Sample records for suborbital payload specialists

  1. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads (United States)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil


    Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

  2. Open-Loop Performance of COBALT Precision Landing Payload on a Commercial Sub-Orbital Rocket (United States)

    Restrepo, Carolina I.; Carson, John M., III; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Seubert, Carl R.; Lovelace, Ronney S.; McCarthy, Megan M.; Tse, Teming; Stelling, Richard; Collins, Steven M.


    An open-loop flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) platform was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed. The COBALT platform integrates NASA Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) sensing technologies for autonomous, precise soft landing, including the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor and the Lander Vision System (LVS) Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) system. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuses the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a navigation solution that is independent of GPS and suitable for future, autonomous, planetary, landing systems. COBALT was a passive payload during the open loop tests. COBALT's sensors were actively taking data and processing it in real time, but the Xodiac rocket flew with its own GPS-navigation system as a risk reduction activity in the maturation of the technologies towards space flight. A future closed-loop test campaign is planned where the COBALT navigation solution will be used to fly its host vehicle.

  3. Suborbital industry at the edge of space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik


    Until recently, spaceflight has been the providence of a select corps of astronauts whose missions, in common with all remarkable exploits, were experienced vicariously by the rest of the world via television reports and Internet feeds. These spacefarers risked their lives in the name of science, exploration and adventure, thanks to government-funded manned spaceflight programs. All that is about to change The nascent commercial suborbital spaceflight industry will soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists and, of course, spaceflight participants. Suborbital explains the tantalizing science opportunities offered when suborbital trips become routine and describes the difference in training and qualification necessary to become either a spaceflight participant or a fully fledged commercial suborbital astronaut. Suborbital also explains how the commercial suborbital spaceflight industry is planning and preparing for the challenges of marketing the hiring of astronauts. It examine...

  4. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba uses extinguisher during JSC firefighting (United States)


    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba shoots fire extinguisher spray at the base of a blazing fire during fire fighting and fire training exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Behind Malerba are the fire fighting training instructor, firemen, and European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, holding a camcorder.

  5. Payload specialist Al-Saud siting in middeck area (United States)


    Payload specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud seated in a posture common to weightlessness as he logs notes in Discovery's middeck area. He has headphones on connected to a portable tape recorder. Behind him on the middeck lockers is a sign which reads 'Welcome to Riyadh'. On the other wall, a sleep restraint is attached to the lockers.

  6. The New Commercial Suborbital Vehicles: An Opportunity for Scientific and Microgravity Research (United States)

    Moro-Aguilar, Rafael


    As of 2013, a number of companies had announced their intention to start flying suborbital vehicles, capable of transporting people to high altitudes out of any airport or launch site, on a commercial and regular basis. According to several studies, a market for suborbital "space tourism" exists. Another very promising application of suborbital flight is scientific research. The present paper provides an overview of the potential of commercial suborbital flight for science, including microgravity research. Suborbital flight provides a much-needed intermediate-duration opportunity between research performed in Earth orbit and more affordable but shorter duration alternatives, such as drop towers and zero-g parabolic flights. Moreover, suborbital flight will be less expensive and more frequent than both orbital flight and sounding rockets, and it has the capability to fly into sub-orbit the researcher together with the payload, and thus enable on-site interaction with the experiment. In the United States, both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and a number of private institutions have already shown interest in conducting scientific experiments, particularly microgravity research, aboard these new platforms. Researchers who intend to participate in future suborbital flights as payload specialists will need training, given the physical challenges posed by the flight. Finally, suborbital researchers may also want to have a basic knowledge of the legal status that will apply to them as passengers of such flights.

  7. STS-35 Payload Specialist Parise sets up SAREX on OV-102's middeck (United States)


    STS-35 Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise enters data into the payload and general support computer (PGSC) in preparation for Earth communication via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The SAREX equipment is secured to the middeck starboard sleep station. SAREX provided radio transmissions between ground based amateur radio operators around the world and Parise, a licensed amateur radio operator. The experiment enabled students to communicate with an astronaut in space, as Parise (call-sign WA4SIR) devoted some of his off-duty time to that purpose. Displayed on the forward lockers beside Parise is a AMSAT (Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation) / ARRL (American Radio Relay League) banner. Food items and checklists are attached to the lockers. In locker position MF43G, the Development Test Objective (DTO) Trash Compaction and Retention System Demonstration extended duration orbiter (EDO) compactor is visible.

  8. Payload specialist station study. Volume 3: Program study cost estimates. Part 1: Work breakdown structure (United States)


    The work breakdown structure (WBS) for the Payload Specialist Station (PSS) is presented. The WBS is divided into two elements--PSS contractor and mission unique requirements. In accordance with the study ground rules, it is assumed that a single contractor, hereafter referred to as PSS Contractor will perform the following: (1) provide C and D hardware (MFDS and elements of MMSE), except for GFE; (2) identify software requirements; (3) provide GSE and ground test software; and (4) perform systems engineering and integration in support of the Aft Flight Deck (AFD) C and D concept. The PSS Contractor WBS element encompasses a core or standardized PSS concept. Payload peculiar C and D requirements identified by users will originate as a part of the WBS element mission unique requirements; these requirements will be provided to the PSS Contractor for implementation.

  9. STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri with fire extinguisher during JSC exercises (United States)


    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, wearing leather gloves, directs fire extinguisher spray during fire fighting exercises held at JSC's Fire Training Pit. The crew learned about the various types of extinguishers and the kinds of fires for which they are best suited. The array of extinguishers were props for a lengthy training session designed to familiarize the crewmembers on proper means of fighting potential ground fires. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  10. Suborbital Applications in Astronomy and Astrophysics (United States)

    Unwin, Steve; Werner, Mike; Goldsmith, Paul


    Suborbital flights providing access to zero-g in a space environment - Demonstrating new technologies in a relevant environment. - Flight testing of individual elements of a constellation. - Raising the TRL of critical technologies for subsystems on future large missions High-altitude balloons (up to 10 kg payload) -Access to near-space for wavelengths not observable from the ground. -Raising the TRL of critical technologies for subsystems on future large missions. -UV Detector testing.

  11. A Suborbital Spaceship for Short Duration Space and Microsat Launch


    Bahn, Pat


    The TGV Rockets corporation is working on a small Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing Suborbital Rocketship capable of carrying 1000 kg to 100 km for low cost. This provides unique and interesting capabilities for payload test and qualification, development and short duration experimentation. Theoretical possibilities include micro-sat launch. TGV Rockets was founded in 1997 on a desire to commercialize the Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X)1,5,8. Subsequently TGV has been working towards th...

  12. Low Noise Camera for Suborbital Science Applications (United States)

    Hyde, David; Robertson, Bryan; Holloway, Todd


    Low-cost, commercial-off-the-shelf- (COTS-) based science cameras are intended for lab use only and are not suitable for flight deployment as they are difficult to ruggedize and repackage into instruments. Also, COTS implementation may not be suitable since mission science objectives are tied to specific measurement requirements, and often require performance beyond that required by the commercial market. Custom camera development for each application is cost prohibitive for the International Space Station (ISS) or midrange science payloads due to nonrecurring expenses ($2,000 K) for ground-up camera electronics design. While each new science mission has a different suite of requirements for camera performance (detector noise, speed of image acquisition, charge-coupled device (CCD) size, operation temperature, packaging, etc.), the analog-to-digital conversion, power supply, and communications can be standardized to accommodate many different applications. The low noise camera for suborbital applications is a rugged standard camera platform that can accommodate a range of detector types and science requirements for use in inexpensive to mid range payloads supporting Earth science, solar physics, robotic vision, or astronomy experiments. Cameras developed on this platform have demonstrated the performance found in custom flight cameras at a price per camera more than an order of magnitude lower.

  13. Suborbital Research and Development Opportunities (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.


    This slide presentation reviews the new strategies for problem solving in the life sciences in the suborbital realm. Topics covered are: an overview of the space life sciences, the strategic initiatives that the Space Life Sciences organization engaged in, and the new business model that these initiatives were developed. Several opportunities for research are also reviewed.

  14. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.


    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  15. 14 CFR 437.67 - Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket. 437... a reusable suborbital rocket. A permittee must— (a) During permitted flight, measure in real time the position and velocity of its reusable suborbital rocket; and (b) Provide position and velocity...

  16. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.


    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  17. Pediatric Specialists (United States)

    ... Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > Pediatric Specialists Pediatric Specialists Article Body ​Your pediatrician may refer your child to a pediatric specialist for further evaluation and treatment. Pediatric specialists ...

  18. Space weather biological and systems effects for suborbital flights (United States)


    The Aerospace Corporation was tasked to assess the impacts of space weather on both RLVs and ELVs operating at suborbital altitudes from launch sites located in the low (equatorial regions), middle, and high latitudes. The present report presents a b...

  19. Overview Of Suborbital Human Transportation Concept Alpha (United States)

    Adirim, H.; Pilz, N.; Marini, M.; Hendrick, P.; Schmid, M.; Behr, R.; Barth, T.; Tarfeld, F.; Wiegand, A.; Charbonnier, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Steeland, J.; Mack, A.


    Within the EC co-funded project FAST20XX (Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX), the European suborbital passenger transportation system concept ALPHA (Airplane Launched PHoenix Aircraft), which shall be based to a maximum extent on existing technologies and capabilities, is currently being investigated as collaborative project by a European consortium under coordination of ESA. The ALPHA concept incorporates an air-launch from a carrier aircraft, which shall be used as first stage. The ALPHA vehicle shall be capable of transporting up to four passengers plus one pilot to an altitude of at least 100 km. The ALPHA vehicle is a down-scaled version of the suborbital space transportation concept Hopper, which was already deeply investigated within the European FESTIP System Study and the German ASTRA program including the successfully flown experimental landing demonstrator Phoenix. This approach has allowed the use of existing aerodynamic vehicle data and has led to the adaptation of the external Hopper/Phoenix configuration for ALPHA. In FESTIP and ASTRA, the Hopper configuration showed sufficient stability margins. Due to the geometric similarity of the ALPHA and Hopper vehicles, a trimable and flyable configuration could be derived by means of ALPHA flight trajectory calculations. In its current configuration, the ALPHA vehicle has a length of ca. 9 m and a gross take-off mass of ca. 3.5 Mg. The launch, staging and separation of ALPHA shall be performed either as internal air-launch from the cargo bay of the carrier aircraft, as under-wing air-launch or as towed air-launch. After separation from the carrier aircraft, the ALPHA vehicle ignites its onboard rocket propulsion system. Since conventional liquid and solid propulsion did not seem suitable for ALPHA due to Their high cost, limited safety and toxicity, a low-cost, “green” and non-hazardous hybrid propulsion system based on liquid nitrous oxide in combination with a solid polymer fuel was

  20. The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.


    The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility

  1. Pushing the Boundaries of X-ray Grating Spectroscopy in a Suborbital Rocket (United States)

    McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Zhang, William W.; Murray, Neil J.; O'Dell, Stephen; Cash, Webster


    Developments in grating spectroscopy are paramount for meeting the soft X-ray science goals of future NASA X-ray Observatories. While developments in the laboratory setting have verified the technical feasibility of using off-plane reflection gratings to reach this goal, flight heritage is a key step in the development process toward large missions. To this end we have developed a design for a suborbital rocket payload employing an Off-Plane X-ray Grating Spectrometer. This spectrometer utilizes slumped glass Wolter-1 optics, an array of gratings, and a CCD camera. We discuss the unique capabilities of this design, the expected performance, the science return, and the perceived impact to future missions.

  2. STS-107 crew members during payload check in the OPF (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (left), with the Israeli Space Agency, and Payload Commander Michael Anderson pause during a payload check in the Orbiter Processing Facility. A research mission, STS-107 will carry as the primary payload the first flight of the SHI Research Double Module (SHI/RDM), also known as SPACEHAB. The experiments range from material sciences to life sciences. Another payload is FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research) comprising Mediterranean Israeli Dust, Solar Constant, Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding, Critical Viscosity of Xenon, Low Power, and Space Experimental Module experiments. STS-107 is scheduled to launch July 11, 2002

  3. ISS Payload Human Factors (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan


    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  4. 14 CFR 437.95 - Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. (United States)


    ... of an Experimental Permit § 437.95 Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. A permittee may launch or reenter additional reusable suborbital rockets of the same design under the permit after... suborbital rockets. 437.95 Section 437.95 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  5. Study and Development of a Sub-Orbital Re-Entry Demonstrator (United States)

    Savino, R.

    The Italian and European Space Agencies are supporting a research programme, developed in Campania region by a cluster of industries, research institutes and universities, on a low-cost re-entry capsule, able to return payloads from the ISS to Earth and/or to perform short-duration scientific missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ballistic capsule is characterized by a deployable, disposable "umbrella-like" heat shield that allows relatively small dimensions at launch and a sufficient exposed surface area in re-entry conditions, reducing the ballistic coefficient and leading to acceptable heat fluxes, mechanical loads and final descent velocity. ESA is supporting a preliminary study to develop a flight demonstrator of the capsule to be embarked as a secondary payload onboard a sub-orbital sounding rocket. The deployable thermal protection system concept may be applied to future science and robotic exploration mission requiring planetary entry and, possibly also to missions in the framework of Human Space flight, requiring planetary entry or re-entry. The technology offers also an interesting potential for aerobraking, aerocapture and for de-orbiting. This paper summarizes the results of these activities, which are being more and more refined as the work proceeds, including the definition and analysis of the mission scenario, the aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, mechanical and structural analyses and the technical definition of avionics, instrumentation and main subsystems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper is about the training, the mission and the condition of the 21th century specialist, who must keep up with the challenges of the informational era, which is rapidly establishing and embracing human society. It analyzes the characteristics of the digital age, information overload, technological impact, communication, which requiring specialists to increasingly leverage their digital techniques, both in training and activity.

  7. Sub-orbital flights, a starting point for space tourism (United States)

    Gaubatz, William A.


    While there is a growing awareness and interest by the general public in space travel neither the market nor the infrastructure exist to make a commercial space tourism business an attractive risk venture. In addition there is much to be learned about how the general public will respond to space flights and what physiological and psychological needs must be met to ensure a pleasurable as well as adventurous experience. Sub-orbital flights offer an incremental approach to develop the market and the infrastructure, demonstrate the safety of space flight, obtain real flight information regarding the needs of general public passengers and demonstrate the profitability of space tourism. This paper will summarize some of the system, operations, and financial aspects of creating a sub-orbital space tourism business as a stepping-stone to public space travel. A sample business case will be reviewed and impacts of markets, operations and vehicle costs and lifetimes will be assessed.

  8. Dysrhythmias in Laypersons During Centrifuge-Simulated Suborbital Spaceflight. (United States)

    Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles H; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M


    There are limited data on cardiac dysrhythmias in laypersons during hypergravity exposure. We report layperson electrocardiograph (ECG) findings and tolerance of dysrhythmias during centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight. Volunteers participated in varied-length centrifuge training programs of 2-7 centrifuge runs over 0.5-2 d, culminating in two simulated suborbital spaceflights of combined +Gz and +Gx (peak +4.0 Gz, +6.0 Gx, duration 5 s). Monitors recorded pre- and post-run mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), 6-s average heart rate (HR) collected at prespecified points during exposures, documented dysrhythmias observed on continuous 3-lead ECG, self-reported symptoms, and objective signs of intolerance on real-time video monitoring. Participating in the study were 148 subjects (43 women). Documented dysrhythmias included sinus pause (N = 5), couplet premature ventricular contractions (N = 4), bigeminy (N = 3), accelerated idioventricular rhythm (N = 1), and relative bradycardia (RB, defined as a transient HR drop of >20 bpm; N = 63). None were associated with subjective symptoms or objective signs of acceleration intolerance. Episodes of RB occurred only during +Gx exposures. Subjects had a higher post-run vs. pre-run MAP after all exposures, but demonstrated no difference in pre- and post-run HR. RB was more common in men, younger individuals, and subjects experiencing more centrifuge runs. Dysrhythmias in laypersons undergoing simulated suborbital spaceflight were well tolerated, though RB was frequently noted during short-duration +Gx exposure. No subjects demonstrated associated symptoms or objective hemodynamic sequelae from these events. Even so, heightened caution remains warranted when monitoring dysrhythmias in laypersons with significant cardiopulmonary disease or taking medications that modulate cardiac conduction.Suresh R, Blue RS, Mathers CH, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM. Dysrhythmias in laypersons during centrifuge-stimulated suborbital

  9. The selection of commercial astronauts for suborbital spaceflight (United States)

    Kozak, Brian J.

    With the launch of Dennis Tito aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket in 2001 and SpaceShipOne winning the Ansari X-Prize in 2004, the commercial space tourism industry is on the verge of lifting off. In 2007 Burt Rutan spoke about the future of space tourism, "We think that 100,000 people will fly by 2020" (Rutan, 2007). With such a high frequency of suborbital spaceflights, there is a need for qualified crews to operate the spacecraft. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to investigate the possible selection criteria for suborbital commercial astronauts within the space tourism industry. Data was collected in the form of telephone and email interviews with 4 of the 5 U.S.-based suborbital space tourism companies participating. Purdue University's extensive astronaut alumni network was used to augment data gathered with five astronauts who have flown in space. In addition, Brian Binnie, the pilot who flew SpaceShipOne on its award winning Ansari X-Prize flight, participated. Grounded Theory and Truth and Reality Testing were used as the theoretical framework for data analysis. The data gathered suggests that the commercial astronaut should have at least a Bachelor's degree in engineering, have a test pilot background with thousands of hours of pilot-in-command time in high performance jet aircraft, be confident yet humble in personality, and have a fundamental understanding of their spacecraft, including spacecraft trajectories, and emergency procedures.

  10. NASA's Suborbital Center of Excellence - reaching young minds and crafting the future (United States)

    Cathey, H.; Hottman, S.; Hansen, K.

    The NASA Suborbital Center of Excellence is charting new territory. From an idea to promote science and engineering education and outreach, the Suborbital Center of Excellence is working toward the objective of increasing numbers of college graduates choosing a career in suborbital programs. Approaches to excite university students to want to pursue these careers through relevant and useful work experiences will be highlighted. Suborbital platforms include balloons, sounding rockets, research aircraft (manned and remotely piloted vehicles) and small satellites. Key components of this are the Suborbital Center of Excellence co-op program and the support of Engineering ``Capstone'' projects. A number of these projects and programs have been supported during the past year. Highlights of these student hands-on learning experiences will be presented. The projects have included diverse projects ranging from work on a power beaming demonstration and autonomous aircraft control logic to the development of light weight pressure vessels for balloon flights based on ULDB spin-off technology, and balloon drop sonde development. Preparing these future Scientists and Engineers involves the investment of time, energy, and resources. The Suborbital Center of Excellence is uniquely positioned to do this. Future programs and initiatives will be presented. The Suborbital Center of Excellence is evolving, meeting the needs to promote science and engineering education and outreach. Educational outreach initiatives for young children to university students will also be presented. These include hands-on experiments, demonstrations, and suborbital educational materials.

  11. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture (United States)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.


    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  12. Astrophysical payloads for picosatellites (United States)

    Hudec, R.


    The recent progress in cubesatellite technology allows to consider scientific applications of these minsatellites including astrophysical research. Miniature X-ray and UV-payloads may serve as an example.

  13. Universal Payload Information Management (United States)

    Elmore, Ralph B.


    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center has a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and control of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to remote experimenters and International Partners physically located in different parts of the world. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground-based electronic document configuration management and collaborative workflow system that was built to service the POIC's information management needs. This paper discusses the application components that comprise the PIMS system, the challenges that influenced its design and architecture, and the selected technologies it employs. This paper will also touch on the advantages of the architecture, details of the user interface, and lessons learned along the way to a successful deployment. With PIMS, a sophisticated software solution has been built that is not only universally accessible for POIC customer s information management needs, but also universally adaptable in implementation and application as a generalized information management system.

  14. Suborbital Asteroid Intercept and Fragmentation for Very Short Warning Time Scenarios (United States)

    Hupp, Ryan; Dewald, Spencer; Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.


    Small near-Earth objects (NEOs) 50150 m in size are far more numerous (hundreds of thousands to millions yet to be discovered) than larger NEOs. Small NEOs, which are mostly asteroids rather than comets, are very faint in the night sky due to their small sizes, and are, therefore, difficult to discover far in advance of Earth impact. However, even small NEOs are capable of creating explosions with energies on the order of tens or hundreds of megatons (Mt).We are, therefore, motivated to prepare to respond effectively to short warning time, small NEO impact scenarios. In this paper we explore the lower bound on actionable warning time by investigating the performance of notional upgraded Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) to carry Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payloads to intercept and disrupt a fictitious incoming NEO at high altitudes (generally, at least 2500 km above Earth). We conduct this investigation by developing optimal NEO intercept trajectories for a range of cases and comparing their performances.Our results show that suborbital NEO intercepts using Minuteman III or SM-3 IIA launch vehicles could achieve NEO intercept a few minutes prior to when the NEOwould strike Earth. We also find that more powerful versions of the launch vehicles (e.g., total V 9.511 kms) could intercept incoming NEOs over a day prior to when the NEO would strike Earth, if launched at least several days prior to the time of NEO intercept. Finally, we discuss a number of limiting factors and practicalities that affect whether the notional systems we describe could become feasible.

  15. Suborbital Intercept and Fragmentation of an Asteroid with Very Short Warning Time Scenario (United States)

    Hupp, Ryan; DeWald, Spencer; Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.


    Small near-Earth objects (NEOs) is approx. 50-150 m in size are far more numerous (hundreds of thousands to millions yet to be discovered) than larger NEOs. Small NEOs, which are mostly asteroids rather than comets, are very faint in the night sky due to their small sizes, and are, therefore, difficult to discover far in advance of Earth impact. Furthermore, even small NEOs are capable of creating explosions with energies on the order of tens or hundreds of megatons (Mt). We are, therefore, motivated to prepare to respond effectively to short warning time, small NEO impact scenarios. In this paper we explore the lower bound on actionable warning time by investigating the performance of notional upgraded Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) to carry Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payloads to intercept and disrupt a hypothetical incoming NEO at high altitudes (generally at least 2500 km above Earth). We conduct this investigation by developing optimal NEO intercept trajectories for a range of cases and comparing their performances. Our results show that suborbital NEO intercepts using Minuteman III or SM-3 IIA launch vehicles could achieve NEO intercept a few minutes prior to when the NEO would strike Earth. We also find that more powerful versions of the launch vehicles (e.g., total deltaV is approx. 9.5-11 km/s) could intercept incoming NEOs several hours prior to when the NEO would strike Earth, if launched at least several days prior to the time of intercept. Finally, we discuss a number of limiting factors and practicalities that affect whether the notional systems we describe could become feasible.

  16. From suborbital space tourism to commercial personal spaceflight (United States)

    Peeters, Walter


    Excellent essays have been recently published on the profitability and the future of space tourism. This paper is intended to supplement the considerations in this field and emphasizes the further potential evolution of commercial personal spaceflights. Indeed, based upon work done at the International Space University (ISU) the oligopolistic character of suborbital space tourism has been linked to marketing and product life cycle (PLC) considerations and has led to the thesis that space tourism as a profitable sector will require a follow-on strategy. Orbital space tourism, on one hand, could become an extension of the PLC but, on the other hand, it is assumed that point-to-point (P2P) commercial space transport will become the long term sustainable market. Without ignoring technical challenges, this paper will mainly concentrate on marketing and commercial aspects of personal spaceflight.

  17. [Doctor, may I travel in space? Aeromedical considerations regarding commercial suborbital space flights]. (United States)

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Simons, Ries; Kuipers, André


    Within a few years, the first commercial operators will start flying passengers on suborbital flights to the verge of space. Medical data on the effects of space journeys on humans have mainly been provided by professional astronauts. There is very little research into the aeromedical consequences of suborbital flights for the health of untrained passengers. Low air pressure and oxygen tension can be compensated for by pressurising the spacecraft or pressure suit. Rapid changes in gravitational (G-)force pose ultimate challenges to cardiovascular adaptation mechanisms. Zero-gravity and G-force may cause motion sickness. Vibrations and noise during the flight may disturb communication between passengers and crew. In addition, the psychological impact of a suborbital flight should not be underestimated. There are currently no legal requirements available for medical examinations for commercial suborbital flights, but it seems justifiable to establish conditions for potential passengers' states of health.

  18. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation for crews of suborbital spacecraft : questions & answers. (United States)


    Crewmembers on future suborbital commercial spaceflights will be occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, principally from galactic cosmic radiation. On infrequent occasions, the sun or thunderstorms may also contribute significantly to the ioni...

  19. Suborbital graphs of the symmetric group S n acting on unordered r ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we construct the suborbital graphs of the symmetric group Sn acting on unordered r‐element subsets of X = {1, 2, 3, ..., n}, χ(r) (r,n ∈ ℕ) and analyse their properties. It is shown that the suborbital graphs are undirected, connected if r <½n, and have girth three if n ≥ 3r. Key words: Symmetric group, r‐element ...

  20. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert


    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  1. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (United States)

    Keil, Matthew


    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  2. The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.


    Suborbital space tourism offers short-time zero gravity and Earth view from space to its customers, and a package that can offer the longest duration of zero- gravity and the most exciting Earth view from space to its customer can be considered a better one than the others. To increase the duration of zero gravity time involves the design and engineering of the suborbital vehicles, but to improve the view of Earth from space aboard a suborbital vehicle, involves more than just the design and engineering of the vehicle, but more on the location of where the vehicle operates. So far, most of the proposed operations of suborbital space tourism vehicles involve a flight to above 80km and less than 120km and taking-off and landing at the same location. Therefore, the operational location of the suborbital vehicle clearly determines the view of earth from space that will be available to its passengers. The proposed operational locations or spaceports usually are existing airports such as the airport at Curacao Island in the Caribbean or spaceport specially built at locations with economic interests such as Spaceport America in New Mexico or an airport that is going to be built, such as SpaceportSEA in Selangor, Malaysia. Suborbital vehicles operating from these spaceports can only offer limited views of Earth from space which is only few thousand kilometers of land or sea around their spaceports, and a clear view of only few hundred kilometers of land or sea directly below them, even though the views can be enhanced by the application of optical devices. Therefore, the view of some exotic locations such as a colorful coral reef, and phenomena such as a smoking volcano on Earth which may be very exciting when viewed from space will not be available on these suborbital tourism packages. The only possible way for the passengers of a suborbital vehicle to view such exotic locations and phenomena is by flying above or near them, and since it will not be economic and will be

  3. Applications of Payload Directed Flight (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Yeh, Yoo Hsiu


    Next generation aviation flight control concepts require autonomous and intelligent control system architectures that close control loops directly around payload sensors in manner more integrated and cohesive that in traditional autopilot designs. Research into payload directed flight control at NASA Ames Research Center is investigating new and novel architectures that can satisfy the requirements for next generation control and automation concepts for aviation. Tighter integration between sensor and machine requires definition of specific sensor-directed control modes to tie the sensor data directly into a vehicle control structures throughout the entire control architecture, from low-level stability- and control loops, to higher level mission planning and scheduling reasoning systems. Payload directed flight systems can thus provide guidance, navigation, and control for vehicle platforms hosting a suite of onboard payload sensors. This paper outlines related research into the field of payload directed flight; and outlines requirements and operating concepts for payload directed flight systems based on identified needs from the scientific literature.'

  4. Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis (United States)

    Tong, Donald

    An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.

  5. Recent results from MAUS payloads (United States)

    Otto, G. H.; Staniek, S.


    Project MAUS is a part of the German material sciences program and provides autonomous payloads for the Space Shuttle. These payloads are housed in canisters which are identical with those of NASA's Get-Away-Special program. The main components of the hardware are: a standard system consisting of power supply, experiment control, data acquisition and the experiment modules containing experiment specific hardware. Up to now, three MAUS modules with experiments from the area of material sciences have been flown as GAS payloads. Results will be reported from GAS Payload Number G-27 and G-28 flown aboard STS-51G.

  6. Suborbital Platforms as a Tool for a Symbiotic Relationship Between Scientists, Engineers, and Students (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.


    Sounding rockets started in-situ space experimentation over 60 years ago with scientific experiments replacing warheads on captured V- 2 German rockets. Prior to this, and still today, suborbital platforms such as airplanes and high-altitude balloons have provided advantageous remote sensing observations advancing many areas of Earth and Space science. There is still a place for first-rate science in both stand-alone missions as well as providing complimentary measurements to the larger orbital missions. Along with the aforementioned science, the cost effectiveness and development times provided by sub-orbital platforms allows for perfect hands-on and first rate educational opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students. This talk will give examples and discuss the mutually beneficial opportunities that scientists and students obtain in development of suborbital missions. Also discussed will be how the next generation of space vehicles should help eliminate the number one obstacle to these programs - launch opportunities.

  7. 14 CFR 415.57 - Payload review. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload review. 415.57 Section 415.57... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Payload Review and Determination § 415.57 Payload review. (a) Timing. A payload review may be conducted as part of a license application review or may be requested by a payload...

  8. Operations of Suborbital Research Platforms to Obtain Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Hines, Dennis O.


    The Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) operates six highly modified aircraft in support the NASA science mission.These include two ER-2 aircraft, a DC-8, a G-III, and two Global Hawks. The NASA science missions demands that these aircraft be deployed around the globe while carrying a variety of science instruments. The ER-2 reconnaissance aircraft provides routine access to altitudes over 70,000 ft (20km) for large payloads and with an endurance of over 10hours. Recently the ER-2s have conducted convective storm research missions in the mid-western United States and supported the development of new instruments. The DC-8 is a four-engine jetliner that operates for up to 12 hours ataltitudes that range from the surface to 42,000 ft (13 km). Although its flight envelope is equivalent to conventional.

  9. Regulating private human suborbital flight at the international and European level: Tendencies and suggestions (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Moro-Aguilar, Rafael


    In the context of the FAST20XX project (Future High-Altitude High-Speed Transport) that started in 2009 under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union (EU), the authors reexamined the legal status of private human suborbital flight, and researched whether it might be regulated as aviation or as spaceflight. International space law is ambiguous as to accommodating suborbital activities. While some provisions of the UN outer space treaties would seem to exclude them, generally there is not any explicit condition in terms of reaching orbit as a requirement for application. International air law presents equal difficulties in dealing with this activity. The classic definition of "aircraft" as contained in the Annexes to the Chicago Convention does not really encompass the kind of rocket-powered vehicles that are envisaged here. As a result, it is unclear whether the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), or both could be involved in an eventual international regulation of suborbital flight. In the absence of a uniform international regime, each state has the sovereign right to regulate human suborbital flights operating within its airspace. So far, two practical solutions have been realised or proposed, and will be analyzed. On the one hand, the USA granted power for regulation and licensing over private human suborbital flight to the Office of Commercial Space Transportation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA/AST). Subsequent regulations by the FAA have set out a series of requirements for companies that want to operate these flights, enabling a market to develop. On the other side of the Atlantic, both the European Space Agency (ESA) and a group of representatives of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) of the European Union (EU) seem to rather regard this activity as aviation, potentially subject to the regulation and certification competences of EASA

  10. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities (United States)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.


    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  11. Mission Design and Analysis for Suborbital Intercept and Fragmentation of an Asteroid with Very Short Warning Time (United States)

    Hupp, Ryan; DeWald, Spencer; Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.


    Small near-Earth objects (NEOs) approximately 50-150 m in size are far more numerous (hundreds of thousands to millions yet to be discovered) than larger NEOs. Small NEOs, which are mostly asteroids rather than comets, are very faint in the night sky due to their small sizes, and are, therefore, difficult to discover far in advance of Earth impact. Furthermore, even small NEOs are capable of creating explosions with energies on the order of tens or hundreds of megatons (Mt). We are, therefore, motivated to prepare to respond effectively to short warning time, small NEO impact scenarios. In this paper we explore the lower bound on actionable warning time by investigating the performance of notional upgraded Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) to carry Nuclear Explosive Device (NED) payloads to intercept and disrupt a hypothetical incoming NEO at high altitudes (generally at least 2500 km above Earth). We conduct this investigation by developing optimal NEO intercept trajectories for a range of cases and comparing their performances. Our results show that suborbital NEO intercepts using Minuteman III or SM-3 IIA launch vehicles could achieve NEO intercept a few minutes prior to when the NEO would strike Earth. We also find that more powerful versions of the launch vehicles (e.g., total delta V of approximately 9.5-11 km/s) could intercept incoming NEOs several hours prior to when the NEO would strike Earth, if launched at least several days prior to the time of intercept. Finally, we discuss a number of limiting factors and practicalities that affect whether the notional systems we describe could become feasible.

