrated moderate elevations on these variables. As hypothesized, both hopelessness and depression mediated the relationship between sexual attraction status and suicide proneness. Social support moderated the mediating effect of depression but not hopelessness in the sexual attraction status-suicide proneness link. Targeting the distress that can be associated with experiencing same-sex or both-sex attractions may enhance suicide prevention efforts, particularly in U.S. youth with reduced social support.

  17. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher

  18. Production supervisor impacts on subordinates' safety outcomes: an investigation of leader-member exchange and safety communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Judd H; Guo, Zhen George; Wiedenbeck, Janice K; Ray, Charles D

    2006-01-01

    Supervisors are increasingly important to the functioning of manufacturing operations, in large part due to their role as leaders. While supervisors' relations and communication with their subordinates are known to be important in influencing subordinates' behavior, little is known about how these two factors will impact subordinates' safety. This study investigated how much each factor contributes to safety-related outcomes for blue-collar production employees. Production employees at five Pennsylvania wood manufacturers completed a survey during their work shift. Five hundred and ninety eight employees provided data on leader-member exchange (LMX), safety communication, and safety-related events. Archival data on OSHA recordables were also obtained from the producers' human resources database. Analyses found that the influence of LMX was greater than that of safety communication in predicting safety-related events. Neither LMX nor safety communication was significantly related to OSHA recordables. Results also demonstrated that employee job satisfaction and demographic variables such as gender and age have safety implications. Results from this study further emphasize the importance of production supervisors and illustrate the potential role of leader-member exchange in enhancing workplace safety. Specifically, organizations should foster positive social exchange between their employees and supervisors and enhance the leadership qualities of supervisors to help reduce workplace injuries.

  19. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  20. A closer look at the subordinate population within the visible burrow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhorn, Susan J; Elfers, Clinton T; Scott, Karen A; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    The visible burrow system (VBS) utilizes the natural social behavior of rodents to model chronic social stress. Classically, when male and female rats are housed together in the VBS a dominance hierarchy rapidly forms with one dominant (DOM) and three subordinate (SUB) males. SUB animals show signs of chronic social stress, including loss of body weight and elevated basal corticosterone. This study furthered examined differences among the SUB population. Quantitative observations across numerous VBS colonies within the Sakai Lab suggest that there is variability in the effects of stress on the SUB population, specifically that some animals may experience more severe effects of chronic social stress than others. To further examine this observation, SUB animals were classified as OMEGA if they received a disproportionate amount of their colonies' wounds. OMEGA animals received more wounds to their body compared to SUB (PVBS-housed animals (group×time interaction PVBS housing it was determined the OMGEA also lost lean body mass (PVBS colony and represents the variability of the effects of chronic social stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of peer social status: Contributions of physical appearance, reputation, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J H

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine behavioral correlates of social status and the relative importance of physical appearance, reputation, and current behavior in the assignment of social status by peers. Sixty-eight children identified as either popular, rejected, or neglected by peers were photographed individually and were videotaped during school lunch for 10 six-minute segments each. In a second sample of children those identified as popular, rejected, or neglected by their peers either viewed selected videotapes or photographs of same-age and same-sex children who were popular, rejected, or neglected, and categorized the viewed child as to his/her social competence. The bids of popular children were more likely to be clear, elicit attention, and continue beyond a simple bid-response sequence than were those of rejected or neglected children. The photographs and videotapes of both popular and neglected children were rated more positively than were those of rejected children.

  2. Psychological and social correlates of HIV status disclosure: the significance of stigma visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P

    2011-08-01

    HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.

  3. Survival of the Richest? Social Status, Fertility, and Social Mobility in England 1541-1824

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg-Fazlic, Nina; Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    that this had to do with earlier age at marriage for women. We then turn to the likely social and economic impact of this, considering Clark’s hypothesis that ‘middle class values’ spread through English society prior to the industrial revolution. Through the construction of social mobility tables, we...

  4. Social class and substance use disorders: the value of social class as distinct from socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.; van den Brink, W.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between social class and substance use disorders (SUDs) is explored and compared to the relationship between SES and SUDs. Social class and SES are two different conceptualizations of socioeconomic inequality (SEI) which emanate from two different theoretical orientations in

  5. Does main clause word order affect attention to change in subordinate clauses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Herget; Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2018-01-01

    is that a subordinate clause with Verb>Adverb word order will attract more attention than a clause with Adverb>Verb word order. To test this, we conducted an experiment under the text change paradigm. 59 students each read 24 constructions twice, each containing a subordinate clause with either Verb>Adverb or Adverb......>Verb word order. Half of the subordinate clauses were governed by a semifactive predicate (open to both word orders) and the other half by a semantically secondary sentence (in itself strongly favoring Verb>Adverb word order). Attention to the subordinate clause was tested by measuring how disinclined...... the participants were to notice change of a word in the subordinate clause when re-reading it. Results showed significantly more attention to Verb>Adverb clauses than to Adverb>Verb clauses under semifactive predicates, and more attention to subordinate clauses under semantically secondary than semifactive...

  6. Preventive Child Health Care Findings on Early Childhood Predict Peer-Group Social Status in Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank; Reijneveld, Menno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status.

  7. Adolescent Weight Status: Associations With Structural and Functional Dimensions of Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelgaard, Heidi Hjort; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Rasmussen, Mette

    2017-04-01

    To examine the associations between weight status and structural and functional dimensions of social relations among 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys. Analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behavior in School-aged Children study 2010. The study population (n = 4,922) included students in the fifth, seventh, and ninth grade from a representative sample of Danish schools. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study the associations between weight status and social relations, supported by a conceptual framework for the study of social relations. Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with spending less time with friends after school compared to normal-weight status (0 days/week: odds ratio: 6.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-17.95, 1 day/week: 2.81, 1.02-7.77, 2 days/week: 3.27, 1.25-8.56, 3 days/week: 3.32, 1.28-8.61, and 4 days/week: 3.23, 1.17-8.92, respectively vs. 5 days/week). Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with being bullied (2.62, 1.55-4.43). Among boys, overweight/obese weight status was associated with infrequent (1 to 2 days vs. every day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close same-sex and opposite-sex friends, mother/father as confidant, and perceived classmate acceptance. This study shows that overweight/obese adolescents have higher odds of numerous poor social relations than their normal-weight peers both in terms of structural and functional dimensions of social relations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subordinate plant species moderate drought effects on earthworms communities in grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotte Pierre; Le Bayon Renee-Claire; Eisenhauer Nico; Guenat Claire; Buttler Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity resulting from forecasted drought events is likely to alter soil functioning and affect earthworm communities. Plant soil interactions are expected to play an important role in mediating climate change effects on soil decomposers. In this study we test above belowground linkages after drought by focusing on the effects of subordinate plant species on earthworm communities. Using a combination of subordinate species removal and experimental drought we show that subordin...

  9. The effects of social status and self-esteem on imitation and choice of a popular peer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed the role of influencer and influencee peer status in social influence of status-unrelated behaviours among emerging adults, while disentangling two forms of peer status, being liked (preference) and being powerful (popularity). Peer influence was examined in 67 women (M age =

  10. Employment status, social function decline and caregiver burden among stroke survivors. A South Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Sapna Erat; Unnikrishnan, J P; Amal, M G; Shibi, B S; Sarma, Sankara; Sylaja, P N

    2013-09-15

    Stroke leaves at least 60% of the survivors with moderate to severe disability limiting their employment status and social functioning leading to high levels of caregiver burden. We sought to study the employment status and level of change of social functioning of stroke survivors and their principal caregiver and correlate it with severity of stroke, functional disability, and anxiety and depression scores. One hundred and fifty stroke survivors and principal caregivers (3 months-2 years post-stroke) were recruited for the study. The employment status pre- and post-stroke was assessed. The social function of the patient and caregiver was analyzed using a 6 item social function scale developed for the study, encompassing culturally relevant questions. A 20 point scale adapted from Burden assessment schedule was used to assess the caregiver burden. Mean age of the study group was 54.37±12.072 (range 22-75 years), with 116 males and 34 females. Spouse was the principal caregiver for 142/150 patients (94.6%). In the stroke survivors, compared to the pre-stroke employment status of 62.7%, only 20.7% were employed post-stroke with half having change of job. But the employment status of caregiver was not reduced post-stroke (34.7% vs 33.3%). Employment loss in stroke survivors had a statistically significant association with severity of functional disability, male gender and presence of limb weakness (p values 0.037, 0.0001 and 0.043 respectively). There was an overall decline in social functions among the 6 parameters assessed in both the stroke survivors and caregivers. Of the caregiver burden, financial burden was more among female and older caregivers. The functional status and motor weakness of the stroke survivors did not tend to worsen the overall caregiver burden. Loss of occupation among stroke survivors is high. The decline in social function among stroke survivors and caregivers was significant. Even though functional disability contributed to employment loss

  11. Sex and pairing status impact how zebra finches use social information in foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Christopher N; Philp, Katharine; Guillette, Lauren M; Laland, Kevin N; Benson-Amram, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Many factors, including the demonstrator's sex, status, and familiarity, shape the nature and magnitude of social learning. Given the important role of pair bonds in socially-monogamous animals, we predicted that these intimate relationships would promote the use of social information, and tested this hypothesis in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Observer birds witnessed either their mate or another familiar, opposite-sex bird eat from one, but not a second novel food source, before being allowed to feed from both food sources themselves. Birds used social information to make foraging decisions, but not all individuals used this information in the same way. While most individuals copied the foraging choice of the demonstrator as predicted, paired males did not, instead avoiding the feeder demonstrated by their mate. Our findings reveal that sex and pairing status interact to influence the use of social information and suggest that paired males might use social information to avoid competing with their mate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aggressive and Prosocial? Examining Latent Profiles of Behavior, Social Status, Machiavellianism, and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Batanova, Milena; Cance, Jessica Duncan

    2015-12-01

    The present study tests whether aggression and prosocial behavior can coexist as part of a socially functional and adaptive profile among early adolescents. Using a person-centered approach, the study examined early adolescents' likelihood of being classified into profiles involving aggressive and prosocial behavior, social status (popular, liked, cool), machiavellianism, and both affective and cognitive components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively). Participants were 1170 early adolescents (10-12 years of age; 52% male) from four schools in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Through latent profile analysis, three profiles emerged (normative-low aggressive, high prosocial-low aggressive, and high aggressive-high popular status). Both empathic concern and perspective taking were higher in the high prosocial-low aggressive profile, whereas the high aggressive-high popular status profile had the lowest scores on both empathy components as well as machiavellianism. No profile emerged where aggressive and prosocial behaviors were found to co-exist, or to be significantly above the mean. The results underscore that aggressive behavior is highly contextual and likely culturally specific, and that the study of behavioral profiles should consider social status as well as socio-emotional adjustment indicators. These complex associations should be taken into consideration when planning prevention and intervention efforts to reduce aggression or school bullying and to promote positive peer relationships.

  13. Social isolation and loneliness: Prospective associations with functional status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Aparna; McMunn, Anne; Demakakos, Panayotes; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    The present analysis aimed to examine the associations of isolation and loneliness, individually as well as simultaneously, with 2 measures of functional status (gait speed and difficulties in activities of daily living) in older adults over a 6-year period using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and to assess if these associations differ by SES. Loneliness was measured using the short form of the Revised UCLA scale, and an index of social isolation was computed incorporating marital status; frequency of contact with friends, family, and children; and participation in social activities. Measures of functional status were assessed identically at baseline and 6 years later for 3070 participants (mean age 69 years). Wealth was used as an indicator of SES. In fully and mutually adjusted models, social isolation and loneliness were found to be associated with a decrease in gait speed at follow-up, with stronger effects among more disadvantaged individuals. Loneliness was associated with an increase in difficulties with activities of daily living. Isolation and loneliness were adversely associated with different aspects of functional status. Interventions to reduce isolation and loneliness may be particularly beneficial for individuals in disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Student-teacher relationships and bullying: The role of student social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, C; Iotti, N O; Jungert, T; Settanni, M

    2018-02-01

    Student-teacher relationships have been shown to influence bullying-related behaviors in students. This study considered the moderating role of students' social statuses in the classroom. The study sample included 435 students (48.7% females) taken from 18 Italian middle-school classrooms (i.e., sixth to eighth grade). A multigroup path analysis approach was employed to examine whether the effects of the student-teacher relationships on bullying-related behaviors differed among social statuses. The results showed that perceived conflict with the teacher was shown to have a significant positive effect on students' engagement in active bullying for students from all the statuses, except for neglected students. In particular, this effect was more relevant for rejected students. The results showed that social status and student-teacher relationships integrate and shed light on which roles are taken by young adolescents in school bullying, highlighting that it is important for the teachers to recognize these students. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  16. The effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in diabetes mortality in Andalusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Córdoba Doña, Juan Antonio; Goicolea Julían, Isabel; Rodríguez, Gabriel Jesús; Santos Sánchez, Vanesa; Mayoral Sánchez, Eduardo; Aguilar Diosdado, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To assess the modifying effect of marital status on social and gender inequalities in mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) in Andalusia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Andalusian Longitudinal Population Database. DM deaths between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed by educational level and marital status. Age-adjusted rates (AARs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression models, controlling for several social and demographic variables. The modifying effect of marital status on the association between educational level and DM mortality was evaluated by introducing an interaction term into the models. All analyses were performed separately for men and women. There were 18,158 DM deaths (10,635 women and 7,523 men) among the 4,229,791 people included in the study. The risk of death increased as the educational level decreased. Marital status modified social inequality in DM mortality in a different way in each sex. Widowed and separated/divorced women with the lowest educational level had the highest MRRs, 5,1 (95%CI: 3,6-7,3) and 5,6 (95% CI:3,6-8,5) respectively, while single men had the highest MRR, 3,1 (95%CI: 2,7-3,6). Educational level is a key determinant of DM mortality in both sexes, and is more relevant in women, while marital status also plays an outstanding role in men. Our results suggest that in order to address inequalities in DM mortality, the current focus on individual factors and self-care should be extended to interventions on the family, the community, and the social contexts closest to patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Social status and cardiovascular disease: a Mediterranean case. Results from the Italian Progetto CUORE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilotto Lorenza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social factors could offer useful information for planning prevention strategy for cardiovascular diseases. This analysis aims to explore the relationship between education, marital status and major cardiovascular risk factors and to evaluate the role of social status indicators in predicting cardiovascular events and deaths in several Italian cohorts. Methods The population is representative of Italy, where the incidence of the disease is low. Data from the Progetto CUORE, a prospective study of cohorts enrolled between 1983-1997, were used; 7520 men and 13127 women aged 35-69 years free of previous cardiovascular events and followed for an average of 11 years. Educational level and marital status were used as the main indicators of social status. Results About 70% of the studied population had a low or medium level of education (less than high school and more than 80% was married or cohabitating. There was an inverse relationship between educational level and major cardiovascular risk factors in both genders. Significantly higher major cardiovascular risk factors were detected in married or cohabitating women, with the exception of smoking. Cardiovascular risk score was lower in married or cohabitating men. No relationship between incidence of cardiac events and the two social status indicators was observed. Cardiovascular case-fatality was significantly higher in men who were not married and not cohabitating (HR 3.20, 95%CI: 2.21-4.64. The higher cardiovascular risk observed in those with a low level of education deserves careful attention even if during the follow-up it did not seem to determine an increase of cardiac events. Conclusions Preventive interventions on cardiovascular risk should be addressed mostly to people with less education. Cardiovascular risk score and case-fatality resulted higher in men living alone while cardiovascular factors were higher in women married or cohabitating. Such gender differences seem

  18. Differential relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms by HIV status and racial/ethnic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Timothy J; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P; Thames, April D

    2017-02-01

    Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). A community sample of men and women (N = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV status and racial/ethnic identity. A significant 3-way interaction between social adversity, HIV status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms compared with HIV- African Americans, but not compared with other groups. The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amid adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. From Social Class to Self-Efficacy: Internalization of Low Social Status Pupils' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…

  20. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference, unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  2. Valuing social identity: Consequences for motivation and performance in low-status groups

    OpenAIRE

    Van Laar, Colette; Derks, Belle; Ellemers, Naomi; Bleeker, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Presented is our perspective on the role of social identity in the motivation and performance of members of stigmatized groups (e.g., ethnic minorities, women in traditionally male-dominated fields). We discuss how stigmatized group members pursuing upward mobility face significant threats in out-group environments through the numerical dominance of the higher status out-group, the negative views held by the out-group of the low-status group, and the emphasis in outgroup settings on domains o...

  3. Sincere Social Capital with Material Status Sensitivity: Index and an Inverted U-Shaped Utility-Wealth Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores a possible effect of social capital on the relationship between utility and wealth. Material status sensitivity is considered in constructing the individual social-capital index. The incorporation of the index into the individual’s utility function leads to the proposition that if utility is directly increased by wealth but indirectly reduced by diminishing intensity and quality of sincere social interaction as the material-status-gape widens, there exists an inverted U-sh...

  4. Subordination Principle for a Class of Fractional Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bazhlekova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fractional order differential equation \\(u'(t=Au(t+\\gamma D_t^{\\alpha} Au(t+f(t, \\ t>0\\, \\(u(0=a\\in X\\ is studied, where \\(A\\ is an operator generating a strongly continuous one-parameter semigroup on a Banach space \\(X\\, \\(D_t^{\\alpha}\\ is the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative of order \\(\\alpha \\in (0,1\\, \\(\\gamma>0\\ and \\(f\\ is an \\(X\\-valued function. Equations of this type appear in the modeling of unidirectional viscoelastic flows. Well-posedness is proven, and a subordination identity is obtained relating the solution operator of the considered problem and the \\(C_{0}\\-semigroup, generated by the operator \\(A\\. As an example, the Rayleigh–Stokes problem for a generalized second-grade fluid is considered.

  5. Social Exclusion among Peers: The Role of Immigrant Status and Classroom Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenty, Stephanie; Jonsson, Jan O

    2017-06-01

    Increasing immigration and school ethnic segregation have raised concerns about the social integration of minority students. We examined the role of immigrant status in social exclusion and the moderating effect of classroom immigrant density among Swedish 14-15-year olds (n = 4795, 51 % females), extending conventional models of exclusion by studying multiple outcomes: victimization, isolation, and rejection. Students with immigrant backgrounds were rejected more than majority youth and first generation non-European immigrants were more isolated. Immigrants generally experienced more social exclusion in immigrant sparse than immigrant dense classrooms, and victimization increased with higher immigrant density for majority youth. The findings demonstrate that, in addition to victimization, subtle forms of exclusion may impede the social integration of immigrant youth but that time in the host country alleviates some risks for exclusion.

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Structural and Functional Measures of Social Support, and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Berkman, Lisa; Dugravot, Aline; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of social support with socioeconomic status (SES) and with mortality, as well as how SES differences in social support might account for SES differences in mortality. Analyses were based on 9,333 participants from the British Whitehall II Study cohort, a longitudinal cohort established in 1985 among London-based civil servants who were 35–55 years of age at baseline. SES was assessed using participant's employment grades at baseline. Social support was assessed 3 times in the 24.4-year period during which participants were monitored for death. In men, marital status, and to a lesser extent network score (but not low perceived support or high negative aspects of close relationships), predicted both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Measures of social support were not associated with cancer mortality. Men in the lowest SES category had an increased risk of death compared with those in the highest category (for all-cause mortality, hazard ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 2.08; for cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.92). Network score and marital status combined explained 27% (95% confidence interval: 14, 43) and 29% (95% confidence interval: 17, 52) of the associations between SES and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In women, there was no consistent association between social support indicators and mortality. The present study suggests that in men, social isolation is not only an important risk factor for mortality but is also likely to contribute to differences in mortality by SES. PMID:22534202

  7. The Effect of Residence, School Status, Work Status, and Social Influence on the Prevalence of Alcohol Use Among Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; Liu, Danping; Chaurasia, Ashok; Li, Kaigang; Hingson, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The first year after high school is a transitional year, with increased independence from parental supervision, contact with other independent youth, and exposure to new environments, all of which may influence substance use. This article reports longitudinal predictors of change in the prevalence of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among adolescents and environmental correlates (i.e., residence, college attendance, and work status) with drinking the year after high school. A national sample of study participants (N = 2,659; 55% female) in the NEXT Generation Health Study were followed annually from 10th grade (Wave 1) to the year after high school (Wave 4). Longitudinal binary outcomes, including recent (30-day) drinking and two measures of heavy episodic drinking, were examined. Transition models with generalized estimating equations estimated the effect of previous drinking behaviors, social influences, and current residential status and activity (school and/or work) on drinking prevalence. Drinking increased from 40.5% among high school seniors (Wave 3) to 53.5% in Wave 4 for 30-day use, and from 29.0% to 41.2% for heavy episodic drinking. Significant predictors of 30-day drinking included previous drinking status (odds ratio [OR] = 5.48), peer drinking often (OR = 3.25), parental expectations (OR = 0.91), and current year living on campus (OR = 2.10). The same significant predictors with similar magnitudes were found for both measures of heavy episodic drinking. Peer use did not interact with college attendance or residence. Predictors of drinking and heavy episodic drinking during the first year after high school included being White, living on campus, previous drinking, lower parental expectations, and having peers who drink.

  8. Latent variable model for suicide risk in relation to social capital and socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2012-08-01

    There is little evidence on the association between suicide outcomes (ideation, attempts, self-harm) and social capital. This paper investigates such associations using a structural equation model based on health survey data, and allowing for both individual and contextual risk factors. Social capital and other major risk factors for suicide, namely socioeconomic status and social isolation, are modelled as latent variables that are proxied (or measured) by observed indicators or question responses for survey subjects. These latent scales predict suicide risk in the structural component of the model. Also relevant to explaining suicide risk are contextual variables, such as area deprivation and region of residence, as well as the subject's demographic status. The analysis is based on the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey and includes 7,403 English subjects. A Bayesian modelling strategy is used. Models with and without social capital as a predictor of suicide risk are applied. A benefit to statistical fit is demonstrated when social capital is added as a predictor. Social capital varies significantly by geographic context variables (neighbourhood deprivation, region), and this impacts on the direct effects of these contextual variables on suicide risk. In particular, area deprivation is not confirmed as a distinct significant influence. The model develops a suicidality risk score incorporating social capital, and the success of this risk score in predicting actual suicide events is demonstrated. Social capital as reflected in neighbourhood perceptions is a significant factor affecting risks of different types of self-harm and may mediate the effects of other contextual variables such as area deprivation.

  9. Cohabitation status and onset of disability among older Danes: is social participation a possible mediator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cohabitation status in older men and women on (a) onset of disability at 3- and 4.5-year follow-up and (b) changes in functional ability between 3- and 4.5-year follow-up, and to analyze whether this effect was mediated by social participation. METHOD...... of disability (T3 OR = 1.60[1.06-2.43], T4 OR = 1.74[1.22-2.47]) and the risk of sustained poor functional ability (OR = 2.35[1.44-3.84]) among men, but not among single-living women. Social participation mediated only a small part of the effect of cohabitation status on functional ability. DISCUSSION: Our...... results underline the importance of cohabitation/marriage for maintaining a high functional ability among older men....

  10. The effect of floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...... that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....

  11. The Effect of Floorball Training on Health Status, Psychological Health and Social Capital in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social...... capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors....

  12. Physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths in Benghazi, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A A; Alshekteria, A A; Mohammed, H A A; Al Abar, N M; Al Jhany, M M; Al Flah, F

    2012-06-01

    Adolescence and youth are stages of life that other great opportunities for reduction of future health needs. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths attending 2 large universities in Benghazi city, Libya, and to determine variables associated with their health status. Stratified sampling was used to select 383 students aged 17-24 years and data were collected by face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaires. Major health problems were depression/anxiety and pain/discomfort, and these were suffered by significantly more females than males. Mental health was at the transitional stage in Dabrowski's emotional development theory (spontaneous multilevel disintegration). Females had higher levels of emotional development. Regular physical activity was practised by 34.7% overall (25.8% of women) and 17.2% were smokers. The main social activity was visiting family members.

  13. Social factors and coping status in asymptomatic middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller

    2013-01-01

    , respectively, and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged Danes. Methods: This is a DanRisk screening substudy, thus including healthy Danish males and females aged 50 or 60 years. Social measures included grade of education, employment and co-habiting status. The coping status was estimated...... middle-aged individuals with gender differences. The relative value of gender specific social versus conventional clinical risk factors in the risk assessment of subclinical CAC in middle-aged individuals needs further investigation in future prospective studies....... by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals...

  14. Undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational safety and health: The workers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A; Eggerth, Donald E; Jacobson, C Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Undocumented Status as a Social Determinant of Occupational Safety and Health: The Workers’ Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A.; Eggerth, Donald E.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Methods Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Results Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. Conclusion This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. PMID:26471878

  16. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  17. [State of dental health of the population according to social status and satisfaction with medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, V I; Smirnova, I V

    2014-01-01

    In the article is conducted assessment of the dental health of adults of Zaporozhye on the basis of epidemiological investigation. It is established that despite of the diversity of all diseases that were revealed during examination, adult population seeks dental help in the event of acute pain. It is shown, that there is dependence of level negotiability for dental help from social status, education and income.

  18. Longitudinal Influences of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environment on Children’s Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred J. Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children’s body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children’s BMI-SDS. Between 2006–2008 and 2010–2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8–6.4. Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/busses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment had an impact on children’s BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment.

  19. How to Dax? Preschool Children’s Prosocial Behavior, But Not Their Social Norm Enforcement Relates to Their Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined correlates of preschool children’s (n = 82) peer status. In particular, we assessed children’s prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children’s prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior. Children’s norm enforcement was not related to peer status, neither was it related to any other factor such as temperament or language. Overall, the study supports approaches claiming that prosocial behavior plays a role in children’s social functioning and are in line with social-interactionist accounts to social and social-cognitive development. PMID:29163247

  20. How to Dax? Preschool Children's Prosocial Behavior, But Not Their Social Norm Enforcement Relates to Their Peer Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined correlates of preschool children's (n = 82) peer status. In particular, we assessed children's prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children's prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior. Children's norm enforcement was not related to peer status, neither was it related to any other factor such as temperament or language. Overall, the study supports approaches claiming that prosocial behavior plays a role in children's social functioning and are in line with social-interactionist accounts to social and social-cognitive development.

  1. How to Dax? Preschool Children’s Prosocial Behavior, But Not Their Social Norm Enforcement Relates to Their Peer Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Paulus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined correlates of preschool children’s (n = 82 peer status. In particular, we assessed children’s prosocial behavior, social problem behavior, norm enforcement, language abilities, and temperament. Children’s prosocial behavior, pragmatic language abilities, and gender correlated with peer status. A regression analysis revealed that prosocial behavior and gender were independent predictors. There was some evidence for a mediation effect: The link between pragmatic language and peer status was mediated by prosocial behavior. Children’s norm enforcement was not related to peer status, neither was it related to any other factor such as temperament or language. Overall, the study supports approaches claiming that prosocial behavior plays a role in children’s social functioning and are in line with social-interactionist accounts to social and social-cognitive development.

  2. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ge

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  3. The impact on social capital of mobility disability and weight status: the Stockholm Public Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbäck, Mattias; de Munter, Jeroen; Tynelius, Per; Ahlström, Gerd; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-04-01

    People with mobility disability are more often overweight or obese and have lower social capital than people without mobility disability. It is unclear whether having a combination of mobility disability and overweight or obesity furthers negative development of social capital over time. To explore whether there were differences in social capital between normal-weight, overweight and obese people with or without mobility disability over a period of 8 years. We included 14,481 individuals (18-64 at baseline) from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort that started in 2002. Mobility disability, weight status, and social capital (structural: social activities, voting; cognitive: trust in authorities, and trust in people) were identified from self-reports. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in multivariate longitudinal regression analyses. We found no significant differences in social activities and voting between the groups over time. However, when compared with the reference group, the groups with mobility disability had less trust in authorities and public institutions over time. Notably, obese people with mobility disability showed the largest decrease in trust in the police (RR = 2.29; 1.50-3.50), the parliament (RR = 2.00; 1.31-3.05), and local politicians (RR = 2.52; 1.61-3.94). People with mobility disability experience lower cognitive social capital over time than people without mobility disability. Being burdened by both mobility disability and obesity may be worse in terms of social capital than having just one of the conditions, especially regarding cognitive social capital. This finding is of public health importance, since social capital is related to health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 29 CFR 780.202 - Subordination to farming operations is necessary for exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subordination to farming operations is necessary for... Operations § 780.202 Subordination to farming operations is necessary for exemption. While section 3(f) speaks of practices performed “in conjunction with” as well as “incident to” farming operations, it would...

  5. Subordinators and Supradialectal Formulas in the Dialectal Inscriptions from Mainland Greece (Excluding Attica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Toru

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated the usage of subordinators in Ancient Greek dialectal inscriptions and their interactions with supradialectal formulas, i.e., relatively fixed expressions shared across dialectal borders. Subordinators are grammatical elements and therefore are expected to behave in a systematic manner; supradialectal formulas…

  6. Aspects of Subordination in English Syntax and its Use Among Bette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bette is a language widely spoken in the north-eastern part of Cross River State, Nigeria. The need for this study arises from an observation of serious interference of Bette system of subordination in Bette bilinguals with that of English. I examined subordination in the two systems through a contrastive linguistic analysis to ...

  7. 7 CFR 1717.858 - Lien subordination for rural development investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lien subordination for rural development investments... Lien subordination for rural development investments. (a) Policy. RUS encourages borrowers to consider... financial risks and the revenues and costs of the rural development enterprise from those of the borrower's...

  8. 12 CFR 563.81 - Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and... Borrowings § 563.81 Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as..., subpart A seeking OTS approval of, or non-objection to, the inclusion of covered securities in...

  9. Participation with Supervisor and Subordinate Authoritarianism: A Path-Goal Theory Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.

    1976-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that participation would be satisfying to low-authoritarian subordinates regardless of the degree of task repetitiveness but would be satisfying to high-authoritarian subordinates only on tasks with low repetitiveness and that highly repetitive tasks would be less conducive to ego involvement than low-repetitive tasks.…

  10. Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic Leaders' Influence on Subordinate Creative Performance across the Creative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Jeffrey B.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    Using the charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership as a framework, 2 primary research questions were examined. First, when engaging in different tasks along the creative process, does leadership style influence the creative performance of subordinates? Second, how does the level of stress, to which subordinates are…

  11. Anxiety Sensitivity and Age: Roles in Understanding Subjective Social Status among Low Income Adult Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa

    2017-07-05

    One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.

  12. Examining parents' assessments of objective and subjective social status in families of children with cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Gage-Bouchard

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. METHODS: Caregivers of children with cancer (n=76 completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS. SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents' communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals' SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. RESULTS: Parents' placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner's placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. DISCUSSION: Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families.

  13. Examining Parents’ Assessments of Objective and Subjective Social Status in Families of Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A.; Devine, Katie A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. Methods Caregivers of children with cancer (n = 76) completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS). SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents’ communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals’ SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. Results Parents’ placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner’s placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. Discussion Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families. PMID:24599006

  14. Examining parents' assessments of objective and subjective social status in families of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. Caregivers of children with cancer (n=76) completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS). SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents' communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals' SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. Parents' placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner's placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families.

  15. Relationships between leaders' and subordinates' emotion regulation and satisfaction and affect at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Nezlek, John B; Vassilakou, Thanai

    2012-01-01

    The study examined relationships between leaders' emotion regulation and leaders' and subordinates' work-related outcomes. Fifty-one school directors and 281 teachers reported on their strategies of emotion regulation (reappraisal, suppression), job satisfaction, and affect at work. For subordinates, suppression was negatively related to job satisfaction and was positively related to negative affect and emotional exhaustion, and reappraisal was positively related to job satisfaction and negatively to negativ affect. In contrast, multilevel analyses found that directors' use of reappraisal was neg atively related to subordinates' job satisfaction, and directors' use of suppression wa positively related to subordinates' positive affect. Leaders' suppression interacted wit group cohesion to predict subordinates' negative affect. This is one of the first studies to find evidence for the possible tension between leaders' emotion regulation competencie and organizational-role interests.

  16. Physical activity and social status in adolescence as predictors of physical inactivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, Tuija; Näyhä, Simo; Laitinen, Jaana; Rintamäki, Hannu; Järvelin, Marjo Riitta

    2003-10-01

    Physical inactivity is related to an increased risk of certain chronic diseases. The aim here was to evaluate how physical activity and social status in adolescence are associated with physical inactivity in adulthood. The sample comprised 3664 males and 4130 females who answered questions on physical activity and social status at 14 and 31 years of age in follow-up surveys of the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. Associations between explanatory factors and physical inactivity in adulthood were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Infrequent participation in sports after school hours at 14 years of age and, in males, additionally a low grade in school sports, was associated with physical inactivity at the age of 31 years, independent of social circumstances in adulthood. Low social class of the childhood family was associated with physical inactivity in adolescence but not with inactivity at 31 years of age. Poor school achievement in adolescence was associated with adult inactivity independent of adolescent physical activity. Infrequent participation in sports, a low grade in school sports, and poor school achievements in adolescence were associated with physical inactivity in adulthood. Participation in sports is to be strongly supported among all adolescents because of its long-term beneficial effects on adult health through its tendency to reduce the probability of adult inactivity.

  17. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. [Social inequality and health: Status and prospects of socio-epidemiological research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Thomas; Richter, Matthias; Schneider, Sven; Spallek, Jacob; Dragano, Nico

    2016-02-01

    Social differences in morbidity and mortality have always been a central topic in public health research. In recent years, there has been a growing research interest that has clearly resonated with the general public and the political arena as well. This article describes the development and establishment of social epidemiology in Germany and presents the current status of research. In addition, it describes different models for explaining health inequalities. On this basis, selected challenges and prospects of socio-epidemiological research are demonstrated. The reason why the analysis of social differences in morbidity and mortality will continue to be a key task of public health research in the national and international context in the future is also explained.

  19. Marrying Up by Marrying Down: Status Exchange between Social Origin and Education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Schwartz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermarriage plays a key role in stratification systems. Spousal resemblance reinforces social boundaries within and across generations, and the rules of intermarriage govern the ways that social mobility may occur. We examine intermarriage across social origin and education boundaries in the United States using data from the 1968–2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our evidence points to a pattern of status exchange—that is, persons with high education from modest backgrounds tend to marry those with lower education from more privileged backgrounds. Our study contributes to an active methodological debate by pinpointing the conditions under which the results pivot from evidence against exchange to evidence for exchange and advances theory by showing that the rules of exchange are more consistent with the notion of diminishing marginal utility than the more general theory of compensating differentials.

  20. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  1. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Gouda-Vossos

    Full Text Available Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status. Participants (N = 2044 rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  2. Subjective Social Status and Psychological Distress in Mothers of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Nicole; Riis, Jenna L; Johnson, Sara B

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Perceptions of social standing have increasingly well-documented relationships with health. Higher subjective social status (SSS) is associated with better psychological well-being among women, and mothers of newborns. The relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of young children, however, is largely unknown. SSS may provide insight into aspects of maternal functioning that are relevant to parenting capacity, as well as insight into future health; in addition, SSS is brief, and may be perceived as less intrusive than other measures of socioeconomic status or mental health. We evaluated the relationship between SSS and psychological distress among mothers of 5-year-old children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and sixty-two mothers of 5-year old children, who participated in a study of child self-regulation, completed surveys that assessed sociodemographics, mental health, and perceived social support. The MacArthur Scale of SSS used pictures of ten-rung ladders to assess respondents' social position in relation to the US (SES ladder) and their community (community ladder). Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between maternal psychological distress (perceived social support, depressive symptoms, anxiety) and the ladders (individually and together), adjusting for maternal age, race, education, and number of children. To examine whether the SSS-health relationships differed by race, the models were also stratified by race. Results Community ladder ranking was positively associated with social support (β = 1.34, SE = 0.33, p support (β = 1.17, SE = 0.52, p maternal psychological well-being. Community SSS may be particularly influential for Black/African-American mothers' well-being.