  12. Education Payload Operation - Kit D (United States)

    Keil, Matthew


    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  13. OPSys: optical payload systems facility for testing space coronagraphs (United States)

    Fineschi, S.; Crescenzio, G.; Massone, G.; Capobianco, G.; Zangrilli, L.; Antonucci, E.; Anselmi, F.


    The Turin Astronomical Observatory, Italy, has implemented in ALTEC, Turin, a new Optical Payload Systems (OPSys) facility for testing of contamination sensitive optical space flight instrumentation. The facility is specially tailored for tests on solar instruments like coronagraphs. OPSys comprises an ISO 7 clean room for instrument assembly and a relatively large (4.4 m3) optical test and calibration vacuum chamber: the Space Optics Calibration Chamber (SPOCC). SPOCC consists of a test section with a vacuum-compatible motorized optical bench, and of a pipeline section with a sun simulator at the opposite end of the optical bench hosting the instrumentation under tests. The solar simulator is an off-axis parabolic mirror collimating the light from the source with the solar angular divergence. After vacuum conditioning, the chamber will operate at an ultimate pressure of 10-6 mbar. This work describes the SPOCC's vacuum system and optical design, and the post-flight stray-light tests to be carried out on the Sounding-rocket Experiment (SCORE). This sub-orbital solar coronagraph is the prototype of the METIS coronagraph for the ESA Solar Orbital mission whose closest perihelion is one-third of the Sun-Earth distance. The plans are outlined for testing METIS in the SPOCC simulating the observing conditions from the Solar Orbiter perihelion.

  14. Shuttle payload vibroacoustic test plan evaluation. Free flyer payload applications and sortie payload parametric variations (United States)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.


    A preliminary assessment of vibroacoustic test plan optimization for free flyer STS payloads is presented and the effects on alternate test plans for Spacelab sortie payloads number of missions are also examined. The component vibration failure probability and the number of components in the housekeeping subassemblies are provided. Decision models are used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of seven alternate test plans using protoflight hardware.

  15. SLS Payload Transportation Beyond LEO (United States)

    Creech, S. D.; Baker, J. D.; Jackman, A. L.; Vane, G.


    NASA has successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) of the heavy lift Space Launch System (SLS) and is working towards the first flight of the vehicle in 2018. SLS will begin flying crewed missions with an Orion capsule to the lunar vicinity every year after the first 2 flights starting in the early 2020's. As early as 2021, in addition to delivering an Orion capsule to a cislunar destination, SLS will also deliver ancillary payload, termed "Co-manifested Payload (CPL)", with a mass of at least 5.5 mT and volume up to 280 m3 simultaneously to that same destination. Later SLS flights have a goal of delivering as much as 10 mT of CPL to cislunar destinations. In addition to cislunar destinations, SLS flights may deliver non-crewed, science-driven missions with Primary Payload (PPL) to more distant destinations. SLS PPL missions will utilize a unique payload fairing offering payload volume (ranging from 320 m3 to 540 m3) that greatly exceeds the largest existing Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fairing available. The Characteristic Energy (C3) offered by the SLS system will generate opportunities to deliver up to 40 mT to cislunar space, and deliver double PPL mass or de-crease flight time by half for some outer planet destinations when compared to existing capabilities. For example, SLS flights may deliver the Europa Clipper to a Jovian destination in under 3 years by the mid 2020's, compared to the 7+ years cruise time required for current launch capabilities. This presentation will describe ground and flight accommodations, interfaces, resources, and performance planned to be made available to potential CPL and PPL science users of SLS. In addition, this presentation should promote a dialogue between vehicle developers, potential payload users, and funding sources in order to most efficiently evolve required SLS capabilities to meet diverse payload needs as they are identified over the next 35 years and beyond.

  16. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su


    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  17. On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning Expanded to Sub-orbital Flight (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Shen, Zuojun


    A methodology for on-board planning of sub-orbital entry trajectories is developed. The algorithm is able to generate in a time frame consistent with on-board environment a three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) feasible entry trajectory, given the boundary conditions and vehicle modeling. This trajectory is then tracked by feedback guidance laws which issue guidance commands. The current trajectory planning algorithm complements the recently developed method for on-board 3DOF entry trajectory generation for orbital missions, and provides full-envelope autonomous adaptive entry guidance capability. The algorithm is validated and verified by extensive high fidelity simulations using a sub-orbital reusable launch vehicle model and difficult mission scenarios including failures and aborts.

  18. Specialist Bibliographic Databases (United States)


    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  19. Staff Specialist Survival Course (United States)


    The syllabus for this 4.5-day course addresses the challenges for today’s staff specialists and provides not only hands-on review of actual artifacts...but also case studies to enhance learners’ actual experiences. Background The course was designed to magnify the staff specialist’s skills in

  20. Heating Systems Specialist. (United States)

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This instructional package is intended for use in training Air Force personnel enrolled in a program for apprentice heating systems specialists. Training includes instruction in fundamentals and pipefitting; basic electricity; controls, troubleshooting, and oil burners; solid and gas fuel burners and warm air distribution systems; hot water…

  1. Diet Therapy Specialist. (United States)

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  2. Payload Instrumentation for Probing Rockets. (United States)


    A35.191-4 was packaged for shipmeoit to White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico . The equipment for the experiment included the following: nose cone with...improved system control. Three contract members travelled to White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico , in January 1979. Project SPICE I was launched on...Range, Alaska, from 24 October to 14 November. The payload was launched on 12 November, 1977. Project A31.603 ( PIBS ) is another project which was

  3. Communications platform payload definition study (United States)

    Clopp, H. W.; Hawkes, T. A.; Bertles, C. R.; Pontano, B. A.; Kao, T.


    Large geostationary communications platforms were investigated in a number of studies since 1974 as a possible means to more effectively utilize the geostationary arc and electromagnetic spectrum and to reduce overall satellite communications system costs. The commercial feasibility of various communications platform payload concepts circa 1998 was addressed. Promising payload concepts were defined, recurring costs were estimated, and critical technologies needed to enable eventual commercialization were identified. Ten communications service aggregation scenarios describing potential groupings of service were developed for a range of conditions. Payload concepts were defined for four of these scenarios: (1) Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) meets 100% of Contiguous United States (CONUS) plus Canada demand with a single platform; (2) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) (trunking + Customer Premises Service (CPS)), meet 20% of CONUS demand;(3) FSS (trunking + CPS + video distribution), 10 to 13% of CONUS demand; and (4) FSS (20% of demand) + Inter Satellite Links (ISL) + Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)/Tracking and Data Acquisition System (TDAS) Data Distribution.

  4. Point-to-point sub-orbital space tourism: Some initial considerations (United States)

    Webber, Derek


    Several public statements have been made about the possible, or even likely, extension of initial sub-orbital space tourism operations to encompass point-to-point travel. It is the purpose of this paper to explore some of the basic considerations for such a plan, in order to understand both its merits and its problems. The paper will discuss a range of perspectives, from basic physics to market segmentation, from ground segment logistics to spacecraft design considerations. It is important that these initial considerations are grasped before more detailed planning and design takes place.

  5. Library Media Specialists: Premier Information Specialists for the Information Age (United States)

    Neuman, Delia


    The information age has given library media specialists an unprecedented opportunity to play a leading role in helping teachers, administrators, and especially students access and use information intelligently. As the school's premier information specialist; the library media specialist has a unique role to play in helping everyone in the school…

  6. Modular Countermine Payload for Small Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak


    Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multi-mission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

  7. The Design and Operation of Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space (SOLVES) (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Rashidy Zulkifi, Mohd; Izmir Yamin, Mohd; Othman, Jamaludin; Rafidi Zakaria, Norul


    Inclusive in the planning of Spaceport Malaysia are 2 local suborbital vehicles development. One of the vehicles is called SOLVES or Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space. The emphasis on the design and operation of SOLVES is green and robotic technology, where both green technology and robotic technology are used to protect the environment and enhance safety. As SOLVES climbs, its center of gravity stabilizes and remains at the bottom as its propellant being used until it depletes, due to the position of the vehicle's passenger cabin and its engines at its lower end. It will reach 80km from sea level generally known as "the edge of space" due to its momentum although its propellant will be depleted at a lower altitude. As the suborbital vehicle descends tail first, its wings automatically extend and rotate at horizontal axes perpendicular to the fuselage. These naturally and passively rotating wings ensure controlled low velocity and stable descend of the vehicle. The passenger cabin also rotates automatically at a steady low speed at the centerline of its fuselage as it descends, caused naturally by the lift force, enabling its passengers a surrounding 360 degrees view. SOLVES is steered automatically to its landing point by an electrical propulsion system with a vectoring nozzle. The electrical propulsion minimizes space and weight and is free of pollution and noise. Its electrical power comes from a battery aided by power generated by the naturally rotating wings. When the vehicle lands, it is in the safest mode as its propellant is depleted and its center of gravity remains at the bottom of its cabin. The cabin, being located at the bottom of the fuselage, enables very convenient, rapid and safe entry and exit of its passengers. SOLVES will be a robotic suborbital vehicle with green technology. The vehicle will carry 4 passengers and each passenger will be trained to land the vehicle manually if the fully automated landing system fails

  8. Telemetry Options for LDB Payloads (United States)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.; Field, Christopher J.


    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility provides Telemetry and Command systems necessary for balloon operations and science support. There are various Line-Of-Sight (LOS) and Over-The-Horizon (OTH) systems and interfaces that provide communications to and from a science payload. This presentation will discuss the current data throughput options available and future capabilities that may be incorporated in the LDB Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) such as doubling the TDRSS data rate. We will also explore some new technologies that could potentially expand the data throughput of OTH communications.

  9. The " Daphnia" Lynx Mark I Suborbital Flight Experiment: Hardware Qualification at the Drop Tower Bremen (United States)

    Knie, Miriam; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Eck, Hendrik; Ribeiro, Bernard Wolfschoon; Laforsch, Christian


    The Drop Tower Bremen, a ground-based facility enabling research under real microgravity conditions, is an excellent platform for testing new types of experimental hardware to ensure full performance when deployed in costly and rare flight opportunities such as suborbital flights. Here we describe the " Daphnia" experiment which will fly on XCOR Aerospace Lynx Mark I and our experience from the hardware tests with the catapult system at the drop tower. The aim of the " Daphnia" experiment is to obtain data on the biological performance of daphnids and predator-prey interactions in microgravity, which are important for the development of aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The experiment consists of two subunits: The first unit is dedicated to predator-prey interactions, where behavioural analysis should reveal if microgravity interfere with prey ( Daphnia) detection or feeding and therefore may interrupt the trophic cascade. The functioning of such an artificial food web is indispensable for a long-lasting BLSS suitable for long-duration manned space missions or Earth-based explorations to extreme habitats. The second unit is designed to investigate the impact of microgravity on gene expression and the cytoskeleton in Daphnia. Next to data collection, the real microgravity conditions at the drop tower have helped to identify the weak points of the " Daphnia" experimental hardware and lead to further improvement. Hence, the drop tower is ideal for testing new experimental hardware which is indispensable before the implementation in suborbital flights.

  10. Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) Payload Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, S.C.; Brock, B.C.; Bullington, D.M.; Byrd, D.A.; Claassen, P.J.; Decker, M.L.; Henson, T.D.; Kay, R.R.; Kidner, R.E.; Lanes, C.E.; Little, C.; Marbach, K.D.; Rackley, N.G.; Rienstra, J.L.; Smith, B.W.; Taplin, R.B.; Weber, P.G.


    MTI is a comprehensive research and development project that includes up-front modeling and analysis, satellite system design, fabrication, assembly and testing, on-orbit operations, and experimentation and data analysis. The satellite is designed to collect radiometrically calibrated, medium resolution imagery in 15 spectral bands ranging from 0.45 to 10.70 pm. The payload portion of the satellite includes the imaging system components, associated electronics boxes, and payload support structure. The imaging system includes a three-mirror anastigmatic off-axis telescope, a single cryogenically cooled focal plane assembly, a mechanical cooler, and an onboard calibration system. Payload electronic subsystems include image digitizers, real-time image compressors, a solid state recorder, calibration source drivers, and cooler temperature and vibration controllers. The payload support structure mechanically integrates all payload components and provides a simple four point interface to the spacecraft bus. All payload components have been fabricated and tested, and integrated.

  11. Trajectory driven multidisciplinary design optimization of a sub-orbital spaceplane using non-stationary Gaussian process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, R.; De Meulenaere, J.; Elham, A.


    This paper presents the multidisciplinary optimization of an aircraft carried sub-orbital spaceplane. The optimization process focused on three disciplines: the aerodynamics, the structure and the trajectory. The optimization of the spaceplane geometry was coupled with the optimization of its

  12. Remote Advanced Payload Test Rig (RAPTR) Portable Payload Test System for the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Calvert, John; Freas, George, II


    The RAPTR was developed to test ISS payloads for NASA. RAPTR is a simulation of the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) interfaces of the ISS (MIL-STD 1553B, Ethernet and TAXI) and is designed to facilitate rapid testing and deployment of payload experiments to the ISS. The ISS Program's goal is to reduce the amount of time it takes a payload developer to build, test and fly a payload, including payload software. The RAPTR meets this need with its user oriented, visually rich interface. Additionally, the Analog and Discrete (A&D) signals of the following payload types may be tested with RAPTR: (1) EXPRESS Sub Rack Payloads; (2) ELC payloads; (3) External Columbus payloads; (4) External Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) payloads. The automated payload configuration setup and payload data inspection infrastructure is found nowhere else in ISS payload test systems. Testing can be done with minimal human intervention and setup, as the RAPTR automatically monitors parameters in the data headers that are sent to, and come from the experiment under test.

  13. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  14. What can be learned about Polar Mesospheric Clouds from suborbital missions? (United States)

    Thomas, G. E.; McClintock, W.; Fritts, D. C.


    Noctilucent clouds ('night luminous' or NLC) are the highest and coldest clouds in the atmosphere. When viewed from the ground they are referred to as NLC. Viewed from space they are called Polar Mesospheric Clouds, or PMC. Occupying a narrow (81-86 km) height zone below the high-latitude mesopause (a temperature minimum versus height, located near 88 km), NLC offer a splendid sight during summer twilights. They are made visible by scattered sunlight against the dark twilight sky, when the sun lies below the horizon at angles between 6o and 16o. The state of the science has been advanced significantly since the launches of the Odin and Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite missions. The spatial scales of the clouds are evident in the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment down to its limiting resolution of 5 km. However, from ground-based photography of NLC, and from theoretical modeling of small-scale 3D instability and turbulence dynamics in the upper mesosphere, we know that there is much structure on the sub-km scale which is yet to be explored. Turbulent breakdown is expected to occur in this sub-km range. Fortunately, on the short-time scales of turbulence, ice particles should act as passive tracers, which are advected by the wind field. Sub-orbital missions provide an ideal observing platform for extending the PMC 'spatial spectrum' ranging currently from hundreds to tens of km (which we now know from CIPS) down to tens of meters, a 'leap' of three orders of magnitude. A high resolution camera with a CMOS chip, is easily capable of sub-km resolution, with S/N ratios exceeding 100 for a bright PMC. A wide (150 nm) bandpass centered on the blue portion of the PMC spectrum isolates the most intense portion of the scattered brightness. Movies of the clouds as the sub-orbital vehicle approaches, and penetrates the cloud, would be valuable, both for the scientific goal of studying the 'transition to turbulence', but also for educational

  15. MESSENGER Spacecraft and Payload Performance (United States)

    Gold, R. E.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, J. R., Jr.; Leary, J. C.; MESSENGER Team

    The Mercury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, launched in May of this year, will be the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury. The >14 kWm-2 solar thermal input and the large velocity change required to reach Mercury orbit make this a very challenging mission from thermal and mass perspectives. MESSENGER overcomes these challenges with innovative applications of existing technologies and materials. The spacecraft uses ordinary space electronics, has minimal moving parts, and has extensive redundancy and cross strapping to enhance its robustness. The major innovations are a ceramic-cloth thermal shade, an integrated lightweight structure, a high-performance propulsion system, and a solar array incorporating optical solar reflectors to prevent overheating. Seven miniaturized instruments, along with the spacecraft telecommunications system, satisfy all scientific objectives of the mission. The payload includes a dual imaging system with wide-angle and narrow-angle cameras; an integrated ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectrometer that is sensitive enough to detect atmospheric emissions and robust enough to map mineralogical absorption features on the sun-lit surface; gamma-ray, X-ray, and neutron spectrometers for remote geochemical mapping; a vector magnetometer; a laser altimeter to determine the topography of surface features and determine whether Mercury has a fluid core; and an energetic particle and plasma spectrometer to characterize ionized species in the magnetosphere. The payload was fully calibrated before launch, and an additional series of calibration measurements are planned during the 5-year cruise to Mercury. The first of the three Venus flybys and two Mercury flybys during the cruise phase of the mission will occur in November 2004

  16. On-Board Software Reference Architecture for Payloads (United States)

    Bos, Victor; Rugina, Ana; Trcka, Adam


    The goal of the On-board Software Reference Architecture for Payloads (OSRA-P) is to identify an architecture for payload software to harmonize the payload domain, to enable more reuse of common/generic payload software across different payloads and missions and to ease the integration of the payloads with the platform.To investigate the payload domain, recent and current payload instruments of European space missions have been analyzed. This led to a Payload Catalogue describing 12 payload instruments as well as a Capability Matrix listing specific characteristics of each payload. In addition, a functional decomposition of payload software was prepared which contains functionalities typically found in payload systems. The definition of OSRA-P was evaluated by case studies and a dedicated OSRA-P workshop to gather feedback from the payload community.

  17. Sustained Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm in a Centrifuge-Simulated Suborbital Spaceflight. (United States)

    Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M


    Hypergravitational exposures during human centrifugation are known to provoke dysrhythmias, including sinus dysrhythmias/tachycardias, premature atrial/ventricular contractions, and even atrial fibrillations or flutter patterns. However, events are generally short-lived and resolve rapidly after cessation of acceleration. This case report describes a prolonged ectopic ventricular rhythm in response to high G exposure. A previously healthy 30-yr-old man voluntarily participated in centrifuge trials as a part of a larger study, experiencing a total of 7 centrifuge runs over 48 h. Day 1 consisted of two +Gz runs (peak +3.5 Gz, run 2) and two +Gx runs (peak +6.0 Gx, run 4). Day 2 consisted of three runs approximating suborbital spaceflight profiles (combined +Gx and +Gz). Hemodynamic data collected included blood pressure, heart rate, and continuous three-lead electrocardiogram. Following the final acceleration exposure of the last Day 2 run (peak +4.5 Gx and +4.0 Gz combined, resultant +6.0 G), during a period of idle resting centrifuge activity (resultant vector +1.4 G), the subject demonstrated a marked change in his three-lead electrocardiogram from normal sinus rhythm to a wide-complex ectopic ventricular rhythm at a rate of 91-95 bpm, consistent with an accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR). This rhythm was sustained for 2 m, 24 s before reversion to normal sinus. The subject reported no adverse symptoms during this time. While prolonged, the dysrhythmia was asymptomatic and self-limited. AIVR is likely a physiological response to acceleration and can be managed conservatively. Vigilance is needed to ensure that AIVR is correctly distinguished from other, malignant rhythms to avoid inappropriate treatment and negative operational impacts.Suresh R, Blue RS, Mathers C, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM. Sustained accelerated idioventricular rhythm in a centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):789-793.

  18. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies (United States)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.


    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  19. Towards telecommunication payloads with photonic technologies (United States)

    Vono, S.; Di Paolo, G.; Piccinni, M.; Pisano, A.; Sotom, M.; Aveline, M.; Ginestet, P.


    In the last decade, Thales Alenia Space has put a lot of its research effort on Photonic Technologies for Space Application with the aim to offer the market satellite telecommunication systems better performance and lower costs. This research effort has been concentrated on several activities, some of them sponsored by ESA. Most promising applications refer to Payload Systems. In particular, photonic payload applications have been investigated through the following two ESA studies: Artes-1 "Next Generation Telecommunication Payloads based on Photonic Technologies" and Artes-5 "OWR - Optical Wideband Receiver" activities.

  20. Focal plane actuation by hexapod for the development of a high-resolution suborbital telescope (United States)

    Miller, Alexander D.; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd J.


    We present a prototype hexapod image stabilization system as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. The unique design thermally isolates an off-the-shelf non-cryogenic hexapod from a liquid nitrogen cooled focal plane, enabling its use in a cryogenic environment. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements ( 20 micron amplitude at 20 Hz at the worst) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, and vibrations from cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and limits the resolution of the system. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. For a 0.8m telescope the improvement in resolution by this system would provide 0.1" angular resolution at 300nm, which is comparable to Hubble for a fraction of the cost. On an actual balloon, the hexapod system would actuate the focal plane to counteract the jitter using position information supplied by guidestar cameras. However, in the lab, we instead simulate guide camera tracking, using a 1024 × 1024 e2v science-grade CCD to take long exposures of a target attached to an XY stage driven with the balloon jitter signal recorded during the STO mission. Further confirmation of the positional accuracy and agility of the hexapod is achieved using a laser and fast-sampling position-sensitive diode. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giants, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new

  1. Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS), which is part of the JPL Phaeton early career employee hands-on training program, aims to demonstrate optical...

  2. Small Payload Integration and Testing Project Development (United States)

    Sorenson, Tait R.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has mainly focused on large payloads for space flight beginning with the Apollo program to the assembly and resupply of the International Space Station using the Space Shuttle. NASA KSC is currently working on contracting manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to commercial providers, developing Space Launch System, the Orion program, deep space manned programs which could reach Mars, and providing technical expertise for the Launch Services Program for science mission payloads/satellites. KSC has always supported secondary payloads and smaller satellites as the launch provider; however, they are beginning to take a more active role in integrating and testing secondary payloads into future flight opportunities. A new line of business, the Small Payload Integration and Testing Services (SPLITS), has been established to provide a one stop shop that can integrate and test payloads. SPLITS will assist high schools, universities, companies and consortiums interested in testing or launching small payloads. The goal of SPLITS is to simplify and facilitate access to KSC's expertise and capabilities for small payloads integration and testing and to help grow the space industry. An effort exists at Kennedy Space Center to improve the external KSC website. External services has partnered with SPLITS as a content test bed for attracting prospective customers. SPLITS is an emerging effort that coincides with the relaunch of the website and has a goal of attracting external partnerships. This website will be a "front door" access point for all potential partners as it will contain an overview of KSC's services, expertise and includes the pertinent contact information.

  3. IUS/payload communication system simulator configuration definition study. [payload simulator for pcm telemetry (United States)

    Udalov, S.; Springett, J. C.


    The requirements and specifications for a general purpose payload communications system simulator to be used to emulate those communications system portions of NASA and DOD payloads/spacecraft that will in the future be carried into earth orbit by the shuttle are discussed. For the purpose of on-orbit checkout, the shuttle is required to communicate with the payloads while they are physically located within the shuttle bay (attached) and within a range of 20 miles from the shuttle after they have been deployed (detached). Many of the payloads are also under development (and many have yet to be defined), actual payload communication hardware will not be available within the time frame during which the avionic hardware tests will be conducted. Thus, a flexible payload communication system simulator is required.

  4. Acquisition of a Biomedical Database of Acute Responses to Space Flight during Commercial Personal Suborbital Flights (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.


    There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.

  5. Uncertainty analysis and design optimization of hybrid rocket motor powered vehicle for suborbital flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hao


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an uncertainty analysis and design optimization method and its applications on a hybrid rocket motor (HRM powered vehicle. The multidisciplinary design model of the rocket system is established and the design uncertainties are quantified. The sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties shows that the uncertainty generated from the error of fuel regression rate model has the most significant effect on the system performances. Then the differences between deterministic design optimization (DDO and uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO are discussed. Two newly formed uncertainty analysis methods, including the Kriging-based Monte Carlo simulation (KMCS and Kriging-based Taylor series approximation (KTSA, are carried out using a global approximation Kriging modeling method. Based on the system design model and the results of design uncertainty analysis, the design optimization of an HRM powered vehicle for suborbital flight is implemented using three design optimization methods: DDO, KMCS and KTSA. The comparisons indicate that the two UDO methods can enhance the design reliability and robustness. The researches and methods proposed in this paper can provide a better way for the general design of HRM powered vehicles.

  6. A suborbital experiment to study Circumgalactic Lines in Ultraviolet Emission (CLUE) (United States)

    Cook, Timothy; Wakker, Bart P.; Finn, Susanna; Martel, Jason F.


    We present the design and expected performance of CLUE, a new suborbital mission designed to image OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium of nearby galaxies. CLUE will act as a scientific pathfinder for future far ultraviolet emission missions. It will establish, on three nearby galaxies, the brightness, extent, and morphology of the OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium. These results will be essential in planning and evaluating any future FUV emission mission.The experiment will demonstrate an instrument design, called the monochromatic imager, which provides an all-reflective solution to the "narrow band imaging problem". Narrowband imaging is a staple astronomical technique. It allows observers to map the spatial distribution of ionic, atomic, and molecular features, and to determine the temperature, density, etc. of the emitting gas. Unfortunately, this technique cannot be applied in the far-ultraviolet band where transmissive materials are unavailable and ionic features are closely spaced, requiring a quickly varying spectral response.The monochromatic imager uses a conventional telescope with a grating monochromator to select the wavelength of interest. After passing through the monochromator an image of the target (now monochromatic) is focused on the detector. Unlike a push broom imaging system, CLUE produces a full image in a single emission line. CLUE is able to efficiently devote its observing time and detector area to collecting photons of interest while NOT devoting time and collecting area to recording uninteresting spectral regions.

  7. Liberty Bell 7 the suborbital Mercury flight of Virgil I. Grissom

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin


    NASA’s Mercury astronauts were seven highly skilled professional test pilots. Each of them seemed to possess the strength of character and commitment necessary to overcome apparently insurmountable obstacles as the United States entered into a Cold War space race with the Soviet Union. This was never more evident than on the epic suborbital MR-4 flight of Liberty Bell 7 with astronaut Virgil (‘Gus’) Grissom piloting the spacecraft to a successful splashdown, followed by the premature blowing of the craft’s explosive hatch. After a hurried exit and struggling to stay afloat, he could only watch helplessly as the recovery helicopter pilot valiantly fought a losing battle to save the sinking capsule.   That day NASA not only lost a spacecraft but came perilously close to losing one of its Mercury astronauts, a decorated Korean fighter pilot from Indiana who might one day have soared to the highest goal of them all, as the first person to set foot on the Moon.   For the first time, many of those closest...

  8. Low-voltage Power Supply Subsystem for a Sub-Orbital Particle Physic Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Hugo Silva Lopez


    Full Text Available The Japanese Experiment Module–Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO is a wide-field (+/-~30°of aperture 2.5m refractor telescope to be installed in the International Space Station (ISS. The instrument looks downward from its orbit, into Earth’s atmosphere, with the main objective of observing ultra-violet (UV fluorescence light generated by Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR extensive air showers (EAS. It is a frontier particle-physics experiment, the first of its kind. The validation of the technical readiness level of such a complex and unique instrument requires prototypes at several levels of integration. At the highest level, the EUSO-Balloon instrument has been conceived, through French space agency (CNES. At a smaller scale and in suborbital flight, EUSO-Balloon integrates all the sub-systems of the full space JEM-EUSO telescope, allowing end-to-end testing of hardware and interfaces, and to probing the global detection chain and strategy, while improving at the same time our knowledge of atmospheric and terrestrial UV background. EUSO-Balloon will be flown by CNES for the first time from Timmins, Canada; on spring 2014.This article presents the low-voltage power supply (LVPS subsystem development for the EUSO-Balloon instrument. This LVPS is the fully operational prototype for the space instrument JEM-EUSO. Besides design and construction, all performance tests and integration results with the other involved subsystems are shown.

  9. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If ... the teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists ...

  10. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.


    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  11. The Potential for Hosted Payloads at NASA (United States)

    Andraschko, Mark; Antol, Jeffrey; Baize, Rosemary; Horan, Stephen; Neil, Doreen; Rinsland, Pamela; Zaiceva, Rita


    The 2010 National Space Policy encourages federal agencies to actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, government capabilities on commercial spacecraft. NASA's Science Mission Directorate has taken an important step towards this goal by adding an option for hosted payload responses to its recent Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for Earth Venture-2 missions. Since NASA selects a significant portion of its science missions through a competitive process, it is useful to understand the implications that this process has on the feasibility of successfully proposing a commercially hosted payload mission. This paper describes some of the impediments associated with proposing a hosted payload mission to NASA, and offers suggestions on how these impediments might be addressed. Commercially hosted payloads provide a novel way to serve the needs of the science and technology demonstration communities at a fraction of the cost of a traditional Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) mission. The commercial communications industry launches over 20 satellites to GEO each year. By exercising this repeatable commercial paradigm of privately financed access to space with proven vendors, NASA can achieve science goals at a significantly lower cost than the current dedicated spacecraft and launch vehicle approach affords. Commercial hosting could open up a new realm of opportunities for NASA science missions to make measurements from GEO. This paper also briefly describes two GEO missions recommended by the National Academies of Science Earth Science Decadal Survey, the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission and the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission. Hosted payload missions recently selected for implementation by the Office of the Chief Technologist are also discussed. Finally, there are

  12. STS-65 Mission Specialist Chiao in LES at pre-test WETF bailout briefing (United States)


    STS-65 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao, outfitted in a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), listens to a briefing on procedures that would become necessary in the event of an emergency egress situation from the Space Shuttle. The astronaut was in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 for the launch emergency egress training (bailout) exercise. Chiao will join five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for the second International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year.

  13. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection (United States)

    Iuzzolino, M.; Accardo, D.; Rufino, G.; Oliva, E.; Tozzi, A.; Schipani, P.


    The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to 0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE), the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture) telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  14. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.


    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  15. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Iuzzolino


    Full Text Available The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE, the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  16. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection. (United States)

    Iuzzolino, Marcella; Accardo, Domenico; Rufino, Giancarlo; Oliva, Ernesto; Tozzi, Andrea; Schipani, Pietro


    The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE), the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture) telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  17. The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) Payload (United States)

    Muri, Paul; Runco, Susan; Fontanot, Carlos; Getteau, Chris


    The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) payload enables long-term experimentation of four, commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) high definition video, cameras mounted on the exterior of the International Space Station. The payload enables testing of cameras in the space environment. The HDEV cameras transmit imagery continuously to an encoder that then sends the video signal via Ethernet through the space station for downlink. The encoder, cameras, and other electronics are enclosed in a box pressurized to approximately one atmosphere, containing dry nitrogen, to provide a level of protection to the electronics from the space environment. The encoded video format supports streaming live video of Earth for viewing online. Camera sensor types include charge-coupled device and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. Received imagery data is analyzed on the ground to evaluate camera sensor performance. Since payload deployment, minimal degradation to imagery quality has been observed. The HDEV payload continues to operate by live streaming and analyzing imagery. Results from the experiment reduce risk in the selection of cameras that could be considered for future use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. This paper discusses the payload development, end-to- end architecture, experiment operation, resulting image analysis, and future work.

  18. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev operates an M-113 during TCDT activities (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, operates an M-113, an armored personnel carrier, as part of emergency egress training under the watchful eye of instructor George Hoggard (left) during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT also provides the crew with simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module. Others in the STS-88 crew are Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana; Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow; and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, Jerry L. Ross, and James H. Newman.