  3. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.

  4. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632

  5. [Social-professional status, identity, social participation and media utilization. Analysis of a complex dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Simon; Roggero, Pascal; Southcott, Chris

    2010-08-01

    This article examines the link between the domain and level of occupation, on the one hand, and use of media, including internet, on the other. It adds to this investigation an analysis of identity in its relation to media use and accessibility. It challenges the hypothesis of a strong correlation between level of occupation and use and accessibility to media. It reveals complex phenomena of social homogenization and differentiation. Data is extracted from a sample of workers who completed a questionnaire which focused on use of media.

  6. Social determinants of self-evaluated good health status of rural men in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, P A

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review revealed a gap in health research regarding the determinants of good health for rural men in Jamaica. This study seeks to fill this void by examining cross-sectional survey data to model the social determinants of the self-reported good health status of rural men in Jamaica. A sample of 5041 males (> or = 15 years) was extracted from a national cross-sectional survey of 25 018 respondents. A stratified random probability sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS for Windows 16.0 (SPSS; Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics were used to provide pertinent socio-demographic characteristics of the sample, and logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for good self-reported health status in rural Jamaican males. Seventeen percent of rural men claimed that they had poor health, 4.9% had health insurance, 61.6% visited a healthcare practitioner, 96.0% purchased prescribed medications and 45.3% completed the course of prescribed medications. The social determinants of good health status of rural men in Jamaica are cost of medical care (OR = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.841-0.997); retirement income (OR = 0.0.382, 95% CI = 0.206-0.707); marital status: separated, divorced or widowed with reference to those never married (OR = 0.270, 95% CI = 0.178-0.410), and married with reference to never married men (OR = 0.465, 95% CI = 0.356-0.609); health insurance coverage (OR = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.027-0.063); number of children in household (OR = 1.200, 95% CI = 1.069-1.347); and number of durable goods owned (OR = 1.107, 95% CI = 1.050-1.166). Children continue to be not only futuristic assets to parents, but they also currently improve the health status of rural men.

  7. Cultural and community determinants of subjective social status among Cherokee and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Adler, Nancy E; Worthman, Carol M; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    . Subjective social status (SSS) is associated with physical and mental health in diverse samples. However, community, cultural, and ethnic influences on SSS are poorly understood, especially among rural and American Indian populations. We aimed to examine similarities and differences in how community poverty, family context, and life course attainment predict SSS among Cherokee and White youth in Appalachia. We assessed culturally and developmentally appropriate aspects of life course attainment among 344 Cherokee and White youth (age 19-24) using the Life Trajectory Interview for Youth (Brown et al. 2006. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 192-206). Combined with information regarding community context and family history, these data were used to examine common patterns and ethnic differences in community, family, and cultural influences on SSS. Overall, both Cherokee and White youth rank their families lower in SSS than previously studied US youth. Family poverty during childhood and low parental education negatively influence family SSS, Cherokee youth rank higher on subjective socioeconomic status (SES) than Whites, as do participants in high poverty areas. However, White youth rank higher on peer SSS. Ethnographically generated items perform better than standard demographic markers in predicting SSS. Educational attainment is associated with peer SSS among Cherokee (but not White) youths. Cultural identity, community context, and local reference groups are crucial determinants of SSS. Both White and Cherokee youth in Appalachia exhibit SSS rankings consistent with socioeconomic and cultural marginalization. On a local scale, however, living in high poverty areas or minority communities may buffer individuals from some negative social comparisons regarding subjectively perceived SES. Meanwhile, social monitoring in small minority communities may constrain optimistic bias in assessments of peer popularity and status. Social ecology

  8. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Frerichs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.

  9. Ethnicity moderates the influence of perceived social status on subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; McGuire, Lynanne; Smith, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) influences health and health-related behaviors, and it has been suggested that the adverse impact of low SES on health may be partly mediated by poor sleep quality. The relation between sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES has only been explored in a preliminary manner, providing indirect evidence that associations between SES and health might be explained, in part, by disrupted sleep. However, it remains unclear whether low SES directly affects sleep quality or whether the SES-sleep quality relation varies as a function of ethnicity given robust ethnic disparities across SES-related factors. This study examined the relation between perceived social status (i.e., individuals' perception of their socioeconomic standing) and subjective sleep quality among 149 college students, and examined the moderating effect of ethnicity to determine whether the magnitude or direction of association differed among Caucasian, Asian, and African Americans. Using hierarchical regressions and a dummy-coded ethnicity variable, results demonstrated significant moderation (ΔR₂ = 0.04, p = .02), such that both Asian (p = .04) and African Americans (p = .02) were significantly different from Caucasian Americans. Lower perceived social status was related to greater impairment in sleep quality for Asian Americans (β = -.37, p sleep quality for specific subgroups of ethnic minorities.

  10. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with "objective" socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Scottish 13-15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: "objective" SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports"). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than "objective" or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Berger

    Full Text Available Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  12. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  13. Constructing Identities in the Roman Dalmatia: Gladiators of Salona and their Social Status

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    Marko A. Janković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inscriptions on stone urns of the gladiators buried in the immediate vicinity of the amphitheatre in Salona offer insight into their social status. Information gained from these inscriptions testifies about the ambivalent attitude of the Roman society towards marginal groups, in this case gladiators. On one hand, these are slaves deprived of the Roman civil rights, with limited field of social action, while on the other hand the mode of burial (stone urn with inscription and image does not differ significantly from the burials of the Roman citizens of the same period. Although gladiators were very popular, they constituted, along with actors, prostitutes and their procurers, the infames, one of the marginalized groups of the Roman society. In spite of such a social status of gladiators, the urn inscriptions speak about selected information, announced in a way that invokes a certain image – that of the gladiators’ vocation. The paper analyzes this information in order to offer insight into the preferred identity of the deceased, but as well of the ones burying them.

  14. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  15. Emerging psychopathology moderates upward social mobility: The intergenerational (dis)continuity of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is relatively stable across generations, but social policies may create opportunities for upward social mobility among disadvantaged populations during periods of economic growth. With respect to expanded educational opportunities that occurred in Québec (Canada) during the 1960s, we hypothesized that children's social and academic competence would promote upward mobility, whereas aggression and social withdrawal would have the opposite effect. Out of 4,109 children attending low-SES schools in 1976-1978, a representative subsample of 503 participants were followed until midadulthood. Path analyses revealed that parents' SES predicted offspring's SES through associations with offspring's likeability, academic competence, and educational attainment. Interaction effects revealed individual risk factors that moderated children's ability to take advantage of intrafamilial or extrafamilial opportunities that could enhance their educational attainment. Highly aggressive participants and those presenting low academic achievement were unable to gain advantage from having highly educated parents. They reached lower educational attainment than their less aggressive or higher achieving peers who came from a similarly advantaged family background. Growing up with parents occupying low-prestige jobs put withdrawn boys and outgoing girls at risk for low educational attainment. In conclusion, social policies can raise SES across generations, with great benefits for the most disadvantaged segments of the population. However, children presenting with emerging psychopathology or academic weaknesses do not benefit from these policies as much as others, and should receive additional, targeted services.

  16. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

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    Christine McKibbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p=0.024 and mental health status (p<0.001 significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p=0.004 and friend (p=0.021 networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  17. Being admired or being liked: Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); J.G.M. Rosmalen (Judith); R. Veenstra (René); J.K. Dijkstra (Jan); J. Ormel (Johan Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 ± 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer

  18. Being admired or being liked : Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Veenstra, R.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Ormel, Johan

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 +/- 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We

  19. Social engagement from childhood to middle age and the effect of childhood socio-economic status on middle age social engagement: results from the National Child Development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietanen, H; Aartsen, M.J.; Kiuru, N.; Lyyra, T.M.; Read, S.

    2016-01-01

    Social engagement has powerful effects on wellbeing, but variation in individual engagement throughout the lifecourse is wide. The trajectories may differ by gender and be affected by socio-economic status (SES). However, long-term development of social engagement is little studied and the effect of

  20. Examination of the Relationship between Technology Use of 5-6 Year-Old Children and Their Social Skills and Social Status

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    Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Güngör, Hande; Körükçü, Özlem; Erten Sarkaya, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to determine the predictive effect of technology use durations of 5-6 year-old children on their social skill levels and social status. In this study, children's technology usage is restricted to the use of television, portable computers, tablets and smartphones. The sample group of the study consisted of 162…

  1. Difficulties in social functioning of adolescents with different family and intellectual status

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    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.

  2. Empowerment and performance of managers and subordinates in elderly care: A longitudinal and multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Heidi; Högberg, Hans; Skytt, Bernice; Wadensten, Barbro; Engström, Maria

    2017-11-01

    To investigate relationships between first-line managers' ratings of structural and psychological empowerment, and the subordinates' ratings of structural empowerment, as well as their ratings of the managers' leadership-management performance. Work situations in elderly care are complex. To date, few studies have used a longitudinal, correlational and multilevel design to study the working life of subordinates and managers. In five Swedish municipalities, questionnaires were answered twice during 2010-12 by 56 first-line managers and 769 subordinates working in nursing homes or home-help services. First-line managers' empowerment at Time 1 partially predicted subordinate's structural empowerment and ratings of their managers' leadership-management performance at Time 2. Changes over time partially revealed that the more access managers had to structural empowerment, i.e. increase over time, the higher the ratings were for structural empowerment and managerial leadership-management performance among subordinates. Findings strengthen research and theoretical suggestions linking first-line managers' structural empowerment to their subordinates' structural empowerment and ratings of their manager's leadership-management performance. Managers with high access to structural empowerment are more likely to provide subordinates access to structural empowerment. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interpersonal motives and social-evaluative threat: Effects of acceptance and status stressors on cardiovascular reactivity and salivary cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Jordan, Kevin D

    2015-02-01

    Social-evaluative threat evokes increases in salivary cortisol and heightened cardiovascular reactivity. However, the types or content of social threats underlying these physiological responses are not clearly delineated in direct comparisons. Based in interpersonal theory, the present study manipulated high and low levels of acceptance threat (i.e., evaluation of likability, potential for inclusion) and status threat (i.e., evaluation of competence, leadership potential) during a modified Trier Social Stress Test, using a sample of 137 undergraduates (73 women). Both acceptance threat and status threat heightened salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to the task. Hence, concerns about social inclusion or connection with others and concerns about social standing or status can contribute independently to physiological stress responses. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Association of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Social Support with Depressive Symptoms among the Elderly in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charis W L; Tan, Woan Shin; Gunapal, Pradeep P G; Wong, Lai Yin; Heng, Bee Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Depression in the elderly is a major public health issue. Socioeconomic status (SES) and social support are strong risk factors for depression. This study aimed to investigate the influence of SES and social support in elderly depression, and the modifying effect of social support on the relationship between SES and depression. A community-based survey was conducted on residents≥60 years old. Depressive symptoms were determined with scores≥5 using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratio (OR) of depressive symptoms with respect to SES and social support, and interaction terms between the two variables. Of 2447 responses analysed, 188 (7.8%) respondents had depressive symptoms. Living in 2-room housing, living alone/with a domestic helper, infrequent leisure time with children/grandchildren or being childless, and feeling socially isolated were independently associated with depressive symptoms. Relative to residents living with spouse and children in 4-/5-room housing, the highest ORs for depressive symptoms were those living with spouse and children in 2-room (OR: 3.06, P<0.05), followed by living with children only in 3-room (OR: 2.98, P<0.05), and living alone/with a domestic helper in 4-/5-room (OR: 2.73, P<0.05). Living with spouse only appears to buffer against depressive symptoms across socioeconomic classes, although the effect was not statistically significant. Low social support and low SES significantly increased the odds of depressive symptoms. The moderating effect of social support on depression was however not consistent across SES groups. Specific interventions need to target different SES groups to better help older adults at risk of developing depression.

  5. SRH and HrQOL: does social position impact differently on their link with health status?

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    Delpierre Cyrille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated Health (SRH and health-related quality of life (HRQoL are used to evaluate health disparities. Like all subjective measures of health, they are dependent on health expectations that are associated with socioeconomic characteristics. It is thus needed to analyse the influence played by socioeconomic position (SEP on the relationship between these two indicators and health conditions if we aim to use them to study health disparities. Our objective is to assess the influence of SEP on the relationship between physical health status and subjective health status, measured by SRH and HRQoL using the SF-36 scale. Methods We used data from the French National Health Survey. SEP was assessed by years of education and household annual income. Physical health status was measured by functional limitations and chronic low back pain. Results Regardless of their health status, people with lower SEP were more likely than their more socially advantaged counterparts to report poor SRH and poorer HRQoL, using any of the indicators of SEP. The negative impact of chronic low back pain on SRH was relatively greater in people with a high SEP than in those with a low SEP. In contrast, chronic low back pain and functional limitations had less impact on physical and mental component scores of quality of life for socially advantaged men and women. Conclusions Both SRH and HRQoL were lower among those reporting functional limitations or chronic low back pain. However, the change varied according SEP and the measure. In relative term, the negative impact of a given health condition seems to be greater on SRH and lower on HRQoL for people with higher SEP in comparison with people with low SEP. Using SRH could thus decrease socioeconomic differences. In contrast using HRQoL could increase these differences, suggesting being cautious when using these indicators for analyzing health disparities.

  6. Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

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    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…

  7. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…

  8. Pain, functional status, social function and conditions of habitation in elderly unilaterally lower limb amputees

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    Đurović Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Few authors are involved in home rehabilitation of amputees or their reintegration into the community. It has been remarked that there is a discontinuity between the phases of the amputee rehabilitation in Serbia. The aim of the study was to establish pain characteristics and functional status of amputees two months after the amputation and to determine their social function and the conditions of their habitation. Methods. This prospective observation study involved 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations. The patients were tested at the hospital on discharge and at their homes two months after the amputation. Pain intensity and functional status were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS and by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The patients’ social function was assessed using the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS and conditions of their habitation by the self-created Scale of Conditions of Habitation (SCH. In statistic analysis we used the Student t test, χ2 test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. The majority of patients (63% underwent below knee amputation caused by diabetes (89%. A significant number of patients (84%, χ2 = 17.78; p < 0.01 was not visited by a physiotherapist nor an occupational therapist during two months at home. In this period, the majority of the amputees (68% had phantom pain or residual limb pain (21%. Two months after amputation the pain intensity was significantly lower (VAS = 4.07±2.19; 2.34±1.41; p < 0.001, and the functional status significantly better than on discharge (FIM = 75.13±16.52; 87.87±16.48; p < 0.001. The amputees had the average level of social dysfunction (SDRS = 62.00±11.68 and conditions of habitation (SCH = 7.81±1.97. Conclusion. A total 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations achieved significant functional improvement and reduction of pain, in spite of their social dysfunction, the absence of socio-medical support

  9. The Effect of Floorball Training on Health Status, Psychological Health and Social Capital in Older Men

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    Johan M. Wikman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.

  10. In the eye of the beholder: Can counter-stereotypes change perceptions of older adults' social status?

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    Robertson, Deirdre A; Weiss, David

    2017-09-01

    Negative age-related stereotypes often entail the perception that older adults have a lower social status than middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that older adults are perceived to have lower social status because they are less likely to be seen in prestigious occupational positions. People tend to infer general assumptions about group characteristics from exemplars. According to this, presenting a stereotype-inconsistent exemplar (i.e., older person in a high-status position) should change perceptions of older adults' social status. Study 1 (60 countries, N = 86,026, 18-99 years) showed that people in countries with an older relative to a younger political leader do not perceive as great a decline in social status from middle-aged to older adults. Study 2 (N = 131; 19-74 years) tested the causal link demonstrating that participants exposed to older exemplars holding a prestigious occupational position were significantly more likely to rate older adults as having a relative higher social status. We discuss implications for future interventions to change negative age-related stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Low socioeconomic status and perceptions of social inadequacy and shame: findings from the Dutch SMILE study.

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    Bosma, Hans; Brandts, Lloyd; Simons, Audrey; Groffen, Danielle; van den Akker, Marjan

    2015-04-01

    Based on presumed negative social comparisons in lower socioeconomic status groups, we set out to examine whether notions of 'internalized inferiority' are more common in these groups. Dutch Studie naar Medische Informatie en Leefwijzen in Eindhoven (SMILE) data on 1323 participants, aged 58-94 in 2008, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of internalized inferiority by childhood and adulthood socioeconomic indicators. Questionnaires for social inadequacy and shame were used to measure internalized inferiority. Both adulthood low educational level [OR 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.40] and low income level (OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.23-2.88) had substantial associations with reports of social inadequacy. Recalled childhood poverty was strongly associated with reports of shame (OR 2.20; 95% CI: 1.39-3.48). The socioeconomic patterning of social inadequacy and shame suggests that notions of internalized inferiority in the individual, psychological makeup might be important in the generation and maintenance of socioeconomic inequalities in health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological status, coping, and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huimin; Zhang, Junjian; Fu, Xuedong

    2007-01-01

    To investigate psychological status, coping, social support, and psychosocial factors associated with people living with HIV/AIDS in a highly HIV-infected area of central China. Cross-sectional descriptive correlation study. Of 200 individuals with HIV/AIDS registered at the "Warm Homestead" health care center (central China), all who met the eligibility criteria (n=103) were recruited; 94 of these completed questionnaires. Four anonymous self-administered questionnaires were used: (a) demographic data questionnaire, (b) Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), (c) Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, and (d) Perceived Social Support Scale questionnaire. Participants had low education levels and family incomes. The majority (n=87, 92.6%) had become infected due to improper procedures during plasma donations. Participants reported moderately high levels of perceived social support, but their high SCL-90 scores indicated high levels of psychological distress. The most frequently used coping style was confrontation. Both acceptance-resignation and avoidance coping styles were significantly correlated with high distress (high SCL-90 total and subscale scores). Public health personnel and AIDS professionals may consider further interventions to promote psychological health in HIV/AIDS-positive individuals in highly HIV-infected areas of China, as the available social support did not seem to be effective in decreasing psychological pathology or mobilizing their coping strategies.

  13. Social ties in relation to health status of low-income Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; O'Donnell, Emily M; Berkman, Lisa F; Peterson, Karen E

    2009-12-01

    Social support resources are thought to buffer stressful life events and have been associated with numerous health outcomes in industrialized countries. Because the nature of supportive relationships varies by culture and social class, we studied the relationship of informal social support and networks to self-rated health among low-income women in northeastern Brazil. Participants included 595 randomly sampled mothers from nine low-income communities in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. Data on sociodemographic variables, social support, quality of the partner relationship, and self-rated health were collected cross-sectionally in 2002. Using multivariable logistic regression, we modeled the association between different aspects of social support and self-rated health. Poor or fair health was reported by 47% of participants. Women with poor partner relationships had an increased likelihood of poor or fair health (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7), as did those with no material support for food or money (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.0) and no support to resolve a conflict (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1). Likewise, women with the lowest scores of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) social support survey were more likely than other women to report poor or fair health (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0, 2.1). Poor quality of a partner relationship, lack of support to resolve a conflict, and lack of material support as well as such sociodemographic variables as low education, poor sanitation, and depressive symptomatology are associated with lower health status in a population of low-income women from northeastern Brazil.

  14. The Status of Social and Leisure Time Activities in the Elderly Residing In Iran and Sweden

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    Seyed Bagher Madah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Among social determinants of health, culture and ethnicity play a key role in defining the needs of different population groups. The aim of this study was to consider and compare the social and leisure time activities of the three elderly groups: Iranian residing in Iran, Iranian residing in Sweden and Swedish residing in Sweden. Methods & Materials: Via the cross-sectional design, 825 Iranian elderly who were living in Tehran compared with 305 Swedish elderly and 101 Iranian elderly living in Stockholm on social relations, group activities and leisure time activities. Only, elderly who could communicate properly entered the study. A structured questionnaire designed by the Iranian and Swedish Research Group on the" Assessment of Social Health Status and Needs" implemented for the subjects. Estimation method and logistic regression used to analyze the gathered data. Results: Subjects of all 3 groups were in the age range of 60-77 years old and mostly were married. Results showed despite very common characteristics, there are, also, many differences which can be explained by cultural and environmental factors. Rapid urbanization, limited resources and unawareness of or disregard for healthy life style resulted in lower levels of satisfaction with social and leisure life in the Iranian elderly. On the other hand, level of activities related to the spiritual dimension of health were more in Iranians than Swedish and the difference was significant (P=0.000, whereas the reverse was true for the group activities (P=0.000. Poor attitude toward physical activity and exercise in Iranian elderly, especially women, with consequent hazards for health, needs special consideration on behalf of the health planners and providers. Conclusion: Needs assessment with trance- cultural approach, especially on social determinants of the health of elderly is a necessity. Using valid and reliable instruments, designed to overcome the cultural barriers would

  15. Functional health status among rural and urban older adults in Taiwan: the effect of personal control and social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tzu-I; Spencer, Gale A

    2010-09-01

    To assess the relationship between perceived social control/personal control and functional health status among older adults in rural and urban Taiwan. The ageing of the population is poised to emerge as a preeminent worldwide phenomenon. It is assumed that even though older adults experience many decades of autonomy and independence, the potential for illness or bodily decline will induce a serious reduction in the level of perceived control in older adult populations. This is a descriptive correlational study using a secondary data base, Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study. Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study is a nationally representative study of health outcomes in the Taiwanese population. Both perceived levels of social control and personal control had a statistically significant relationship with functional health status. Functional health status was significantly higher for urban older adults than their rural counterparts. Personal control and social control were both found to be predictors of functional health status. Major findings are supported by previous studies. Nurses should create programs and plan activities to assist older adults to enhance their perceptions of social control or personal control in order to improve the health status of older adults and minimize associated health care costs. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Is Subjective Social Status a Unique Correlate of Physical Health? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-07-20

    Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Differential Effects of Social Networks on Mammography Use by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Younsook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether social networks have differential effects on mammography use depending on poverty status. Data were analyzed on US women (40+), employing logistic regression and simple slope analyses for a post hoc probing of moderating effects. Among women not in poverty, living with a spouse/partner and attending church, regardless of frequency, were positively associated with mammography use; family size was negatively associated. Among women living in poverty, mammography showed a positive association only with weekly church attendance. Mammography was negatively associated with health-related social interactions occurring through the Internet. Post hoc probing showed significant moderating effects of poverty on the relationship between online health-related interactions and mammography use. To make the Internet a meaningful health empowerment tool for women in poverty, future research should identify how health-related interactions that occur online affect women in poverty's psychological and behavioral reactions that will contribute to our understanding of why they are discouraged from having mammograms. The mechanisms behind the differential effects of church attendance and poverty status on mammography also need further clarification.

  18. Neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents: Effects of peer status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Water, Erik; Mies, Gabry W; Ma, Ili; Mennes, Maarten; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Scheres, Anouk

    2017-07-01

    We examined whether adolescents' neural responses to social exclusion and inclusion are influenced by their own popularity and acceptance and by the popularity of their excluders and includers. Accepted adolescents are highly prosocial. In contrast, popular adolescents, who are central and influential, show prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors, such as peer exclusion. Fifty-two 12-16 year-old adolescents underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan while playing the ball-tossing game Cyberball in which they received or did not receive the ball from other virtual players. The other virtual players were described as either highly popular or average in popularity. Participants' own popularity and acceptance were assessed with peer nominations at school (n = 31). Participants' acceptance was positively correlated with activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during exclusion. Participants' popularity was positively associated with ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex activity during exclusion, but only when the excluders were popular virtual players. Participants showed increased rostral ACC activation to inclusion by players who were average in popularity. These findings indicate that peer status plays an important role in adolescents' neural processing of social exclusion and inclusion. Moreover, these findings underscore that popularity and acceptance are distinct types of high peer status in adolescence, with not only distinct behavioral correlates, but also distinct neural correlates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low childhood subjective social status and telomere length in adulthood: The role of attachment orientations.

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    Murdock, Kyle W; Seiler, Annina; Chirinos, Diana A; Garcini, Luz M; Acebo, Sally L; Cohen, Sheldon; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2018-02-16

    Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not. We examined if attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance altered the association between childhood subjective social status (SSS) and length of telomeres in white blood cells in adulthood. Shorter telomere length is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Participants (N = 128) completed self-report measures of childhood SSS and attachment orientations, as well as a blood draw. We found that among those with low childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with longer telomere length in white blood cells in comparison to high attachment anxiety controlling for participant age, sex, race, body mass index, and adult SSS. Among those with high childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with a slight decrease in telomere length. Attachment avoidance was unrelated to length of telomeres. Such findings provide further evidence for the role that close relationships may have on buffering SSS related health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. IMPRISONMENT AS A RESULT OF WOMEN SUBORDINATION 194 REFLECTED IN MAYA ANGELOU‘S POEMS

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    Fatikha Amalina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to describe the imprisonment of African American people, especially women, in the case of patriarchy and women subordination through Maya Angelou‘s selected poems entitled ―Caged Bird‖, ―Still I Rise‖ and ―Woman Work‖. This research discusses the meaning behind the poems that reflected Maya Angelou‘s life experience relating to women subordination and freedom. Feminism approach is applied to analyze the concept of freedom in women subordination and patriarchy in this research. The paper points to how the concept of gender intertwines with labor, ethnics, kinship and gender domination. Without aiming to paint a detailed picture of feminism, the paper explores how ideas developed in these inquiries question the taken-for-granted assumption about the universality of women‘s subordination and challenge the emancipation prerequisite of feminist agenda.

  1. Genetic sorting of subordinate species in grassland modulated by intraspecific variation in dominant species.

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    Danny J Gustafson

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in a single species can have predictable and heritable effects on associated communities and ecosystem processes, however little is known about how genetic variation of a dominant species affects plant community assembly. We characterized the genetic structure of a dominant grass (Sorghastrum nutans and two subordinate species (Chamaecrista fasciculata, Silphium integrifolium, during the third growing season in grassland communities established with genetically distinct (cultivated varieties or local ecotypes seed sources of the dominant grasses. There were genetic differences between subordinate species growing in the cultivar versus local ecotype communities, indicating that intraspecific genetic variation in the dominant grasses affected the genetic composition of subordinate species during community assembly. A positive association between genetic diversity of S. nutans, C. fasciculata, and S. integrifolium and species diversity established the role of an intraspecific biotic filter during community assembly. Our results show that intraspecific variation in dominant species can significantly modulate the genetic composition of subordinate species.

  2. Ant pupae employ acoustics to communicate social status in their colony's hierarchy.

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    Casacci, Luca P; Thomas, Jeremy A; Sala, Marco; Treanor, David; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Schönrogge, Karsten

    2013-02-18

    The possession of an efficient communication system and an ability to distinguish between young stages are essential attributes that enable eusocial insects to live in complex integrated societies. Although ants communicate primarily via chemicals, it is increasingly clear that acoustical signals also convey important information, including status, between adults in many species. However, all immature stages were believed to be mute. We confirm that larvae and recently formed pupae of Myrmica ants are mute, yet once they are sclerotized, the pupae possess a fully functioning stridulatory organ. The sounds generated by worker pupae were similar to those of workers but were emitted as single pulses rather than in the long sequences characteristic of adults; both induced the same range and intensity of benevolent behaviors when played back to unstressed workers. Both white and sclerotized pupae have a higher social status than larvae within Myrmica colonies, but the latter's status fell significantly after they were made mute. Our results suggest that acoustical signals supplant semiochemicals as a means of identification in sclerotized pupae, perhaps because their hardened integuments block the secretion of brood pheromones or because their developing adult secretions initially differ from overall colony odors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct and Indirect Effects of Young Adults’ Relationship Status on Life Satisfaction through Loneliness and Perceived Social Support

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    Katarzyna Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the indirect effects of relationship status (single vs. in a relationship on life satisfaction through social and emotional (romantic and family loneliness and perceived social support from significant others, family, and friends. Five hundred and fifty three Polish young adults (335 females and 218 males, ranging in age from 20–30 years ('M' = 23.42, completed the Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The results indicated that single individuals reported significantly lower satisfaction with life and social support from a significant other, but higher romantic and social loneliness, and higher family support compared to participants in a relationship. A path analysis revealed no direct effect of relationship status on satisfaction with life. However, there were significant indirect effects from relationship status to life satisfaction though romantic, family, and social loneliness, and through perceived social support from significant others and from family. Therefore, singlehood may be deleterious to life satisfaction because of the higher loneliness and lower social support from a significant other.

  4. Chronic subordinate colony housing paradigm: A mouse model to characterize the consequences of insufficient glucocorticoid signalling

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    Dominik eLanggartner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, in particular chronic psychosocial, stress is a burden of modern societies and known to be a risk factor for numerous somatic and affective disorders (in detail referenced below. However, based on the limited existence of appropriate, and clinically-relevant, animal models for studying the effects of chronic stress, the detailed behavioural, physiological, neuronal, and immunological mechanisms linking stress and such disorders are insufficiently understood. To date, most chronic stress studies in animals employ intermittent exposure to the same (homotypic or to different (heterotypic stressors of varying duration and intensity. Such models are only of limited value, since they do not adequately reflect the chronic, and continuous, situation that humans typically experience. Furthermore, application of different physical or psychological stimuli renders comparisons to the mainly psychosocial stressors faced by humans, as well as between the different stress studies almost impossible. In contrast, rodent models of chronic psychosocial stress represent situations more akin to those faced by humans and consequently seem to hold more clinical relevance. Our laboratory has developed a model in which mice are exposed to social stress for 19 continuous days, namely the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC paradigm, which bridges this gap. The main aim of the current review article is to provide a detailed summary of the behavioural, physiological, neuronal and immunological consequences of the CSC paradigm, and wherever possible relate the findings to other stress models and to those from human studies.

  5. Young women's risk of sexual aggression in bars: the roles of intoxication and peer social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Abbey, Antonia; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-07-01

    Previous research suggests a link between women's drinking and sexual victimisation; however, little is known about other factors that influence risk and how risks are linked to drinking-in-the-event. We examined how amount of alcohol consumed and peer group factors were associated with whether young women were targeted for sexual aggression on a night out at a bar. One hundred and fourteen women recruited in small groups in the bar district reported how many drinks they had consumed and were breath-tested at recruitment and on their way home. At recruitment, they also ranked other members of their group in terms of status (e.g. popularity, group influence). In the exit survey, they reported any sexual aggression they experienced that night (i.e. persistence after refusal and unwanted sexual touching). Over a quarter (28.9%) of women reported persistence only, 5.3% unwanted touching only and 18.7% both. Sexual aggression was associated with consuming more alcohol on the survey night and whether other group members experienced sexual aggression that night. The relationship with amount consumed was stronger for touching than for persistence. Having a lower status position in the group was associated with increased risk of sexual aggression among women who had consumed five or more drinks. Prevention should address social norms and other factors that encourage men to target specific women for sexual aggression, including perceptions by staff and patrons that intoxicated women are 'easy' or more blameworthy targets and the possible role of women's social status in their peer groups. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, W Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-10-16

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers' child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank-behavior associations.

  7. Patriarchal Hierarchies of Power and the Subordination of Women: Real Doll as a Replacement of Woman Figure

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    Natasha Shokri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The social structure of the family has always been in the state of transformation. In the past centuries, the nuclear family was replaced with a Patriarchal Family which lasted for only two centuries from 16th to the beginning of 18th century. In this new structure of the family, men were privileged to play the role of the master and the women were marginalized and subordinated. Recent years, however, has witnessed a re-adjustment of this order towards a more equal distribution of power relations. These changes in family structure has ever since initiated new conflicts leading to establishment of the physical and psychological bonds between men and dolls. The present study aims to find out the major socio-psychological reasons behind this conflict. In a qualitative library based study, the researchers attempt to analyse the video interview of some of the doll-owners. In the survey conducted in this study, the video of “Guys and Dolls”, BBC Video Documentary, has been shown to 10 participants, five male and five female. Then, a questionnaire was distributed to ask for their opinion based on their gender. The findings of this analysis reveal that women can hardly accept the notion of using dolls as replacement to real partners in comparison with men. On the contrary, the male participants advocated the employment of dolls as sexual replacement for the real woman figure. Keywords: Patriarchy, Real Doll, Oedipus complex, Female Subordination, Family

  8. Social Determinants of Depression: The Intersections of Race, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status

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    Shervin Assari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the risk of major depressive episode (MDE among American adults. Methods: National Survey of American Life (NSAL included 3570 African Americans and 891 Whites. Race, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, household income, education, employment, and marital status were independent variables. Twelve-month MDE was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. A series of logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: In the pooled sample, race and household income, but not gender, education, employment, and marital status were associated with 12-month MDE. Gender interacted with the effects of income on MDE, suggesting that the association between household income and MDE is larger for women than men. In race by gender specific models that controlled for other SES indicators, high income was protective for White women, education was protective for African American women, and high income became a risk factor for African American men. High income did not show a risk effect for African American men in the absence of other SES indicators. Conclusions: Findings suggest that race, gender, and class interact on how SES indicators, such as education or income, become a protective or a risk factor for MDE among American Adults. When the outcome is MDE, White women benefit more from income, African American women gain from education, however, the residual effect of high income (above and beyond education, employment, and marital status may become a risk factor for African American men.

  9. EVOLUTIONARY EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE FOR SOCIAL WORKERS: STATUS AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GROUP VIOLENCE

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    Boyd Patterson Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of status Between nations and across cultures, threats to the social status of an individual or group motivate retaliatory violence. History provides countless examples of such violence, committed at all levels of society. Whether orchestrated by individuals or governments, the perpetrators almost invariably justify the violence as a necessary response to an existential threat. “Cultures of honor” such as the Southeastern United States condone the use of violence to protect one’s reputation and, unsurprisingly, this region of America has consistently produced the highest levels of per capita violence in the entire country.Additionally, religious texts warn of the destructive power of “pride,” placing it with envy, greed, wrath, lust, gluttony and sloth as one of the Seven Deadly Sins. Our personal experiences with road rage, school bullies and office politics all provide a regular stream of anecdotal evidence of the inexplicably powerful emotions driving those whose status has been threatened. As a former mental health counselor, criminal prosecutor and gang task force coordinator in the Southeastern United States, this author has personally observed numerous examples of pride’s destructive influence. Deadly bar fights, domestic violence and street gang conflicts frequently ensue from seemingly trivial offenses to one’s status. In American cities,simply spray painting over a rival gang’s graffiti can lead to retaliation murder. In fact, gang retaliation plays out so consistently that when a gang entrenched neighborhood gets shot up, the police can usually predict which neighborhood they will respond to for the next shooting.

  10. Social Determinants of Depression: The Intersections of Race, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-11-24

    Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the risk of major depressive episode (MDE) among American adults. National Survey of American Life (NSAL) included 3570 African Americans and 891 Whites. Race, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, household income, education, employment, and marital status) were independent variables. Twelve-month MDE was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). A series of logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. In the pooled sample, race and household income, but not gender, education, employment, and marital status were associated with 12-month MDE. Gender interacted with the effects of income on MDE, suggesting that the association between household income and MDE is larger for women than men. In race by gender specific models that controlled for other SES indicators, high income was protective for White women, education was protective for African American women, and high income became a risk factor for African American men. High income did not show a risk effect for African American men in the absence of other SES indicators. Findings suggest that race, gender, and class interact on how SES indicators, such as education or income, become a protective or a risk factor for MDE among American Adults. When the outcome is MDE, White women benefit more from income, African American women gain from education, however, the residual effect of high income (above and beyond education, employment, and marital status) may become a risk factor for African American men.

  11. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is Social Status Related to Internet Pornography Use? Evidence from the Early 2000s in the United States.