  19. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev receives M-113 training during TCDT activities (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev (center front), a Russian cosmonaut, prepares to operate an M-113, an armored personnel carrier, as part of emergency egress training under the watchful eye of instructor George Hoggard (left) during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT also provides the crew with simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module. Others in the STS-88 crew are Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana; Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow; and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, Jerry L. Ross, and James H. Newman.

  20. STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Krikalev arrives at KSC for TCDT (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, arrives after dark at the Shuttle Landing Facility in a T-38 jet aircraft to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with simulated countdown exercises, emergency egress training, and opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module. Others in the STS-88 crew are Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, Jerry L. Ross, and James H. Newman. Ross and Newman will make three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment.

  1. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev poses in white room during TCDT (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev poses for a photograph in the white room on Launch Pad 39A while taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with simulated countdown exercises, emergency egress training, and opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. This will be Krikalev's second space flight. Others in the STS-88 crew are Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, Jerry L. Ross, and James H. Newman. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module.

  2. Tolerance of centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight in subjects with implanted insulin pumps. (United States)

    Levin, Dana R; Blue, Rebecca S; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M


    With commercial spaceflight comes the possibility of spaceflight participants (SFPs) with significant medical conditions. Those with previously untested medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of indwelling medical devices, represent a unique challenge. It is unclear how SFPs with such devices will react to the stresses of spaceflight. This case report describes two subjects with Type I DM using insulin pumps who underwent simulated dynamic phases of spaceflight via centrifuge G force exposure. Two Type I diabetic subjects with indwelling Humalog insulin pumps, a 23-yr-old man averaging 50 u of Humalog daily and a 27-yr-old man averaging 60 u of Humalog daily, underwent seven centrifuge runs over 48 h. Day 1 consisted of two +Gz runs (peak = +3.5 Gz, run 2) and two +Gx runs (peak = +6.0 Gx, run 4). Day 2 consisted of three runs approximating suborbital spaceflight profiles (combined +Gx and +Gz). Data collected included blood pressure, electrocardiogram, pulse oximetry, neurovestibular evaluation, and questionnaires regarding motion sickness, disorientation, greyout, and other symptoms. Neither subject experienced adverse clinical responses to the centrifuge exposure. Both maintained blood glucose levels between 110-206 mg · dl(-1). Potential risks to SFPs with insulin pump dependent DM include hypo/hyperglycemia, pump damage, neurovestibular dysfunction, skin breakdown, and abnormal stress responses. A search of prior literature did not reveal any previous studies of individuals with DM on insulin pumps exposed to prolonged accelerations. These cases suggest that individuals with conditions dependent on continuous medication delivery might tolerate the accelerations anticipated for commercial spaceflight.

  3. Communications platform payload definition study, executive summary (United States)

    Clopp, H. W.; Hawkes, T. A.; Bertles, C. R.; Pontano, B. A.; Kao, T.


    Large geostationary communications platforms have been investigated in a number of studies since 1974 as a possible means to more effectively utilize the geostationary orbital arc and electromagnetic spectrum and to reduce overall satellite communications system costs. This NASA Lewis sponsored study addresses the commercial feasibility of various communications platform payload concepts circa 1998. It defines promising payload concepts, estimates recurring costs and identifies critical technologies needed to permit eventual commercialization. Ten communications service aggregation scenarios describing potential groupings of services were developed for a range of conditions. Payload concepts were defined for four of these scenarios: (1) Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS), meet 100% of CONUS plus Canada demand with a single platform; (2) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) (Trunking + Customer Premises Service (CPS), meet 20% of CONUS demands; (3) FSS (Trunking + video distribution), 10 to 13% of CONUS demand; and (4) FSS (20% of demand) + Inter Satellite Links (ISL) + TDRSS/TDAS Data Distribution.

  4. Shuttle payload vibroacoustic test plan evaluation (United States)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Young, J. P.; Keegan, W. B.


    Statistical decision theory is used to evaluate seven alternate vibro-acoustic test plans for Space Shuttle payloads; test plans include component, subassembly and payload testing and combinations of component and assembly testing. The optimum test levels and the expected cost are determined for each test plan. By including all of the direct cost associated with each test plan and the probabilistic costs due to ground test and flight failures, the test plans which minimize project cost are determined. The lowest cost approach eliminates component testing and maintains flight vibration reliability by performing subassembly tests at a relatively high acoustic level.

  5. findings from specialist treatment centres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of OTC and prescription medicine misuse among 9 063 patients from 23 specialist substance abuse treatment centres in Cape Town, South Africa, between 1998 and 2000. Results. OTC and prescription medicine misuse places a burden on health and social services in South Africa. This is evidenced ...

  6. ISD Designed Medical Specialist Training. (United States)

    Rock, Samuel K., Jr.; Chagalis, George P.

    The Basic Medical Specialist course has one of the largest enrollments of the U.S. Army's Academy of Health Sciences; 11,000 soldiers were trained in this course in 1977 and 1978. Training encompasses both emergency first aid (for field medics) and basic nursing skills. A task force working to improve Army training developed this course, in…

  7. Smart and intelligent sensor payload project (United States)


    Engineers working on the smart and intelligent sensor payload project include (l to r): Ed Conley (NASA), Mark Mitchell (Jacobs Technology), Luke Richards (NASA), Robert Drackett (Jacobs Technology), Mark Turowski (Jacobs Technology) , Richard Franzl (seated, Jacobs Technology), Greg McVay (Jacobs Technology), Brianne Guillot (Jacobs Technology), Jon Morris (Jacobs Technology), Stephen Rawls (NASA), John Schmalzel (NASA) and Andrew Bracey (NASA).

  8. Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads (United States)

    Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac


    In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...

  9. Tests for digital classification of orbital and suborbital images in multitemporal examination of recent PCH - Sao Simao, Alegre, ES; Ensaios de classificacao digital de imagens orbital e suborbital na analise multitemporal da recente barragem PCH - Sao Simao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Aldeir de O.; Silva, Kmila G. da; Andrade, Monique B.; Areas, Mario L.; Santos, Alexander R. dos [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCA/UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Ferrari, Jeferson L. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil)], E-mail:


    PCH - Sao Simao is a brand new development, located in Alegre - ES, aiming to produce 27 MW of electricity by damming the Rio Itapemirim left arm. The area has a range of thematic classes related to changes both in the aquatic environment and in the adjacent land. The aim of this paper is to present results of tests carried out in Spring, for defining the best parameters resulting from the supervised classification methods, Maxver and Euclidean Distance on two high-resolution images, a suborbital (Ortofoto/2007) and other characteristics (Geoeye/2009) that portray, respectively, the moments leading up to and what happened to that building. It contains six thematic categories: watercourse; Exposed land, pasture, forest fragmentation; material rocky and unpaved roads. The results showed that the classifier that performed better was the Maxver, with average performance and confusion average respectively 85.45% and 15.55% f or the image suborbital (Ortofoto/2007) and 85.13% and 14.87% for the orbital image (Geoeye/2009). Moreover, he realized the importance of applying the technique of linear filtering low-pass 7 x 7, raising the average performance of 67.09% and 84.45% stop reducing confusion average of 32.91% to 15.55%. (author)

  10. Space Shuttle payload handling on the launch pad (United States)

    Rado, A.


    A payload change-out room developed to provide a controlled environment and the structural platform for a payload ground handling mechanism (PGHM), which performs the actual installation or removal of the payload is described. Design efforts to develop a PGHM compatible with the free-standing launch vehicle and the payload change-out room housing are discussed. Requirements of the PGHM considered include compensation for structural deflections resulting from wind forces and the transfer of the payload weight and protection for the payload, the orbiter, and the PGHM itself against damaging impacts that could occur during such deflections.

  11. Fluvial response to sub-orbital scale environmental changes in southern French Alps (United States)

    Bonneau, Lucile; Jorry, Stephan; Toucanne, Samuel; Emmanuel, Laurent


    Linkage between landscape processes and deep sea deposits is assumed by rivers transfer. Despite all the efforts of the Source-to-Sink community during the last decade, very few studies permit to link marine sedimentary records with phenomena occurring onland. The Var sedimentary system is a spatial restricted sediment routing system with a very narrow continental shelf and steep slope. This particularity makes the Var an ideal target for studying sediment transfers under glacial climate. Late Quaternary sea level changes didn't modified the size of drainage area and during both highstand and lowstand, the deep submarine fan (Var Sedimentary Ridge) was continuously feed by a single channel directly connected to Var river mouth. Located at the border between Mediterranean and alpine domains, the Var River watershed is characterized by steep slope and rare sediment dams. Several studies during the last 20 years had shown that for centennial to daily scale, turbidity flows are related to Var river floods. Based on the analysis of stable oxygen isotopes and radiocarbon dates we established the first high resolution stratigraphy of 20 meters long turbidite deposits on the Var Sedimentary Ridge. This record covers the last 75 ka of the Var turbiditic activity which directly reflects the hydrological and sediment discharge of the onshore fluvial system. The turbidite frequencies show a multiscale variability : (1) the higher frequency corresponds to Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations and Heinrich events, and (2) the lower frequency characterizes the amplitude of suborbital-scale variability which seems to be modulated by long term orbital parameters variations. The same pattern is reported for vegetation history of European Mediterranean border. This is consistent with our results which suggest that soil stabilization by vegetation cover plays an important role in the modulation of sediment transfers. Under stadials and Heinrich cold and dry climate, the scarce vegetation

  12. Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space (United States)

    Badders, Brian David

    High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The

  13. Growing Minority Student Interest in Earth and Space Science with Suborbital and Space-related Investigations (United States)

    Austin, S. A.


    This presentation describes the transformative impact of student involvement in suborbital and Cubesat investigations under the MECSAT program umbrella at Medgar Evers College (MEC). The programs evolved from MUSPIN, a NASA program serving minority institutions. The MUSPIN program supported student internships for the MESSENGER and New Horizons missions at the Applied Physics Lab at John Hopkins University. The success of this program motivated the formation of smaller-scale programs at MEC to engage a wider group of minority students using an institutional context. The programs include an student-instrument BalloonSAT project, ozone investigations using sounding vehicles and a recently initiated Cubesat program involving other colleges in the City University of New York (CUNY). The science objectives range from investigations of atmospheric profiles, e.g. temperature, humidity, pressure, and CO2 to ozone profiles in rural and urban areas including comparisons with Aura instrument retrievals to ionospheric scintillation experiments for the Cubesat project. Through workshops and faculty collaborations, the evolving programs have mushroomed to include the development of parallel programs with faculty and students at other minority institutions both within and external to CUNY. The interdisciplinary context of these programs has stimulated student interest in Earth and Space Science and includes the use of best practices in retention and pipelining of underrepresented minority students in STEM disciplines. Through curriculum integration initiatives, secondary impacts are also observed supported by student blogs, social networking sites, etc.. The program continues to evolve including related student internships at Goddard Space Flight Center and the development of a CUNY-wide interdisciplinary team of faculty targeting research opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students in Atmospheric Science, Space Weather, Remote Sensing and Astrobiology primarily for

  14. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.


    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  15. Heart specialists' art of care. (United States)

    Speight, J D; Blixt, S L


    Primary care physicians who encourage patients to interact in the medical interview receive high ratings of patient satisfaction with art of care. To determine if this finding holds true in specialty medicine, we designed a two-factor [art of care (high/low); heart specialty (cardiology/cardiovascular surgery)] four-group analogue study. Videotapes for each of the four conditions depicted the first interview between (actor) patient with coronary artery disease and (actor) specialist. The high art of care physicians elicited the patient's story in his own words and encouraged questions and feedback during the interview; the low art of care physicians did not encourage patient interaction. The cardiologists discussed medical treatment and the cardiovascular surgeons discussed surgical treatment. A pilot study of the instrument we developed indicated that the Art of Care Scale, Technical Quality of Care Scale, and Willingness to be Treated Scale demonstrated high internal consistency and that the Art of Care Scale and the Technical Quality of Care Scale defined two dimensions. In the final study, 124 graduate students in education in a midwestern United States university each viewed one videotape and used the instrument to evaluate the physician. Subjects rated the specialists who encouraged patients to interact higher on the Art of Care Scale than specialists who did not encourage interaction. Art of Care Scale Scores predicted subjects' willingness to be treated by the physician they viewed on the videotape. No significant differences in ratings of Art of Care could be attributed to specialty.

  16. Specialist training in pediatric anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom G


    There has been a great deal of focus on specialist training in pediatric anesthesia in the last decade or so. Internationally, however, there is still no uniform agreement as to how such a training program should be arranged and organized. Since September 2003, the Scandinavian Society of Anaesth......There has been a great deal of focus on specialist training in pediatric anesthesia in the last decade or so. Internationally, however, there is still no uniform agreement as to how such a training program should be arranged and organized. Since September 2003, the Scandinavian Society...... of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine has coordinated an advanced Inter-Nordic educational program in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care. The training program is managed by a Steering Committee. This program is intended for physicians who recently have received their specialist degree in anesthesiology...... and intensive care. The training period is 12 months of which 9 months are dedicated to pediatric anesthesia and 3 months to pediatric intensive care. During the 1-year training period, the candidates are designated a Scandinavian host clinic (at a tertiary pediatric center in Scandinavia approved...

  17. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop/design an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, and separation module for secondary ESPA payloads. The standardized secondary payload...

  18. Use of Model Payload for Europa Mission Development (United States)

    Lewis, Kari; Klaasan, Ken; Susca, Sara; Oaida, Bogdan; Larson, Melora; Vanelli, Tony; Murray, Alex; Jones, Laura; Thomas, Valerie; Frank, Larry


    This paper discusses the basis for the Model Payload and how it was used to develop the mission design, observation and data acquisition strategy, needed spacecraft capabilities, spacecraft-payload interface needs, mission system requirements and operational scenarios.

  19. CALIPSO Mission Status Update: Payload Status (United States)

    Verhappen, Ron; Borchardt, Robert; MacDonnell, David; Cisewski, Mike


    The CALIPSO mission payload status update is presented. The contents include: 1) Wide Field Camera Overview; 2) WFC Temperatures; 3) WFC Voltages; 4) Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) Health; 5) IIR Voltages; 6) Payload Control (PLC) Voltages; 7) PLC Temperatures; 8) Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) (CALOPS0025N); 9) PLC Radiation Effects; 10) SDS Status (CALOPS0020N); 11) CALIOP LIDAR; 12) Laser Energy Trends; 13) Laser Energy Zoom; 14) Laser Management Approach; 15) Green / Red Ratio; 16) Pedestal @ SHG Temperature Trends; 17) LOM Heater Duty Cycle Trends; 18) LOM Pressure Trends; 19) Boresight Trend; 20) 1064 Dark Noise Trend; 21) 532 SNR Trend; 22) Spike Trends; 23) LIDAR Highlights; 24) Backup Laser Status; and 25) Future Plans.

  20. Shuttle payload minimum cost vibroacoustic tests (United States)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Young, J. P.; Keegan, W. B.


    This paper is directed toward the development of the methodology needed to evaluate cost effective vibroacoustic test plans for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. Statistical decision theory is used to quantitatively evaluate seven alternate test plans by deriving optimum test levels and the expected cost for each multiple mission payload considered. The results indicate that minimum costs can vary by as much as $6 million for the various test plans. The lowest cost approach eliminates component testing and maintains flight vibration reliability by performing subassembly tests at a relatively high acoustic level. Test plans using system testing or combinations of component and assembly level testing are attractive alternatives. Component testing alone is shown not to be cost effective.

  1. Columbus payload requirements in human physiology (United States)

    Stegemann, Juergen


    Most of the biological feedback loops in the human body are interrelated. This means that several different parameters have to be recorded simultaneously to understand the interrelationship of different subsystems within the body when fast and slow adaptation processes are to be studied. This determines the requirements for the payload in the Columbus module. In 1988 ESA asked some European scientists in different fields of physiology to provide a 'science study' for the Columbus payload requirements. Their report was the basis of a phase A study completed in December 1991, concerning the 'ANTHROLAB', a laboratory that covers all presently known research challenges in this area. Anthrolab is more or less an improvement of the Anthrorack to be flown on the German Spacelab mission D-2 and on the Columbus precursor flight E-1. Beside the present Anthrorack design, Anthrolab will also provide subelements for vestibular, neurophysiological, and biomechanical research.

  2. TRUPACT-II residue pipe payload container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, R. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States); Gregory, P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.


    This paper summarizes the project to develop, test and certify a new payload container for the TRUPACT-II, a Type B packaging for the shipment of transuranic waste. The new payload container will provide segregation of plutonium waste materials within the TRUPACT-II. This segregation of fissile contents will support a new criticality safety analysis that may allow an increase in the TRUPACT-II Pu-239 Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) limit from 325 grams to 2800 grams. The need for this project was brought about by the end of the Cold War and the resulting shift in value of plutonium residues from providing recoverable Defense Program material to being considered disposable waste. This paper will not cover many of the details of the project but will instead aim to provide a general picture of all the project activities.

  3. The Science Payload of the LOFT Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, Marco; den Herder, J.; van der Klis, M.

    The scientific payload onboard the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing mission (LOFT, see presentation by P. Ray et al. at this meeting) is composed of two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area in the primary energy range 2-30 keV, 1-deg collimated field of view) and the ......The scientific payload onboard the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing mission (LOFT, see presentation by P. Ray et al. at this meeting) is composed of two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area in the primary energy range 2-30 keV, 1-deg collimated field of view...

  4. What Is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? (United States)

    ... induced asthma Concussions Nutrition and supplement issues Diabetes Eating disorders Stress fractures Heat illness Unique conditions of the athlete with special needs Where Can I Find A Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? Pediatric sports medicine specialists practice in ...

  5. What Is an Adolescent Health Specialist? (United States)

    ... behavioral, and emotional health care needs—from physical exams and immunizations to reproductive and mental health care. What Type of Training Do Adolescent Health Specialists Have? Adolescent health specialists are medical doctors who have completed at least 4 years ...

  6. Making Hospitals Less Traumatic. Child Life Specialists. (United States)

    Jessee, Peggy O.


    Discusses the importance of child life specialists and programs in helping children cope with the stress and anxiety of hospital experiences. These specialists and programs promote children's growth and development both in the hospital and after returning home. (BB)

  7. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications (United States)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.


    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  8. Invisible Roles of Doctoral Program Specialists (United States)

    Bachman, Eva Burns; Grady, Marilyn L.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of doctoral program specialists in Big Ten universities. Face-to-face interviews with 20 doctoral program specialists employed in institutions in the Big Ten were conducted. Participants were asked to describe their roles within their work place. The doctoral program specialists reported their…

  9. PIMS-Universal Payload Information Management (United States)

    Elmore, Ralph; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)


    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads and experiments, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center had a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and management of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to provide collaborative access to remote experimenters and International Partners. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground based electronic document configuration management and workflow system that was built to service that need. Functionally, PIMS provides the following document management related capabilities: 1. File access control, storage and retrieval from a central repository vault. 2. Collect supplemental data about files in the vault. 3. File exchange with a PMS GUI client, or any FTP connection. 4. Files placement into an FTP accessible dropbox for pickup by interfacing facilities, included files transmitted for spacecraft uplink. 5. Transmission of email messages to users notifying them of new version availability. 6. Polling of intermediate facility dropboxes for files that will automatically be processed by PIMS. 7. Provide an API that allows other POIC applications to access PIMS information. Functionally, PIMS provides the following Change Request processing capabilities: 1. Ability to create, view, manipulate, and query information about Operations Change Requests (OCRs). 2. Provides an adaptable workflow approval of OCRs with routing through developers, facility leads, POIC leads, reviewers, and implementers. Email messages can be sent to users either involving them in the workflow process or simply notifying them of OCR approval progress. All PIMS document management and OCR workflow controls are

  10. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.


    This is Volume 1 (Executive Summary) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  11. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 3: Addendum (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.


    This is Volume 3 (Addendum) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study Program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  12. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 2: Technical report (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.


    This is Volume 2 (Technical Report) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  13. An advanced material science payload for GAS (United States)

    Joensson, R.; Wallin, S.; Loeth, K.


    The aim of the experiment is to study solidification of different compositions of lead-tin. The weight of the material is quite high: 8 kilograms. Nearly 10% of the payload is sample weight. The dendritic growth and the effect of the absence of natural convection are of particular interest. The results from the flight processed samples will be compared with results from Earth processed samples in order to investigate the influence of the natural convection on the solidification process. The power systems, heat storage and rejection, and mechanical support are discussed in relationship to the scientific requirements.

  14. Automated payload experiment tool feasibility study (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Clark, James; Delugach, Harry; Hammons, Charles; Logan, Julie; Provancha, Anna


    To achieve an environment less dependent on the flow of paper, automated techniques of data storage and retrieval must be utilized. The prototype under development seeks to demonstrate the ability of a knowledge-based, hypertext computer system. This prototype is concerned with the logical links between two primary NASA support documents, the Science Requirements Document (SRD) and the Engineering Requirements Document (ERD). Once developed, the final system should have the ability to guide a principal investigator through the documentation process in a more timely and efficient manner, while supplying more accurate information to the NASA payload developer.

  15. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S


    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  16. COBALT: Development of a Platform to Flight Test Lander GN&C Technologies on Suborbital Rockets (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Seubert, Carl R.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Bergh, Chuck; Kourchians, Ara; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Villapando, Carlos Y.; O'Neal, Travis V.; Robertson, Edward A.; Pierrottet, Diego; hide


    The NASA COBALT Project (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) is developing and integrating new precision-landing Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) technologies, along with developing a terrestrial fight-test platform for Technology Readiness Level (TRL) maturation. The current technologies include a third- generation Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) sensor for ultra-precise velocity and line- of-site (LOS) range measurements, and the Lander Vision System (LVS) that provides passive-optical Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) estimates of map-relative position. The COBALT platform is self contained and includes the NDL and LVS sensors, blending filter, a custom compute element, power unit, and communication system. The platform incorporates a structural frame that has been designed to integrate with the payload frame onboard the new Masten Xodiac vertical take-o, vertical landing (VTVL) terrestrial rocket vehicle. Ground integration and testing is underway, and terrestrial fight testing onboard Xodiac is planned for 2017 with two flight campaigns: one open-loop and one closed-loop.

  17. Trans Atlantic Infrasound Payload (TAIP) Operation Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lees, Jonathan M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Carolina Infrasound package, added as a piggyback to the 2016 ULDB ight, recorded unique acoustic signals such as the ocean microbarom and a large meteor. These data both yielded unique insights into the acoustic energy transfer from the lower to the upper atmosphere as well as highlighted the vast array of signals whose origins remain unknown. Now, the opportunity to y a payload across the north Atlantic offers an opportunity to sample one of the most active ocean microbarom sources on Earth. Improvements in payload capabilities should result in characterization of the higher frequency range of the stratospheric infrasound spectrum as well. Finally, numerous large mining and munitions disposal explosions in the region may provide \\ground truth" events for assessing the detection capability of infrasound microphones in the stratosphere. The flight will include three different types of infrasound sensors. One type is a pair of polarity reversed InfraBSU microphones (standard for high altitude flights since 2016), another is a highly sensitive Chaparral 60 modified for a very low corner period, and the final sensor is a lightweight, low power Gem infrasound package. By evaluating these configurations against each other on the same flight, we will be able to optimize future campaigns with different sensitivity and mass constraints.

  18. [The fiscal position of medical specialists]. (United States)

    Stevens, S; Moors, M


    Independent medical specialists in the Netherlands are treated as entrepreneurs for tax purposes and therefore enjoy tax benefits. A change in the legal relationship between medical specialists and hospitals is foreseen in 2015. Independent medical specialists will then no longer be considered to be entrepreneurs. This could negatively affect their tax position. The Dutch government has adopted a policy aimed at controlling expenses arising from medical specialists' fees. According to this policy, the formation of regional practices or mega-practices of specialists will be discouraged. In contrast, the current fiscal legislation encourages medical specialists to incorporate their practice into regional practices or mega-practices or to become shareholders of their hospitals. It has been proposed that fiscal benefits be linked to certain aspects of entrepreneurship, such as investing in medical equipment or employing medical personnel.

  19. Ensuring Payload Safety in Missions with Special Partnerships (United States)

    Staubus, Calvert A.; Willenbring, Rachel C.; Blankenship, Michael D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) payload space flight missions involve cooperative work between NASA and partners including spacecraft (or payload) contractors, universities, nonprofit research centers, Agency payload organization, Range Safety organization, Agency launch service organizations, and launch vehicle contractors. The role of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Directorate is typically fairly straightforward, but when a mission's partnerships become more complex, to realize cost and science benefits (e.g., multi-agency payload(s) or cooperative international missions), the task of ensuring payload safety becomes much more challenging. This paper discusses lessons learned from NASA safety professionals working multiple-agency missions and offers suggestions to help fellow safety professionals working multiple-agency missions.

  20. The specialist nurse: a classification system. (United States)

    Whyte, S


    This paper focuses on the important developments of specialty nursing practice within Australia and reports the results of a recent survey of specialist nurses in Victoria. Debate among the worldwide nursing community reflects confusion and ambiguity about specialist practice. Similarly, variation, duplication and inconsistency characterise the status of specialist nurse education in Australia. This situation contributes to role problems for specialist nurses and may arise from their lack of contribution to the decision making process. Seventy-five nurses undertaking a range of specialist nursing courses offered by three educational providers (a university, major teaching hospital and professional organisation) completed a survey questionnaire to establish the extent to which they agreed with the major recommendations proposed in the National Review of Specialist Nurse Education (Specialist Review) (Russell et al 1997). Despite contention within the profession, specialist nurses in Victoria show support for a unified approach toward definition, title and credentials. The discussion specifically addresses the implications for the future classification of specialist nurses in Australia.

  1. NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process (United States)

    Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom


    Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

  2. A Human Factors Framework for Payload Display Design (United States)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.


    During missions to space, one charge of the astronaut crew is to conduct research experiments. These experiments, referred to as payloads, typically are controlled by computers. Crewmembers interact with payload computers by using visual interfaces or displays. To enhance the safety, productivity, and efficiency of crewmember interaction with payload displays, particular attention must be paid to the usability of these displays. Enhancing display usability requires adoption of a design process that incorporates human factors engineering principles at each stage. This paper presents a proposed framework for incorporating human factors engineering principles into the payload display design process.

  3. Mission-Aware Payloads for Unmanned Platforms Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sentix and Brigham Young University propose the research and development of embedded payload intelligence for inflight optimization of surveillance, reconnaissance,...

  4. Cryogenic performance of the space infrared optical payload (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Tan, Fanjiao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Mingdong; Wang, Haipeng


    A model as well as the methodology is proposed to analyze the cryogenic performance of space infrared optical payload. And the model is established from two aspects: imaging quality and background radiation. On the basis of finite element analysis, the deformation of optical surface in cryogenic environment is characterized by Zernike polynomials, and then, the varying pattern of MTF of space cryogenic optical payload could be concluded accordingly. Then from the theory of thermal radiative transfer, the temperature distribution and the deformation of the optical payload under the action of inertial load and thermal load are analyzed based on the finite element method, and the spontaneous radiation and scattering properties of the optical surface and shielding factors between the opto-mechanical structure are considered to establish the radiation calculation model. Furthermore, the cryogenic radiation characteristics of the space infrared optical payload are obtained by the radiation calculation model. Finally, experiments are conducted using an actual off-axis TMA space infrared optical payload. And the results indicate that the background radiation of the space infrared optical payload is decreased by 79% while 33% for MTF at the thermal control temperature of 240K. In this circumstance, the system background radiation is effectively suppressed and the detection sensitivity of the optical payload is improved as well, while the imaging quality is acceptable. The model proposed in this paper can be applied to the analyzing cryogenic properties of space infrared optical payload, and providing theoretical guidance for the design and application of the space cryogenic optical payload.

  5. A highly integrated payload suite for Europa (United States)

    Bentley, M.; Kraft, S.; Steiger, R.; Varlet, F.; Voigt, D.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

    The four Galilean moons have always held a public and scientific fascination due to their diverse and dynamic nature. Amongst the moons, Europa holds a special place for its potential liquid water ocean, beneath its icy crust. This prospect of water places Europa on a par with Mars in terms of its viability for harbouring life. The first hints of Europa's icy surface came from early telescopic observations, which noted an unusually high albedo. Ground based spectroscopy then demonstrated absorption features of relatively pure water ice. Imagery from Pioneer, Voyager, and more recently Galileo confirm this, with the kilometre scale resolution of Galileo showing what appear to be ice flows. The lack of cratering, pointing to a geologically recent surface, furthermore suggests that liquid water could well exist today. The Galileo Europa Mission (GEM) provided much more extensive data during its 8 close orbits, including limited areas of extremely high resolution imaging (6 m), and radio science that confirmed the differentiated nature of Europa. However, many fundamental questions remain that can best be answered by a dedicated orbiter. For example: - Does a liquid water ocean exist? What it its extent vertically and laterally? - What is the composition of the crust? - What are the geological processes operating? The importance of these most basic questions have inspired mission proposals from all of the major space agencies. In Europe, ESA have performed a study into a mission called the "Jupiter Minisat Explorer" in order to identify the key technologies that would have to be developed [1]. The key technological challenges are caused by the harsh Jovian radiation environment, the lack of solar energy available and the thermal problems of such a cold environment. Last, but not least, a payload must be designed that satisfies these requirements and is both low power and low mass. All of these factors dictate the use of a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS). Such a

  6. 200 kg space payload recovery system (United States)

    Doherr, Karl-Friedrich; Norrvi, Olle; Pepper, William B.

    For the recovery of a 200 kg space payload from 800 km altitude a parachute system with minimal weight was to be designed. The allowed parachute mass (without parachute canister) was 7 kg, the maximum impact velocity 8 m/s. This required the partial use of Kevlar as a high strength/low weight material. Also, two parachute systems were considered: (1) a conventional system consisting of a conical ribbon drogue chute and a very light cross main chute; and (2) an alternative system consisting of rotating parachutes with high drag coefficient. In a next step flight tests are planned with a rotating parachute as the drogue and a cross canopy as the main parachute.

  7. Digital payloads - Enhanced performance through signal processing (United States)

    Bjornstrom, G.

    A transparent signal-processing payload architecture applicable to mobile communication satellites is introduced, and its features and implementation issues are discussed. In its basic form it is characterized by the formation of a large number of narrowband beams directed at the individual users on ground, and is demonstrated to offer improved transmit power efficiency, frequency-reuse capability and traffic-routing flexibility. The processor implementation is envisaged to make extensive use of digital processing functions and ASIC technology combined with advanced SAW techniques. In addition to its inherent attractive features, this architecture provides many of the benefits of full onboard regeneration and processing while preserving most of the flexibility of conventional analog transponders. Simplified derivatives of the basic configuration that offer reduced processing complexity while preserving the essential advantages gained are also presented. Although initially conceived for FDMA/SCPC-type traffic, the concept can also be adapted to other transmission formats.

  8. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management (United States)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  9. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)


    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  10. The Uniqueness of Planktonic Ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea: The Response to Orbital- and Suborbital-Climatic Forcing over the Last 130,000 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incarbona Alessandro


    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is an ideal location to test the response of organisms to hydrological transformations driven by climate change. Here we review studies carried out on planktonic foraminifera and coccolithophores during the late Quaternary and attempt the comparison of data scattered in time and space. We highlight the prompt response of surface water ecosystems to both orbital- and suborbital-climatic variations.

  11. contribution of specialists in the sadf sjampanjeglas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performing their national service, it is essential to bear in mind that the whole motivation for the employment of such personnel in their specialist directions is to increase the efficiency of the. SADF in the execution of its role in defence of the nation. Specialists must therefore receive such military training and exposure as to ...

  12. Urban revival in the polish specialist literature


    Rogatka, Krzysztof


    The aim of this article is to review and assess the Polish specialist literature on urban revival, i.e. all the actions undertaken to revitalise and restructure urban areas. The discussion of this issue was based on classification of the specialist literature on urban revival into four thematic groups: socio-demographic, spatial-functional, economic and cultural.