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    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef

    2016-05-01

    While most studies on Internet pornography focus on individual's psychological characteristics, few have explored how social status itself is associated with Internet pornography use. As the Internet is becoming increasingly prevalent, online behaviors may have started to reflect the inequalities of the offline world. This study tested whether lower social status was associated with fewer sexual intercourse opportunities, and whether this led to higher likelihood of using Internet pornography as an alternative means of sexual release. To test the theory, I used the nationally representative sample of the General Social Survey of the U.S. between 2000 and 2004, with missing data handled by chained multiple imputation. The analyses found that lower income, longer working length, being unemployed, or a laborer in the social class strata were associated with fewer sexual intercourse opportunities as measured by three variables: marital status, the number of sex partners, and sex frequency. Lower income, less education, and longer working length were also associated with higher odds of using Internet pornography in the past 30 days, but only income was partially mediated by marital status. Social status was associated with Internet pornography use and sexual intercourse opportunities independently. The comparison of Internet pornography with the traditional X-rated movie found the unique features of Internet pornography use absent for X-rated movie.

  13. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Xavier; Vanroelen, Christophe; Deboosere, Patrick; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    To assess differences in mortality rates between social security statuses in two independent samples of Belgian and Spanish male workers. Study of two retrospective cohorts (Belgium, n=23,607; Spain, n=44,385) of 50-60 year old male employees with 4 years of follow-up. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Mortality for subjects with permanent disability was higher than for the employed, for both Belgium [MRR=4.56 (95% CI: 2.88-7.21)] and Spain [MRR=7.15 (95% CI: 5.37-9.51)]. For the unemployed/early retirees, mortality was higher in Spain [MRR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.24-2.17)] than in Belgium [MRR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.46-1.71)]. MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aggressiveness and brain amine concentration in dominant and subordinate finishing pigs fed the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, R; Cheng, H W; Meisel, R L; Garner, J P; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N

    2010-09-01

    Under farm conditions, aggression related to the formation of social hierarchy and competition for resources can be a major problem because of associated injuries, social stress, and carcass losses. Any factor that may affect the regulation and amount of aggression within a farmed system, for instance, feeding the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine (RAC), is therefore worthy of investigation. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of the widely used swine feed additive RAC, considering also the effects of sex and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines, neurotransmitters essential for controlling aggression, in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen by sex) were fed either a control diet or a diet with RAC (Paylean, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) added (5 mg/kg for 2 wk, followed by 10 mg/kg for 2 wk). The top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs (16 pigs/sex) in each pen were determined after mixing by a 36-h period of continuous behavioral observation. These pigs were then subjected to resident-intruder tests (maximum 300 s) during the feeding trial to measure aggressiveness. At the end of wk 4, the amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and raphe nuclei were dissected and analyzed for concentrations of dopamine (DA); serotonin (5-HT); their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively; norepinephrine; and epinephrine using HPLC. Ractopamine-fed gilts performed more attacks during the first 30 s of testing than pigs in all other subgroups (P dominant control gilts and barrows, and both dominant and subordinate RAC-fed gilts performed the greatest percentage of attacks (P brain 5-HT synthesis) of dominant gilts (P brain monoamine profiling of a deficient serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei, amygdala, and frontal cortex, and enhanced DA metabolism in the amygdala, brain areas vital for aggression

  16. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences - Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors' teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  17. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences – Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  18. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.

  19. "But He's a Star Football Player!": How Social Status Influences Mock Jurors' Perceptions in a Sexual Assault Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Emily; Sheahan, Chelsea; Pozzulo, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    There have been several recent, high-profile cases in the media that have shed light on the perceived leniency in sentencing defendants in sexual assault cases. In a number of these cases, the defendant was well known within their community (e.g., Brock Turner; People v. Turner) or nationally (e.g., Ghomeshi; R v. Ghomeshi). The purpose of this study was to examine how the social status of the defendant (low vs. high), victim social status (low vs. high), victim gender (male vs. female), and the reason the victim was unconscious during the assault (consuming alcohol vs. consuming cold medicine) influenced mock jurors' decisions in a sexual assault case. Mock jurors ( N = 489) read a mock trial transcript depicting an alleged sexual assault. Mock jurors were asked to render a dichotomous verdict, continuous guilt rating, and rate their perceptions of the victim and defendant. There was no influence of the variables on mock jurors' dichotomous verdicts; however, social status influenced guilt ratings. There also was a combined influence of the defendant's social status and the reason the victim was unconscious such that when the defendant was described as low status, and the victim was unconscious due to alcohol consumption, the defendant received higher guilt ratings compared with when the victim was unconscious due to cold medicine. Moreover, the victim was perceived as having more control over the situation when the defendant was the star quarterback (i.e., high status), the victim was female, and she was unconscious due to alcohol consumption compared with cold medicine. These results suggest that victims may be blamed based on their perceived social status and other factors that may have influenced their control over the sexual assault, such as alcohol consumption.

  20. Committed activists and the reshaping of status-quo social consensus

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    Mistry, Dina; Perra, Nicola; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The role of committed minorities in shaping public opinion has been recently addressed with the help of multi-agent models. However, previous studies focused on homogeneous populations where zealots stand out only for their stubbornness. Here, we consider the more general case in which individuals are characterized by different propensities to communicate. In particular, we correlate commitment with a higher tendency to push an opinion, acknowledging the fact that individuals with unwavering dedication to a cause are also more active in their attempts to promote their message. We show that these \\textit{activists} are not only more efficient in spreading their message but that their efforts require an order of magnitude fewer individuals than a randomly selected committed minority to bring the population over to a new consensus. Finally, we address the role of communities, showing that partisan divisions in the society can make it harder for committed individuals to flip the status-quo social consensus.

  1. Fishy aroma of social status: urinary chemo-signalling of territoriality in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Martinovic-Weigelt

    Full Text Available Chemical structures of several urinary reproductive pheromones in fish have been identified, and their role in the chemical communication of reproductive condition is well characterized. On the contrary, the role of chemical communication in signalling of social/territorial status in fish is poorly understood. Fathead minnows are an example of a fish species whose life history traits appear conducive to evolution of chemical communication systems that confer information about social/territorial status. Male reproduction in this species is dependent upon their ability to acquire and defend a high quality nesting territory, and to attract a female to the nest. We hypothesized that fathead minnow males use visual and urine-derived chemical cues to signal territorial status. To test this hypothesis, effects of territorial acquisition on male-specific secondary sex characteristics (SSCs and urine volumes were first assessed. Second, frequencies of male urination in varying social contexts were examined. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to identify urinary metabolites that were differentially excreted in the urine of territorial versus non-territorial males. The expression of SSCs, sperm, and urine volumes increased with territory acquisition, and either remained unchanged or decreased in non-territorial males. Frequency of male urination increased significantly in the presence of females (but not males, suggesting that females are the main target of the urinary signals. Territorial and non-territorial males had distinct urinary metabolomic profiles. An unforeseen finding was that one could discern future territorial status of males, based on their initial metabolomic profiles. Bile acids and volatile amines were identified as potential chemical signals of social status in the fathead minnow. The finding that trimethylamine (a fishy smelling volatile amine may be a social cue is particularly interesting, because it is

  2. Fishy Aroma of Social Status: Urinary Chemo-Signalling of Territoriality in Male Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ekman, Drew R.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; James, Channing M.; Teng, Quincy; Collette, Timothy W.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical structures of several urinary reproductive pheromones in fish have been identified, and their role in the chemical communication of reproductive condition is well characterized. On the contrary, the role of chemical communication in signalling of social/territorial status in fish is poorly understood. Fathead minnows are an example of a fish species whose life history traits appear conducive to evolution of chemical communication systems that confer information about social/territorial status. Male reproduction in this species is dependent upon their ability to acquire and defend a high quality nesting territory, and to attract a female to the nest. We hypothesized that fathead minnow males use visual and urine-derived chemical cues to signal territorial status. To test this hypothesis, effects of territorial acquisition on male-specific secondary sex characteristics (SSCs) and urine volumes were first assessed. Second, frequencies of male urination in varying social contexts were examined. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to identify urinary metabolites that were differentially excreted in the urine of territorial versus non-territorial males. The expression of SSCs, sperm, and urine volumes increased with territory acquisition, and either remained unchanged or decreased in non-territorial males. Frequency of male urination increased significantly in the presence of females (but not males), suggesting that females are the main target of the urinary signals. Territorial and non-territorial males had distinct urinary metabolomic profiles. An unforeseen finding was that one could discern future territorial status of males, based on their initial metabolomic profiles. Bile acids and volatile amines were identified as potential chemical signals of social status in the fathead minnow. The finding that trimethylamine (a fishy smelling volatile amine) may be a social cue is particularly interesting, because it is known to bind trace

  3. Marital status and gender differences in managing a chronic illness: the function of health-related social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Kristin J; Sorkin, Dara H

    2010-11-01

    The attempts of social network members to regulate individuals' health behaviors, or health-related social control, is one mechanism by which social relationships influence health. Little is known, however, about whether this process varies in married versus unmarried individuals managing a chronic illness in which health behaviors are a key component. Researchers have proposed that social control attempts may have dual effects on recipients' well-being, such that improved health behaviors may occur at the cost of increased emotional distress. The current study accordingly sought to examine marital status differences in the sources, frequency, and responses to health-related social control in an ethnically diverse sample of 1477 patients with type 2 diabetes from southern California, USA. Results from two-way ANCOVAs revealed that married individuals reported their spouses most frequently as sources of social control, with unmarried women naming children and unmarried men naming friends/neighbors most frequently as sources of social control. Married men reported receiving social control most often, whereas unmarried men reported receiving social control least often. Regression analyses that examined behavioral and emotional responses to social control revealed that social control using persuasion was associated with better dietary behavior among married patients. Results also revealed a complex pattern of emotional responses, such that social control was associated with both appreciation and hostility, with the effect for appreciation most pronounced among women. Findings from this study highlight the importance of marital status and gender differences in social network members' involvement in the management of a chronic illness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck's Depression, Spielberger's Anxiety, Cohen's Perceived Stress, Sarason's Perceived Social Support and WHO's Domestic Violence Inventory. The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families.

  5. Social behavior and sociometric status of pre-school children attending kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The measures of temporal reliability and criterion validity of the Slovenian version of Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Preschool Edition (SV-P are presented and discussed in the present contribution. Test-retest reliability indexes of the basic and composite scales were obtained with a sample of 39 children assessed in a two-month interval, while the temporal stability coefficients were obtained with an independent sample of 48 children evaluated after a six-month interval. All of the temporal reliability measures were proven sufficiently high. Sociometric indicators of a child's popularity and peer rejection were chosen as an external criterion to verify the concurrent validity of the SV-P. All of the children attending the same kindergarten groups as the target children (N=54 participated in a sociometric test. It was implemented in a form of combined nomination and paired-comparison technique using a group photo of the children in a kindergarten group. The results of the composite scales of SV-P – Social Competence, Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Genaral Adaptation – were related to the children's sociometric positions within the kindergarten group in the expected directions and to a satisfactory degree. In addition, the results obtained by the sociometric procedure with a sample of 210 children were analysed. They highlight the proportions of kindergarten children classified into different sociometric statuses - popular, neglected, rejected, controversial and average – and suggest that during the early childhood the children clearly prefer their same-sex peers.

  6. Can at-risk young adolescents be popular and anti-social? Sociometric status groups, anti-social behavior, gender and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; van der Velden, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836249; Boom, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07472732X; Brugman, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073721239

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n ¼ 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of antisocial behaviour were used to

  7. Student–Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    OpenAIRE

    Young K. Kim; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student–faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes—i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience—vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status. The study utilized data on 58,281 students who participated in the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES). The finding...

  8. Respect the technique: Status-based respect increases minority group social cohesion with majority groups, while also increasing minority collective action tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasford, Demis E; Johnston, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The present work explores the implications of respect for social change. Social change can be achieved via improved attitudes between minority and majority groups (i.e., social cohesion) or via action taken by minority groups (i.e., collective action). Recent work suggests that the social cohesion route to social change, in particular an emphasis on commonality, may be incompatible with the collective action route to social change. We suggest that social-cohesion strategies rooted in status-based respect may allow for social cohesion and collective action. We experimentally investigated the relative effects of a majority group communicating status-based respect and commonality, as compared to a control, on minority group members' social cohesion with the majority group and willingness to engage in collective action. Status-based respect increased positive attitudes toward a majority group, relative to commonality and control, but was also associated with increased collective action tendencies. Implications for social change are discussed.

  9. Supervisors' upward exchange relationships and subordinate outcomes: testing the multilevel mediation role of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Le; Wang, Mo; Chen, Gilad; Shi, Junqi

    2012-05-01

    This study empirically examined the proposition that supervisors' exchange relationships with their own supervisors (i.e., leader-leader exchange, or LLX) are related to their subordinates' work-related outcomes through 3 mechanisms: (a) leaders modeling their LLX to develop and maintain their exchange relationships with their subordinates (i.e., leader-member exchange, or LMX), (b) motivating the team and its members, captured by team and individual empowerment, and (c) facilitating the relationships between LMX and individual outcomes. Analyses of multisource and lagged data from 104 team supervisors and 577 subordinates showed that LMX mediated the positive relationship of LLX on subordinates' individual empowerment. Furthermore, team empowerment and individual empowerment sequentially mediated the positive relationships between LLX and subordinates' job satisfaction and job performance. The authors also found that the indirect relationships of LMX with job satisfaction and job performance via individual empowerment were stronger when LLX was higher. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Chaos in Western Medicine: how issues of social-professional status are undermining our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan W

    2012-07-25

    From the period immediately following the second world war, western (orthodox) medicine - both as a philosophy of medicine and as a professional guild of medical professionals actively practicing medicine - has made progress in leaps and bounds, especially considering the advances in technology and associated enterprises. Over the last thirty years, however, the practice of orthodox medicine has taken a turn for the worst despite progressive philosophies and tenets of basic practice as offered by the professional bodies that regulate how medicine is operated and implemented. Current healthcare environments are in a chaotic state of affairs, most notably due to issues involving affordability of medical professionals. It is argued that the social-professional status of medical doctors allow exorbitant and unreachable demands on governments for increased salaries. The title-based supremacy of doctors within the occupations domain is not supported by what they are offering society at large, and it compromises the ability of medical institutions and governments to provide better and more affordable healthcare. From a sociological point of view, this paper examines the social-religious history of such social class-based occupational power and dominance, and paves the way toward an overhaul of current medical education frameworks that proactively will ensure greater occupational equity in healthcare settings, across all healthcare disciplines tasked with patient care and improvement of healthcare services. In essence, doctoral titles should only be awarded after successful completion of postgraduate doctoral studies, and a new breed of medical professionals must emerge, able to contribute more meaningfully to the advancement of medicine as a profession, as well as toward increased standards of healthcare and improved health services delivery.

  11. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Basity

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measures the reflection of repliers to different social factors including social position, popularity, socialize, social manners, self-reliance, speech abilities, responsibility, etc. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 people using random sampling and analyzed using descriptive mono factor statistics, Spearman correlation, Kramer correlation coefficient, Chi-square, regression and path analysis. The validity of questionnaire is tested by using Cronbach alpha (%75. The results indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between woman’s educational level, age, residency status, socialization capability, urbanity, skill & ability and their employment. The study, however, does not find any relationship between marital status and number of children and outcome of woman’s employment.

  12. Saudi Arabian Woman's Marriage Life in Girls of Riyadh, a Novel by Rajaa Alsanea: Subordination and Struggle

    OpenAIRE

    THALIB, AMIRAH ANIS

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that implementation of Pre-Islamic tradition and culture emerges subordination toward woman in Saudi Arabia. They face subordination in many aspects of life. This phenomenon can be found in Girls of Riyadh novel. In this novel, Rajaa Alsanea, a Saudi Arabian woman writer tells how women live under male domination. In analyzing the phenomena, the writer used feminist approach by applying feminism theory which is combined with Islamic references to reveal subordination and s...

  13. Leadership predictors of innovation and task performance : Subordinates self-esteem and self-presentation as moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, Johannes; Nelson, Nicole E.; Allen, Tammy D.; Xu, Xian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined self-related subordinate variables as moderators of relationships between supervisors leadership behaviours (transformational as well as activecorrective transactional leadership) and subordinates innovative behaviour and task performance. Based on behavioural plasticity and self-monitoring theory, we hypothesized that these associations would be moderated by subordinates organization-based self-esteem and by their propensity to modify self-presentation, a major facet o...

  14. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

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    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  15. Similarity and Dissimilarity between Superiors and Subordinates and Their Implications for Dyadic Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Salette Paulo da Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature advocates the advantages of work force diversification, studies based on the Similarity- Attraction Paradigm indicate that people are more disposed to feel attraction to those who are similar to them. A field study with the comparative data of 89 dyads investigated the effect of the actual and perceived similarity in the quality of the relationship between superiors and subordinates within the Leader-Member Exchange [LMX] perspective. The investigated characteristics were: gender, age and work-family conflict. The data indicate the influence only of perceived similarity in the quality of the relationship between superiors and subordinates. This effect broadens when the subordinate feels satisfied with the quality and frequency of contact with his/her superior. The methodological procedures included factorial analysis and validation of two scales (EIFT and LMX-7, the correlations analysis and hierarchic regressions. Finally, the implications of some results and directions for future research in diversity are discussed.

  16. The impact of social status inconsistency on cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction and stroke in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

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    Hermann Silke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequalities in cardiovascular diseases are well documented. Yet, the relation of social status inconsistency (having different ranks in two or more status indicators like education, occupational position or income and medical conditions of heart or vessels is not clear. Status inconsistency (SI is assumed to be stressful, and the association of psychosocial distress and health is well known. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD and status inconsistency. Another target was to assess the influence of behaviour related risk factors on this association. Methods 8960 men and 6070 women, aged 45-65 years, from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were included. Socio-economic status was assessed by education/vocational training and occupational position at recruitment. During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, information on CVD was collected. Results Compared to status consistent subjects, men who were in a higher occupational position than could be expected given their educational attainment had a nearly two-fold increased incidence of CVD (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.5; 2.4, adjusted for age. Smoking behaviour and BMI differed significantly between those who had adequate occupational positions and those who did not. Yet, these lifestyle factors, as opposed to age, did not contribute to the observed differences in CVD. No association of cardiovascular diseases and status inconsistency was found for women or in cases where education exceeded occupational position. Conclusions Status inconsistent men (occupational position > education had a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than status consistent men. However, harmful behaviour did not explain this relationship.