  13. Today's School Library Media Specialist Leader (United States)

    Dees, Dianne C.; Alexander, Kristi; Besara, Rachel; Cambisios, Robb; Kent, Teresa; Delgado, Jodie Player


    Whether it is high school, middle school, or elementary school, the library media specialist hits the ground running each day. For many, their background is the classroom, and, as media specialists, they have taken on the largest classroom in the school. Leadership is the ability to influence or inspire others to achieve shared goals. The media…

  14. Selection of shuttle payload data processing drivers for the data system new technology study (United States)


    An investigation of all payloads in the IBM disciplines and the selection of driver payloads within each discipline are described. The driver payloads were selected on the basis of their data processing requirements. These requirements are measured by a weighting scheme. The total requirements for each discipline are estimated by use of the technology payload model. The driver selection process which was both a payload by payload comparison and a comparison of expected groupings of payloads was examined.

  15. View of payloads in the STS-60 Discovery's payload bay while in orbit (United States)


    Photographic documentation of the major payloads of the Space Shuttle Discovery's STS-60 mission, backdropped against clouds over the Atlantic Ocean. In the foreground is the SPACEHAB module, with the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) partially visible in its berthed position near the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods and the vertical stabilizer. Television cameras on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) were being used for a survey of the cargo.

  16. Are Peer Specialists Happy on the Job? (United States)

    Jenkins, Sarah; Chenneville, Tiffany; Salnaitis, Christina


    This study was designed to examine the impact of role clarity and job training on job satisfaction among peer specialists. A 3-part survey assessing job training, job satisfaction, and role clarity was administered online to 195 peer specialists who are members of the International Association of Peer Specialists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analyses to include multiple linear regressions and analysis of variance. Self-study and online training methods were negatively correlated with job satisfaction while job shadowing was positively correlated with job satisfaction. Role clarity was positively correlated with job satisfaction and job training satisfaction as well as job shadowing and one-on-one training. The use of self-study and online training for peer specialists is contraindicated by current findings, which suggest the need to utilize job shadowing or training methods that allow for personal interaction between peer specialists and their colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Specialist gelator for ionic liquids. (United States)

    Hanabusa, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Shirai, Hirofusa


    Cyclo(l-beta-3,7-dimethyloctylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (1) and cyclo(L-beta-2-ethylhexylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2), prepared from L-asparaginyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, have been found to be specialist gelators for ionic liquids. They can gel a wide variety of ionic liquids, including imizazolium, pyridinium, pyrazolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and ammonium salts. The mean minimum gel concentrations (MGCs) necessary to make gels at 25 degrees C were determined for ionic liquids. The gel strength increased at a rate nearly proportional to the concentration of added gelator. The strength of the transparent gel of 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([C(4)py]BF(4)), prepared at a concentration of 60 g L(-1) (gelator 1/[C(4)py]BF(4)), was ca. 1500 g cm(-2). FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that a driving force for gelation was intermolecular hydrogen bonding between amides and that the phase transition from gel to liquid upon heating was brought about by the collapse of hydrogen bonding. The gels formed from ionic liquids were very thermally stable; no melting occurs up to 140 degrees C when the gels were prepared at a concentration of 70 g L(-1) (gelator/ionic liquid). The ionic conductivities of the gels were nearly the same as those of pure ionic liquids. The gelator had electrochemical stability and a wide electrochemical window. When the gels were prepared from ionic liquids containing propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivities of the resulting gels increased to levels rather higher than those of pure ionic liquids. The gelators also gelled ionic liquids containing supporting electrolytes.

  18. Expert systems applications for space shuttle payload integration automation (United States)

    Morris, Keith


    Expert systems technologies have been and are continuing to be applied to NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter payload integration problems to provide a level of automation previously unrealizable. NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter was designed to be extremely flexible in its ability to accommodate many different types and combinations of satellites and experiments (payloads) within its payload bay. This flexibility results in differnet and unique engineering resource requirements for each of its payloads, creating recurring payload and cargo integration problems. Expert systems provide a successful solution for these recurring problems. The Orbiter Payload Bay Cabling Expert (EXCABL) was the first expert system, developed to solve the electrical services provisioning problem. A second expert system, EXMATCH, was developed to generate a list of the reusable installation drawings available for each EXCABL solution. These successes have proved the applicability of expert systems technologies to payload integration problems and consequently a third expert system is currently in work. These three expert systems, the manner in which they resolve payload problems and how they will be integrated are described.

  19. 14 CFR 1214.810 - Integration of payloads. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Integration of payloads. 1214.810 Section 1214.810 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.810 Integration of payloads. (a) The customer shall bear the cost of performing the following typical Spacelab-payloa...

  20. Space vehicle with customizable payload and docking station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Seitz, Daniel


    A "black box" space vehicle solution may allow a payload developer to define the mission space and provide mission hardware within a predetermined volume and with predetermined connectivity. Components such as the power module, radios and boards, attitude determination and control system (ADCS), command and data handling (C&DH), etc. may all be provided as part of a "stock" (i.e., core) space vehicle. The payload provided by the payload developer may be plugged into the space vehicle payload section, tested, and launched without custom development of core space vehicle components by the payload developer. A docking station may facilitate convenient development and testing of the space vehicle while reducing handling thereof.

  1. Senior Program Specialist | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Working as a member of one or two multi-disciplinary teams under the guidance of the Program Leader (PL), Program Manager (PM) if applicable, and Director Program Area (DPA), the Senior Program Specialist:

  2. Agricultural Chemical Sourcebook for Wildlife Contaminants Specialists (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this handbook is to provide information to contaminant specialists involved in evaluating agricultural chemical impacts on wetlands. The handbook...

  3. Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists. (United States)

    Alpert, Andrew D.


    Discusses the changes in the work of probation officers and correctional treatment specialists. Includes information about job outlook, earnings, training requirements, and working conditions as well as sources of additional information. (JOW)

  4. Multiple Payload Ejector for Education, Science and Technology Experiments (United States)

    Lechworth, Gary


    The education research community no longer has a means of being manifested on Space Shuttle flights, and small orbital payload carriers must be flown as secondary payloads on ELV flights, as their launch schedule, secondary payload volume and mass permits. This has resulted in a backlog of small payloads, schedule and cost problems, and an inability for the small payloads community to achieve routine, low-cost access to orbit. This paper will discuss Goddard's Wallops Flight Facility funded effort to leverage its core competencies in small payloads, sounding rockets, balloons and range services to develop a low cost, multiple payload ejector (MPE) carrier for orbital experiments. The goal of the MPE is to provide a low-cost carrier intended primarily for educational flight research experiments. MPE can also be used by academia and industry for science, technology development and Exploration experiments. The MPE carrier will take advantage of the DARPAI NASA partnership to perform flight testing of DARPA s Falcon small, demonstration launch vehicle. The Falcon is similar to MPE fiom the standpoint of focusing on a low-cost, responsive system. Therefore, MPE and Falcon complement each other for the desired long-term goal of providing the small payloads community with a low-cost ride to orbit. The readiness dates of Falcon and MPE are complementary, also. MPE is being developed and readied for flight within 18 months by a small design team. Currently, MPE is preparing for Critical Design Review in fall 2005, payloads are being manifested on the first mission, and the carrier will be ready for flight on the first Falcon demonstration flight in summer, 2006. The MPE and attached experiments can weigh up to 900 lb. to be compatible with Falcon demonstration vehicle lift capabilities fiom Wallops, and will be delivered to the Falcon demonstration orbit - 100 nautical mile circular altitude.

  5. The clinical nurse specialist as brief psychotherapist. (United States)

    Shires, B; Tappan, T


    As managed care continues to flourish, the psychiatric clinical nurse specialist may function as a case manager for a managed care company or as a utilization review nurse for a hospital, community provider, or administrator. Stressing the strengths of the psychiatric clinical nurse specialist as brief therapist, the author reviews elements of the brief treatment model, including assessment, focus of treatment, knowledge of community resources, patient education, group skills, crisis intervention, and treatment planning.

  6. Integrated system for training of aviation specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stankunas


    Full Text Available Co-operation between university and industrial potential is one of the most effective ways of organizing expensive studies in a small country. Co-operation between civil universities and military schools and structures is expedient in preparing reserve military specialist. An integrated system for the preparation of the specialists of civil and military aviation is precondition for the development of integrated management system of aviation and air space

  7. STS safety approval process for small self-contained payloads (United States)

    Gum, Mary A.


    The safety approval process established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Get Away Special (GAS) payloads is described. Although the designing organization is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of its payload, the Get Away Special team at the Goddard Space Flight Center will act as advisors while iterative safety analyses are performed and the Safety Data Package inputs are submitted. This four phase communications process will ultimately give NASA confidence that the GAS payload is safe, and successful completion of the Phase 3 package and review will clear the way for flight aboard the Space Transportation System orbiter.

  8. Application of photonics in next generation telecommunication satellites payloads (United States)

    Anzalchi, J.; Inigo, P.; Roy, B.


    Next generation broadband telecommunication satellites are required to provide very high data throughput using complex multibeam architectures. These high throughput `Terabit/s' Satellites will incorporate payloads with very large quantity of conventional RF equipment, co-axial cables, waveguides, harnesses and ancillary equipment, making the Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT) very complex. Use of `RF over Fiber' and associated photonics equipment can make the process of AIT much simpler with the added benefit of significant reduction in number of payload equipment and inherent payload mass.

  9. Retaining Device for the Interior Structure of a Spacecraft Payload (United States)

    Fleming. Orville N., Jr.


    A device denoted as a bumper assembly for a spacecraft payload container comprises an interior structure surrounded by skin or some other protective enclosure (see figure). When arranged with three or more like assemblies, this bumper assembly is designed to secure the interior structure within a payload s protective enclosure during the stresses endured in flight and, if required, recovery of the payload. Furthermore, proper use of this innovation facilitates the ability of designers and engineers to maximize the total placement area for components, thus increasing utilization of very valuable and limited space.

  10. Development status and prospect of rehabilitation clinical nurse specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ping WANG


    Full Text Available Through access to a lot of relevant information on the role of the rehabilitation nurse specialist functions, explore how rehabilitation specialist nurse qualifications provides a basis for our rehabilitation specialist nurse cultivating and development.

  11. Bringing the Ocean into Finer Focus through the NASA COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA Suborbital Missions (United States)

    Palacios, S. L.; Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.


    High-quality ocean color measurements are needed to characterize water quality and phytoplankton functional types in the coastal zone. Accurate ocean color retrievals are often confounded by inadequacies in atmospheric correction. The recent NASA COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA suborbital missions over Monterey Bay, CA have used novel instruments in a multi-sensor, multi-platform approach to collect above- and in-water measurements to better characterize ocean color through improvements in instrument dynamic range and attention to atmospheric correction. High-level objectives of these missions are to characterize the coastal ocean through end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, and sea-truth observations to improve vicarious calibration and validation of satellite ocean color products. We present results from COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA to demonstrate the importance of coincident atmospheric and sea-truth measurements to improve atmospheric correction. Our specific objective was to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the atmospheric correction algorithm, Tafkaa, on Headwall Imaging Spectrometer data using input parameters of atmospheric aerosol optical depth spectra and column water vapor obtained from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) collected on the CIRPAS Twin Otter during COAST (2011). Use of the high dynamic-range, in-water Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS) and above-water Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) with matched wavelength channels enabled accurate observations of exact water-leaving radiance to use in validating imagery. Results from HyspIRI and OCEANIA (October 2013) flown on the NASA ER-2 and CIRPAS Twin Otter will be presented. Knowledge gained from these missions will improve vicarious calibration and validation of legacy (MODIS) and future (PACE & GEO-CAPE) satellite sensors to better characterize coastal ecosystems using ocean color observations.

  12. 76 FR 52694 - National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles (United States)


    ... associated with NASA routine payloads could not be accomplished without launching orbital and interplanetary... range of payload masses, would provide the needed trajectory capabilities, and would provide highly...

  13. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Payload (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike


    This presentation outlines a brief description of the Living With a Star (LWS) Program missions and detailed information about the Space Environment Testbed (SET) payload consisting of a space weather monitor and carrier containing 4 board experiments.

  14. Rockwell International art concept view on proposed Shuttle payloads (United States)


    Rockwell International art concept view on proposed Shuttle payloads. View is of the Solar Max Mission. The shuttle is in orbit with the remote manipulator system (RMS) grappling the satellite into place.

  15. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, (ProPACS) system for micro-spacecraft deployed from the ESPA ring secondary payload ports. The...

  16. Low Cost Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Balloon Payload Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to...

  17. Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Flight Demonstrator Payload (PFDP) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PMWC Flight Demonstrator Payload is a trash dewatering and volume reduction system that uses heat melt compaction to remove nearly 100% of water from trash while...

  18. Standard payload computer for the international space station (United States)

    Knott, Karl; Taylor, Chris; Koenig, Horst; Schlosstein, Uwe


    This paper describes the development and application of a Standard PayLoad Computer (SPLC) which is being applied by the majority of ESA payloads accommodated on the International Space Station (ISS). The strategy of adopting of a standard computer leads to a radical rethink in the payload data handling procurement process. Traditionally, this has been based on a proprietary development with repeating costs for qualification, spares, expertise and maintenance for each new payload. Implementations have also tended to be unique with very little opportunity for reuse or utilisation of previous developments. While this may to some extent have been justified for short duration one-off missions, the availability of a standard, long term space infrastructure calls for a quite different approach. To support a large number of concurrent payloads, the ISS implementation relies heavily on standardisation, and this is particularly true in the area of payloads. Physical accommodation, data interfaces, protocols, component quality, operational requirements and maintenance including spares provisioning must all conform to a common set of standards. The data handling system and associated computer used by each payload must also comply with these common requirements, and thus it makes little sense to instigate multiple developments for the same task. The opportunity exists to provide a single computer suitable for all payloads, but with only a one-off development and qualification cost. If this is combined with the benefits of multiple procurement, centralised spares and maintenance, there is potential for great savings to be made by all those concerned in the payload development process. In response to the above drivers, the SPLC is based on the following concepts: • A one-off development and qualification process • A modular computer, configurable according to the payload developer's needs from a list of space-qualified items • An `open system' which may be added to by

  19. Implementing Ethernet Services on the Payload Executive Processor (PEP) (United States)

    Pruett, David; Guyette, Greg


    The Ethernet interface is more common and easier interface to implement for payload developers already familiar with Ethernet protocol in their labs. The Ethernet interface allows for a more distributed payload architecture. Connections can be placed in locations not serviced by the PEP 1553 bus. The Ethernet interface provides a new access port into the PEP so as to use the already existing services. Initial capability will include a subset of services with a plan to expand services later.

  20. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis (executive summary) (United States)


    The Integrated Operations/Payloads/Fleet Analysis predicts total national space program costs and launch vehicle traffic assuming either an expendable, a partially reusable or a fully reusable launch vehicle fleet. The payload system costs are estimated and reported for each payload program at the subsystem level, payload program level, user level and national level, providing complete system cost traceability. The analysis determines the primary changes to be expected for space payload programs and space operations in the space shuttle era. When the space shuttle becomes fully operational, not only will launch costs be reduced but refurbished satellite units will be flown instead of new units and maintenance will be performed on failing satellites. It is possible to implement the concepts of satellite refurbishment and maintenance because of the space shuttle's capability to retrieve and return payloads to the earth's surface. The two-way satellite transportation capability is extended to high energy orbits by use of the space shuttle/space tug combination.

  1. System Architecture of the BCU Payload on Tatiana-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Biau Jiang


    Full Text Available In conjunction with the international collaborative project of ESEMS (Experimental Scientific Education Micro Satellite whose goal is to develop an experimental scientific-education microsatellite with science payloads, a team consisting of professors and students from the National Central University (NCU has designed and fabricated a set of space flight instruments for space weather studies. The Block of Central University (BCU made payload has been flown successfully on board Tatiana-2. To our knowledge, the BCU payload is the very first successful satellite payload which has been developed from design and component selection to the completion of the flight module mainly by students and faculty on the NCU campus in Taiwan. This paper describes some details of the engineering effort in building the BCU payload, including sensing devices (ETP and MRM, data processing unit, and power supply. Samples of flight data acquired by BCU are also presented to show that all units of the BCU system and payload-spacecraft interfaces functioned well as expected. The flight data provides direct evidence that the NCU team is capable of developing spaceflight quality instruments for future satellite missions.

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit. (United States)

    El-Jaby, Samy; Richardson, Richard B


    Occupational exposures from ionizing radiation are currently regulated for airline travel (Earth orbit (∼300-400 km). Aircrew typically receive between 1 and 6 mSv of occupational dose annually, while aboard the International Space Station, the area radiation dose equivalent measured over just 168 days was 106 mSv at solar minimum conditions. It is anticipated that space tourism vehicles will reach suborbital altitudes of approximately 100 km and, therefore, the annual occupational dose to flight crew during repeated transits is expected to fall somewhere between those observed for aircrew and astronauts. Unfortunately, measurements of the radiation environment at the high altitudes reached by suborbital vehicles are sparse, and modelling efforts have been similarly limited. In this paper, preliminary MCNPX radiation transport code simulations are developed of the secondary neutron flux profile in air from surface altitudes up to low Earth orbit at solar minimum conditions and excluding the effects of spacecraft shielding. These secondary neutrons are produced by galactic cosmic radiation interacting with Earth's atmosphere and are among the sources of radiation that can pose a health risk. Associated estimates of the operational neutron ambient dose equivalent, used for radiation protection purposes, and the neutron effective dose equivalent that is typically used for estimates of stochastic health risks, are provided in air. Simulations show that the neutron radiation dose rates received at suborbital altitudes are comparable to those experienced by aircrew flying at 7 to 14 km. We also show that the total neutron dose rate tails off beyond the Pfotzer maximum on ascension from surface up to low Earth orbit. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CNES solution for a reusable payload ground segment (United States)

    Pradels, Grégory; Baroukh, Julien; Queyrut, Olivier; Sellé, Arnaud; Malapert, Jean-Christophe


    The MYRIADE program of the French Space Agency (CNES) has been developed for research institutes proposing pertinent scientific space experiments. It is composed of a satellite bus with independent and configurable functional chains able to onboard a scientific payload of 50 kg/60 W for at least a 3-year duration. The CNES is responsible for the launch and the development of the satellite bus and the satellite ground segment, while the research institute manages the development of the payload and the payload ground segment. This paper aims at discussing the means to enhance the development of a payload ground segment for small missions as MYRIADE. The needs of this kind of experimental missions are very specific and to try developing a reusable segment has been often considered inefficient. However the lessons learnt from the previous missions show the key role played by the payload ground segment in the success of the mission and also demonstrate that a payload ground segment of a small mission is more complex than expected. After a presentation of the MYRIADE program, the ground segments of the three first CNES missions are compared. This analysis first highlights that 15 full time equivalent in average are required to develop a payload ground segment. This result is not compliant with the resources of the research institutes which are mainly devoted to the development of the payload. The comparison emphasises invariants in the functional architecture and operational concept independently of the mission that allow to provide a tested frame adapted to small missions. The engineering processes are also compared and a solution is proposed to introduce flexibility and efficiency in the development. The approach, compliant with the functional architecture presented before, consists in using tools developed for previous missions and thereby to limit the new developments for the mission specific functions. This proposition is currently tested at CNES with the TARANIS

  4. Differences in quality standards when prescribing nutritional support: Differences between specialist and non-specialist physicians. (United States)

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Amado Señaris, José Antonio


    Adequate nutritional support includes many different aspects, but poor understanding of clinical nutrition by health care professionales often results in an inadequate prescription. A study was conducted to compare enteral and parenteral nutritional support plans prescribed by specialist and non-specialist physicians. Non-specialist physicians recorded anthropometric data from only 13.3% of patients, and none of them performed nutritional assessments. Protein amounts provided by non-specialist physicians were lower than estimated based on ESPEN (10.29g of nitrogen vs 14.62; P<.001). Differences were not statistically significant in the specialist group (14.88g of nitrogen; P=.072). Calorie and glutamine provision and laboratory controls prescribed by specialists were significantly closer to those recommended by clinical guidelines. Nutritional support prescribed by specialists in endocrinology and nutrition at San Pedro de Alcántara Hospital was closer to clinical practice guideline standards and of higher quality as compared to that prescribed by non-specialists. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonovich


    Full Text Available Complicated conditions, under which road enterprises of the Republic are forced to operate, put forward and reveal the necessity to innovative way of development. In order to fulfill this task it is necessary to have specialists who are capable and ready to realize this endeavour. The most acceptable variant is to train specialists who will be able to introduce innovations and who are presently involved in the production process. Such training should be carried out within the framework of post-graduate education. Authors have provide a number of reasons in favour of quick development of such education. 

  6. Signal transduction in primary human T lymphocytes in altered gravity - results of the MASER-12 suborbital space flight mission. (United States)

    Tauber, Svantje; Hauschild, Swantje; Crescio, Claudia; Secchi, Christian; Paulsen, Katrin; Pantaleo, Antonella; Saba, Angela; Buttron, Isabell; Thiel, Cora Sandra; Cogoli, Augusto; Pippia, Proto; Ullrich, Oliver


    We investigated the influence of altered gravity on key proteins of T cell activation during the MASER-12 ballistic suborbital rocket mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Swedish Space Cooperation (SSC) at ESRANGE Space Center (Kiruna, Sweden). We quantified components of the T cell receptor, the membrane proximal signaling, MAPK-signaling, IL-2R, histone modifications and the cytoskeleton in non-activated and in ConA/CD28-activated primary human T lymphocytes. The hypergravity phase during the launch resulted in a downregulation of the IL-2 and CD3 receptor and reduction of tyrosine phosphorylation, p44/42-MAPK phosphorylation and histone H3 acetylation, whereas LAT phosphorylation was increased. Compared to the baseline situation at the point of entry into the microgravity phase, CD3 and IL-2 receptor expression at the surface of non-activated T cells were reduced after 6 min microgravity. Importantly, p44/42-MAPK-phosphorylation was also reduced after 6 min microgravity compared to the 1g ground controls, but also in direct comparison between the in-flight μg and the 1g group. In activated T cells, the reduced CD3 and IL-2 receptor expression at the baseline situation recovered significantly during in-flight 1g conditions, but not during microgravity conditions. Beta-tubulin increased significantly after onset of microgravity until the end of the microgravity phase, but not in the in-flight 1g condition. This study suggests that key proteins of T cell signal modules are not severely disturbed in microgravity. Instead, it can be supposed that the strong T cell inhibiting signal occurs downstream from membrane proximal signaling, such as at the transcriptional level as described recently. However, the MASER-12 experiment could identify signal molecules, which are sensitive to altered gravity, and indicates that gravity is obviously not only a requirement for transcriptional processes as described before, but also for specific phosphorylation

  7. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece) (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.


    ), assuming that the lignite phase is associated with maximum temperature and humidity. The reason to apply the tuning was primarily to obtain a better temporal control on the cyclicity documented in the suborbital frequency band. These higher-frequency variations provide a significant contribution and visually resemble those that have been documented for the Greenland Ice Sheet during the last glacial cycle. Future goals of our work include the establishment of possible teleconnections to other parts of the global climate system. We would like to evaluate (i) how the aridification of the Messinian salinity crisis affected the Upper Miocene limnic record, (ii) why the lignite production was enhanced during the warm Lower Pliocene and how the link to the warm global climate might have been created, and (iii) whether the massive northern hemisphere glaciation during the Upper Pliocene might have contributed to the termination of lignite formation in the Ptolemais Basin.

  8. Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist (AFSC 32551). (United States)

    Miller, Lawrence B.; Crowcroft, Robert A.

    This six-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for avionics instrument systems specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are career field familiarization (career field progression and training, security, occupational safety and health, and career field reference material);…

  9. Specialist Teams Needed to Support Youth. (United States)

    Mellin, Laurel M.


    Presents seven reasons why it is important for health specialist teams to take action supporting the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The article offers guidelines to help parents assist their children in maintaining positive eating, exercise, and self-esteem patterns, noting sensitive intervention is preferable to imposed diets. (SM)

  10. Librarians/Media Specialists: Unsung Superheroes (United States)

    Burgess, Jan


    School librarians can be an important resource for school administrators, provided that the right relationship is in place between them. In this article, the author reports on the critical points emphasized with librarians/media specialists in a recent panel presentation on their changing roles: (1) the importance of building ongoing relationships…

  11. Ethics and the Library Media Specialist (United States)

    Baxter, Veanna


    It is common belief that most people can distinguish between right and wrong actions and usually make decisions to do the right thing. As educators, library media specialists are called upon to make decisions every day. Those decisions chart the course for that particular day and the future, for themselves and for those they work with. In this…

  12. Apprentice Food Service Specialist (AFSC 62230). (United States)

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This two-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for apprentice food service specialists. Covered in the first volume are fundamentals of food preparation and service (careers in food service, food service sanitation, principles of food preparation and service, and baking…

  13. Readying the Health Education Specialist for Emergencies (United States)

    Geiger, Brian F.; Firsing, Stephen L., III; Beric, Bojana; Rodgers, Joel B.


    This article provides a resourceful guide for the health education specialist to improve emergency management knowledge and skills specific to their setting, including training and preparing for emergencies and providing adequate support to students, clients, and colleagues. Five steps guide competent health education practice before, during, and…

  14. Professional Training of Marketing Specialists: Foreign Experience (United States)

    Zakharchenko, Yuliia


    Due to content-based analysis of marketing specialists' professional training and approaches to development of their educational trajectory, it has been revealed that curricula and their content are given much attention by employers whose demands are focused on meeting current labour market conditions. It has been justified that despite the…

  15. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev checks equipment (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, looks over equipment inside a module at the Space Station Processing Facility. Betsy Ahearn, with Boeing, is at his right. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module.

  16. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg


    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  17. Dual Role of the Urban Reading Specialist (United States)

    Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas; Flood, James; Frey, Nancy


    Reading specialists in several San Diego schools assist both in providing tutoring to students and coach peers, a dual role that has helped to create and sustain schoolwide improvements in literacy. In just a few years, these high-poverty schools have doubled the number of 2nd graders reading at grade level.

  18. Host specialist clownfishes are environmental niche generalists (United States)

    Litsios, Glenn; Kostikova, Anna; Salamin, Nicolas


    Why generalist and specialist species coexist in nature is a question that has interested evolutionary biologists for a long time. While the coexistence of specialists and generalists exploiting resources on a single ecological dimension has been theoretically and empirically explored, biological systems with multiple resource dimensions (e.g. trophic, ecological) are less well understood. Yet, such systems may provide an alternative to the classical theory of stable evolutionary coexistence of generalist and specialist species on a single resource dimension. We explore such systems and the potential trade-offs between different resource dimensions in clownfishes. All species of this iconic clade are obligate mutualists with sea anemones yet show interspecific variation in anemone host specificity. Moreover, clownfishes developed variable environmental specialization across their distribution. In this study, we test for the existence of a relationship between host-specificity (number of anemones associated with a clownfish species) and environmental-specificity (expressed as the size of the ecological niche breadth across climatic gradients). We find a negative correlation between host range and environmental specificities in temperature, salinity and pH, probably indicating a trade-off between both types of specialization forcing species to specialize only in a single direction. Trade-offs in a multi-dimensional resource space could be a novel way of explaining the coexistence of generalist and specialists. PMID:25274370

  19. Common Features of Training of Information Specialists. (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas, Ed.; Wersig, Gernot, Ed.

    This is a collection of 14 papers presented at a professional association conference to explore the possibilities of how the Federation Internationale de Documentation (FID) could improve the education and training of information specialists. The subject was approached from four viewpoints: (1) professional aspects of education and training; (2)…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 15, 2009 ... In this study, the development of a model is regarded as being consistent with middle-range theory generation (George 2002:6), which, in turn, guides the education practice of specialist nurses. According to Smith and Liehr,. [m]iddle range theory can be defined as a set of related ideas that are focused on ...


    Taylor, Andrew; Sutherland, Adam


    Clinical supervision is defined by Barber and Norman as having four main functions: educational, supportive, managerial and development of self-awareness.1 It is common practice within initial pharmacy education for clinical supervision to take place at undergraduate, pre-registration and foundation level pharmacist stages. But what about the specialist trainees? It is probably a fair observation that the amount of clinical supervision provided for pharmacists undergoing their advanced level practice drops vividly.One study suggests that clinical supervision improves patient outcomes,2 however this and many other studies are related to nursing clinical supervision, there is little published evidence to support this claim with regards to pharmacy clinical supervision.We present a case where effective clinical supervision of a specialist trainee had a direct impact on patient safety and outcome in a paediatric intensive care unit. The case involves a child with a presentation of sepsis related to group A Streptococcus toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and associated acute kidney injury (AKI) that may have been precipitated or worsened iatrogenically. An experienced band 7 pharmacist attends the daily ward round and refers complex patients to the nominated senior specialist pharmacist. An educational pharmacist ward round takes place twice a week where the band 7 pharmacist will present each patient, proposed pharmaceutical management plan and the patient's care is discussed in an open, non-judgemental forum.After each discussion an agreed action plan is implemented, further educational needs identified and goals agreed to meet them. A strong component of this ward round is a reflective element with the senior pharmacist encouraging specialist trainees to reflect verbally. Significant event reflections will be documented. The specialist trainee identified that this patient required senior review, and referred the patient up appropriately.Following independent assessment by

  2. Payload/orbiter signal-processing and data-handling system evaluation (United States)

    Teasdale, W. E.; Polydoros, A.


    Incompatibilities between orbiter subsystems and payload communication systems to assure that acceptable and to end system performamce will be achieved are identified. The potential incompatabilities are associated with either payloads in the cargo bay or detached payloads communicating with the orbiter via an RF link. The payload signal processing and data handling systems are assessed by investigating interface problems experienced between the inertial upper stage and the orbiter since similar problems are expected for other payloads.

  3. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  4. The concept verification testing of materials science payloads (United States)

    Griner, C. S.; Johnston, M. H.; Whitaker, A.


    The concept Verification Testing (CVT) project at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, is a developmental activity that supports Shuttle Payload Projects such as Spacelab. It provides an operational 1-g environment for testing NASA and other agency experiment and support systems concepts that may be used in shuttle. A dedicated Materials Science Payload was tested in the General Purpose Laboratory to assess the requirements of a space processing payload on a Spacelab type facility. Physical and functional integration of the experiments into the facility was studied, and the impact of the experiments on the facility (and vice versa) was evaluated. A follow-up test designated CVT Test IVA was also held. The purpose of this test was to repeat Test IV experiments with a crew composed of selected and trained scientists. These personnel were not required to have prior knowledge of the materials science disciplines, but were required to have a basic knowledge of science and the scientific method.

  5. Delivery of nanogram payloads using magnetic porous silicon microcarriers. (United States)

    Thomas, J Christopher; Pacholski, Claudia; Sailor, Michael J


    A transport and delivery system for nanogram quantities of molecular species that does not use microfluidic channels, pumps, or valves is described. Microparticles consisting of magnetic porous silicon are prepared, and loading and delivery of an enzymatic payload are demonstrated. The high porosity (60%) porous Si host particles are made magnetic by infusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (30 nm-diameter magnetite, Fe(3)O(4)) under oxidative conditions. After magnetite incorporation, the porous microparticle is still empty enough to accommodate nanogram quantities of a molecular payload; the enzymes horseradish peroxidase or pronase E are used in the present work. The assembly can be transported to a microliter water droplet containing the enzyme substrate with the aid of an external magnetic field. The enzyme is released into the droplet upon contact. The particles can be transported through air or a hydrocarbon liquid without loss in enzymatic activity of the payload.

  6. Design, fabrication and testing of the Pegasus composite payload fairing (United States)

    Barth, James R.; Davis, Fred L.; Edwards, Colby W.; Gillit, C. B.; Itchkawich, Thomas J.

    Hercules has successfully designed, fabricated and tested a composite payload fairing for the Pegasus air-launched space booster. The design features include an aluminum honeycomb core with graphite/epoxy skins for the cylindrical and ogive sections of the fairing and a monocoque graphite/epoxy nose cap. The fairing is designed to hinge at the aft end and separate along two (2) axial joints. The structure is fabricated to nearly net shape using a unique process which includes co-curing the joints and honeycomb core to the graphite/epoxy skins in one operation. This process minimizes the amount of secondary machining and bonding operations required to achieve the final configuration. The payload fairing was tested by applying static and dynamic loads to the structure. Separation testing was also performed to verify system performance. Data obtained from the first operational flight indicate the payload fairing performed as designed and two satellites were successfully deployed.

  7. EChO payload electronics architecture and SW design (United States)

    Focardi, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Farina, M.; Pancrazzi, M.; Ottensamer, R.; Lim, T. L.; Pezzuto, S.; Micela, G.; Pace, E.


    EChO is a three-modules (VNIR, SWIR, MWIR), highly integrated spectrometer, covering the wavelength range from 0.55 μ m to 11.0 μ m. The baseline design includes the goal wavelength extension to 0.4 μ m while an optional LWIR module extends the range to the goal wavelength of 16.0 μ m. An Instrument Control Unit (ICU) is foreseen as the main electronic subsystem interfacing the spacecraft and collecting data from all the payload spectrometers modules. ICU is in charge of two main tasks: the overall payload control ( Instrument Control Function) and the housekeepings and scientific data digital processing ( Data Processing Function), including the lossless compression prior to store the science data to the Solid State Mass Memory of the Spacecraft. These two main tasks are accomplished thanks to the Payload On Board Software (P-OBSW) running on the ICU CPUs.

  8. California Student Get Away Special Payload GAS-450 (United States)

    Ray, Glen; Burke, Edmund; Waldman, Marty


    The California Student Get Away Special Payload GAS-450, recently went into orbit on the STS-57 Mission, Space Shuttle, Endeavour, 21 June 1993, 6:14 AM and landed on the 29 June 1993 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Fifty students from 13 California Central Coast Schools and one in San Francisco designed and built 13 active experiments (6 modules) for this mission. Preliminary analysis of our completely reusable payload bus system indicated that the structure, power system, microprocessor, and sensor systems in each experiment module worked flawlessly. The experiments themselves performed exceptionally well with a 60 percent success ratio. The students are thoroughly documenting their own experiments and results via a standard research paper guideline generated by the GAS-450 technical staff. Lessons learned (program management and technical) are documented at the end of the paper. If any other organization needs payload/experiment development or NASA documentation assistance, then please contact us. We can help make your idea a space tested reality. Three years of intense effort culminated on 3 February 1993, the GSFC field operations team at Kennedy Space Center performed the final pressure decay and electrical tests upon the fully integrated GAS-450 flight canister. Subsequently, the payload was integrated with its parent GAS Bridge Assembly in mid-February and the bridge was transferred to the KSC orbiter team in late February 1993. The STS-57 mission originally scheduled to launch on the 29 April 1993 slipped until 21 June 1993. Our Payload shared the cargo bay with ten other GAS Canisters, the EUREKA experiment, the SHOOT experiment, and the SPACEHAB-1 module. The SIL technical staff retrieved the GAS-450 payload after flight from the NASA Spin Test Facility at KSC and shipped it back to California on the 22 July 1993 for student analysis at Allan Hancock College this summer.

  9. Maximizing Launch Vehicle and Payload Design Via Early Communications (United States)

    Morris, Bruce


    The United States? current fleet of launch vehicles is largely derived from decades-old designs originally made for payloads that no longer exist. They were built primarily for national security or human exploration missions. Today that fleet can be divided roughly into small-, medium-, and large-payload classes based on mass and volume capability. But no vehicle in the U.S. fleet is designed to accommodate modern payloads. It is usually the payloads that must accommodate the capabilities of the launch vehicles. This is perhaps most true of science payloads. It was this paradigm that the organizers of two weekend workshops in 2008 at NASA's Ames Research Center sought to alter. The workshops brought together designers of NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle (CLV) with scientists and payload designers in the astronomy and planetary sciences communities. Ares V was still in a pre-concept development phase as part of NASA?s Constellation Program for exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The space science community was early in a Decadal Survey that would determine future priorities for research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those observations. The primary purpose of the meetings in April and August of 2008, including the novel format, was to bring vehicle designers together with space scientists to discuss the feasibility of using a heavy lift capability to launch large observatories and explore the Solar System. A key question put to the science community was whether this heavy lift capability enabled or enhanced breakthrough science. The meetings also raised the question of whether some trade-off between mass/volume and technical complexity existed that could reduce technical and programmatic risk. By engaging the scientific community early in the vehicle design process, vehicle engineers sought to better understand potential limitations and requirements that could be added to the Ares V from the mission planning community. From the vehicle


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Romanov


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is development of innovative strategy of quality control training of engineers and skilled workers (hereinafter – future specialists in educational professional organizations on the principles of social partnership.Methods. Theoretic: theoretic and methodological analysis, polytheoretic synthesis, modeling. Empirical: research and generalization of the system, process and competence – based approaches experience, experiment, observation, surveys, expert evaluation, SWOT-analysis as a method of strategic planning which is to identify the internal and external factors (socio-cultural of the organization surrounding.Results. The strategy of the development of the process of quality control training in educational professional organizations and a predictive model of the system of quality control training for future engineers and workers have been created on the analysis and synthesis of a quantitative specification of the quality, the obtained experience and success in control training of future specialists in educational professional organizations in recent economic and educational conditions.Scientific novelty. There has been built a predicative model of quality control training of future specialists to meet modern standards and the principles of social partnership; the control algorithm of the learning process, developed in accordance with the standards (international of quality ISO in the implementation of the quality control systems of the process approach (matrix-based responsibility, competence and remit of those responsible for the education process in the educational organization, the «problem» terms and diagnostic tools for assessing the quality of professional training of future specialists. The perspective directions of innovation in the control of the quality of future professionals training have been determined; the parameters of a comprehensive analysis of the state of the system to ensure the

  11. STS-92 Mission Specialist McArthur has his launch and entry suit adjusted (United States)


    During pre-pack and fit check in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Mission Specialist William S. McArthur Jr. uses a laptop computer while garbed in his full launch and entry suit. McArthur and the rest of the crew are at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT provides emergency egress training, simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payload. This mission will be McArthur's third Shuttle flight. STS-92 is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:38 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A on the fifth flight to the International Space Station. It will carry two elements of the Space Station, the Integrated Truss Structure Z1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The mission is also the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  12. Specialist pre-operative assessment clinics. (United States)

    Dhesi, J K; Swart, M


    While specialist pre-operative assessment is not new, its focus has evolved in response to more operations and changes in the surgical population. Patients are older and have more long-term medical comorbidities. At the same time, there has been a move from paternalistic medical decision-making to shared decision-making, based on an individual patient's choice or preference. Specialist pre-operative consultations have had to adapt to these changes by broadening their scope. Pre-operative clinics have a central role in shared decision-making, coordinating and planning care before, during and after surgery, including rehabilitation and discharge planning. Multiple specialties need to work together to deliver quality patient-centred care. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Information specialist for a coming age (5) (United States)

    Sakajoh, Mitsunobu

    Deluge of conflicting and overwhelming information and media are creating a state of information anxiety. In such a society, an organization is also seeking a variety of information in wide corporate activities. The searcher, looking for information, must determine for him/herself not only which databases to search, but also which database system will deliver a fullest, good and trustworthy information of his needs. Commercial databases here in Japan have been accepted and searched by increased number of searchers as well as end-users. In the 90's, our online specialist's challenge is no longer to find information; we have to aim at professional information specialists to respond with increased educational and consultant role to assist further increasing number of end-users.

  14. Stoma coloproctology nurse specialist: a case study. (United States)

    Chaney, Ursula; Hasson, Felicity; Keeney, Sinead; Sinclair, Marlene; Poulton, Brenda; McKenna, Hugh P


    The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the role of a Stoma Coloproctology Nurse Specialist. This paper presents the findings of an in-depth case study of a stoma coloproctology nurse specialist employed in one health board area in Northern Ireland. This case study was part of a larger study exploring innovative nursing and midwifery roles in Northern Ireland. Specialist nursing roles have evolved and developed in response to changing health care needs, patient expectations, changes in professional regulation and government initiatives. A case study approach was adopted. Semi-structured interviews with the post holder (PH), her line manager and the human resource manager were undertaken. Non-participant observation of the PH's practice was also carried out. Analysis was undertaken on secondary data such as job specification, annual reports and other documentation relating to the post. Findings illustrate the PH's function and the impact of the role on patient care. Examples of innovative practices relating to providing care, support and guidance for patients and their families were identified; however, limitations to her role were also identified. The PH provides an invaluable service to patients, demonstrating a positive impact on care. However, the findings suggest the importance of establishing clear role boundaries, which may lead to professional growth and practice development. Although this study provides a valuable insight into the role of a Stoma Coloproctology Nurse Specialist a number of challenges exist, as the CNS role requires policy and appropriate educational preparation to practice at an advanced level. Further research investigating the development of the CNS role in the clinical setting and its relationship to members of the multi-professional team would be beneficial.

  15. Burnout Syndrome of Leisure Time Activities Specialist.


    REBROVÁ, Iveta


    This thesis is dealing with burnout syndrome among leisure time specialists. Theoretical part describes burnout syndrome, its historical basis, symptoms and causes, protective factors and preventive techniques, which prevent from burnout syndrome risk. Next part deals with common stress, its causes and symptoms, and psychosocial stress, which is closely related with burnout syndrome. Ending of the theoretical part is focused on understanding the differences between jobs of common teacher and ...

  16. High Frequency Mechanical Pyroshock Simulations for Payload Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with components that must survive high frequency shock environments including pyrotechnic shock. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past at the payload system level because of weight limitations of traditional pyroshock mechanical simulations using resonant beams and plates. A new concept utilizing tuned resonators attached to the payload system and driven with the impact of an airgun projectile allow these simulations to be performed in the laboratory with high precision and repeatability without the use of explosives. A tuned resonator has been designed and constructed for a particular payload system. Comparison of laboratory responses with measurements made at the component locations during actual pyrotechnic events show excellent agreement for a bandwidth of DC to 4 kHz. The bases of comparison are shock spectra. This simple concept applies the mechanical pyroshock simulation simultaneously to all components with the correct boundary conditions in the payload system and is a considerable improvement over previous experimental techniques and simulations.

  17. Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System (Vps) (United States)

    Marz, Bryan E.; Ash, Robert L.


    This document provides a summary of the launch and post-launch activities of Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System, V(ps). It is a comprehensive overview covering launch activities, post-launch activities, experimental results, and future flight recommendations.

  18. Compact tunable and reconfigurable microwave photonic filter for satellite payloads (United States)

    Santos, M. C.; Yoosefi, O.


    The trend towards the photonic processing of electrical signals at microwave frequencies for satellite payloads is increasing at a breathtaking pace, mainly spurred by prospects of wide electrical bandwidth operation, low mass and volume, reduced electrical noise levels, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and resistance to both temperature and radiation.

  19. Science and application payloads in the 1990's (United States)

    Desanctis, Carmine E.


    During the 90's with the operation of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO), Space Station Freedom (SSF), large platforms in polar and Geosynchronous orbits around the Earth, and supporting systems and technology, an infrastructure will exist that will offer a wide range of opportunities for science and applications payloads. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is in a unique position of studying for NASA science missions for all of these systems. This paper will discuss a variety of payloads being studied for NASA at the MSFC that are scheduled for flight in the 90's, in support of space science and Mission to Planet Earth. These science payloads such as the Controls, Astrophysics and Structures Experiment in Space (CASES), Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO), Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), etc. will fully utilize the capabilities of EDO, SSF, Earth Observing System (EOS), and Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP). Emphasis will be placed on showing how these scientific payloads can fully exploit the great potential of these new capabilities for exciting new science and application missions.

  20. The predictability of phytophagous insect communities: host specialists as habitat specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Müller

    Full Text Available The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local environmental conditions, i.e. habitat conditions, whereas assemblages of host-plant generalists should depend also on regional processes. Our study aimed at ranking the importance of local environmental factors and species composition of the vegetation for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moth assemblages with either a narrow or a broad host range. Our database consists of 351,506 specimens representing 820 species of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera sampled between 1980 and 2006 using light traps in 96 strict forest reserves in southern Germany. Species were grouped as specialists or generalists according to the food plants of the larvae; specialists use host plants belonging to one genus. We used predictive canonical correspondence and co-correspondence analyses to rank the importance of local environmental factors, the species composition of the vegetation and the role of host plants for predicting the species composition of host-plant specialists and generalists. The cross-validatory fit for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moths was higher for host-plant specialists than for host-plant generalists using environmental factors as well as the composition of the vegetation. As expected for host-plant specialists, the species composition of the vegetation was a better predictor of the composition of these assemblages than the environmental variables. But surprisingly, this difference for specialized insects was not due to the occurrence of their host plants. Overall, our study supports the idea that owing to evolutionary constraints in finding a host, host-plant specialists and host-plant generalists follow two different models of

  1. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? (United States)

    What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...

  2. Point-to-point people with purpose—Exploring the possibility of a commercial traveler market for point-to-point suborbital space transportation (United States)

    Webber, Derek


    An argument was made at the First Arcachon Conference on Private Human Access to Space in 2008 [1] that some systematic market research should be conducted into potential market segments for point-to-point suborbital space transportation (PtP), in order to understand whether a commercial market exists which might augment possible government use for such a vehicle. The cargo market potential was subsequently addressed via desk research, and the results, which resulted in a pessimistic business case outlook, were presented in [2]. The same desk research approach is now used in this paper to address the potential business and wealthy individual passenger traveler market segment ("point-to-point people with purpose"). The results, with the assumed ticket pricing, are not encouraging.

  3. STS-103 Payload Commander Smith and his wife DEPART PAFB for Houston (United States)


    STS-103 Payload Commander Steven L. Smith and his wife, Peggy, smile for the camera on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  4. School Library Media Specialist-Teacher Collaboration: Characteristics, Challenges, Opportunities (United States)

    Cooper, O. P.; Bray, Marty


    The most successful school library media specialists are those who collaborate with teachers as full partners in the instructional process. Without assertive action by the school library media specialist, however, school administrators and teachers are likely to be more aware of the media specialist's administrative role than the roles of teacher,…

  5. Elder Specialists: Psychosocial Aspects of Medical Education in Geriatric Care (United States)

    McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.; Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.


    This paper describes an Elder Specialist Program developed by one school of medicine to sensitize medical students to geriatric psychosocial issues. Elder Specialists participate in panel discussions as part of each geriatric session. As an alternative to traditional senior mentoring programs, the Elder Specialist Program provides all students a…

  6. Problems of forming professional competencies of future marketing specialists


    Putintsev, A.; Prischepa, N.


    The article investigates aspects of professional competence that determines conditions for forming pedagogic basis for developing professionally important qualities of economic specialists in the modern economic space; theoretical analysis of different views of the problem of forming professionalism of future marketing specialists is performed; ways of forming professionalism of future marketing specialists are defined.

  7. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulraheem Olarongbe Mahmoud


    Full Text Available The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8% and over a third (37.5% had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%. They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4% and change (4% in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  8. Academic Information Security Researchers: Hackers or Specialists? (United States)

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Lagzian, Mohammad; Borchardt, Glenn


    In this opinion piece, we present a synopsis of our findings from the last 2 years concerning cyber-attacks on web-based academia. We also present some of problems that we have faced and try to resolve any misunderstandings about our work. We are academic information security specialists, not hackers. Finally, we present a brief overview of our methods for detecting cyber fraud in an attempt to present general guidelines for researchers who would like to continue our work. We believe that our work is necessary for protecting the integrity of scholarly publishing against emerging cybercrime.

  9. Art Concept of STS-47 Endeavour, OV-105, payload bay (PLB) configuration (United States)


    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, payload bay (PLB) configuration is illustrated with artist concept. OV-105 orbits the Earth with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open exposing Spacelab Japan (SL-J) module. Alternate number is 92P-144.

  10. UV Stellar Distribution Model for the Derivation of Payload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Choi


    Full Text Available We present the results of a model calculation of the stellar distribution in a UV and centered at 2175Å corresponding to the well-known bump in the interstellar extinction curve. The stellar distribution model used here is based on the Bahcall-Soneira galaxy model (1980. The source code for model calculation was designed by Brosch (1991 and modified to investigate various designing factors for UV satellite payload. The model predicts UV stellar densities in different sky directions, and its results are compared with the TD-1 star counts for a number of sky regions. From this study, we can determine the field of view, size of optics, angular resolution, and number of stars in one orbit. There will provide the basic constrains in designing a satellite payload for UV observations.

  11. CANSAT: Design of a Small Autonomous Sounding Rocket Payload (United States)

    Berman, Joshua; Duda, Michael; Garnand-Royo, Jeff; Jones, Alexa; Pickering, Todd; Tutko, Samuel


    CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), AGI, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Praxis Incorporated, and SolidWorks. Specifically, the 2009 Virginia Tech CanSat Team is funded by BAE Systems, Incorporated of Manassas, Virginia. The objective of the 2009 CanSat competition is to complete remote sensing missions by designing a small autonomous sounding rocket payload. The payload designed will follow and perform to a specific set of mission requirements for the 2009 competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, reviews, and launch.

  12. Approaching Parallelization of Payload Software Application on ARM Multicore Platforms (United States)

    Bretault, Pierre; Chatonnay, Nicolas; Calmet, Brigitte


    This paper is the result of a study realized by Thales Alenia Space (TAS) in collaboration with the french space agency (CNES). It introduces an approach for parallelizing a payload oriented software application. The first part of the paper tackles with the different issues a software engineer faces when he/she starts a software development on a multicore platform. The second part exposes, through a concrete case of study, the iterative approach we adopt to distribute a payload-oriented software application. The case of study consists in parallelizing a full software signal processing chain running on top of an Execution Platform composed of a PikeOS hypervisor and of an ARM quad-core platform (Cortex A9). Finally, the conclusion of the paper focuses on returns of experience related to such a development.

  13. Offshore Wind Payload Transfer Using Flexible Mobile Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus B. Kjelland


    Full Text Available This article presents an offshore-simulated loading and unloading of a payload from a floating platform to a fixed structure. The experiments are performed in a dry-lab, where a Stewart platform is used to simulate the motion of the vessel. A hydraulically actuated vehicle loader crane is used to perform the tasks of payload transfer. The crane includes a hydraulic winch where the wire force is measured by a load cell. A mathematical model of the winch is derived and is experimentally verified. The control strategies include a heave compensation and a constant tension mode. A motion reference unit is used to generate the reference motion of the moving platform. Experimental results show the wire force while performing the load cases. This paper shows the advantage of using a reference motion as a feed forward control reference, instead of only relying on the constant tension.

  14. The use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the multiple payload integration process (United States)

    Cutts, Dannie E.; Widgren, Brian K.


    A maximum return of science and products with a minimum expenditure of time and resources is a major goal of mission payload integration. A critical component then, in successful mission payload integration is the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements from the principal investigator and payload element developer teams. One effort to use artificial intelligence techniques to improve the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements within the payload integration process is described.

  15. Compact L-band SAR payload for UAV


    Zaragoza Arbo, Josep


    Design and development of a Compact L-band SAR payload for UAV Design of a signal interference canceller due to the coupling between antennas for a SAR system. Diseño de un cancelador de señal interferente debido al acoplamiento entre antenas para un sistema SAR. Disseny d'un cancel·lador de senyal interferent degut a l'acoblament entre antenes per un sistema SAR.

  16. RTP/I Payload Type Definition for Application Launch Tools


    Vogel, Jürgen


    This document specifies an application-level protocol (i.e., payload type) for application launch tools using the Real-Time Protocol for Distributed Interactive Media (RTP/I). RTP/I defines a standardized framing for the transmission of application data and provides protocol mechanisms that are universally needed for the class of distributed interactive media. An application launch tool is used to synchronously start applications in collaborative environments, i.e., a participant can trigger ...

  17. Overview of the Sapphire payload for space surveillance (United States)

    Hackett, J.; Brisby, R.; Smith, K.


    This paper provides an overview of the satellite based Sapphire Payload developed by COM DEV to be used for observing Resident Space Objects (RSOs) from low earth orbit by the Canadian Department of National Defence. The data from this operational mission will be provided to the US Space Surveillance Network as an international contribution to assist with RSO precision positional determination. The payload consists of two modules; an all reflective visible-band telescope housed with a low noise preamplifier/focal plane, and an electronics module that contains primary and redundant electronics. The telescope forms a low distortion image on two CCDs adjacent to each other in the focal plane, creating a primary image and a redundant image that are offset spatially. This combination of high-efficiency low-noise CCDs with well-proven high-throughput optics provides a very sensitive system with low risk and cost. Stray light is well controlled to allow for observations of very faint objects within the vicinity of the bright Earth limb. Thermally induced aberrations are minimized through the use of an all aluminum construction and the strategic use of thermal coatings. The payload will acquire a series of images for each target and perform onboard image pre-processing to minimize the downlink requirements. Internal calibration sources will be used periodically to check for health of the payload and to identify, and possibly correct, any pixels with an aberrant response. This paper also provides a summary of the testing that was performed and the results achieved.

  18. Postgraduate medical education and specialist training in Singapore. (United States)

    Chew, C H; Chee, Y C


    The Singapore Medical School celebrates its Centenary in 2005. This historical review is presented on Singapore's postgraduate medical education and specialist training programmes. The special informal role of the Alumni Association and its members during the early years and soon after World War II is highlighted. Postgraduate education and specialist training was more formalised only during the challenging years when Singapore became more autonomous and politically independent with the establishment of the Academy of Medicine, the School's postgraduate medical studies, the Singapore Medical Association, specialist societies and, more recently, the College of Family Physicians. Specialist training programmes and the process of specialist accreditation are also outlined. While Singapore has gone far towards developing a comprehensive programme of postgraduate medical education and specialist training, the process is still evolving and can be improved upon. As long as we keep pace with relevant and realistic strategies, the future for postgraduate medical training and specialist training should be assured.

  19. Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (APT-MS) Mechanical Features (United States)

    Brewer, William V.


    During the last two feet or so of transfer, for a large or heavy payload to its restraining fixture, the consequences of unplanned contact (or impact) between payload and support structure can range from merely annoying to something approaching disaster. Current transfer methods employ technicians with meter sticks stationed at the various hold-down locations to estimate the distances to contact. This information is communicated orally to the crane operator. It is understandable that this work proceeds carefully and therefore slowly. The objectives of this study are (1) to explore mechanical sources of measurement error; and (2) to develop an improved prototype design that is compact, inexpensive, and addresses the measurement error issues. APT is a relatively inexpensive electro-mechanical device that reduces both time and manpower required to make shuttle payload transfers. APT measurement system would provide a GUI for the 'move-conductor' (crane operator) so he could see the displacements of all hold-down interfaces as they move together and thus have a more accurate, comprehensive and 'real-time' picture of the engagement activity. An error model attempts to include all estimatable sources of mechanical error and design features were introduced to reduce or eliminate major sources of error.

  20. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System (United States)


    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System (PERS) Single-Strap and H-Strap are shown behind astronaut James S. Voss (left) and cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev in the U.S. Laboratory. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro, and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  1. Composite Payload Fairing Structural Architecture Assessment and Selection (United States)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Yount, Bryan C.


    This paper provides a summary of the structural architecture assessments conducted and a recommendation for an affordable high performance composite structural concept to use on the next generation heavy-lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS). The Structural Concepts Element of the Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) project and its follow on the Lightweight Spacecraft Structures and Materials (LSSM) project was tasked with evaluating a number of composite construction technologies for specific Ares V components: the Payload Shroud, the Interstage, and the Core Stage Intertank. Team studies strived to address the structural challenges, risks and needs for each of these vehicle components. Leveraging off of this work, the subsequent Composites for Exploration (CoEx) effort is focused on providing a composite structural concept to support the Payload Fairing for SLS. This paper documents the evaluation and down selection of composite construction technologies and evolution to the SLS Payload Fairing. Development of the evaluation criteria (also referred to as Figures of Merit or FOMs), their relative importance, and association to vehicle requirements are presented. A summary of the evaluation results, and a recommendation of the composite concept to baseline in the Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project is presented. The recommendation for the SLS Fairing is a Honeycomb Sandwich architecture based primarily on affordability and performance with two promising alternatives, Hat stiffened and Fiber Reinforced Foam (FRF) identified for eventual program block upgrade.

  2. Parachute-Payload System Flight Dynamics and Trajectory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guglieri


    Full Text Available The work traces a general procedure for the design of a flight simulation tool still representative of the major flight physics of a parachute-payload system along decelerated trajectories. An example of limited complexity simulation models for a payload decelerated by one or more parachutes is given, including details and implementation features usually omitted as the focus of the research in this field is typically on the investigation of mission design issues, rather than addressing general implementation guidelines for the development of a reconfigurable simulation tool. The dynamics of the system are modeled through a simple multibody model that represents the expected behavior of an entry vehicle during the terminal deceleration phase. The simulators are designed according to a comprehensive vision that enforces the simplification of the coupling mechanism between the payload and the parachute, with an adequate level of physical insight still available. The results presented for a realistic case study define the sensitivity of the simulation outputs to the functional complexity of the mathematical model. Far from being an absolute address for the software designer, this paper tries to contribute to the area of interest with some technical considerations and clarifications.

  3. Future experiments and improved service system for automated MAUS payloads (United States)

    Otto, G. H.; Gronert, H.-W.; Döpkens, J.

    The German MAUS project for autonomous material science experiments was initiated in 1980 for optimum utilization of NASA's Get-Away-Special (GAS) program. It is one of the flight opportunities which is offered by the F.R.G. to scientists for performing experiments under microgravity conditions. MAUS payloads are housed in GAS containers and consist of the experimental mounting structure, the batteries, the standard electronics for experiment control and data acquisition, the house-keeping systems and the individual experiment hardware. The standard service system was developed to offer a range of services within a framework of standardized interfaces to the experimenter and to meet NASA requirements. A payload can either be flown in the American GAS-program or with specific carrier structures, like SPAS, OSTA or USS, the latter being considered for the D-2 mission. Up to now, ten MAUS experiments were flown and currently seven payloads are in preparation for future Space Shuttle missions. The top four experiments are already equipped with the recently modified and modernized standard system which has been improved in experiment control, data management and semiconductor memory. The experiments to be performed deal with critical Marangoni convection, oscillatory Marangoni convection, gas bubbles in glass melts and pool boiling in liquids. A promising means of increasing resources in the field of MAUS-experiments is the interconnection of GAS containers. In the TWIN-MAUS configuration, electrical power and data will be transferred between two containers mounted adjacent to each other.

  4. Payload/orbiter signal processing and data handling system evaluation presentation (United States)


    It is recommended that standard digital and along interfaces be adopted. These include: (1) define interfaces compatible with NASA/DOD/industry-accepted design standards; (2) investigate costs of modifying orbiter sybsystem interfaces, (3) investigate cost of designing attached payload interface unit for NASA and commercial payloads and (4) investigate costs of designing interface circuits that can be incorporated into each payload design.

  5. Optical data transmission technology for fixed and drag-on STS payload umbilicals, volume 2 (United States)

    St.denis, R. W.


    Optical data handling methods are studied as applicable to payload communications checkout and monitoring. Both payload umbilicals and interconnecting communication lines carrying payload data are examined for the following: (1) ground checkout requirements; (2) optical approach (technical survey of optical approaches, selection of optimum approach); (3) survey and select components; (4) compare with conventional approach; and (5) definition of follow on activity.

  6. E-learning for medical imaging specialists: introducing blended learning in a nuclear medicine specialist course. (United States)

    Haslerud, Torjan; Tulipan, Andreas Julius; Gray, Robert M; Biermann, Martin


    While e-learning has become an important tool in teaching medical students, the training of specialists in medical imaging is still dominated by lecture-based courses. To assess the potential of e-learning in specialist education in medical imaging. An existing lecture-based five-day course in Clinical Nuclear Medicine (NM) was enhanced by e-learning resources and activities, including practical exercises. An anonymized survey was conducted after participants had completed and passed the multiple choice electronic course examination. Twelve out of 15 course participants (80%) responded. Overall satisfaction with the new course format was high, but 25% of the respondents wanted more interactive elements such as discussions and practical exercises. The importance of lecture handouts and supplementary online material such as selected original articles and professional guidelines was affirmed by all the respondents (92% fully, 8% partially), while 75% fully and 25% partially agreed that the lectures had been interesting and relevant. E-learning represents a hitherto unrealized potential in the education of medical specialists. It may expedite training of medical specialists while at the same time containing costs.

  7. The Predictability of Phytophagous Insect Communities: Host Specialists as Habitat Specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, J.; Stadler, J.; Jarzabek-Müller, A.; Hacker, H.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Brandl, R.


    The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local

  8. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2B: Payload interface analysis (power/thermal/electromagnetic compatibility) (United States)

    Hammel, R. L. (Editor); Smith, A. G. (Editor)


    As a part of the task of performing preliminary engineering analysis of modular payload subelement/host vehicle interfaces, a subsystem interface analysis was performed to establish the integrity of the modular approach to the equipment design and integration. Salient areas that were selected for analysis were power and power conditioning, heat rejection and electromagnetic capability (EMC). The equipment and load profiles for twelve representative experiments were identified. Two of the twelve experiments were chosen as being representative of the group and have been described in greater detail to illustrate the evaluations used in the analysis. The shuttle orbiter will provide electrical power from its three fuel cells in support of the orbiter and the Spacelab operations. One of the three shuttle orbiter fuel cells will be dedicated to the Spacelab electrical power requirements during normal shuttle operation. This power supplies the Spacelab subsystems and the excess will be available to the payload. The current Spacelab sybsystem requirements result in a payload allocation of 4.0 to 4.8 kW average (24 hour/day) and 9.0 kW peak for 15 minutes.

  9. Clinical nurse specialists as entrepreneurs: constrained or liberated. (United States)

    Austin, Lynn; Luker, Karen; Roland, Martin; Ronald, Martin


    This qualitative study explored the experiences of two groups of clinical nurse specialists--continence advisors and tissue viability nurses--working in primary care in the UK. In particular, the study focused on how clinical nurse specialists' relationships with other health-care professionals had an impact on their role. Clinical nurse specialists are recognized worldwide as having expertise in a given field, which they use to develop the practice of others. Additionally, clinical nurse specialists share many of the characteristics of entrepreneurs, which they use to develop services related to their speciality. However, little research has been conducted in relation to clinical nurse specialists' experiences as they attempt to diversify nursing practice. An ethnographic approach was adopted comprising many elements of Glaserian grounded theory. Data were collected via participant observation and face-to-face interviews with 22 clinical nurse specialists. Services provided by clinical nurse specialists were not static, clinical nurse specialists being the main drivers for service developments. However, clinical nurse specialists encountered difficulties when introducing new ideas. Given their role as advisors, clinical nurse specialists lacked authority to bring about change and were dependent on a number of mechanisms to bring about change, including 'cultivating relationships' with more powerful others, most notably the speciality consultant. The UK government has pledged to 'liberate the talents of nurses' so that their skills can be used to progress patient services. This study highlights the fact that a lack of collaborative working practices between health-care professionals led to clinical nurse specialists being constrained. Health-care organizations need to provide an environment in which the entrepreneurial skills of clinical nurse specialists may be capitalized on. In the absence of an outlet for their ideas regarding service developments, clinical

  10. The internal medicine specialist and neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pizzini


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The neurosurgical patient is often a real challenge for the physicians, because of a frequent multimorbidity and a higher risk for severe complications. Cooperation between internal medicine specialist and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent the fatal effects of cranial and spinal injuries. The topic issues of medical interest in neurosurgery are the disorders of sodium balance, the glycemic control, the thromboembolic risk, the intracerebral bleeding management and the infective problems. The neurosurgeons could be worried by treating these complications that are mostly of internal medicine interest and that could unfortunately rise the risk of death or irreversible insults. AIM OF THE REVIEW This review summarizes the modality of diagnosis and therapy of the foremost concerns in neurosurgical field.

  11. Tenth target fabrication specialists` meeting: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, L.R.; Stark, J.C. [comp.