  17. Social Consciousness of Low-Income College Students in Taiwan: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Collegiate Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), collegiate involvement, and social consciousness of low-income college students (LICSs) and higher-income college students (HICSs) in Taiwan. The study analyzed 1,453 LICSs and 1,453 HICSs from 156 colleges in Taiwan. The results showed that the two student groups exhibited different SESs and…

  18. Fishy aroma of social status: Urinary chemo-signaling of territoriality in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exhibit life history traits which may be conducive to evolution of systems that use chemical communication to confer information about an individual’s social status. Reproduction in males of this species is dependent upon their ability ...

  19. The Structural Relationships of Social Support, Mother's Psychological Status, and Maternal Sensitivity to Attachment Security in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…

  20. Parents, television and children’s weight status: on lasting effects of parental television socialization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.; Tolsma, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's

  1. Social Support and Socioeconomic Status Predict Secondary Students' Grades and Educational Plans Indifferently across Immigrant Group and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola

    2015-01-01

    Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…

  2. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity…

  3. Classroom-Level Predictors of the Social Status of Aggression: Friendship Centralization, Friendship Density, Teacher-Student Attunement, and Gender

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    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…

  4. Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy of Vietnamese Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Social Support, Socioeconomic Status, and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheetal G.; Salahuddin, Nazish M.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Individual (gender and acculturation), microsystem (social support), exosystem (socioeconomic status), and macrosystem (racism) variables were examined as predictors of career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 85 Vietnamese adolescents in the Washington, D.C., area. English language acculturation and peer support accounted for unique…

  5. Interpersonal Strategy, Attachment Security and Social Status among Chinese Children in the Initial Period of Secondary School

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    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influences of peer interpersonal strategy and secure attachment on social status in peer contexts in the initial period of secondary school in China. Two hundred and thirty-one new students in secondary schools (grade 6) were recruited in the first semester to complete measures of interpersonal strategies in the peer group,…

  6. What Does It Take for Social Work to Evolve to Science Status? Discussing Definition, Structure, and Contextual Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging discourse on science in social work (SW) has generated much-needed analysis of the profession's status as a scientific enterprise. Brekke raised critical issues that must be addressed for SW to become a science. This response examines the contextual factors that led to the call for SW science. It also relies on a comparative…

  7. Associations between subjective social status and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-12-01

    The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high

  8. Street children in Pakistan: a situational analysis of social conditions and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moazzam; Shahab, Saqib; Ushijima, Hiroshi; de Muynck, Aime

    2004-10-01

    This paper examines the social conditions and nutritional status of street children in Pakistan. Nutritional status is evaluated by an assessment of height and weight relative to age. A heterogeneous sample of 108 street children in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad was studied. One hundred and one of them were children "on the street" having regular family contact; seven were "of the street", without any family contact. Most street children came from large families which had recently moved to the city in search of economic opportunities. Their parents had low education levels and were either unemployed or employed in unskilled occupations. Poverty clearly was an important factor. The majority of the children moved to the street to augment family income. Most of the children were males (81%) and the average age at beginning life on the street was under 10 years. The majority was working 8-12 h daily with an average income of Rs. 40-60 per day (USD 1 = Rs. 60). Important issues were parental exploitation, police harassment, abuse, and the impact of other street peers in their lives. The distribution of height-for-age relative to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference standard showed that 20% were stunted and 12% had wasting. Wasting was equal between sexes, while fewer girls than boys were stunted. The study concludes that the issue of street children in Rawalpindi and Islamabad is mainly one of "children on the street," while "children of the street" are an exceptional phenomenon. It was noted that, with some exceptions, street children in other world regions share similar risk factors and backgrounds. Findings from this study will facilitate both the identification of high-risk families, i.e. those whose children are likely to take to the street, and timely preventive and rehabilitative measures.

  9. Premenstrual Dysphoria and Luteal Stress in Dominant-Social-Status Female Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingqi; Zhao, Qitao; Wei, Sheng; Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Haijun

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to extend our previous work to develop nonhuman primate model for prospectively studying the mechanism underlying premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Thirty young dominant-status female monkeys were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and JQP group. For two consecutive menstrual cycles, from day 18 to 22, monkeys in the model and JQP groups were housed and immobilized singly in specially designed isolation cages for 5-6 hours per day. At the same time, the pharmaceutical interference effect of jingqianping (JQP) granule, a traditional Chinese medicine specifically used to cure PMDD patients, was tested using monkeys in the JQP group. The behavior and facial expressions of monkeys were photographed with an automatic vidicon and were quantitatively analyzed by “the emotion evaluation scale of female experimental macaque.” Changes in serum level of progesterone and estradiol were measured with RIA, and serum level of 5-HT, noradrenaline, and dopamine were measured with HPLC. After experiencing mentioned above stress, 70% of monkeys of model group showed PMDD symptoms during three consecutive menstrual cycles. Estradiol and progesterone serum level decreased (P < 0.01). Moreover, the peak value of secreted hormones in their follicular phase did not occur. Serum level of 5-HT and dopamine were significantly lower (P < 0.01), but the serum noradrenaline level was higher (P < 0.01). Moreover, in monkeys administered by JQP granule, both PMDD symptoms and the anormal serum level of neurotransmitters could be obviously reversed. This special luteal-phase treatment on dominant-social-status monkeys might be a feasible way to create models mimicking PMDD. PMID:24371458

  10. Premenstrual Dysphoria and Luteal Stress in Dominant-Social-Status Female Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to extend our previous work to develop nonhuman primate model for prospectively studying the mechanism underlying premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD. Thirty young dominant-status female monkeys were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, and JQP group. For two consecutive menstrual cycles, from day 18 to 22, monkeys in the model and JQP groups were housed and immobilized singly in specially designed isolation cages for 5-6 hours per day. At the same time, the pharmaceutical interference effect of jingqianping (JQP granule, a traditional Chinese medicine specifically used to cure PMDD patients, was tested using monkeys in the JQP group. The behavior and facial expressions of monkeys were photographed with an automatic vidicon and were quantitatively analyzed by “the emotion evaluation scale of female experimental macaque.” Changes in serum level of progesterone and estradiol were measured with RIA, and serum level of 5-HT, noradrenaline, and dopamine were measured with HPLC. After experiencing mentioned above stress, 70% of monkeys of model group showed PMDD symptoms during three consecutive menstrual cycles. Estradiol and progesterone serum level decreased (P<0.01. Moreover, the peak value of secreted hormones in their follicular phase did not occur. Serum level of 5-HT and dopamine were significantly lower (P<0.01, but the serum noradrenaline level was higher (P<0.01. Moreover, in monkeys administered by JQP granule, both PMDD symptoms and the anormal serum level of neurotransmitters could be obviously reversed. This special luteal-phase treatment on dominant-social-status monkeys might be a feasible way to create models mimicking PMDD.

  11. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Results Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16–2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16–2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. Conclusions The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in

  12. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Silvana C; Silva, Cosme M F P; Vettore, Mario V

    2013-11-15

    Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16-2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16-2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in older men, whereas low perceived social

  13. Ruin Time and Severity for a Lévy Subordinator Claim Process: A Simple Approach

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    Claude Lefèvre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with an insurance risk model whose claim process is described by a Lévy subordinator process. Lévy-type risk models have been the object of much research in recent years. Our purpose is to present, in the case of a subordinator, a simple and direct method for determining the finite time (and ultimate ruin probabilities, the distribution of the ruin severity, the reserves prior to ruin, and the Laplace transform of the ruin time. Interestingly, the usual net profit condition will be essentially relaxed. Most results generalize those known for the compound Poisson claim process.

  14. Subject of Subordinate Clause as Object with Verbs of Perception, Thought, and Communication in Old Russian

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    Anna A. Pichkhadze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Old Russian construction involving verbs of perception, thought, and communication. In this construction, a single semantic argument corresponds to two syntactic constituents: a direct object and a finite subordinate clause, the subject of which is coreferential with the direct object of the main clause. The Old Russian construction is seen as an instantiation of a cross-linguistic option in the argument structure of these verbs (above all, of the perception verbs, that is, to take the subject of the subordinate clause as the direct object.

  15. The Role of Social Status of Parental Family in Forming the Background of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior of a Person

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    Antonov Georgiy Vyacheslavovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the man complex research are presented in this article. Genetic, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, psychological and sociological methods of scientific information obtaining were used. This research reveals the ratio of genetic and psychosocial personality components. These components determine the forming of antisocial and prosocial human behavior. An individual set of phenotypic and genetic characteristics is defined in interrelation with sustainable symptoms of complex behaviors and predisposition to it. Methodic recommendations on revealing predisposition to deviant behavior, including aggressive one, written in the obtained results basis. It described the relationship of standard indicators of parental social status of the family in terms of students exhibiting signs of antisocial and prosocial behavior. To identify human predisposition to a certain type of social behavior, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents and family of origin as a whole was analyzed relations numerical values of a number of empirical indicators of social behavior and social status parameters parent families. Revealed that the level of education and activity of parents, as well as the birthplace of the person have a statistically significant effect on his social behavior.

  16. Attribution of Base Civil Engineer (BCE) Leadership by Key Subordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Zaleznik , 1977:68]. 12 Leaders versus Managers . One way to examine the difference between leadership and management is to examine the similarities and... differences between the "typical" leader and manager . Although such a comparison is limited by its overall general nature (there are always... managers as put forth by Abraham Zaleznik , Professor of Social Psychology at the Harvard Business School ( Zaleznik , 1977). Managers (

  17. Motivation Modeling: Influencing Subordinate Motivation and Organizational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    rganization," Journal of Psycholoqy 21 1946, p. 190. 55. Leon Festinger , A Theory of Coaritive Di ance (Stanford, CA% Stanford University Press. 1957...University Press, 1957. Festinger , Leon , et al. Theory and Eyperiment in Social LC(’,U, oinaari. Ann Arbor, MI: Research Center for Group Dynamics...An Experimental Approach. Malabar, ?-L: Robert E. Kriegar Publishing Co., 1982. Festinger , Leun. A Theory of Coqnitive Dissonance. Stanford. Stattford

  18. Change in subjective social status following HIV diagnosis and associated effects on mental and physical health among HIV-positive gay men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.

  19. Doing better (or worse) than one's parents: Social status, mobility, and performance-avoidance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mickaël; Bruno, Alisée; Darnon, Céline

    2018-01-11

    Previous research has shown that, when succeeding in higher education, first-generation (FG) students endorse more performance-avoidance goals (i.e., the fear of performing poorly) than continuing-generation (CG) students. In this study, individual mobility is examined as a predictor of performance-avoidance goal endorsement. It is argued that FG students endorse more these goals than CG students because in higher education, the former (but not the latter) experience upward mobility. In addition, CG can also be at risk of endorsing these goals when they are confronted with downward mobility. Two studies were conducted with psychology students (N = 143 in Study 1; N = 176 in Study 2). In Study 1, FG and CG students' perceived upward mobility was measured. In Study 2, FG and CG students were provided with a feedback that suggested either upward or downward mobility. In both studies, participants reported their level of performance-avoidance goal endorsement. Results from Study 1 supported an indirect effect of status on performance-avoidance goals via a higher perception of upward mobility. Results from Study 2 supported that psychology students who face mobility (i.e., FG students who received better feedback than their usual level of performance, CG students who received worse feedback than their usual level of performance) increased their performance-avoidance goals the most. Taken together, the results of these studies support that one's actual social position and, even more, the social position one is about to reach are reliable predictors of performance-avoidance goals. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Mudanças de renda no Brasil: fatores espaciais, setoriais, educacionais e de status social

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    José Alcides Figueiredo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo São analisadas as influências das variáveis espaciais, setoriais, educacionais e de status social nas mudanças de renda no Brasil entre 1992 e 2011. Estes fatores são considerados tanto de modo específico quanto em suas relações com classe social. O estudo combina o uso de medidas de diferenças observadas e de diferenças ajustadas por regressão quantílica. Nos modelos estimam-se tanto efeitos absolutos (em reais quanto relativos (percentuais. O trabalho aborda particularmente as alterações na renda mediana das categorias, mas observa também para as mudanças nos níveis superiores e inferiores da distribuição. A perda relativa de renda do Brasil metropolitano mostrou-se fortemente intrínseca à dimensão socioespacial. A queda nas discrepâncias brutas (não ajustadas de renda, de raça e de gênero envolveram combinações bem diferentes entre efeitos diretos e indiretos. Reduções nas desigualdades espaciais, setoriais e educacionais contribuíram para a diminuição da heterogeneidade dentro das classes sociais. Todos os cenários desenhados pelo jogo de controles estatísticos mostram que diminuiu sensivelmente a vantagem de renda dos que apresentam mais escolaridade. As mudanças de renda foram menores justamente entre as posições sociais que foram menos afetadas por alterações na distribuição ou dispersão da educação e os seus efeitos diretos e indiretos na renda.

  1. THE MEDICO-SOCIAL CHARACTERISTIC OF HEALTH STATUS IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

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    Igor Alekseevich Zhmakin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with recurrent respiratory diseases according to various authors comprise from 20% to 90% of children’s population of the Russian Federation. In such children neurotic reactions can develop easier, they get tired quicker, study worse, all that in turn provokes formation of pedagogical problems and deterioration of psychological climate in a family.The purpose of this research was detection of medico-social features of health status and quality of life in children with recurrent respiratory diseases for scientifically based development of improving and correctional actions. Under our supervision there were 195 children aged from 5 to 12 years with various levels of health.Methods of research included a complex assessment of level of health, functional, laboratory and biochemical techniques, assessment of quality of life with a questionnaire PedsQL™4.0. As a result of the conducted research ball scaling was carried out and groups of high and moderate risk for decline in quality of life of children with recurrent respiratory diseases were allocated. The comprehensive correctional and improving program for children from group of «high risk» for decline in quality of life and level of health was developed. After intervention more than 16% of examined children began to attend sports sections (physical functioning improved, and because of reduction of absence from schools, their role, emotional and social functioning improved (children became more attentive at lessons, progress increased. The received results allow to confirm efficiency of the developed program in comparison with temporary industry standards of rendering medical care to children.

  2. Weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation, emotional social support, and physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lawman, Hannah G; Van Horn, M Lee

    2013-05-01

    This study examined weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation (controlled, autonomous, regulatory), emotional social support (parents, peers) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved adolescents (ethnic minority, low-income). Participants from the Active by Choice Today Trial (n = 1,416; 54% girls, 73% African American, 52% overweight/obese) completed baseline measures, including height and weight, psychosocial surveys, and 7-day accelerometry estimates. Weight status was defined by body mass index z-score (zBMI). Weight status moderated the effects of controlled, autonomous, and regulatory motivation on MVPA, such that these variables were more strongly associated with MVPA in adolescents with lower versus higher zBMI scores. A better understanding of why motivation is not related to MVPA in underserved youth with a higher weight status is needed. Future pediatric obesity treatment in underserved youth may need to move beyond motivation into environmental factors associated with long-term behavior change.

  3. Differences in the association of subjective wellbeing measures with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions among residents of an Eastern Cape township

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing

  4. The Influence of Immigrant Parent Legal Status on U.S.-Born Children's Academic Abilities: The Moderating Effects of Social Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…

  5. Religiosity and decreased risk of substance use disorders: is the effect mediated by social support or mental health status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Mark J; Harris, Katherine M; Koenig, Harold G; Han, Xiaotong; Sullivan, Greer; Mattox, Rhonda; Tang, Lingqi

    2010-08-01

    The negative association between religiosity (religious beliefs and church attendance) and the likelihood of substance use disorders is well established, but the mechanism(s) remain poorly understood. We investigated whether this association was mediated by social support or mental health status. We utilized cross-sectional data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 36,370). We first used logistic regression to regress any alcohol use in the past year on sociodemographic and religiosity variables. Then, among individuals who drank in the past year, we regressed past year alcohol abuse/dependence on sociodemographic and religiosity variables. To investigate whether social support mediated the association between religiosity and alcohol use and alcohol abuse/dependence we repeated the above models, adding the social support variables. To the extent that these added predictors modified the magnitude of the effect of the religiosity variables, we interpreted social support as a possible mediator. We also formally tested for mediation using path analysis. We investigated the possible mediating role of mental health status analogously. Parallel sets of analyses were conducted for any drug use, and drug abuse/dependence among those using any drugs as the dependent variables. The addition of social support and mental health status variables to logistic regression models had little effect on the magnitude of the religiosity coefficients in any of the models. While some of the tests of mediation were significant in the path analyses, the results were not always in the expected direction, and the magnitude of the effects was small. The association between religiosity and decreased likelihood of a substance use disorder does not appear to be substantively mediated by either social support or mental health status.