    This tenth meeting of specialists in target fabrication for inertial confinement is unique in that it is the first meeting that was completely unclassified. As a result of the new classification, we were able to invite more foreign participation. In addition to participants from the US, UK, and Canada, representatives from France, Japan, and two Russian laboratories attended, about 115 in all. This booklet presents full papers and poster sessions. Indirect and direct drive laser implosions are considered. Typical topics include: polymer or aluminium or resorcinol/formaldehyde shells, laser technology, photon tunneling microscopy as a characterization tool, foams, coatings, hohlraums, and beryllium capsules. Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, and beryllium are all considered as fuels.

  12. Knowledge Assessment Software in Mining Specialist Training (United States)

    Lebedev, Vladimir; Puhova, Olga


    The article reviews the knowledge assessment software module of electronic teaching and testing in mining specialist training. To develop the software module integrated programming environment state-of-the-art is used. Its advantage consists in small computer resource consumption, simple editing, and protection against the users' trying to find out the correct answers to test tasks. The software makes it possible to learn the ongoing learning information systematically and consistently as well as to assess the current knowledge in mining. The developed module meets the following requirements: a software module user-friendly interface, the storage of passed test results to be used for subsequent viewing, analyses, and evaluation, fast troubleshooting in case of any troubles with a stable module operation, and further software function extension and upgrading.

  13. Twelve Scientific Specialists of the Peenemuende Team (United States)


    Twelve scientific specialists of the Peenemuende team at the front of Building 4488, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama. They led the Army's space efforts at ABMA before transfer of the team to National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). (Left to right) Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger, Director, Research Projects Office; Dr. Helmut Hoelzer, Director, Computation Laboratory: Karl L. Heimburg, Director, Test Laboratory; Dr. Ernst Geissler, Director, Aeroballistics Laboratory; Erich W. Neubert, Director, Systems Analysis Reliability Laboratory; Dr. Walter Haeussermarn, Director, Guidance and Control Laboratory; Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director Development Operations Division; William A. Mrazek, Director, Structures and Mechanics Laboratory; Hans Hueter, Director, System Support Equipment Laboratory;Eberhard Rees, Deputy Director, Development Operations Division; Dr. Kurt Debus, Director Missile Firing Laboratory; Hans H. Maus, Director, Fabrication and Assembly Engineering Laboratory

  14. Multidisciplinary training of cancer specialists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benstead, Kim; Turhal, Nazim Serdar; O'Higgins, Niall


    . Questionnaires were sent to National Societies of Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology concerning similarities and differences in training programs and multidisciplinary care in member states in Europe. Results indicated wide variation in training systems and practice. Data were lacking for Surgery because...... Surgical Oncology is not recognised as a speciality in the EU and most specialist training in cancer surgery is organ based. A period of time in cross-disciplinary training in each of the other two disciplines for all trainees in Medical Oncology, Radiation Oncology and Surgical Oncology (including all...... surgeons training in cancer surgery) is recommended. This is likely to improve the value of multidisciplinary meetings and may result in improved patient care. The Expert Group on Cancer Control of the European Commission has endorsed this recommendation....

  15. Thoracic ultrasonography for the pulmonary specialist. (United States)

    Koenig, Seth J; Narasimhan, Mangala; Mayo, Paul H


    Thoracic ultrasonography is a noninvasive and readily available imaging modality that has important applications in pulmonary medicine outside of the ICU. It allows the clinician to diagnose a variety of thoracic disorders at the point of care. Ultrasonography is useful in imaging lung consolidation, pleural-based masses and effusions, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It can identify complex or loculated effusions and be useful in planning treatment. Identifying intrathoracic mass lesions can guide sampling by aspiration and biopsy. This article summarizes thoracic ultrasonography applications for the pulmonary specialist, related procedural codes, and reimbursement. The major concepts are illustrated with cases. These case summaries are enhanced with online supplemental videos and chest radiograph, chest CT scan, and ultrasound correlation.

  16. The Advanced Practice Clinical Nurse Specialist. (United States)

    Mayo, Ann M; Ray, Melinda Mercer; Chamblee, Tracy B; Urden, Linda D; Moody, Rachel

    The clinical nurse specialist (CNS), one of the 4 advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) categories, has a unique role to play in contributing to high-quality patient care and system-level change across multiple health care settings. CNS practice requires advanced knowledge and skills, including specialty expertise, the ability to integrate new knowledge and innovation into the system of care, the ability to consult and collaborate with all health professions, and the mentoring of nursing staff to support and fully implement that new knowledge. The purpose of this article was to describe the role of the CNS, explain the background of the CNS role as it relates to APRN practice, provide current CNS workforce statistics, and share opportunities for hospitals and health systems to strategically use CNSs to advance patient and organizational goals.

  17. Submillimetre-sized dust aggregate collision and growth properties. Experimental study of a multi-particle system on a suborbital rocket (United States)

    Brisset, J.; Heißelmann, D.; Kothe, S.; Weidling, R.; Blum, J.


    Context. In the very first steps of the formation of a new planetary system, dust agglomerates grow inside the protoplanetary disk that rotates around the newly formed star. In this disk, collisions between the dust particles, induced by interactions with the surrounding gas, lead to sticking. Aggregates start growing until their sizes and relative velocities are high enough for collisions to result in bouncing or fragmentation. With the aim of investigating the transitions between sticking and bouncing regimes for colliding dust aggregates and the formation of clusters from multiple aggregates, the Suborbital Particle and Aggregation Experiment (SPACE) was flown on the REXUS 12 suborbital rocket. Aims: The collisional and sticking properties of sub-mm-sized aggregates composed of protoplanetary dust analogue material are measured, including the statistical threshold velocity between sticking and bouncing, their surface energy and tensile strength within aggregate clusters. Methods: We performed an experiment on the REXUS 12 suborbital rocket. The protoplanetary dust analogue materials were micrometre-sized monodisperse and polydisperse SiO2 particles prepared into aggregates with sizes around 120 μm and 330 μm, respectively and volume filling factors around 0.37. During the experimental run of 150 s under reduced gravity conditions, the sticking of aggregates and the formation and fragmentation of clusters of up to a few millimetres in size was observed. Results: The sticking probability of the sub-mm-sized dust aggregates could be derived for velocities decreasing from ~22 to 3 cm s-1. The transition from bouncing to sticking collisions happened at 12.7+2.1-1.4 cm s-1 for the smaller aggregates composed of monodisperse particles and at 11.5+1.9-1.3 and 11.7+1.9-1.3 cm s-1 for the larger aggregates composed of mono- and polydisperse dust particles, respectively. Using the pull-off force of sub-mm-sized dust aggregates from the clusters, the surface energy of the

  18. Express Payload Project - A new method for rapid access to Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Uhran, Mark L.; Timm, Marc G.


    The deployment and permanent operation of Space Station Freedom will enable researchers to enter a new era in the 21st century, in which continuous on-orbit experimentation and observation become routine. In support of this objective, the Space Station Freedom Program Office has initiated the Express Payload Project. The fundamental project goal is to reduce the marginal cost associated with small payload development, integration, and operation. This is to be accomplished by developing small payload accommodations hardware and a new streamlined small payload integration process. Standardization of small payload interfaces, certification of small payload containers, and increased payload developer responsibility for mission success are key aspects of the Express Payload Project. As the project progresses, the principles will be applied to both pressurized payloads flown inside the station laboratories and unpressurized payloads attached to the station external structures. The increased access to space afforded by Space Station Freedom and the Express Payload Project has the potential to significantly expand the scope, magnitude, and success of future research in the microgravity environment.

  19. The Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP) - building the STEM workforce by providing exciting, multi-disciplinary, student-led suborbital flight projects. (United States)

    Dingwall, B. J.


    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) recognizes that suborbital carriers play a vital role in training our country's future science and technology leaders. SMD created the Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP) to offer students the opportunity to design, build, and fly instruments on NASA's unique suborbital research platforms. This paper explores the projects, the impact, and the lessons learned of USIP. USIP required undergraduate teams to design, build, and fly a scientific instrument in 18 months or less. Students were required to form collaborative multidisciplinary teams to design, develop and build their instrument. Teams quickly learned that success required skills often overlooked in an academic environment. Teams quickly learned to share technical information in a clear and concise manner that could be understood by other disciplines. The aggressive schedule required team members to hold each other accountable for progress while maintaining team unity. Unanticipated problems and technical issues led students to a deeper understanding of the need for schedule and cost reserves. Students exited the program with a far deeper understanding of project management and team dynamics. Through the process of designing and building an instrument that will enable new research transforms students from textbook learners to developers of new knowledge. The initial USIP project funded 10 undergraduate teams that flew a broad range of scientific instruments on scientific balloons, sounding rockets, commercial rockets and aircraft. Students were required to prepare for and conduct the major reviews that are an integral part of systems development. Each project conducted a Preliminary Design Review, Critical Design Review and Mission Readiness review for NASA officials and flight platform providers. By preparing and presenting their designs to technical experts, the students developed a deeper understanding of the technical and programmatic project pieces that

  20. Moon Express: Lander Capabilities and Initial Payload and Mission (United States)

    Spudis, P.; Richards, R.; Burns, J. O.


    Moon Express Inc. is developing a common lander design to support the commercial delivery of a wide variety of possible payloads to the lunar surface. Significant recent progress has been made on lander design and configuration and a straw man mission concept has been designed to return significant new scientific and resource utilization data from the first mission. The Moon Express lander is derived from designs tested at NASA Ames Research Center over the past decade. The MX-1 version is designed to deliver 26 kg of payload to the lunar surface, with no global restrictions on landing site. The MX-2 lander can carry a payload of 400 kg and can deliver an upper stage (designed for missions that require Earth-return, such as sample retrieval) or a robotic rover. The Moon Express lander is powered by a specially designed engine capable of being operated in either monoprop or biprop mode. The concept for the first mission is a visit to a regional pyroclastic deposit on the lunar near side. We have focused on the Rima Bode dark mantle deposits (east of crater Copernicus, around 13 N, 4 W). These deposits are mature, having been exposed to solar wind for at least 3 Ga, and have high Ti content, suggesting high concentrations of implanted hydrogen. Smooth areas near the vent suggest that the ash beds are several tens of meters thick. The projected payload includes an imaging system to document the geological setting of the landing area, an APX instrument to provide major element composition of the regolith and a neutron spectrometer to measure the bulk hydrogen composition of the regolith at the landing site. Additionally, inclusion of a next generation laser retroreflector would markedly improve measurements of lunar librations and thus, constrain the dimensions of both the liquid and solid inner cores of the Moon, as well as provide tests of General Relativity. Conops are simple, with measurements of the surface composition commencing immediately upon landing. APX

  1. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they? (United States)

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim


    The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in

  2. Value, Challenges, and Satisfaction of Certification for Multiple Sclerosis Specialists


    Gulick, Elsie E.; Halper, June


    Background: Specialist certification among interdisciplinary multiple sclerosis (MS) team members provides formal recognition of a specialized body of knowledge felt to be necessary to provide optimal care to individuals and families living with MS. Multiple sclerosis specialist certification (MS Certified Specialist, or MSCS) first became available in 2004 for MS interdisciplinary team members, but prior to the present study had not been evaluated for its perceived value, challenges, and sat...

  3. Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D. [School of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene and Dept. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)


    The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

  4. Pointing system for the balloon-borne astronomical payloads (United States)

    Nirmal, Kaipacheri; Sreejith, Aickara Gopinathan; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, Suresh; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant


    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 inertial measurement unit, and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle or in real photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  5. Shuttle orbiter with telescoping main propulsion unit and payload (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.


    An improved Space Shuttle with variable internal volume is provided. The Space Shuttle Orbiter includes a telescoping main propulsion unit. This main propulsion unit contains the main rocket engines and fuel tanks and telescopes into the Space Shuttle. A variable cavity is located between this unit and the crew compartment. Accordingly, the positioning of the telescoping main propulsion unit determines the volume of the variable cavity. Thus, the volume of the variable length of the entire Space Shuttle may be increased or decreased to achieve desired configurations for optimal storage. In one embodiment of the invention, the payload also telescopes within the variable cavity.



    Yun, M. H.; Kim, J.; Seo, D; Lee, J.; Choi, C.


    Smartphone can not only be operated under 3G network environment anytime and anyplace but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study is aimed to assess the possibility of smartphone as a payload for photogrammetric UAV system. Prior to such assessment, a smartphone-based photogrammetric UAV system application was developed, through which real-tim...

  7. 22 CFR 501.6 - Appointment of Overseas Specialists. (United States)


    ...; English Teaching Specialists; Correspondents; Engineers for the Voice of America; Regional Librarian... equivalent), claimed language proficiency and other background or factors which may be related to the work...

  8. Methodological bases of innovative training of specialists in nanotechnology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGOVSKY Oleg Lvovich


    Full Text Available The performance of innovative training system aimed at highly intellectual specialists in the area of nanotechnologies for Kazakhstan’s economy demands establishment and development of nanotechnological market in the country, teaching of innovative engineering combined with consistent research, integration of trained specialists with latest technologies and sciences at the international level. Methodological aspects of training competitive specialists for nanotechnological field are specific. The paper presents methodological principles of innovative training of specialists for science-intensive industry that were realized according to grant given by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  9. Do Industry Specialist Auditors Add Value in Mergers and Acquisitions?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho-Young Lee; Vivek Mande; Jong Chool Park


    ...) are higher for acquiring firms audited by industry specialists. External auditors are uniquely positioned to provide assurance on the financial statements of their acquiring clients both before and...

  10. Quantitative Conjugated Payload Measurement Using Enzymatic Release of Antibody-Drug Conjugate with Cleavable Linker. (United States)

    Rago, Brian; Tumey, L Nathan; Wei, Cong; Barletta, Frank; Clark, Tracey; Hansel, Steven; Han, Xiaogang


    As antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) design is evolving with novel payload, linker, and conjugation chemistry, the need for sensitive and precise quantitative measurement of conjugated payload to support pharmacokinetics (PK) is in high demand. Compared to ADCs containing noncleavable linkers, a strategy specific to linkers which are liable to pH, chemical reduction, or enzymatic cleavage has gained popularity in recent years. One bioanalytical approach to take advantage of this type of linker design is the development of a PK assay measuring released conjugated payload. For the ADC utilizing a dipeptide ValCit linker studied in this report, the release of payload PF-06380101 was achieved with high efficiency using a purified cathepsin B enzyme. The subsequent liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) quantitation leads to the PK profile of the conjugated payload. For this particular linker using a maleimide-based conjugation chemistry, one potential route of payload loss would result in an albumin adduct of the linker-payload. While this adduct's formation has been previously reported, here, for the first time, we have shown that payload from a source other than ADC contributes only up to 4% of total conjugated payload while it accounts for approximately 35% of payload lost from the ADC at 48 h after dosing to rats.

  11. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies. (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas


    The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic

  12. Coupling characteristics analysis for the disturbance free payload spacecraft (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Kong, Xianren; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Zhenpeng


    In the Disturbance-Free-Payload (DFP) architecture spacecraft, the payload-module (PM) and support-module (SM) are mechanically separated such that the disturbances and vibrations from the SM can be perfectly suppressed. However, the back-Electromotive-Force (back-EMF) of the non-contact actuators and the stiffness of the cables connecting the PM and SM can cause the coupling between the PM and SM. This paper analyzes the coupling characteristics in detail. To understand the coupling essentially, the coupling dynamics model of the DFP spacecraft is established using the combination of the Newton-Euler method with the Lagrange formulation. Then, the displacement transfer function from the SM platform to the PM platform is derived by considering the coupling dynamics equation as a second-order non-proportionally damped system, and a numerical example is developed to analyze the coupling characteristics in the time and frequency domain. The results illustrate that cross coupling exists between the PM and SM, and the low-frequency excitation on the SM will affect the PM obviously. In addition, the larger back-EMF coefficient can cause the more obvious coupling effect on the PM, while the coupling effect caused by the cables is related to the frequency of the excitation on the SM.

  13. Future MAUS payload and the TWIN-MAUS configuration (United States)

    Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkens, J.


    The German MAUS project (materials science autonomous experiments in weightlessness) was initiated in 1979 for optimum utilization of NASA's Get Away Special (GAS) program. The standard MAUS system was developed to meet GAS requirements and can accommodate a wide variety of GAS-type experiments. The system offers a range of services to experimenters within the framework of standardized interfaces. Four MAUS payloads being prepared for future space shuttle flight opportunities are described. The experiments include critical Marangoni convection, oscillatory Marangoni convection, pool boiling, and gas bubbles in glass melts. Scientific objectives as well as equipment hardware are presented together with recent improvements to the MAUS standard system, e.g., a new experiment control and data management unit and a semiconductor memory. A promising means of increasing resources in the field of GAS experiments is the interconnection of GAS containers. This important feature has been studied to meet the challenge of future advanced payloads. In the TWIN-MAUS configuration, electrical power and data will be transferred between two containers mounted adjacent to each other.

  14. Ten past and ten future GAS/MAUS-payloads (United States)

    Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkess, J.


    MAUS (materials science autonomous experiments) is one out of a series of flight opportunities which the Space Program of West Germany offers to scientists from the disciplines of materials research and processing for performing materials science investigations under microgravity conditions. Up to now, ten MAUS experiments were flown which were dealing with the following scientific topics: decomposition of binary alloys with miscibility gap in the liquid state, interaction of a solidification front with dispersed particles, critical Marangoni number, investigation of the magnetic compound MnBi, shrinkage of gas bubbles in glass melts and slip casting. The ten future experiments are partly reflights with modification of the scientific objectives as well as new experiments in the fields of chemical reactions, heat transfer, glass technology and Ostwald ripening. Looking to ten flown payloads, the peculiarities of instrument technology in GAS-cans and its evolution is discussed with emphasis on structure, electronics and thermal design. A typical modern payload using 100 percent of the resource is presented.

  15. The clinical nurse specialist and psychiatrist in joint practice. (United States)

    Shires, B W; Spector, P M


    The authors describe a joint practice model between a clinical nurse specialist and psychiatrist. The authors address factors to consider in establishing a joint practice--negotiation of roles and benefits as well as clinical supervision. In addition, specific clinical responsibilities for the nurse specialist, as well as potential expanded duties, are outlined.

  16. Training School Library Media Specialists For Nigerian Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of training school library media specialists for the attainment of quality education in the school system cannot be overemphasized. The role of the school library media specialist has changed with developments in information communication and integration into library and information service which has ...

  17. Pattern of facial palsy in a typical Nigerian specialist hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of facial palsy in a typical Nigerian specialist hospital. S Lamina, S Hanif. Abstract. Background: Data on incidence of facial palsy is generally lacking in Nigeria. Objective: To assess six years' incidence of facial palsy in Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, Nigeria. Method: The records of patients ...

  18. Documentation of Extension Specialists' Involvement in Graduate Education. (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; York, Alan C.


    Describes the changes in the roles of the Cooperative Extension Service and extension specialists affiliated with universities. Reports the results of survey research and concludes that extension specialists should actively pursue the opportunity to direct graduate students. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  19. attitude of cleft care specialists in africa towards presurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2012 ... A. T. Adeyemi, BDS, FWACS Senior Lecturer, O. O. Bankole, Department of Child Oral Health, College of Medicine, ... Younger specialists have a more favorable attitude towards pre-surgical orthopaedics than older specialists. INTRODUCTION. Management of cleft lip and ... compromising aesthetics (7).

  20. Stress, satisfaction and burnout among Dutch medical specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Mechteld R. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.


    Background: Stress and stress-related illnesses are increasing among medical specialists. This threatens the quality of patient care. in this study we investigated (a) levels of job stress and job satisfaction among medical specialists, (b) factors contributing to stress and satisfaction and (c) the

  1. Value, challenges, and satisfaction of certification for multiple sclerosis specialists. (United States)

    Gulick, Elsie E; Halper, June


    Specialist certification among interdisciplinary multiple sclerosis (MS) team members provides formal recognition of a specialized body of knowledge felt to be necessary to provide optimal care to individuals and families living with MS. Multiple sclerosis specialist certification (MS Certified Specialist, or MSCS) first became available in 2004 for MS interdisciplinary team members, but prior to the present study had not been evaluated for its perceived value, challenges, and satisfaction. A sample consisting of 67 currently certified MS specialists and 20 lapsed-certification MS specialists completed the following instruments: Perceived Value of Certification Tool (PVCT), Perceived Challenges and Barriers to Certification Scale (PCBCS), Overall Satisfaction with Certification Scale, and a demographic data form. Satisfactory reliability was shown for the total scale and four factored subscales of the PVCT and for two of the three factored PCBCS subscales. Currently certified MS specialists perceived significantly greater value and satisfaction than lapsed-certification MS specialists in terms of employer and peer recognition, validation of MS knowledge, and empowering MS patients. Lapsed-certification MS specialists reported increased confidence and caring for MS patients using evidence-based practice. Both currently certified and lapsed-certification groups reported dissatisfaction with MSCS recognition and pay/salary rewards. The results of this study can be used in efforts to encourage initial certification and recertification of interdisciplinary MS team members.

  2. School Library Media Specialists as Effective School Leaders (United States)

    Everhart, Nancy


    According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few school personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure equitable…

  3. Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education (ECE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Specialist Teachers, Early childhood, Sustainable. Development. Introduction. Early childhood is one of the major stages .... The relationship at this stage between the teacher and children tends to be closer that the teacher becomes a surrogate parent. Need for Specialist Teachers in Early Childhood Education ...

  4. Local adaptation in oviposition choice of a specialist herbivore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Xianqin; Vrieling, Klaas; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.


    Specialist herbivores feed on a restricted number of related plant species and may suffer food shortage if overexploitation leads to periodic defoliation of their food plants. The density, size and quality of food plants are important factors that determine the host plant choice of specialist

  5. Perinatal asphyxia in a specialist hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinatal asphyxia in a specialist hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. BA West, PI Opara. Abstract. Objectives: To find the prevalence, and identify risk factors and outcome in neonates who were admitted into the Braithewaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) for perinatal asphyxia. Method: This was a descriptive cross ...

  6. The Motion Planning of Overhead Crane Based on Suppressing Payload Residual Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hua-sen


    Full Text Available Since the overhead crane system is subject to under actuation system due to that overhead crane and payload are connected by flexibility wire rope. The payload generates residual swing when the overhead crane is accelerating/ decelerating the motions. This may cause trouble for the payload precise positioning and motion planning. Hence, an optimization input shaping control method is presented to reduce the under actuated overhead crane’s payload swing caused via the inertia force. The dynamic model of the overhead crane is proposed according to the physics structure of the crane. The input shaper based on the motion planning of the crane is used as the feed forward input to suppress payload residual swing. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the ZV input shaper and ZVD input shaper can reduce the payload swing of the overhead crane.

  7. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A. (eds.)


    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Portfolios for assessment of paediatric specialist registrars. (United States)

    Melville, C; Rees, M; Brookfield, D; Anderson, J


    In 1997 the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health introduced portfolios to guide and monitor the learning of specialist registrars. We studied their value for assessment. Using Bigg's SOLO criteria we devised a marking scheme based on 6 domains of competence: clinical, communication, teaching and learning, ethics and attitudes, management and evaluation, and creation of evidence. We rated portfolios according to quality of evidence presented and expectations by year of training. We similarly assessed trainee performance in the annual record of in-training assessment (RITA) interview. Specific advice based on the results of the first portfolio assessments was circulated to all trainees, instructing them to increase the structure and decrease the bulk of portfolios. A second sample of portfolios was reviewed a year later, using similar evaluations, to determine the effects. A total of 76 portfolios were assessed in year 1 by a single rater; 30 portfolios were assessed in year 2 by 2 independent raters. The quality of documentation improved from year 1 to year 2 but there was no significant increase in portfolio scores. The inter-rater correlation coefficient of the portfolio assessment method was 0.52 (Cohen's kappa 0.35). The inter-rater correlation coefficient of the RITA interview was 0.71 (Cohen's kappa 0.38). There was moderate inter-assessment correlation between portfolios and RITA interviews (kappa 0.26 in year 1 and 0.29 in year 2). Generalisability analysis suggested that 5 successive ratings by a single observer or independent ratings by 4 observers on the same occasion would be needed to yield a generalisability coefficient > 0.8 for overall portfolio rating. This method of portfolio assessment is insufficiently reliable as a sole method for high stakes, single-instance assessment, but has a place as part of a triangulation process. Repeated portfolio assessment by paired observers would increase reliability. Longer term studies are required to

  9. A CAN Solution Supporting Satcom Payload Evolution: Design, Validation and Standardisation (United States)

    Gunes-Lasnet, Sev; Furano, Gianluca; Vidaud, Olivier; Dalenq, Jean; Notebaert, Olivier


    The optimisation of telecom satellites payload through the use of efficient standard serial buses is under renewed interest especially as harness optimisation together with the ability to accommodate complex payload are key competitivity drivers. CAN has been selected as suitable for payload architecture upgrade, and further to an architecture demonstration is under full electrical characterisation and deployment. The satcom CAN will benefit from ECSS standardisation insuring harmonisation of CAN implementations in European space projects, and reduced engineering effort for interface development and compatibility.

  10. [Smoking among patients of selected specialist clinics of Miedzylesie Specialist Hospital in Warsaw]. (United States)

    Pytka, Dorota; Doboszyńska, Anna


    The purpose of the study is to examine the issue of smoking among patients of selected clinics of the Miedzylesie Specialist Hospital in Warsaw, assessment of nicotine addiction of smokers and motivation to give up smoking. The survey was carried out in June and July 2009 after obtaining the consent of the Director of Miedzylesie Specialist Hospital in Warsaw. The survey was participated in by 100 patients of selected specialist clinics. The survey was carried out on the basis of a questionnaire consisting of 7 questions. Furthermore, the "Test of motivation to give up smoking" (Schneider's test) and the "Assessment of nicotine addiction level" (Fagerström's test), published in the "Consensus regarding recognition and treatment of nicotine addiction", were used. When processing data, the descriptive statistics were applied. Those surveyed included 53 former cigarette smokers 47 active smokers and. In the group of former smokers, 19 people still were exposed to passive smoking. In the past, the problem regarded 41 people. Thirty former smokers smoked cigarettes among non-smokers, including young children (18 people) and when pregnant and breastfeeding (2 people). Also 30 respondents smoked despite medical contraindications and bad conscience. For 27 people, expenditures on cigarettes constituted a considerable burden of their respective household budgets, and 20 said that it was a significant item in their expenditures. Smokers have been smoking cigarettes for 30 years, on average 20 cigarettes a day. Those patients began to smoke at the age of 20. Thirty one active smokers exposed other people to passive smoking and 38 respondents smoked cigarettes despite medical contraindications and with bad conscience. For 22 people, expenditures related to smoking are a considerable burden of the household budget and for 21 people, it is a significant expenditure. Almost one half of the patients smoke cigarettes although they should brake off smoking for medical reasons. Most

  11. Optical distribution of local oscillators in future telecommunication satellite payloads (United States)

    Benazet, Benoît; Sotom, Michel; Maignan, Michel; Berthon, Jacques


    The distribution of high spectral purity reference signals over optical fibre in future telecommunication satellite payloads is presented. Several types of applications are considered, including the distribution of a reference frequency at 10 MHz (Ultra-Stable Reference Oscillator) as well as the distribution of a radiofrequency oscillator around 800 MHz (Master Local Oscillator). The results of both experimental and theoretical studies are reported. In order to meet phase noise requirements for the USRO distribution, the use of an optimised receiver circuit based on an optically synchronised oscillator is investigated. Finally, the optical distribution of microwave local oscillators at frequencies exceeding 20 GHz is described. Such a scheme paves the way to more advanced sub-systems involving optical frequency-mixing and optical transmission of microwave signals, with applications to multiple-beam active antennas.

  12. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. Biomedical Experiments Payload (CIBX-2) (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis; Edmundson, Allen; Robinson, Keith (Technical Monitor)


    Experiments to find solutions for a range of biomedical issues are being hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. (ITA) Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. This research encompasses more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments and hands-on student experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Protein crystal growth experiments will address the structure of urokinase - a protein that has been identified as a key enzyme in the spread of brain, lung, colon, prostate and breast cancers. Crystals of Bence Jones, a protein associated with bone cancer, will also be grown. Understanding their structures may help scientists develop treatments. In a related area, the Microencapsulation of Drugs (MEPS) is an anti-cancer drug delivery system, based on a 10-year partnership with NASA's Johnson Space Center. On this mission, the co-encapsulation of antibodies and immune stimulants will be made in submicron microcapsules to target pulmonary and bacterial infections.

  13. Secure Payload Access to the International Space Station (United States)

    Pitts, R. Lee; Reid, Chris


    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Yun


    Full Text Available Smartphone can not only be operated under 3G network environment anytime and anyplace but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study is aimed to assess the possibility of smartphone as a payload for photogrammetric UAV system. Prior to such assessment, a smartphone-based photogrammetric UAV system application was developed, through which real-time image, location and attitude data was obtained using smartphone under both static and dynamic conditions. Subsequently the accuracy assessment on the location and attitude data obtained and sent by this system was conducted. The smartphone images were converted into ortho-images through image triangulation. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO parameters determined by camera calibration. In case IO parameters were taken into account in the static experiment, the results from triangulation for any smartphone type were within 1.5 pixel (RMSE, which was improved at least by 35% compared to when IO parameters were not taken into account. On the contrary, the improvement effect of considering IO parameters on accuracy in triangulation for smartphone images in dynamic experiment was not significant compared to the static experiment. It was due to the significant impact of vibration and sudden attitude change of UAV on the actuator for automatic focus control within the camera built in smartphone under the dynamic condition. This cause appears to have a negative impact on the image-based DEM generation. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  15. Application Possibility of Smartphone as Payload for Photogrammetric Uav System (United States)

    Yun, M. H.; Kim, J.; Seo, D.; Lee, J.; Choi, C.


    Smartphone can not only be operated under 3G network environment anytime and anyplace but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study is aimed to assess the possibility of smartphone as a payload for photogrammetric UAV system. Prior to such assessment, a smartphone-based photogrammetric UAV system application was developed, through which real-time image, location and attitude data was obtained using smartphone under both static and dynamic conditions. Subsequently the accuracy assessment on the location and attitude data obtained and sent by this system was conducted. The smartphone images were converted into ortho-images through image triangulation. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO) parameters determined by camera calibration. In case IO parameters were taken into account in the static experiment, the results from triangulation for any smartphone type were within 1.5 pixel (RMSE), which was improved at least by 35% compared to when IO parameters were not taken into account. On the contrary, the improvement effect of considering IO parameters on accuracy in triangulation for smartphone images in dynamic experiment was not significant compared to the static experiment. It was due to the significant impact of vibration and sudden attitude change of UAV on the actuator for automatic focus control within the camera built in smartphone under the dynamic condition. This cause appears to have a negative impact on the image-based DEM generation. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  16. Earth cloud, aerosol, and radiation explorer optical payload development status (United States)

    Hélière, A.; Wallace, K.; Pereira do Carmo, J.; Lefebvre, A.


    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are co-operating to develop as part of ESA's Living Planet Programme, the third Earth Explorer Core Mission, EarthCARE, with the ojective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. EarthCARE payload consists of two active and two passive instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID), a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) and a Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR). The four instruments data are processed individually and in a synergetic manner to produce a large range of products, which include vertical profiles of aerosols, liquid water and ice, observations of cloud distribution and vertical motion within clouds, and will allow the retrieval of profiles of atmospheric radiative heating and cooling. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. Operating in the UV range at 355 nm, ATLID provides atmospheric echoes from ground to an altitude of 40 km. Thanks to a high spectral resolution filtering, the lidar is able to separate the relative contribution of aerosol and molecular scattering, which gives access to aerosol optical depth. Co-polarised and cross-polarised components of the Mie scattering contribution are measured on dedicated channels. This paper will provide a description of the optical payload implementation, the design and characterisation of the instruments.

  17. Geriatric oncology in the Netherlands: a survey of medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. (United States)

    Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E


    To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Deciding about fertility preservation after specialist counselling. (United States)

    Bastings, L; Baysal, Ö; Beerendonk, C C M; IntHout, J; Traas, M A F; Verhaak, C M; Braat, D D M; Nelen, W L D M


    How do female patients experience fertility preservation (FP) consultation (FPC) with a specialist in reproductive medicine and subsequent decision-making on FP? Most patients had positive experiences with FPC, but negative experiences were found to be associated with decisional conflict and decision regret. When confronted with a need for gonadotoxic treatment, girls and young women will have to make an irreversible decision with regard to FP. Patients may experience decisional conflict and develop regret about their decision during follow-up. Patients' opportunities to ask questions during FPC and their knowledge about FP have been inversely related to decisional conflict. A questionnaire on experiences with FPC, designed after qualitative research, was retrospectively distributed to 108 patients to whom FP was offered after FPC between July 2008 and July 2013. Aiming to minimize recall bias, we defined a subgroup of patients counselled since 2011 who had not yet tried to conceive after FPC. Patients were aged ≥16 years and had either cancer or a benign disease that required gonadotoxic therapy. They received FPC in a single university hospital in the Netherlands. Apart from patients' experiences, patients' characteristics, decisional conflict and decision regret were assessed. A total of 64 patients (59.3%) responded to the questionnaire. Patients generally had positive experiences with FPC, but indicated room for improvement. Negative experiences were associated with decisional conflict regarding the FP decision (not enough time for counselling: P conflict was correlated to decision regret (P conflict. Given our retrospective design, we were not informed about the causality of the associations observed. We studied Dutch patients who were counselled in a single centre and were at least 16 years old when filling in the questionnaire. This may limit the generalizability of our data to other settings and populations. More attention should be paid to improving FPC

  19. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; hide


    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  20. Enabling Science and Deep Space Exploration through Space Launch System (LSL) Secondary Payload Opportunities (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George


    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). By reaching this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. NASA is making investments to expand science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), currently planned for launch no earlier than July 2018, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS. The EM-1 launch will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites that will be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload capacity of SLS, and the payload requirements for launch and

  1. Military Payloads Hosted on Commercial Satellites: How Can the Space and Missile Systems Center Increase the Number of Commercially Hosted Military Payload Contract Awards (United States)


    and unnamed owner-operator customer, interview by author, September 2011. 25. Defense Contract Management Agency, Guidebook, chap. 18, sec. 1. 26...How Can the Space and Missile Systems Center Increase the Number of Commercially Hosted Military Payload Contract Awards? Peter A. Cunningham a CHMP contract 3 2 Examples of commercially hosted payloads 9 vii Foreword It is my great pleasure to present another issue of The Wright

  2. Planning and Scheduling of Payloads of AstroSat During Initial and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Pandiyan


    Jun 20, 2017 ... The process is found to be labour intensive and several operational software tools, encompassing spacecraft sub-systems, on-orbit, .... ing of scheduling and command generating software packages that were part of 'optimal .... Scheduler design for payloads. The payload scheduler has several modules ...

  3. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission–Low Energy Payload ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload was designed, developed and fabricated by Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in collaboration with Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad and ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The SLD payload employs ...

  4. Measurements on an autonomous wireless payload at 635 km distance using a sensitive radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Leijtens, Johan; Verhoeven, Chris; van der Marel, Hans


    The Delfi-C3 spacecraft carries the first autonomous wireless payload in space. This payload is a wireless sun sensor developed by TNO in the Netherlands. The data captured by the sensor is wirelessly transported to the central computer system inside the spacecraft. Since no additional power supply

  5. Issues And Challenges Of Instructional Technology Specialists In Alberta Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Spence


    Full Text Available Under pressure to become more cost effective and competitive in the delivery of educational courses and programs, Alberta colleges have identified the integration of communication and information technologies as an appropriate response to these fiscal demands. This requires highly skilled computer and communication technologists who are both technology specialists and pedagogical experts. Twenty-eight Instructional Technology Specialists at fourteen Alberta colleges responded to a written survey. Follow-up interviews were held with seven respondents. Respondents perceived the college’s administration as lacking understanding of the implications of integrating technology into teaching and uncertain about ongoing funding for projects. As Instructional Technology Specialists they brought a variety of backgrounds and experiences to their work. They provided a broad range of services and maintained currency through ongoing formal and informal professional development. For these IT Specialists, their concerns are about growth and a better balance between the technical and pedagogical aspects of technology.

  6. Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter Columbia (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty, Bob Saulnier, and Rene Arriens.

  7. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev arrives for launch (United States)


    Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, smiles on his arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He joins other crew members Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled time of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian- built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  8. Reducing COPD admissions with a specialist chronic disease management team. (United States)

    Annandale, Joseph; Hurlin, Claire; Lewis, Keir

    This article describes the implementation of a specialist community team working with acute care services to manage patients with COPD. It resulted in a sustained reduction in hospital admissions over one year.

  9. A report and sequelae of a specialist volunteer physician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there would have been no time for training although this can be carried ... registrar), registered nurses and specialists to ensure that there is a ... Part time Juba Medical Complex. 2010 ... to include provision of clean water, sewage and waste.

  10. Residents' Perceptions of Plastic Surgeons as Craniofacial Surgery Specialists. (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Muraro, Carlos Alberto Salomão; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo


    To assess residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists in Brazil. Brazilian residents were asked to choose 1 or 2 specialists that they perceived to be an expert for 14 craniofacial surgery-related scenarios. Both an overall analysis (all 14 scenarios) and subanalysis (each scenario separately) were performed. Response patterns were distributed as "plastic surgeons alone," "plastic surgeons combined with other specialists," or "without plastic surgeons." Overall, plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P surgery-related scenarios and also demonstrated that "plastic surgeons alone" and "without plastic surgeons" were selected more (all P surgery residents and male residents chose more (all P plastic surgeons as experts than their peers. Residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists are limited in Brazil.

  11. Aplication of artificial neural network model in aviation specialist training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Висиль Миколайович Казак


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the application of artificial neural network (ANN model in aviation specialist training. The ANN model is based on the dependence of residual knowledge of subjects of study on their individual abilities. The residual knowledge is the skills acquired by the subject before he is going for an occupation.  The presented ANN model gives the possibility to predict the level of professional training of the specialists with high accuracy

  12. Specialist surgery in the developing world: luxury or necessity? (United States)

    Wright, I G; Walker, I A; Yacoub, M H


    Patients suffering from conditions requiring specialist intervention cannot obtain treatment when facilities do not exist locally. Specialist visiting teams in a number of surgical disciplines have attempted to address these issues in collaboration with local clinicians. These interventions require careful planning and communication to achieve optimum results. Several teams have been successful in building long-term relationships that have lead to important clinical developments in the local country.

  13. Translational health research: perspectives from health education specialists


    Mata, Holly J.; Davis, Sharon


    The phrase ?from bench to bedside to curbside? is a common definition of translational research among health disparities researchers. Health Education Specialists can make important contributions to the field of clinical translational medicine, particularly in light of U.S. health care reform and a renewed emphasis on medical home or health care home models. Health Education Specialists have the training and experience to engage in and facilitate translational research, as well as the opportu...

  14. Disaster Information Specialist Pilot Project: NLM/DIMRC. (United States)

    Reynolds, Patricia; Tamanaha, Inez


    Medical librarians have often been overlooked as important contributors to hospital disaster preparedness. Recognizing the importance of medical libraries and their potential in disaster planning and management, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC), formed a pilot Disaster Information Specialist Project. This paper describes the preliminary activities of Bishopric Medical Library's Director, Patricia Reynolds, at Sarasota Memorial Health Care System, as a disaster information specialist in the hospital's disaster planning and preparedness.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Evgenievna Vodopyanova


    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the empirical research internallysubject factors that facilitate and impede professional burnout of young specialists socionomic professions from positions of subject-resource approach.The results of empirical research found that the resistance to professional burnout of young specialists associated with high rates of resource value-semantic sphere and positive attitude on self-efficacy. Development of professional burnout contributes to the experience of the loss of vital values.

  16. Payload Performance of TDRS KL and Future Services (United States)

    Toral, Marco A.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Pogorelc, Patricia M.; George, Nicholas E.; Han, Katherine S.


    NASA has accepted two of the 3nd generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellites, TDRS K, L, and M, designed and built by Boeing Defense, Space Security (DSS). TDRS K, L, and M provide S-band Multiple Access (MA) service and S-band, Ku-band and Ka-band Single Access (SA) services to near Earth orbiting satellites. The TDRS KLM satellites offer improved services relative to the 1st generation TDRS spacecraft, such as: an enhanced MA service featuring increased EIRPs and GT; and Ka-band SA capability which provides a 225 and 650 MHz return service (customer-to-TDRS direction) bandwidth and a 50 MHz forward service (TDRS-to-customer direction) bandwidth. MA services are provided through a 15 element forward phased array that forms up to two beams with onboard active beamforming and a 32 element return phased array supported by ground-based beamforming. SA services are provided through two 4.6m tri-band reflector antennas which support program track pointing and autotrack pointing. Prior to NASAs acceptance of the satellites, payload on-orbit testing was performed on each satellite to determine on-orbit compliance with design requirements. Performance parameters evaluated include: EIRP, GT, antenna gain patterns, SA antenna autotrack performance, and radiometric tracking performance. On-orbit antenna calibration and pointing optimization was also performed on the MA and SA antennas including 24 hour duration tests to characterize and calibrate out diurnal effects. Bit-Error-Rate (BER) tests were performed to evaluate the end-to-end link BER performance of service through a TDRS K and L spacecraft. The TDRS M is planned to be launched in August 2017. This paper summarizes the results of the TDRS KL communications payload on-orbit performance verification and end-to-end service characterization and compares the results with the performance of the 2nd generation TDRS J. The paper also provides a high-level overview of an optical communications application that will augment

  17. Payload Performance of Third Generation TDRS and Future Services (United States)

    Toral, Marco; Heckler, Gregory; Pogorelc, Patsy; George, Nicholas; Han, Katherine S.


    NASA has accepted two of the 3rd generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellites, TDRS K, L, and M, designed and built by Boeing Defense, Space & Security (DSS). TDRS K, L, and M provide S-band Multiple Access (MA) service and S-band, Ku-band and Ka-band Single Access (SA) services to near Earth orbiting satellites. The TDRS KLM satellites offer improved services relative to the 1st generation TDRS spacecraft, such as: an enhanced MA service featuring increased EIRPs and G/T; and Ka-band SA capability which provides a 225 and 650 MHz return service (customer-to-TDRS direction) bandwidth and a 50 MHz forward service (TDRS-to-customer direction) bandwidth. MA services are provided through a 15 element forward phased array that forms up to two beams with onboard active beamforming and a 32 element return phased array supported by ground-based beamforming. SA services are provided through two 4.6m tri-band reflector antennas which support program track pointing and autotrack pointing. Prior to NASAs acceptance of the satellites, payload on-orbit testing was performed on each satellite to determine on-orbit compliance with design requirements. Performance parameters evaluated include: EIRP, G/T, antenna gain patterns, SA antenna autotrack performance, and radiometric tracking performance. On-orbit antenna calibration and pointing optimization was also performed on the MA and SA antennas including 24 hour duration tests to characterize and calibrate out diurnal effects. Bit-Error-Rate (BER) tests were performed to evaluate the end-to-end link BER performance of service through a TDRS K and L spacecraft. The TDRS M is planned to be launched in August 2017. This paper summarizes the results of the TDRS KL communications payload on-orbit performance verification and end-to-end service characterization and compares the results with the performance of the 2nd generation TDRS J. The paper also provides a high-level overview of an optical communications application that will

  18. SAW technology for multicarrier demodulation in advanced payloads (United States)

    Ringset, Vidar; Olsen, Erik; Roennekleiv, Arne; Bakken, Petter; Bjoernstroem, Gunnar


    Onboard satellite processing, including demodulation and regeneration, can greatly enhance the flexibility of resource allocation and RF power and bandwidth efficiency of advanced payloads, particularly when multibeam antennas are employed. SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) technology is the most powerful approach when demodulation of a large number of flow data rate uplink signals is required. An Electrical Demonstration Model (EDM) of a 300 channel MultiCarrier Demodulator (MCD) employing a SAW Chirpo Fourier Transformer (CFT) for frequency demultiplexing, followed by digital demodulation is successfully designed and manufactured. The incoming signal is first multiplied in a bilinear mixer by three parallel digitally generated chirp signals and then convolved in a SAW chirp line manufactured on quartz. The digital part of the demolulator works as any other high quality demodulator, but the algorithms are selected in order to reduce the computational burden. The system is designed for a land mobile satellite transmitting coded voice and data at 9.6 kb/s. The design and performance of the EDM are described.

  19. Navigation and geo-tracking system of UAV EO payload (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhen, Kang; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiajiang; Li, Yingjuan; Tang, Chao


    A multi-function system based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is introduced, which can fulfill navigation, attitude measurement of LOS in payload, platform stabilization and tracking control. The IMU is integrated with electro-optical sensors and a laser range finder on gimbals, which performs attitude calculation and navigation by constructing navigation coordinates in a mathematic platform, and the platform navigation information is obtained by transformation matrix between platform and gimbal coordinates. The platform comprising of gyros, electro-optical sensors and servo mechanism is capable of stabilizing line of sight and could be used to geo-tracking in the relevant field of view (FOV).The system can determine geography coordinates of the host platform and target only with navigation information and laser ranging data. The geo-tracking system always locked the target image at the center of FOV by calculating spatial geometry and adjusting LOS attitude. This tracking is different from TV tracking and geographical reference image tracking, which may be influenced by fog and obscurant. When the UAV is flying over urban or mountain areas for rescue missions, it can avoid the loss of targets due to strong maneuver or LOS obscuration, and reduce the operation load and improve rescue efficiency.

  20. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.


    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  1. Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload (United States)

    Pugh, Christopher J.; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jin, Jeongwan; Sultana, Nigar; Agne, Sascha; Anisimova, Elena; Makarov, Vadim; Choi, Eric; Higgins, Brendon L.; Jennewein, Thomas


    Satellite-based quantum terminals are a feasible way to extend the reach of quantum communication protocols such as quantum key distribution (QKD) to the global scale. To that end, prior demonstrations have shown QKD transmissions from airborne platforms to receivers on ground, but none have shown QKD transmissions from ground to a moving aircraft, the latter scenario having simplicity and flexibility advantages for a hypothetical satellite. Here, we demonstrate QKD from a ground transmitter to a receiver prototype mounted on an airplane in flight. We have specifically designed our receiver prototype to consist of many components that are compatible with the environment and resource constraints of a satellite. Coupled with our relocatable ground station system, optical links with distances of 3-10 km were maintained and quantum signals transmitted while traversing angular rates similar to those observed of low-Earth-orbit satellites. For some passes of the aircraft over the ground station, links were established within 10 s of position data transmission, and with link times of a few minutes and received quantum bit error rates typically ≈3%-5% , we generated secure keys up to 868 kb in length. By successfully generating secure keys over several different pass configurations, we demonstrate the viability of technology that constitutes a quantum receiver satellite payload and provide a blueprint for future satellite missions to build upon.

  2. Autonomous Payload Operations Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Deitsch, David K.; Cruzen, Craig A.; Haddock, Angie T.


    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves many complex crew tended, ground operated and combined systems. Over the life of the ISS program, it has become evident that by having automated and autonomous systems on board, more can be accomplished and at the same time reduce the workload of the crew and ground operators. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama, working in collaboration with The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory have developed an autonomous software system that uses the Timeliner User Interface Language and expert logic to continuously monitor ISS payload systems, issue commands and signal ground operators as required. This paper describes the development history of the system, its concept of operation and components. The paper also discusses the testing process as well as the facilities used to develop the system. The paper concludes with a description of future enhancement plans for use on the ISS as well as potential applications to Lunar and Mars exploration systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Taha


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article deals with the development of a multi-stage model for optimising payload placement on a hauler-trailer rig in an environment described by physical and regulatory constraints. The model which purports to be an improvement on an earlier model provides two types of solution i.e. a feasible solution which satisfies all zone loading and axle weight constraints, or an infeasible solution giving the cause and quantification of source(s of infeasibility which may be used to modify model inputs for further attempts at optimisation.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die artikel handel oor die ontwikkeling van 'n multistadiummodel vir die optimisering van vragplasing op 'n sleepwa onder fisiese en regsvoorskriftelike voorwaardes. Die model wat daarop aanspraak maak dat dit 'n verbetering is op 'n vorige model, lewer as uitset twee oplossingstipes naamlik 'n gangbare oplossing wat alle sone- en aslasrandvoorwaardes eerbiedig, of 'n ongangbare oplossing wat oorsaak en kwantifisering van ongangbaarheidsbronne uitwys vir die gebruik van gewysigde modelinsette by verdere pogings tot optimisering.

  4. Variability and Sources of Tropospheric Aerosols Over the North Atlantic in Fall: A Model Analysis in Support of the NASA NAAMES Earth-Venture Suborbital-2 Mission (United States)

    Liu, H.; Moore, R.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fairlie, T. D.; Hu, Y.; Chen, G.; Johnson, M. S.; Gantt, B.; Jaegle, L.


    The North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) is a five-year Earth-Venture Suborbital-2 Mission to characterize the plankton ecosystems and their influences on remote marine aerosols, boundary layer clouds, and their implications for climate in the North Atlantic, with the first field deployment in November 2015. While marine-sourced aerosols have been shown to make important contributions to surface aerosol loading, cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions, it is still a challenge to differentiate the marine biogenic aerosol signal from the strong influence of continental pollution outflow. As a pre-mission analysis, we examine here the spatiotemporal variability and quantify the sources of tropospheric aerosols over the North Atlantic during November 2008 using a state-of-the-art chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The model is driven by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA at 2°×2.5° horizontal resolution) from the NASA Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). It includes sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol thermodynamics coupled to ozone-NOx-hydrocarbon-aerosol chemistry, mineral dust, sea salt, elemental and organic carbon aerosols, especially a recently implemented parameterization for the marine primary organic aerosol emission. The simulated aerosols over the North Atlantic are evaluated with available satellite (e.g., MODIS) observations of aerosol optical depths (AOD) and surface aerosol measurements. We diagnose transport pathways for continental pollution outflow over the North Atlantic using carbon monoxide, an excellent tracer for anthropogenic pollution transport. Simulations indicate that, along the NAAMES nominal ship and flight tracks (40°W, 40-57°N), episodic pollution transport associated with frontal passages occurs at both the surface and free troposphere, with periods of relatively unperturbed marine air as indicated by

  5. Understanding practice patterns of glaucoma sub-specialists in India (United States)

    Choudhari, Nikhil S.; Pathak-Ray, Vanita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Vyas, Prateep; George, Ronnie


    AIM To obtain information on the prevailing practice patterns of glaucoma specialists in India. METHODS Glaucoma specialists attending the Annual Conference of the Glaucoma Society of India (GSI) were surveyed. This survey, conducted in 2013, was based on an interactive audience response system. RESULTS The information was obtained from 146 glaucoma specialists. Approximately half (n=83; 57%) had ≥10y of experience in managing glaucoma and were in institutional practice (n=74, 51%). Goldmann applanation tonometry was preferred by 103 (72%) specialists whilst n=25 (17.4%) used non-contact tonometer. Indentation gonioscopy was favoured by two-thirds (n=90, 66%) whereas stereoscopic optic disc examination and visual fields using Humphrey perimeter was performed by a majority of the specialists surveyed (n=115, 86% and n=114; 83% respectively). Nearly three quarter specialists (n=96; 72%) preferred optical coherence tomography for imaging. The primary choice for treatment of angle closure disease and primary open angle glaucoma was laser (iridotomy, n=117; 93%) and medical management (prostaglandin analogue, n=104; 78%), respectively. Approximately only a third of the specialists surveyed (n=37; 28%) were performing both trabeculectomy and implantation of a glaucoma drainage device and about half (n=64; 47%) were not operating on congenital glaucoma at all. CONCLUSION This survey has found conformance with preferred practice patterns in several areas of diagnosis and management of glaucoma, but there was diversity in a few areas. The information is a significant step towards improvement of glaucoma care in India, including planning for future strategies. PMID:29062779

  6. Adaptive digital beamforming for a CDMA mobile communications payload (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Samuel G.; Ruiz, Javier Benedicto


    reference signal highly correlated with the desired user signal and uncorrelated with the interferences. CDMA lends itself very easily to the generation of such a reference signal, thanks to the a priori knowledge of the user's signature sequence. First, the integration of an adaptive antenna in an asynchronous CDMA system is analyzed. The adaptive antenna system can provide increased interference rejection - much higher than that afforded by the code alone - and, since CDMA is mainly interference limited, any reduction in interference converts directly and linearly into an increase in capacity. Analyses and computer simulations are presented that show how an asynchronous CDMA system incorporating adaptive beamforming can provide at least as much capacity as a synchronous system. More importantly, the proposed concept allows the near-far effect to be mitigated without requiring a tight coordination of the users in terms of transmitted power control or network synchronization. The system is extremely robust to the near-far effect because the signals reaching the satellite from directions other than that of the desired user - which are likely to have different power levels - are adaptively canceled by the antenna. Finally, a payload architecture is presented that illustrates the practical implementation of this concept. This digital payload architecture demonstrates that with the advent of high performance CMOS digital processing, the on-board implementation of complex DSP techniques - in particular Digital Beamforming - has become possible, being most attractive for Mobile Satellite Communications.

  7. FD-CHIRP: hosted payload system engineering lessons (United States)

    Schueler, Carl F.


    The Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload (CHIRP) Flight Demonstration (FD-CHIRP) launched 21 Sept 2011 was designated a "resounding success" as the first Wide Field-of-View (WFOV) staring infrared (IR) sensor flown in geostationary earth orbit (GEO) with a primary mission of Missile Warning (MW). FD-CHIRP was an Air Force research and development project initiated in July 2008 via an unsolicited industry proposal aimed to mature and reduce the risk of WFOV sensors and ground processing technologies. Unlike the Defense Support Program (DSP) and the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) which were acquired via traditional integrated sensor and satellite design, FDCHIRP was developed using the "commercially hosted" approach. The FD-CHIRP host spacecraft and sensor were independently designed, creating significant development risk to the industry proposer, especially under a Firm Fixed Price contract. Yet, within 39 months of contract initiation, FD-CHIRP was launched and successfully operated in GEO to 30 June 2012 at a total cost of 111M including the 82.9M CHIRP commercial-hosting contract and a $28M sensor upgrade. The commercial-hosting contract included sensor and spacecraft modifications, integration and test, design and development of secure Mission Operations and Analysis Centers, launch, and nearly a year of GEO operations with 70 Mbps secure data acquisition. The Air Force extended the contract for six months to continue operations through the end of calendar 2012. This paper outlines system engineering challenges FD-CHIRP overcame and key lessons to smooth development of future commercially hosted missions.

  8. ACT Payload Shroud Structural Concept Analysis and Optimization (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.


    Aerospace structural applications demand a weight efficient design to perform in a cost effective manner. This is particularly true for launch vehicle structures, where weight is the dominant design driver. The design process typically requires many iterations to ensure that a satisfactory minimum weight has been obtained. Although metallic structures can be weight efficient, composite structures can provide additional weight savings due to their lower density and additional design flexibility. This work presents structural analysis and weight optimization of a composite payload shroud for NASA s Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Two concepts, which were previously determined to be efficient for such a structure are evaluated: a hat stiffened/corrugated panel and a fiber reinforced foam sandwich panel. A composite structural optimization code, HyperSizer, is used to optimize the panel geometry, composite material ply orientations, and sandwich core material. HyperSizer enables an efficient evaluation of thousands of potential designs versus multiple strength and stability-based failure criteria across multiple load cases. HyperSizer sizing process uses a global finite element model to obtain element forces, which are statistically processed to arrive at panel-level design-to loads. These loads are then used to analyze each candidate panel design. A near optimum design is selected as the one with the lowest weight that also provides all positive margins of safety. The stiffness of each newly sized panel or beam component is taken into account in the subsequent finite element analysis. Iteration of analysis/optimization is performed to ensure a converged design. Sizing results for the hat stiffened panel concept and the fiber reinforced foam sandwich concept are presented.

  9. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T. [Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Rivera, M.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials.

  10. The Gravity Probe B Payload Hoisted by Crane (United States)


    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) payload was hoisted by crane to the transportation truck in the W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory in Stanford, California for shipment to the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004, the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Stanford University)

  11. Education and training module for a specialist registrar: a move forward in specialist registrar education. (United States)

    White, A; Tuckey, J; Crane, S


    A new post was created in Portsmouth. This produced the opportunity, for a new and innovative approach to the education and training module for the specialist registrar (SpR) training programme. The GP tutor with supervision from the university, designed, implemented and evaluated the module. It took place during the first five months of the SpR contract. The method used was a case study in which the SpR was encouraged to reflect on practice. The learning outcomes were documented initially by the GP tutor and,finally, by the SpR using a logbook based on the dental professional development log. Reflecting on practice enabled the SpR to produce the evidence of her own learning and plan her future learning needs. The project highlights the advantages and problems of reflecting on practice. These issues must be addressed if the conflict between the need to produce the competent doctor and the demands of an educationally sound programme are to be resolved, to create critical thinking and autonomous lifelong, self-directed learners.

  12. Vibroacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS): VAPEPS management center remote access guide (United States)

    Fernandez, J. P.; Mills, D.


    A Vibroacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) Management Center was established at the JPL. The center utilizes the VAPEPS software package to manage a data base of Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle payload flight and ground test data. Remote terminal access over telephone lines to the computer system, where the program resides, was established to provide the payload community a convenient means of querying the global VAPEPS data base. This guide describes the functions of the VAPEPS Management Center and contains instructions for utilizing the resources of the center.

  13. A Vibroacoustic Database Management Center for Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle payloads (United States)

    Thomas, Valerie C.


    A Vibroacoustic Database Management Center has recently been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The center uses the Vibroacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) computer program to maintain a database of flight and ground-test data and structural parameters for both Shuttle and expendable launch-vehicle payloads. Given the launch-vehicle environment, the VAPEPS prediction software, which employs Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) methods, can be used with or without the database to establish the vibroacoustic environment for new payload components. This paper summarizes the VAPEPS program and describes the functions of the Database Management Center at JPL.

  14. Development of a vibroacoustic data base management and prediction system for payloads (United States)

    On, F. J.; Hendricks, W.


    A data base management and prediction system called vibroacoustic payload environment prediction system (VAPEPS) was developed to serve as a repository for shuttle or extendable booster payload component flight and ground test data. This system is to be made available to the aerospace community for multiple uses including that of establishing the vibroacoustic environment for new payload components. The VAPEPS data includes that spectral information normally processed from vibration and acoustic measurements (e.g., power spectra, sound pressure level spectra, etc.). Results of development to provide this capability by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Lockheed Missiles and Space Company are described.

  15. Vibroacoustic study of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center OSS-1 payload (United States)

    Lee, Y. A.; Henricks, W.


    A comparative evaluation of shuttle liftoff and ground test random response data obtained from the Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) pallet payload flown in the cargo bay of STS-3 is presented. The study was initiated to evaluate the possibility that the payload flight vibration response can exceed that occurred during ground test when the ground test acoustic excitation is normalized to the flight acoustic environment. In addition, the analytically derived response from the Vibroacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) is compared with OSS-1 ground test results.

  16. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Management summary (United States)


    The objectives of a study program to determine the life sciences payloads required for conducting biomedical experiments during space missions are presented. The objectives are defined as: (1) to identify the research functions which must be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and the equipment needed to support these functions and (2) to develop layouts and preliminary conceptual designs of several potential baseline payloads for the accomplishment of life research in space. Payload configurations and subsystems are described and illustrated. Tables of data are included to identify the material requirements for the space missions.

  17. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre (United States)

    Grant, T. J.


    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  18. NPS-SCAT: Systems Engineering and Payload Subsystem Design, Integration, and Testing of NPS’ First CubeSat (United States)


    Converter SERB Space Experiments Review Board SMS Solar Cell Measurement System SNAP Surrey Nanosatellite Applications Platform SOCEM Sub-Orbital CubeSat...protons, neutrons , or ions)” interacts on the atomic level within the affected solar cell to cause damage [31]. Atomic collisions between the...nanosatellite SNAP -1 (Surrey Nanosatellite Applications Platform), the Turkish RASAT (a Turkish word meaning “observation”), and the United States Air

  19. An analysis of specialist surgeons and their practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Koch


    Full Text Available A purposive sample of South African specialist doctors provided data for an empirical analysis of revenues, costs and earnings associated with specialist surgical medicine. The empirical analysis includes both parametric and nonparametric regression. Parametric estimates of revenues per new patient range between R689 to R818, while cost per new patient estimates range between R694 and R749; average surgeon income per new patient falls within a similar range.  Furthermore, costs per surgery follow a cubic specification, implying increasing marginal costs at the practice level. Returns to experience are estimated to be quadratic, although imprecisely so, given limited observations. Due to the low response rate in the survey, there is a need to conduct further research into this topic, to provide better information to both specialists and the South African Department of Health, which sets pay packages for public sector health workers.

  20. Integrating HCI Specialists into Open Source Software Development Projects (United States)

    Hedberg, Henrik; Iivari, Netta

    Typical open source software (OSS) development projects are organized around technically talented developers, whose communication is based on technical aspects and source code. Decision-making power is gained through proven competence and activity in the project, and non-technical end-user opinions are too many times neglected. In addition, also human-computer interaction (HCI) specialists have encountered difficulties in trying to participate in OSS projects, because there seems to be no clear authority and responsibility for them. In this paper, based on HCI and OSS literature, we introduce an extended OSS development project organization model that adds a new level of communication and roles for attending human aspects of software. The proposed model makes the existence of HCI specialists visible in the projects, and promotes interaction between developers and the HCI specialists in the course of a project.

  1. Evaluation of Leadership Practice of Vilnius Public Health Specialists


    Rašimaitė, Brigita


    Darbo tikslas – įvertinti Vilniaus miesto visuomenės sveikatos specialistų lyderystės raišką. Uždaviniai: 1. Įvertinti Vilniaus mieste dirbančių visuomenės sveikatos specialistų nuomonę apie lyderystę. 2. Nustatyti kokiais lyderiams būdingais elgsenos bruožais labiausiai pasižymi Vilniaus mieste dirbantys visuomenės sveikatos specialistai. 3. Nustatyti Vilniaus mieste dirbančių visuomenės sveikatos specialistų asmeninės lyderystės įvaldymo lygį. 4. Įvertinti Vilniaus mieste dir...

  2. Hermod: optical payload technology demonstrator flying on PROBA-V: overview of the payload development, testing and results after 1 year in orbit exploitation (United States)

    Hernandez, S.; Blasco, J.; Henriksen, V.; Samuelsson, H.; Navasquillo, O.; Grimsgaard, M.; Mellab, K.


    Proba-V is the third mission of ESA's Programme for In-orbit Technology Demonstration (IOD), based on a small, high performance satellite platform and a compact payload. Besides, the main satellite instrument aiming at Vegetation imaging, Proba-V embarks five technological payloads providing early flight opportunities for novel instruments and space technologies. Successfully launched by the ESA VEGA launcher in May 2013, it has now completed its commissioning and the full calibration of platform, main instrument and additional payloads and is, since last October, fully operational. The High dEnsity space foRM cOnnector Demonstration or HERMOD is the last payload selected to fly on Proba-V. The payload objective is to validate through an actual launch and in orbit high-density optical fibre cable assembly, cumulate space heritage for fibre optics transmission and evaluate possible degradation induced by the space environment compared to on-ground tests. The future applications of this technology are for intrasatellite optical communications in view of mass reduction, the electrical grounding simplification and to increase the transmission rate. The project has been supported under an ESA GSTP contract. T&G Elektro (Norway) developed and tested the different optical cable assembly to be validated in the payload. The electrooptic modules, control, power and mechanical interfaces have been developed by DAS Photonics (Spain). The payload contains four optical channels to be studied through the experiment, two assemblies with MTP/PC connectors and two assemblies with MPO/APC connectors. Optical data is transmitted in the four independent channels using two optoelectronic conversion modules (SIOS) working at 100Mbps including 2 full duplex channels each. A FPGA is used to generate, receive and compare the different binary patterns. The number of errors (if any) and Bit Error Rate (BER) is sent to the satellite TM interface. HERMOD successfully went through all mechanical

  3. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. MATHER, Tatiana S. LEITE, Allan T. BATISTA


    Full Text Available Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level. Here, we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice. Two methods were used, an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey. In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generalist by IS=0.77, but most chose many prey of the same species, and were specialists on it by >75% intake. Another population had a wider prey selection, still generalist with PSi=0.66, but two individuals specialized by choices. In Bonaire, there was a wide range of prey species chosen, and the population was specialists by IS= 0.42. Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists. A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans, so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74. But by individual choices, three were considered a specialist. A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences, in which seven were also specialists, IS=0.53. By individual choices, thirteen were also specialists. Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging, we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study [Current Zoology 58 (4: 597-603, 2012].