  6. [Health-care utilization in elderly (Spain 2006-2012): Influence of health status and social class].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Solsona, Sofía; Sartolo, M Teresa; Rabanaque, M José

    2016-04-01

    to explore health-care utilization (primary and specialized health-care, hospitalizations, day hospital and emergency services) and overuse in elderly in Spain, considering the influence of health status, sex, social class and its temporal trend. cross sectional study in two phases. Spain. people surveyed in the National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011-12. Health status was measured using self-rated and diagnosed health (number and diagnoses). Social class was obtained from the last occupation of the main supporter (manual and non-manual workers). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting by sex, age, health status, social class and year, obtaining its predictive capacity. the percentage of elderly population with health-care utilization decreased during the period analyzed. Women who belonged to the manual workers category presented the highest prevalence of low health (low self-rated health in 2006: 70.6%). Low health status was associated with a higher utilization of health-care services. Self-rated health was a better predictor of health-care utilization and overuse than diagnosed health, getting the highest predictive capacity for specialized health-care (C = 0.676). Old people from low social class used with higher frequency primary health-care and emergency services. On the other hand, specialized health-care and day hospital were more used by high social classes. inequalities in health and health-care utilization have been observed in elderly according social class. It is necessary to consider self-rated health as a health-care utilization predictor and to review our health-care services accessibility and equity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Cognition of Rejected Status Students in Late Elementary School: An Examination of Low, Medium, and High Social Prominence Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cristin M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the social network perceptions of fifth grade rejected students (N = 723). Rejected students were separated into low-, medium-, and high-social prominence subtypes. Cluster analysis was also used to create analytically-derived subtypes of rejected students including the following characteristics: social network…

  8. Having Children Status of University Students in Uzbekistan and Social Hygienic Aspect of their Children

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    Barno Erkinovna Abdusamatova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate social-hygienic characteristics of “mother students” and their children below 3 years old, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. METHOD: General properties, life conditions of 470 student mother and some health indicators, health service during pregnancy of student mothers in these families, and the health status of their children below 3 years old were studied. RESULTS: It was established that 95.3% students become mothers for the first two year-period of marriage. It was determined that low level of medical observation and recovery during pregnancy in students. Because of refusal to take academic vocation during pregnancy and after delivery there is practically no immediately mother’s care of child in such families. Also, percentage of children taken additional food in the student’s families was about 56% during first six months. CONCLUSION: These and other negative circumstances determine high level of morbidity for children of early age in families of mothers-students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 369-372

  9. Disclosure of HIV-positive status to Latino gay men's social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, María Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Poppen, Paul J; Echeverry, John J; Bianchi, Fernanda T

    2004-03-01

    This study explored disclosure of serostatus in a sample of 155 HIV-positive Latino gay men from New York City and Washington, DC. We examined rates of disclosure to different members of the social network: mothers, fathers, close friends, and primary sexual partners. There were high rates of disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to main partners and closest friends and lower rates to fathers and mothers. We examined the role of 3 contextual target-dependent factors (emotional closeness to target, anticipated reactions from target, and target's knowledge of sexual orientation), as well as acculturation and time since diagnosis. Three separate logistic regression models were performed to predict disclosure of HIV-positive status to 3 targets: mothers, fathers, and closest friends. We found that disclosure was not a generalized tendency, but rather different factors were influential depending on the target. Whether the target was aware of participant's sexual orientation was associated with disclosure in all 3 models. Greater emotional closeness also predicted disclosure to mother and father; greater U.S. acculturation was associated with disclosure to father and marginally to mother. A longer time since diagnosis was associated with disclosure to the closest friend. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account roles and relationships, and their effect on disclosure.

  10. The effect of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on the mental health of Chinese migrants: A comparison between interprovincial and intra-provincial migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yingying; Liang, Ying

    2017-07-01

    This article sought to explore the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on intra-provincial and interprovincial migrants' mental health by constructing the Bayesian structural equation model. A total of 14,584 migrants aged 15-59 years living in eight cities of China were selected. It was found that the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on mental health were converse for these two groups. And the manifest variables coefficients of socioeconomic status and social inclusion were also converse. Therefore, governments should make some policies to further improve the mental health of migrants, including strengthening the community cohesion, social atmosphere, and governmental support.

  11. The comparison of socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck’s Depression, Spielberger’s Anxiety, Cohen’s Perceived Stress, Sarason’s Perceived Social Support and WHO’s Domestic Violence Inventory. Results: The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families. PMID:29376514

  12. Association of Household Wealth Index, Educational Status, and Social Capital with Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kaur, Manmeet; Islam, Shofiqul; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mony, Prem; Kumar, Rajesh; Kutty, Vellappillil Raman; Iqbal, Romaina; Rahman, Omar; Deepa, Mohan; Antony, Justy; Vijaykumar, Krishnapillai; Kazmi, Khawar; Yusuf, Rita; Mohan, Indu; Panwar, Raja Babu; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension control rates are low in South Asia. To determine association of measures of socioeconomic status (wealth, education, and social capital) with hypertension awareness, treatment, and control among urban and rural subjects in these countries we performed the present study. We enrolled 33,423 subjects aged 35-70 years (women 56%, rural 53%, low-education status 51%, low household wealth 25%, low-social capital 33%) in 150 communities in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh during 2003-2009. Prevalence of hypertension and its awareness, treatment, and control status and their association with wealth, education, and social capital were determined. Age-, sex-, and location-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in men was 31.5% (23.9-40.2%) and women was 32.6% (24.9-41.5%) with variations in prevalence across study sites (urban 30-56%, rural 11-43%). Prevalence was significantly greater in urban locations, older subjects, and participants with more wealth, greater education, and lower social capital index. Hypertension awareness was in 40.4% (urban 45.9, rural 32.5), treatment in 31.9% (urban 37.6, rural 23.6), and control in 12.9% (urban 15.4, rural 9.3). Control was lower in men and younger subjects. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were significantly lower, respectively, in lowest vs. highest wealth index tertile (26.2 vs. 50.6%, 16.9 vs. 44.0%, and 6.9 vs. 17.3%, P educational status tertile (31.2 vs. 48.4%, 21.8 vs. 42.1%, and 7.8 vs. 19.2%, P educational status are important in low hypertension awareness, treatment, and control.

  13. Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruiment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S.; Olff, H.

    2003-01-01

    Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant

  14. Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruitment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Olff, Han

    2003-01-01

    Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant

  15. Analysis of Subordination Errors in Students' Writings: A Study of Selected Teacher Training Colleges in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Amma Abrafi

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining how students of selected Teacher Training Colleges handle one important aspect of sentence structure, i.e. "subordination". Data were collected from written scripts, and tests responded to by 150 participants from three selected colleges. These were analyzed by identifying both correct and incorrect uses…

  16. Perceptions of Leadership Style: Superior and Subordinate Descriptions of Decision-Making Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Arthur G.; Vroom, Victor H.

    1975-01-01

    This research concerns the level of agreement among subordinates reporting to the same leader in their descriptions of his behavior. (Available from the Comparative Administration Research Institute, Graduate School of Business Administration, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242; $12.00 annually) (Author/MLF)

  17. The subordinate concept ‘marketing’ in the contemporary business English discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Naumenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers architectonics of the concept ‘marketing’ as a subordinate one to the concept ‘market’ which, alongside with other concepts, organizes the conceptual sphere of the basic concept ‘trade’. The notional, sense (sense centres, and schematic (dynamic frame components are researched, the model of the concept inner structure is developed

  18. On differential subordinations for a class of analytic functions defined by a linear operator

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    V. Ravichandran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain several results concerning the differential subordination between analytic functions and a linear operator defined for a certain family of analytic functions which are introduced here by means of these linear operators. Also, some special cases are considered.

  19. A Study of Relationship between Leader Behaviors and Subordinate Job Expectancies: A Path-Goal Approach

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    Sikandar Hayyat Malik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates relationship between leader behavior (directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented of corporate managers and subordinates’ job expectancies using House (1974 Path-goal model of leadership. The results reveal thatleader behavior affects subordinates’ job expectancies. The situational factors (task structure, role ambiguity, stress, need for autonomy, locus of control, need for achievement and perception about abilities affect subordinates’ job expectancies (I&II.While subordinates’ attributes/characteristics (age, gender, qualification, rank, experience and length of service under the current supervisor do not affect job expectancies (I&II except for rank/position and expectancy-II. Path goal theory predicts that directive leader behavior will be more effective for the subordinates with high need for achievement because directive leader through clarifying path guides subordinates. Similarly, participative leader behavior is also effective as heconsults with subordinates in setting, clarifying and achieving goals. The results of this study reveal that there is an inverse relationship between subordinates’ job expectancy (I&II. According to Yukl (2006, for subordinates with high need for autonomy,participative leader behavior will increase the intrinsic valence of work.

  20. Some subordination and superordination results for the generalized hypergeometric functions associated with Ruscheweyh derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman S. Juma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose in this paper is to define a linear operator  F_{p,q,s}[\\alpha_{1},m], then applying it to obtain some results on subordination and superordination preserving properties of holomorphic multivalent functions in the  open unit disc. And sandwich-type result for these holomorphic multivalent functions is also considered.

  1. Supervisors' Responses to Subordinate Performance: Effect of Personal-Control Orientation and Situational Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study extending a model of leadership response based on attribution theories to include measures of locus of control and situational control. Describes a procedure by which subjects responded to descriptions of subordinate performance. Concludes that supervisors with an external locus of control were less sensitive to subordinate…

  2. Task Structure as Moderator of College Principals' Leadership Behavior and Their Subordinates' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Riffat-Un-Nisa; Zaidi, Nayyar Raza; Naz, Anjum; Noureen, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    This research article intended to investigate the moderating effect of structured task on the relationship of leadership behavior of degree college principals and their subordinates' job satisfaction, job expectancies and acceptance of leader. Data was collected from 640 college faculty members and 170 principals of degree colleges situated in 34…

  3. Leader reliance on subordinates across nations that differ in development and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; Smith, P B

    How, where, and why do leaders follow the people they lead? An 84-nation analysis of survey responses from 19,525 managers shows that their reliance on subordinates depends on the level of wealth and development, and the harshness of cold or hot climates. In support of the thermal demands-resources

  4. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B. L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  5. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  6. Leader motives, charismatic leadership and subordinates' work attitude in the profit and voluntary sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.; Koopman, P.L.; Thierry, Hk.; van den Berg, P.T.; van der Weide, J.G.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This multimethod study examined leaders' motives, charismatic leader behavior, and subordinates' work attitude for CEOs (N=73) of small and medium-sized organizations in two sectors, namely, the profit and voluntary sector. Interviews with CEOs were coded for motive imagery. Direct reports rated CEO

  7. Occupational status and social adjustment six months after hospitalization early in the course of bipolar disorder: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Faith; Origoni, Andrea; Stallings, Cassie; Khushalani, Sunil; Dickinson, Dwight; Medoff, Deborah

    2010-02-01

    Bipolar disorder is often accompanied by poor functional outcomes, the determinants of which are not fully understood. We assessed patients with bipolar disorder undergoing a hospital admission early in the illness course and identified predictors of occupational status, overall social adjustment, and work adjustment six months later. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study. During hospitalization patients were evaluated with a cognitive battery; symptoms, occupational history, and other clinical factors were also assessed. At six-month follow-up, patients' symptom remission status was assessed; they were also evaluated as to their occupational status, overall social adjustment, and work adjustment. Multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors of these outcomes. Among the 52 participants, the average rating of overall social adjustment at follow-up was between mild and moderate maladjustment. While 51 had a history of working full time, only 28 (54%) worked full time at follow-up. A total of 24 (46%) had symptoms that met criteria for a full depression or mania syndrome. In multivariate analyses, full-time occupational status at follow-up was predicted by the absence of baseline substance abuse. Better overall social adjustment was predicted by better performance on cognitive tasks of processing speed and by symptom remission; the latter variable also predicted work adjustment. Persons with bipolar disorder have limited occupational recovery and overall social adjustment six months after a hospital admission early in the illness course. Predictors vary among outcomes; performance on tasks of processing speed and the extent of symptom remission are independently associated with functional outcomes.

  8. [Subjective social status and health-related quality of life among adults in Germany. Results from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS 2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, J; Kuntz, B; Müters, S; Lampert, T

    2013-10-01

    The impact of subjective perception of social status on health has been analysed in international health research for several years. However, in Germany the empirical analysis of the relation between subjective social status (SSS) and health is still in the very early stages. This study investigates if health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in German adults is associated with SSS over and above conventional measures of social status. The results are based on the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS 2010), a representative cross-sectional survey of the adult resident population in Germany (n=2 827). HRQoL was assessed with 4 items referring to self-rated health (SRH) and impairment of well-being due to bodily pain, depressiveness, and loneliness. SSS was measured with a 10-point scale where participants rated their status in society. The impact of SSS on HRQoL was analysed separately for men and women using logistic regression models adjusted for age, school education, net equivalent household income, and occupational position. Poorer SRH, bodily pain, depressiveness, and loneliness occurred significantly more often in men and women with low SSS compared to those with higher SSS. After adjusting for age, education, income, and occupation, the effects of SSS on SRH and depressiveness remained significant in men and women (SRH: men: OR=4.76; 95% CI=2.52-8.99; women: OR=2.95; 95% CI=1.74-4.99; depressiveness: men: OR=2.86; 95% CI=1.60-5.10; women: OR=2.75; 95% CI=1.65-4.56). The effects of SSS on bodily pain and loneliness were observed only in women after adjustment for objective status indicators (OR=1.75; 95% CI=1.07-2.86 and OR=3.03; 95% CI=1.43-6.42, respectively). These findings indicate that self-perception of social disadvantage affects HRQoL in German adults independently and partly gender-specifically. Hence, complementary to objective status indicators the SSS offers additional potential for describing and explaining health inequalities. © Georg Thieme

  9. Production supervisor impacts on subordinates' safety outcomes: an investigation of leader-member exchange and safety communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd H. Michael; Zhen George Guo; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles D. Ray

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Supervisors are increasingly important to the functioning of manufacturing operations, in large part due to their role as leaders. While supervisors' relations and communication with their subordinates are known to be important in influencing subordinates' behavior, little is known about how these two factors will impact...

  10. Social stratification, health, and violence in the very young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, W Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Inequalities in human social groups contribute in important ways to the initiation and perpetuation of violence. Because both social inequalities and interpersonal aggression emerge in early life, it is important to study their developmental origins in the collective and individual behavior of young children. As young as 2 years of age, children assemble stable, linearly transitive dominance hierarchies when brought together in novel social groups. Just as the consequences of socioeconomic status may be due in part to experiences of social ordering per se, subjective childhood experiences of occupying a lesser or greater position on a scale of social influence may similarly affect health, safety, and behavior in early development. Children's experiences with social ordering may represent a first, formative encounter with the hierarchical social relations that affect health and susceptibility to violence over the human lifespan. We have studied the health correlates of group stressors, dominance positions, and biobehavioral reactivity within cohorts of preschool children and semi free-ranging rhesus macaques. Social position is ascertained using naturalistic observations of critical dyadic events, and stress-reactivity is measured using assessments of behavioral and biological responses to standardized challenges. Outcome measures, including indicators of mental and physical health and interpersonal injuries, have been assessed--in the case of children--with parent- and teacher-report questionnaires, child self-report protocols, and frequent, objective physical examinations of the child and--in the case of rhesus monkeys--with daily observations of violence-related injuries. Results to date have suggested the following provisional conclusions: (1) Children and monkeys form stable, linearly transitive social hierarchies in which identifiable subgroups of individuals occupy dominant and subordinate social positions. (2) Individuals occupying subordinate positions

  11. Socioeconomic status, social relations and domestic violence (DV) against elderly people in Canada, Albania, Colombia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dimitri Taurino; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Phillips, Susan P; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether gender, socioeconomic conditions, and/or social relations are related to recent experiences of DV in older adult populations. Data on socioeconomic status and social relations were collected in 2012 from 1995 community-dwelling older adults in Canada, Colombia, Brazil, and Albania. Violence experienced in the last 6 months was measured using the Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with harm, or Screamed at (HITS) scale and classified according to type (physical or psychological) and perpetrator (partner or family member). Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between experiences of violence and gender, socioeconomic conditions, and social relations. Physical violence (by partner or family member) was reported by 0.63-0.85% of participants; the prevalence of psychological violence (by partner or family member) ranged from 3.2% to 23.5% in men and 9% to 26% in women. After adjustment for socioeconomic status, social relations, age and site, women experienced more psychological violence perpetrated by family members than did men (odds ratio (OR): 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.6). Social relations, such as multifamily living arrangements and low levels of support from partners, children, and family, were associated with psychological DV. Current working status was associated with greater odds of victimization by partners among men (OR: 2.35 95% CI: 1.34-1.41), but not among women. Gender and social relations are important determinants of experiencing violence in older adults. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of a gender-based approach to the study of DV in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Relationship between migrant status and social support and quality of life in Moroccans in the Basque Country (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Alvarez, Elena; Lanborena Elordui, Nerea; Errami, Mohamed; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Alba; Pereda Riguera, Celina; Vallejo de la Hoz, Gorka; Moreno Marquez, Gorka

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the effect of birth place, migrant status and the modulatory role of social support on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms. We performed a cross-sectional study of three samples composed of 2,776 persons: 1,239 Moroccans in Morocco, 149 Moroccans in the Basque Country (Spain) and 1,388 autochthonous individuals. HRQoL and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms were evaluated using the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5). Social support was evaluated with the Duke scale. Multivariate analyses were performed with dichotomic logistic regression (SPSS 16). Immigrant status, compared with living in Morocco, was a protective factor in practically all SF-36 dimensions but was also a risk factor for the development of anxiety/depression symptoms. Differences in HRQoL between Moroccans and the autochthonous population in the Basque Country were attenuated when variables of social support were included in the multivariate models. Low social support and dissatisfaction with social life increased the risk of low HRQoL scores and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms among Moroccans in the Basque Country. Some health indicators are more favorable in Moroccans in the Basque Country than in those living in Morocco, but the frequency of anxiety/depression is higher in Moroccan immigrants. The key factor to understanding social inequalities in health among Moroccan immigrants is social support. Strategies to maintain optimal health in these immigrant collectives should include public policies of social inclusion.

  13. Social status of rural women in the focus of a developmental project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanović-Zaharijevski Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the project called "The milky river", which deals with the integral development of the dairy production, is to initiate the development of the sustainable and profitable production of milk and dairy products through grouping producers and supporting their position in the society they live in. Women are more than men engaged in the dairy production chain and they have a direct view of the whole dairy production process. So it was necessary to adapt the grouping to their needs, as well as to make some practical mechanisms of their involvement in the project activities. In this way, the strategy of the project helped with offering equal chances to women and men, and by reducing the gender inequality, it also helped with making a chance for a new life perspective for women. Through interviews and by focus-grouping the data were collected which represented the first picture of the dairy production in the region of Niš, including its gender characteristics, among other things. Two years later, the qualitative analysis of the indicators of the rural women’s social status in this region in the context of the realization of the project activities, has shown that there has been an important movement forward towards the gender equality which can be attributed to the successful project implementation. Women, as an important factor in the dairy production chain, seem to be joined and encouraged. They seem to be empowered at the level of their knowledge decision making and autonomous activity taking through various forms of education, joint farmer group work, as well as through various forms of cooperation with supporting institutions and other partners within the project activity framework. The overwhelming impression seems to be that joint work and cooperation are necessary conditions for the development of any individual farmers’ production, as well as for the referent rural development which requires the support of all the

  14. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  15. Customers' expectations of complaint handling by airline service: privilege status and reasonability of demands from a social learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2009-04-01

    In the airline industry, membership and cabin class are noticeable servicescape features of customers' privilege status. Customers may learn that higher privilege customers are more desired and endured by the airline. From the customers' point of view, those with higher privilege may expect their demands to be complied with when they complain. The present study employed hypothetical scenarios to investigate how the privilege status of passengers and reasonability of their demands influenced their expectations toward the compliance of airline personnel. Analysis showed that higher privilege customers were more likely to expect airline personnel to comply with their demands. Moreover, participants with medium or high levels of privilege status had greater expectations of compliance even when demands were unreasonable. In sum, customer expectations toward complaint handling reflected predictions based on social learning.

  16. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p < .005 and p < .05, respectively). Friend participation social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  17. Who's Got the Booze? The Role of Access to Alcohol in the Relations Between Social Status and Individual Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Sher, Kenneth J; Slutske, Wendy S

    2017-09-01

    The findings of previous research that examined relationships between popularity and alcohol use in adolescents have been mixed, and few hypotheses have proposed mechanisms for this relationship. The current study expands on previous literature (a) by examining a possible mechanism that can explain the relation between popularity and alcohol use (home access to alcohol) and (b) by using another sociometric measure ("betweenness"), beyond popularity, that may relate more to home alcohol access. Using network-level data from adolescents in 9th-11th grades in eight schools within two in-home waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examined two sociometric measures of social status: popularity (number of schoolmates who nominated participants as a friend) and betweenness (level of ties participants have to multiple social subgroups within a network). Betweenness, but not popularity, related to later alcohol use. Having home access to alcohol positively related to later alcohol use, and having friends with home access to alcohol negatively related to later alcohol use. Alcohol access was also related to later sociometric status. Friends' alcohol access negatively related to later betweenness, and personal alcohol access moderated other pathways predicting betweenness. Betweenness appears to play a unique role in the association between social status and alcohol use in adolescent social networks. This is potentially tied to specific ways in which adolescents may be able to access alcohol (through home or through friends with access at home). More research is necessary to examine the ways in which multiple sociometric statuses relate to the contexts in which adolescents access and use alcohol.

  18. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Demos, Alexander P.; Carter, Daniel J.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner’s coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confe...

  19. The effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status on education and health outcomes for children living in social housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Patricia J; Chateau, Daniel G; Burland, Elaine M J; Finlayson, Gregory S; Smith, Mark J; Taylor, Carole R; Brownell, Marni D; Nickel, Nathan C; Katz, Alan; Bolton, James M

    2014-11-01

    We explored differences in health and education outcomes between children living in social housing and not, and effects of social housing's neighborhood socioeconomic status. In this cohort study, we used the population-based repository of administrative data at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. We included children aged 0 to 19 years in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in fiscal years 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 (n = 13,238 social housing; n = 174,017 others). We examined 5 outcomes: age-2 complete immunization, a school-readiness measure, adolescent pregnancy (ages 15-19 years), grade-9 completion, and high-school completion. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equation modeling generated rates. We derived neighborhood income quintiles (Q1 lowest, Q5 highest) from average household income census data. Children in social housing fared worse than comparative children within each neighborhood income quintile. When we compared children in social housing by quintile, preschool indicators (immunization and school readiness) were similar, but adolescent outcomes (grade-9 and high-school completion, adolescent pregnancy) were better in Q3 to Q5. Children in social housing had poorer health and education outcomes than all others, but living in social housing in wealthier areas was associated with better adolescent outcomes.

  20. Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.

  1. Social media for empowering people with diabetes: Current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Galvez, Pedro; Suarez Mejias, Cristina; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media has become commonplace in society. Consequently, many people living with chronic conditions are turning to social media applications to support self-management. This paper presents a formative non-exhaustive review of research literature regarding the role of social media for diabetes type II empowerment. In our review, we identified several major areas for diabetes health social media research, namely: a) social network data analytics, b) mHealth and diabetes, c) gamification for diabetes, c) wearable, and d) MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). In all these areas, we analyzed how social media is being used and the challenges emerging from its application in the diabetes domain.

  2. Sex and Status Sell to Monkeys: Social Advertising Creates Brand Preferences in Rhesus Macaques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Yavuz Acikalin; Karli Watson; Gavan Fitzsimons; Michael Platt

    2015-01-01

      Innate evolutionary mechanisms may influence consumer response to advertising. We demonstrate that exposure to sex- and status-based advertising campaigns elicit brand preferences in rhesus monkeys...

  3. The impact of social networks and partnership status on treatment choice in men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Karim; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Zavala, Mary; Labo, Jessica; Litwin, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether martial status and social support impact treatment choice. The decision to pursue radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer is often influenced by factors outside the realm of tumour risk, such as a man's support system at home. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 418 low-income men who were diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer and underwent definitive treatment with either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. We performed univariate and multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression analysis, with the dependent variable being treatment type. Confidence intervals (CIs) for the predicted probabilities and relative risks were derived using bias-corrected bootstrapping with 1000 repetitions. Men with two or more members in their support system were more likely to be older, Hispanic, have less than a high school education, earn more than US $1500 monthly, have high-risk disease and be in a significant relationship. In multivariate analysis, partnered men with fewer than two social support members (relative risk, RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63) were more likely to undergo surgery, whereas men who were morbidly obese (RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.09-0.88), high school graduates (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99) or had high-risk disease (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.85) were less likely to undergo surgery than their respective referent groups. Partnered men with two or more social support members were no more likely to undergo surgery than unpartnered men who lacked any social support. In the present study cohort, married men with fewer than two members in their social network were more likely to have undergone surgery. Although marital status is often used as a proxy for social support, we find that the quality of support and partner may impact treatment type more than the extent of the social matrix. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  4. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Alexander P.; Carter, Daniel J.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner’s coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets. To promote social balance, half of the participants were told the confederate was a fellow participant – an equal social status. To promote social imbalance, the other half was told the confederate was an experimenter – an unequal social status. In all conditions, the confederate’s arm and finger movements were occluded from the participant’s view to allow manipulation of animacy of the confederate’s performances (live or recorded). Unbeknownst to the participants, half of the confederate’s performances were replaced with pre-recordings, forcing the participant into unidirectional coordination during performance. The other half of the confederate’s performances were live, which permitted bidirectional coordination between performers. In a final manipulation, both performers heard the auditory feedback from one or both of the performers’ parts removed at unpredictable times to disrupt their performance. Consistently larger asynchronies were observed in performances of unidirectional (recorded) than bidirectional (live) performances across all conditions. Participants who were told the confederate was an experimenter reported their synchrony as more successful than when the partner was introduced as a fellow participant. Finally, asynchronies increased as auditory feedback was removed; removal of the confederate’s part hurt coordination more than removal of the participant

  5. Is blood thicker than water? Social support, depression and the modifying role of ethnicity/nativity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, I; Molnar, B E

    2011-01-01

    Social support may be particularly important in countering depression among systematically disadvantaged groups. Latino immigrants are an example of a disadvantaged population that has better than expected mental health outcomes. One explanation put forth for this pattern is strong social support from kin networks. Studies on the effect of social support on mental health often assess the quantity of social ties rather than the quality of the support they provide. In addition, such studies rarely specify the source of support and how support from family versus friends may differentially impact mental health. In this study, data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighbourhoods were used to disaggregate the effects of source-specific emotional support on risk of depression. Second, the relationship between ethnicity/nativity status and risk of depression was examined. Finally, whether the relationship between family-based and friend-based social support and depression differed across ethnic/nativity status was explored. Support from both family and friends had protective effects on risk of depression; however, when mutually adjusted, only kin support remained statistically significant. At higher levels of family support, foreign-born Mexicans and African Americans had decreased risk of depression than at low levels of family support. This study provides evidence that family support may be more important than non-kin support for mental health. Findings also suggest that the effects of family support on risk of depression vary by ethnicity and nativity status. Preservation of naturally occurring support resources among some groups may be a way to maintain mental health.

  6. The Unresponsive Partner: Roles of Social Status, Auditory Feedback, and Animacy in Coordination of Joint Music Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Alexander P; Carter, Daniel J; Wanderley, Marcelo M; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner's coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets. To promote social balance, half of the participants were told the confederate was a fellow participant - an equal social status. To promote social imbalance, the other half was told the confederate was an experimenter - an unequal social status. In all conditions, the confederate's arm and finger movements were occluded from the participant's view to allow manipulation of animacy of the confederate's performances (live or recorded). Unbeknownst to the participants, half of the confederate's performances were replaced with pre-recordings, forcing the participant into unidirectional coordination during performance. The other half of the confederate's performances were live, which permitted bidirectional coordination between performers. In a final manipulation, both performers heard the auditory feedback from one or both of the performers' parts removed at unpredictable times to disrupt their performance. Consistently larger asynchronies were observed in performances of unidirectional (recorded) than bidirectional (live) performances across all conditions. Participants who were told the confederate was an experimenter reported their synchrony as more successful than when the partner was introduced as a fellow participant. Finally, asynchronies increased as auditory feedback was removed; removal of the confederate's part hurt coordination more than removal of the participant's part in live

  7. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Duran

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems.

  8. The impact of social housing on the labour market status of the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoir, Stéphane; Maury, Tristan-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Disability may impact on employment through entitlement to social housing. Estimates of an original dynamic panel data model of disability, labour market and housing tenure transitions in England indicate that up to one-quarter of the lower employment probability of the disabled can be attributed to the effect of qualifying for social housing. Short-lived disabilities can result in long spells in social housing that reduce incentives to participate in the labour market. This suggests that authorities should reform the welfare system and the allocation of social housing to limit the persistent and unfavourable consequences of allocating social housing to the disabled. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The social determinants of health of the child-adolescent immigration and its influence on the nutritional status: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Moussa, Kamila; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-11-01

    to review the social determinants of health more characteristic of the child and adolescents of immigrants, by reviewing the literature and assess its effect on nutritional status. a systematic review was performed using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in PubMed (Medline) and The Cochrane Library, in order to identify undetected studies; articles bibliographic lists were examined. The final election was done according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. No restrictions on sex and ethnicity of the participants. STROBE checkpoints were used for an information and methodological quality control. As Social Determinants of Health (SDH); social, demographic and economic conditions were considered for the study of their effect on the nutritional status. from 31 identified articles 18 are included in this study, 17 (94.4%) had a good or excellent quality. Hispanic and African were the most studied ethnicities; birth place and parent's residence period were used for generational classification. Alimentary culture and linguistic isolation of the first generation have a protective effect preventing from overweight and obesity risk while it decrease in second and third generation due to the experienced acculturation process equalizing their weight gain to natives; which prevalence is higher among Hispanics. No relation was found for nutritional status differences between sexes neither alimentary aids protective effect hypothesis was confirmed. the SDH with greater influence on child-adolescent immigrants were the socio-demographic conditions; among them: residence period distinguish the three identified generations while linguistic barrier and ethnic background are truly influential on the biological response to the experimented change caused by the acculturation process, establishing differences in the nutritional status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of leadership style on subordinates' attachment to the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.

  11. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  12. Context-Specific Dimensions of Trust in Manager, Subordinate and Co-Worker in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Erdem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the dimensions of trust relationship among managers, subordinates and the co-workers in organizations. Using an original trust questionnaire data has been collected from 550 middle-level managers from organizations operating in different regions of Turkey. Results from both qualitative and quantitative research methods indicate that the dimensions of trust vary in organizational relationships between managers and subordinates and between co-workers and furthermore, that a culture-specific meaning is attributed to its content. This study contributes to trust literature developing three original sub-scales and also it indicates that the meaning of trust in organizational relationships is influenced by cultural context.

  13. Psychosocial predictors of supervisor-, peer-, subordinate-, and service-provider-targeted aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, Michelle; Leblanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian

    2008-11-01

    The authors investigate whether known person predictors (trait anger, trait aggression) and situational predictors (perceived interpersonal mistreatment, perceived organizational sanctions against aggression) of supervisor-targeted aggression also predict employee's aggression toward other workplace targets, namely peers, subordinates, and customers' aggression toward service providers. The authors also investigate the moderating impact of situational factors on the relationship between person factors and aggression. Participants (N = 308) were asked whether they had a conflict with their supervisor, a subordinate, a work peer, and/or a service provider in the past 6 months. Different patterns of main and interaction effects emerged across the 4 targets, suggesting the importance of accounting for the target of aggression in workplace aggression research.

  14. Stress hormones in relation to breeding status and territory location in colonial king penguin: a role for social density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Stier, Antoine; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René

    2014-07-01

    Because glucocorticoid (stress) hormones fundamentally affect various aspects of the behaviour, life history and fitness of free-living vertebrates, there is a need to understand the environmental factors shaping their variation in natural populations. Here, we examined whether spatial heterogeneity in breeding territory quality affected the stress of colonial king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We assessed the effects of local climate (wind, sun and ambient temperature) and social conditions (number of neighbours, distance to neighbours) on the baseline levels of plasma total corticosterone (CORT) in 77 incubating and 42 chick-brooding birds, breeding on territories of central or peripheral colony location. We also assessed the oxidative stress status of a sub-sample of central vs. peripheral chick-brooders to determine whether chronic stress arose from breeding on specific territories. On average, we found that brooders had 55% higher CORT levels than incubators. Regardless of breeding status, central birds experienced greater social density (higher number of neighbours, shorter distance between territories) and had higher CORT levels than peripheral birds. Increasing social density positively explained 40% of the variation in CORT levels of both incubators and brooders, but the effect was more pronounced in brooders. In contrast, climate was similar among breeding territories and did not significantly affect the CORT levels of breeding birds. In brooders, oxidative stress status was not affected by local density or weather conditions. These results highlight that local heterogeneity in breeding (including social) conditions may strongly affect the stress levels of breeding seabirds. The fitness consequences of such variation remain to be investigated.

  15. Reliability, validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D in assessing and valuing health status in patients with social phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D in patients with social phobia. Methods We used a sample of 445 patients with social phobia with five measurement points over a 30 month period. The discriminative ability of the EQ-5D was analysed by comparing the patients’ responses with the general population and between different disease severity levels. For test-retest reliability we assessed the level of agreement in patients’ responses over time, when there was no change in the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Construct validity was analysed by identifying correlations of the EQ-5D with more specific instruments. For responsiveness we compared the means of EQ VAS/EQ-5D index anchored on improved (deteriorated) health status and computed effect sizes as well as a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Compared to the general population, patients with social phobia reported more problems in the dimensions “usual activities”, “pain/discomfort”, and “anxiety/depression” and less problems in “mobility” and “self-care”. The EQ-5D was able to distinguish between different disease severity levels. The test-retest reliability was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.6). Correlations between the EQ-5D and other instruments were mostly small except for correlations with Beck Depression Inventory. The EQ-5D index seemed to be more responsive than the EQ VAS, but with only medium effect sizes (0.5 < effect size < 0.8) in the British EQ-5D index and only significant in patients with improved health status. The ROC analysis revealed no significant results. Conclusions The EQ-5D was moderately reliable and responsive in patients with improved health status. Construct validity was limited. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN53517394 PMID:24365384

  16. Personality predicts social dominance in male domestic fowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Favati

    Full Text Available Individuals in social species commonly form dominance relationships, where dominant individuals enjoy greater access to resources compared to subordinates. A range of factors such as sex, age, body size and prior experiences has to varying degrees been observed to affect the social status an individual obtains. Recent work on animal personality (i.e. consistent variation in behavioural responses of individuals demonstrates that personality can co-vary with social status, suggesting that also behavioural variation can play an important role in establishment of status. We investigated whether personality could predict the outcome of duels between pairs of morphologically matched male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus, a species where individuals readily form social hierarchies. We found that males that more quickly explored a novel arena, or remained vigilant for a longer period following the playback of a warning call were more likely to obtain a dominant position. These traits were uncorrelated to each other and were also uncorrelated to aggression during the initial part of the dominance-determining duel. Our results indicate that several behavioural traits independently play a role in the establishment of social status, which in turn can have implications for the reproductive success of different personality types.

  17. Study on monitoring achievement of performance indicators in the subordinate local companies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Neamţiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pursuit of economic indicators which are calculated in local subordinate companies. These indicators are imposed by the Board employee manager contract term. Accounting provides enough information to calculate them but we put the issue of prevention of the ability to stay within budget, projected revenues and expenses, before closing operations of an accounting period (month, quarter, semester, year.

  18. Manager-subordinate exchange relationships : investigation of a manager behavior model

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Marta L.

    1993-01-01

    This field study investigated the relationship among behavioral and perceptual measures of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) relationship and organizational outcome variables. The major purposes of this study were to determine: (1) the extent to which the dyad is the appropriate level of analysis for the examination of manager-subordinate relationships, (2) which objectively observed managerr behaviors are important in defining negotiating latitude, the most commonly us...

  19. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David J; Finch, Fiona M; Bell, Matthew B V; Ridley, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a 'cheap' advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners.

  20. The role of financial hardship, mastery and social support in the association between employment status and depression: results from an Australian longitudinal cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crowe, Laura; Butterworth, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ... years old, the present study examines a range of employed states and investigates the role of mastery, financial hardship and social support in the relationship between labour status and depression...