  4. A novel statistical method for classifying habitat generalists and specialists. (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Chao, Anne; Colwell, Robert K; Lin, Shang-Yi; Norden, Natalia; Letcher, Susan G; Clark, David B; Finegan, Bryan; Arroyo, J Pablo


    We develop a novel statistical approach for classifying generalists and specialists in two distinct habitats. Using a multinomial model based on estimated species relative abundance in two habitats, our method minimizes bias due to differences in sampling intensities between two habitat types as well as bias due to insufficient sampling within each habitat. The method permits a robust statistical classification of habitat specialists and generalists, without excluding rare species a priori. Based on a user-defined specialization threshold, the model classifies species into one of four groups: (1) generalist; (2) habitat A specialist; (3) habitat B specialist; and (4) too rare to classify with confidence. We illustrate our multinomial classification method using two contrasting data sets: (1) bird abundance in woodland and heath habitats in southeastern Australia and (2) tree abundance in second-growth (SG) and old-growth (OG) rain forests in the Caribbean lowlands of northeastern Costa Rica. We evaluate the multinomial model in detail for the tree data set. Our results for birds were highly concordant with a previous nonstatistical classification, but our method classified a higher fraction (57.7%) of bird species with statistical confidence. Based on a conservative specialization threshold and adjustment for multiple comparisons, 64.4% of tree species in the full sample were too rare to classify with confidence. Among the species classified, OG specialists constituted the largest class (40.6%), followed by generalist tree species (36.7%) and SG specialists (22.7%). The multinomial model was more sensitive than indicator value analysis or abundance-based phi coefficient indices in detecting habitat specialists and also detects generalists statistically. Classification of specialists and generalists based on rarefied subsamples was highly consistent with classification based on the full sample, even for sampling percentages as low as 20%. Major advantages of the new

  5. Evolution of the perioperative clinical nurse specialist role. (United States)

    Morrison, J D


    Perioperative nursing roles continue to rapidly change as we enter the twenty-first century. The need for strong leadership skills, expert clinical skills, creative management, ongoing continuing education, and research continues to grow in every department of surgical services. The clinical nurse specialist plays an important role in addressing each of these needs. Great opportunities exist within the field of nursing for perioperative nurses to expand their practice using their creativity, ideas, and skills. Using the clinical nurse specialist in the perioperative setting can foster creativity, stimulate development of new methods based on research, and maximize the delivery of high quality care by the entire OR staff.

  6. Characterization of the room temperature payload prototype for the cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector KAGRA. (United States)

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Fujii, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Barton, Mark; Hirata, Naoatsu; Shoda, Ayaka; van Heijningen, Joris; Flaminio, Raffaele; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Okutumi, Koki; Akutsu, Tomotada; Aso, Yoichi; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Ohishi, Naoko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Takamori, Akiteru; Majorana, Ettore; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Hennes, Eric; van den Brand, Jo; Bertolini, Alessandro


    KAGRA is a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector currently under construction in the Kamioka mine in Japan. Besides the cryogenic test masses, KAGRA will also rely on room temperature optics which will hang at the bottom of vibration isolation chains. The payload of each chain comprises an optic, a system to align it, and an active feedback system to damp the resonant motion of the suspension itself. This article describes the performance of a payload prototype that was assembled and tested in vacuum at the TAMA300 site at the NAOJ in Mitaka, Tokyo. We describe the mechanical components of the payload prototype and their functionality. A description of the active components of the feedback system and their capabilities is also given. The performance of the active system is illustrated by measuring the quality factors of some of the resonances of the suspension. Finally, the alignment capabilities offered by the payload are reported.

  7. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.


    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  8. Mathematical Modeling of a Moving Planar Payload Pendulum on Flexible Portal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwar Yazid


    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of a moving planar payload pendulum on elastic portal framework is presented in this paper. The equations of motion of such a system are obtained by modeling the portal frame using finite element in conjunction with moving finite element method and moving planar payload pendulum by using Lagrange’s equations. The generated equations indicate the presence of nonlinear coupling between dynamics of portal framework and the payload pendulum. The combinational direct numerical integration technique, namely Newmarkand fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, is then proposed to solve the coupled equations of motion. Several numerical simulations are performed and the results are verified with several benchmarks. The results indicate that the amplitude and frequency of the payload pendulum swing angle are greatly affected by flexibility of structure and the cable in term of carriage speed. 

  9. A mass additive technique for modal testing as applied to the Space Shuttle ASTRO-1 payload (United States)

    Coleman, A. D.; Driskill, T. C.; Anderson, J. B.; Brown, D. L.


    Traditionally, a fixed base modal test has been performed as a means of verifying the coupled loads math model for Space Shuttle flight payloads. An alternate method, a free-free configured payload using mass loaded boundary conditions, is presented as a means of verifying the coupled loads model of the ASTRO-1 flight payload. This method allows evaluation of the influence of local load paths into the frequency range of the free-free test. The method is cost effective and does not contaminate the modal test results with fixture coupled modes or boundary condition uncertainties. This paper describes the mass additive modal test technique as applied to the Space Shuttle ASTRO-1 flight payload.

  10. STS-39 Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) gas release from OV-103 payload bay (United States)


    A plume of nitrous oxide gas is released from a compressed gas canister mounted on the increased capacity adaptive payload carrier 1 (ICAPC-1) on the forward port side of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, payload bay (PLB). The gas release is part of the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiment conducted during STS-39. The Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS-II) 'parked' about two kilometers (km) away, is taking infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometric spatial, spectral, and temporal measurements of the gas plumes. Surrounding the CIV ICAPC-1 are: the ICAPC-2 payload support subsystem, radiometer, and Langmuir probe also mounted on the port side; the Space Test Payload 1 (STP-1) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) (just beyond gas beam); and the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) experiment support structure (ESS).

  11. Technology Disruptions in Future Communication Payloads (Technologies de rupture pour futures charges utiles de telecommunications)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gayrard, Jean-Didier


    ...: gigantism, adaptation, or modularity. Any of these ways will require satellite payloads to evolve from present levels of complexity that are mainly suited for TV broadcasting and telephone trunking in the Ku and C bands, to a new...

  12. A crane is lowered over the payload canister with the SRTM inside (United States)


    A crane is lowered over the payload canister with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) inside in Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 2. The primary payload on STS-99, the SRTM will soon be lifted out of the canister and installed into the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour. The SRTM consists of a specially modified radar system that will gather data for the most accurate and complete topographic map of the Earth's surface that has ever been assembled. SRTM will make use of radar interferometry, wherein two radar images are taken from slightly different locations. Differences between these images allow for the calculation of surface elevation. The SRTM hardware includes one radar antenna in the Shuttle payload bay and a second radar antenna attached to the end of a mast extended 60 meters (195 feet) from the shuttle. STS-99 is scheduled to launch Sept. 16 at 8:47 a.m. from Launch Pad 39A.

  13. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment (United States)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  14. Lightweight Liquid Helium Dewar for High-Altitude Balloon Payloads (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; James, Bryan; Fixsen, Dale


    Astrophysical observations at millimeter wavelengths require large (2-to-5- meter diameter) telescopes carried to altitudes above 35 km by scientific research balloons. The scientific performance is greatly enhanced if the telescope is cooled to temperatures below 10 K with no emissive windows between the telescope and the sky. Standard liquid helium bucket dewars can contain a suitable telescope for telescope diameter less than two meters. However, the mass of a dewar large enough to hold a 3-to-5-meter diameter telescope would exceed the balloon lift capacity. The solution is to separate the functions of cryogen storage and in-flight thermal isolation, utilizing the unique physical conditions at balloon altitudes. Conventional dewars are launched cold: the vacuum walls necessary for thermal isolation must also withstand the pressure gradient at sea level and are correspondingly thick and heavy. The pressure at 40 km is less than 0.3% of sea level: a dewar designed for use only at 40 km can use ultra thin walls to achieve significant reductions in mass. This innovation concerns new construction and operational techniques to produce a lightweight liquid helium bucket dewar. The dewar is intended for use on high-altitude balloon payloads. The mass is low enough to allow a large (3-to-5-meter) diameter dewar to fly at altitudes above 35 km on conventional scientific research balloons without exceeding the lift capability of the balloon. The lightweight dewar has thin (250- micron) stainless steel walls. The walls are too thin to support the pressure gradient at sea level: the dewar launches warm with the vacuum space vented continuously during ascent to eliminate any pressure gradient across the walls. A commercial 500-liter storage dewar maintains a reservoir of liquid helium within a minimal (hence low mass) volume. Once a 40-km altitude is reached, the valve venting the vacuum space of the bucket dewar is closed to seal the vacuum space. A vacuum pump then

  15. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) Superpressure Balloon Payload (United States)

    Boggs, Steven E.


    consumables (LN2) for ULDB flights.In this talk, we will present the redesign of the COSI instrument and payload, as well as the overall flight program and science goals of our ULDB science flight program.

  16. Two-Stage Vibration Isolation for Flexible Satellite Bus and Optic Payload Structures (United States)


    and damper model and with neglectable mass . Subscripts denote degree of freedoms corresponding to actuators ( R ), actuator isolators’ locations on... damper inserted inside the elastic element. Comparing with liquid damper and viscoelastic material damper , this damper has such merits as simple...satellite bus and the optic payload are rigid body. This study indicates that a large mass ratio between the satellite bus and the optical payload can

  17. Design, Development, and Integration of A Space Shuttle Orbiter Bay 13 Payload Carrier (United States)

    Spencer, Susan H.; Phillips, Michael W.; Upton, Lanny (Technical Monitor)


    Bay 13 of the Space Shuttle Orbiter has been limited to small sidewall mounted payloads and ballast. In order to efficiently utilize this space, a concept was developed for a cross-bay cargo carrier to mount Orbital Replacement Units (ORU's) for delivery to the International Space Station and provide additional opportunities for science payloads, while meeting the Orbiter ballast requirements. The Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) Carrie (LMC) was developed and tested by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Boeing Company. The Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS), which was developed for the Spacelab program was modified, removing the keel structure and relocating the sill trunnions to fit in Bay 13. Without the keel fitting, the LMC required a new and innovative concept for transferring Y loads into the Orbiter structure. Since there is no keel fitting available in the Bay 13 location, the design had to utilize the longeron bridge T-rail to distribute the Y loads. This concept has not previously been used in designing Shuttle payloads. A concept was developed to protect for Launch-On-Need ORU's, while providing opportunities for science payloads. Categories of potential ORU's were defined, and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads of similar mass properties were provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Four GAS payloads were manifest as the baseline configuration, preserving the capability to swap up to two ORU's for the corresponding science payloads, after installation into the Orbiter cargo bay at the pad, prior to closeout. Multiple configurations were considered for the analytical integration, to protect for all defined combinations of ORU's and GAS payloads. The first physical integration of the LMC war performed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Kennedy Space Center at an off-line facility at Kennedy Space Center. This paper will discuss the design challenges, structural testing, analytical and physical

  18. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 1: Management summary (United States)


    The findings of a study to define the required payloads for conducting life science experiments in space are presented. The primary objectives of the study are: (1) identify research functions to be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and necessary equipment, (2) develop conceptual designs of potential payloads, (3) integrate selected laboratory designs with space shuttle configurations, and (4) establish cost analysis of preliminary program planning.

  19. Workspace and Payload-Capacity of a New Reconfigurable Delta Parallel Robot


    Mauro Maya; Eduardo Castillo; Alberto Lomelí; Emilio González-Galván; Antonio Cárdenas


    In this paper the workspace and payload capacity of a new design of reconfigurable Delta-type parallel robot is analysed. The reconfiguration is achieved by adjusting the length of the kinematic chains of a given robot link simultaneously and symmetrically during the operation of the robot. This would produce a dynamic workspace in shape and volume. A numerical analysis of the variation of shape and volume of the workspace and payload capacity of the robot is presented. Based both on the resu...

  20. Hotel Payload - a low-cost sounding rocket concept - for middle atmosphere and ionosphere (United States)

    Hauglund, Kenneth; Hansen, Gudmund


    European scientists are invited to utilize the "Hotel Payload" concept developed at Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) for scientific research in Middle Atmosphere and Ionosphere. The concept is shaped to give scientists predictability and assurance on configuration, costs and timeframe for their projects. The scientists are offered one sounding rocket partner from planning till launch - so they can focus on their instruments. To demonstrate the capabilities, this paper presents the "Hotel Payload" concept, its configurations and specific projects with instrumentation.

  1. Coal industry needs more specialists with higher education levels and a better distribution of specialists within state-owned enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, K.; Pavlov, D. (Asotsiatsiya Energetika (Bulgaria))


    Discusses availability of highly qualified manpower in Bulgarian coal mines in March 1988, when there were 1,231 employees with higher education - 1,146 as managers or supervisors, 85 as executives. Of the first group, 364 worked in management, 540 in basic production and 242 in auxiliary departments of combines. Analysis shows that their professional experience, academic background, knowledge and post-graduate education do not correspond to the requirements of coal mines. Only the VMGI and VMEI institutes train highly qualified coal mining specialists. In 1987 and 1988, they produced 273 mining and 253 electrical engineers, of whom only 43 started work in coal mines in 1987 as this branch may only employ 2.4 specialists per 100 workers. Bulgaria suffers from a lack of technicians and highly qualified specialists, particularly in electro-technical and electronic fields. For this reason, utilization and maintenance of mining equipment is unsatisfactory.

  2. The role of the Diabetes Specialist Nurse | Cable | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Global statistics often do not differentiate between the two, therefore in this article the author refers to both types under the general term of 'diabetes'. There is, however, a greater emphasis placed upon type 2. Keywords: Role, Diabetes, Specialist, Nurse, DSN ...

  3. Evaluation of specialist referrals at a rural health care clinic. (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Mary Ellen; Short, Nancy


    Transition to a value-based care system involves reducing costs improving population health and enhancing the patient experience. Many rural hospitals must rely on specialist referrals because of a lack of an internal system of specialists on staff. This evaluation of the existing specialist referrals from primary care was conducted to better understand and improve the referral process and address costs, population health, and the patient experience. A 6-month retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate quality and outcomes of specialty referrals submitted by 10 primary care providers. During a 6-month period in 2015, there was a total of 13,601 primary care patient visits and 3814 referrals, a referral rate of approximately 27%. The most striking result of this review was that nearly 50% of referred patients were not making the prescribed specialist appointment. Rather than finding a large number of unnecessary referrals, we found overall referral rates higher than expected, and a large percentage of our patients were not completing their referrals. The data and patterns emerging from this investigation would guide the development of referral protocols for a newly formed accountable care organization and lead to further quality improvement projects: a LEAN effort, dissemination of results to clinical and executive staff, protocols for orthopedic and neurosurgical referrals, and recommendations for future process improvements. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists. (United States)


    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...

  5. Refrigeration and Cryogenics Specialist. J3ABR54530 (United States)

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This document package contains an Air Force course used to train refrigeration and cryogenics specialists. The course is organized in six blocks designed for group instruction. The blocks cover the following topics: electrical principles; fundamentals of tubing and piping; metering devices, motor controls, domestic and commercial refrigeration;…

  6. Computer Cache: ERIC and the Library Media Specialist. (United States)

    Lodish, Erica K.


    Description of how library media specialists can assist teachers and administrators in retrieving useful information by using ERIC highlights its organization, the types of materials available that are especially useful to classroom teachers, and ways that it can be accessed online. A list of ERIC Clearinghouses with addresses is included. (EM)

  7. Treatment policies among Israeli specialists in paediatric dentistry. (United States)

    Gordon, M; Gorfil, C; Segal, S; Mass, E


    This was to evaluate some suggested diagnostic procedures, treatment policies and professional attitudes of specialists in paediatric dentistry, in light of the periodically published guidelines by The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry and The British Society of Paediatric Dentistry. Using a structured questionnaire, 67% of the Israeli specialists in paediatric dentistry, who agreed to participate in this study, were personally interviewed. Only 7.5% of the participants reported that they carry out pulp capping of primary teeth in cases of pulp exposure. Over 50% reported restoring teeth after pulpotomy with preformed crowns. Most indicated sealing pit and fissures after considering depth and morphology of the fissures and correlation with the patient's risk to caries. Cleaning teeth after eruption of the first tooth was suggested by 75.5% of the participants. A striking majority (96%) claimed that they restored permanent anterior teeth with composite resins and most used these materials for occlusal restoration in both primary and permanent posterior teeth. Most specialists advocated the use of amalgam in proximal posterior restorations. The presence of a parent in the operatory/surgery was preferred by 85% of the dentists. Israeli specialists in paediatric dentistry mostly comply with the mentioned guidelines. Further studies of this nature should also be encouraged in other countries to emphasize the importance of monitoring compliance with established and evidence based guidelines.

  8. Specialist paediatric dentistry in Sweden 2008 - a 25-year perspective. (United States)

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer


    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to paediatric dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more paediatric dentists remains.

  9. School Library Media Specialists' Perceptions of Collaboration, Leadership and Technology (United States)

    Powell, Jozan M.


    School impact media studies indicate that a well-staffed and funded school library media program with a certified school library media specialist (SLMS) positively correlates with increased student achievement. SLMS must have a shared understanding of their roles and responsibilities to positively impact student success. In an effort to determine…

  10. Construction of Professional Identity in Novice Library Media Specialists (United States)

    Sandford, Deborah W.


    The roles of the person who works in a school library, as well as their title--librarian, teacher-librarian, library teacher, library media specialist, school librarian, library media teacher--have undergone countless revisions since the first official school libraries opened their doors in the early 1900s. Although school library media…

  11. Mentoring a New Library Media Specialist: A Model Relationship (United States)

    Creighton, Peggy Milam


    In this article, the author discusses her experiences mentoring new library media specialists for each of the past three years. She discusses the following topics: (1) What is a mentor?; (2) What exactly is the purpose of a mentor?; (3) Why mentor?; (4) What are the professional practices of a good mentor; (5) Building a professional toolbox; (6)…

  12. The Perception of Teachers and School Library Media Specialist on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the above, the teachers need to be trained so as to be fully aware of the role of school library media specialists in the school. Also, governments need to support the school administration in the area of funding particularly the funding of the school library media centre so as to meet the need of the students.

  13. Bursting with Potential: Mixing a Media Specialist's Palette (United States)

    Lamb, Annette


    School media specialists must be teachers, leaders, and advocates for reading, inquiry, and learning. Partnering with classroom teachers, they must design and implement curriculum and instruction that prepare young citizens for a life that requires thinking, inquiry, problem-solving and ethical behavior. These experiences provide the foundation…

  14. Sports in elementary school : Physical education specialists vs. group teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Remo Mombarg; Ben Moolenaar; Eralt Boers; Wouter de Groot


    The aim of the project is stimulating sport participation among elementary school children in the province of Friesland. The ultimate aim is to provide three hours of physical education, provided by an physical education specialist, plus two extra hours of sport activities. Part one is about

  15. Perioperative Clinical Nurse Specialist Role Delineation: A Systematic Review (United States)


    Nurs, 18(2), 138-143. Berger, A. M., Eilers, J. G., Heermann, J. A., Warren, J. J., Franco, T., & Triolo, P. K. State-of-the- art patient care: the...Nurse Spec, 5(1 ), 25-30. Cukr, P. L. Viva la difference! The nation needs both types of advanced practice nurses: clinical nurse specialists and nurse

  16. attitude of cleft care specialists in africa towards presurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2012 ... and Dentistry. In general, treatment protocol for patients with cleft lip and palate are pre-surgical orthopaedics, surgical repair of the lip , palate and specialist management of associated complications such as speech ,otology and dental anomalies. Pre- surgical ... facial aesthetics with minimal scar tissue .

  17. Use of professional profiles in applications for specialist training positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Skjelsager, Karen; Wildgaard, Kim


    The seven roles of the CanMEDS system have been implemented in Danish postgraduate medical training. For each medical specialty, a professional profile describes which elements of the seven roles the specialty deems important for applicants for a specialist training position. We investigated use...

  18. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland (United States)

    Zukowski, Wojciech


    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  19. Counselling Challenges and Strategies for Cochlear Implant Specialists (United States)

    English, Kris


    Cochlear implant specialists daily observe patients and families grapple with a wide range of emotions. As nonprofessional counsellors, we can help patients address those emotions by providing more opportunities to talk about their thoughts and feelings. This paper will review some familiar counselling challenges, such as the disappointment that…

  20. A report and sequelae of a specialist volunteer physician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    did ward rounds in the First Class and Professor Woodruff amenity wards .... care. • Lack of interdepartmental coordination: This particularly applied to the relationship between the public health programmes and hospital based clinical services. • Lack of ... registrar), registered nurses and specialists to ensure that there is a ...

  1. Training Peer Specialists in Cognitive Therapy Strategies for Recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cournos, Francine; Goldfinger, Stephen M; Perry, Yael; Murakami-Brundage, Jessica; Grant, Paul M; Beck, Aaron T


    ...-oriented cognitive therapy treatment milieu, we conducted a pilot program with certified peer specialists (CPSs) to provide them skills for working with individuals who have schizophrenia (consumers). Recovery-oriented cognitive therapy emphasizes individualized goal attainment: long-term goals are broken down into intermediate and short-term goals, and...

  2. Telemarketing. Curriculum Guides & Content Outlines for Telemarketing: Telemarketing Specialist. (United States)

    Shepard, Del

    This curriculum guide and content outline for the telemarketing specialist contains seven sections: (1) specialized telemarketing tasks; (2) telemarketing selling skills; (3) marketing tasks; (4) business-related tasks; (5) business-specific tasks; (6) personnel/human resources related; and (7) communications and minimum skill tasks. Each section…

  3. A Demographic Study of Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialists. (United States)

    Wiener, William R.; Siffermann, Eileen


    A survey of 217 AER-certified orientation and mobility specialists (COMSs) found the median annual income for full-time employed COMSs was $39,000. Of the respondents, 63.7 were women, 91.5 percent were white, and the median age was 43 years. The majority entering into the field had master's degrees. (Contains references.) (CR)

  4. Maternal Mortality At The State Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal Mortality At The State Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Northern Nigeria. ... The highest maternal death was in the adolescent mothers. The primigravidas had the ... communities providing important messages for a healthy pregnancy, and safe birth remain the bedrock of containing maternal mortality in our environment.

  5. Use of professional profiles in applications for specialist training positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Skjelsager, Karen; Wildgaard, Kim


    INTRODUCTION: The seven roles of the CanMEDS system have been implemented in Danish postgraduate medical training. For each medical specialty, a professional profile describes which elements of the seven roles the specialty deems important for applicants for a specialist training position. We inv...

  6. Specialisation and specialist education in prosthetic dentistry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owall, B.; Welfare, R.; Garefis, P.; Hedzelek, W.; Hobkirk, J.; Isidor, F.; Jerolimov, V.; Jokstad, A.; Kalk, W.; Kronstrom, M.; van der Kuij, P.; Mericske-Stern, R.; Naert, I.; Narhi, T.; Nilner, K.; Polyzois, G.; Setz, J.; User, A.; Zonnenberg, A.


    This presentation reports on the results of a meeting of prosthodontists from selected European countries. The aim of the meeting was to analyse and promote specialisation and specialist education in Prosthetic Dentistry in Europe. Representatives for Europe were selected from the European

  7. EDITORIAL Specialist Physicians (Family Medicine) in private practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fees with medical schemes. 3. The Academy should inform all its members of this development by communiqué, website and SAFP Journal article. The committee is to be tasked to formulate frameworks for the private practice of specialist physicians in family medicine. This to address: • Remuneration and engagement with ...

  8. Medical cost of Lassa fever treatment in Irrua Specialist Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the direct medical cost of Lassa fever treatment on patients in South-South Nigeria. All the 73 confirmed Lassa fever cases admitted in the isolation ward of the Institute Of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) Irrua, in Edo State, Nigeria, ...

  9. Science Specialists or Classroom Teachers: Who Should Teach Elementary Science? (United States)

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Jia, Yueming; Marco-Bujosa, Lisa; Gess-Newsome, Julie; Pasquale, Marian


    This study examined science programs, instruction, and student outcomes at 30 elementary schools in a large, urban district in the northeast United States in an effort to understand whether there were meaningful differences in the quality, quantity and cost of science education when provided by a science specialist or a classroom teacher. Student…

  10. DOC questionnaire : measuring how GPs and medical specialists rate collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.J.; Benneker, W.H.; Groenier, K.H.; Schuling, J.; Grol, R.P.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.


    PURPOSE: This paper aims to assess the validity of a questionnaire aimed at assessing how general practitioners (GPs) and specialists rate collaboration. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Primary data were collected in The Netherlands during March to September 2006. A cross-sectional study was conducted

  11. DOC questionnaire: measuring how GPs and medical specialists rate collaboration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.J.; Benneker, W.H.; Groenier, K.H.; Schuling, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.


    PURPOSE: This paper aims to assess the validity of a questionnaire aimed at assessing how general practitioners (GPs) and specialists rate collaboration. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Primary data were collected in The Netherlands during March to September 2006. A cross-sectional study was conducted

  12. Foursquare: A Health Education Specialist Checks-In--A Commentary (United States)

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa


    More and more, health education specialists are integrating technology into their work. Whereas most are familiar with social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn, one relatively new form of social media, location based services (LBS), may be less familiar. Developed in 2000, LBS are software applications that are accessible from a…

  13. A Phenomenological Study of Adult Non-Art Specialists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study of museum visitors' experience of paintings: in particular, the experience of adult non-art specialists. Phenomenology, a form of inquiry that seeks to articulate lived experience, provided the philosophical and methodological framework for the study. Descriptions and themes relating to the ...

  14. The Burden of Specialist Urologic Care in Abuja, Federal Capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Burden of Specialist Urologic Care in Abuja, Federal Capital City, Nigeria: A Single Surgeons 4-Year Case Load. ... West African Journal of Medicine ... The mean ages for male children less than 1 year old was 6.9months and 3.1years for those older while the mean age the only 2 female children seen was 11years.

  15. Study Guide for Teacher Certification Test for Media Specialists. (United States)

    Smith, Jane Bandy

    This study guide is designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) for media specialists. It provides two kinds of information--narratives and bibliographic references. Content objectives are covered for the areas of: (1) management and organization; (2) personnel administration; (3) instruction and…

  16. Flower visitation by generalists and specialists : Analysis of pollinator quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Velterop, O; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ


    Flowers of Scabiosa columbaria (Dipsacaceae) are visited by a large number of insect species, generalists and one specialist. Per population one insect species or group was dominant. Syrphids, bumblebee males and the day-active night moth Autographa gamma were the most numerous visitors in Dutch

  17. Music without a Music Specialist: A Primary School Story (United States)

    de Vries, Peter A.


    This case study focuses on generalist primary (elementary) school teachers teaching music in an Australian school. With the onus for teaching music moving away from the specialist music teacher to the generalist classroom teacher, this case study adds to a growing body of literature focusing on generalist primary school teachers and music…

  18. How much does the specialist know about cardiogastroenterology? (United States)

    Aguilar-Nájera, O; Valdovinos-García, L R; Tepox-Padrón, A; Valdovinos-Díaz, M A


    Cardiovascular disease is a growing public health problem. Forty percent of the general population will suffer from the disease by 2030, consequently requiring antithrombotic therapy. Cardiogastroenterology is a new area of knowledge that evaluates the gastrointestinal effects and complications of antithrombotic therapy. Our aim was to evaluate, through a validated questionnaire, the knowledge held by a group of specialists and residents in the areas of gastroenterology and internal medicine, about pharmacology and drug prescription, as well as gastrointestinal risks and complications, in relation to antithrombotic therapy. A validated questionnaire composed of 30 items was applied to a group of specialists and residents in the areas of gastroenterology and internal medicine. The questions were on indications, pharmacology, evaluation of risks for gastrointestinal bleeding and thromboembolic events, and use of antithrombotic therapy during endoscopic procedures. Sufficient knowledge was defined as 18 or more (≥ 60%) correct answers. The questionnaire was answered by 194 physicians: 82 (42%) internal medicine residents and gastroenterology residents and 112 (58%) specialists. Only 40 (20.6%) of the participants had sufficient knowledge of cardiogastroenterology. Residents had a higher number of correct answers than specialists (53 vs. 36%, P<.0001). The gastroenterology residents had more correct answers than the internal medicine residents, gastroenterologists, and internists (70 vs. 53, 40, and 46%, respectively, P<.001). Only residents had sufficient knowledge regarding pharmacology and the use of antithrombotic therapy in endoscopy (P<.0001). All groups had insufficient knowledge in evaluating the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding and thrombosis. Knowledge of cardiogastroenterology was insufficient in the group of residents and specialists surveyed. There is a need for medical education programs on the appropriate use of antithrombotic therapy. Copyright

  19. Secondary Payload Opportunities on NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Enable Science and Deep Space Exploration (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George


    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). With this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. This first launch of SLS and the Orion Spacecraft is planned no later than November 2018 and will fly along a trans-lunar trajectory, testing the performance of the SLS and Orion systems for future missions. NASA is making investments to expand the science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites to be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for the advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload

  20. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads from a Single Deployment (United States)


    Improved Space Surveillance Network Observation Error Modeling and Techniques for Force Model Error Mitigation,” AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist... Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Sun Valley, Idaho, August, 1997, Paper No. 97-687. 18. Arsenault, J.L., Ford, K.C., and Koskela, P.E., “Orbit

  1. Establishing a Research Agenda for Understanding the Role and Impact of Mental Health Peer Specialists. (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; McInnes, D Keith; Eisen, Susan; Ellison, Marsha; Farkas, Marianne; Armstrong, Moe; Resnick, Sandra G


    Mental health peer specialists are individuals with serious mental illnesses who receive training to use their lived experiences to help others with serious mental illnesses in clinical settings. This Open Forum discusses the state of the research for mental health peer specialists and suggests a research agenda to advance the field. Studies have suggested that peer specialists vary widely in their roles, settings, and theoretical orientations. Theories of action have been proposed, but none have been tested. Outcome studies have shown benefits of peer specialists; however, many studies have methodological shortcomings. Qualitative descriptions of peer specialists are plentiful but lack grounding in implementation science frameworks. A research agenda advancing the field could include empirically testing theoretical mechanisms of peer specialists, developing a measure of peer specialist fidelity, conducting more rigorous outcomes studies, involving peer specialists in executing the research, and assessing various factors that influence implementing peer specialist services and testing strategies that could address those factors.

  2. [Collaboration between occupational physicians and other specialists including insurance physicians]. (United States)

    Rijkenberg, A M; van Sprundel, M; Stassijns, G


    Collaboration between various stakeholders is essential for a well-operating vocational rehabilitation process. Researchers have mentioned, among other players, insurance physicians, the curative sector and employers. In 2011 the WHO organised the congress "Connecting Health and Labour: What role for occupational health in primary care". The congress was also attended by representatives of the WONCA (World Organisations of Family Medicine). In general, everyone agreed that occupational health aspects should continue to be seen as an integral part of primary health care. However, it is not easy to find literature on this subject. For this reason we conducted a review. We searched for literature relating to collaboration with occupational physicians in Dutch, English and German between 2001 and autumn 2011. Our attention focused on cooperation with specialists and insurance physicians. Therefore, we searched PUBMED using MeSH terms and made use of the database from the "Tijdschrift voor bedrijfs- en verzekeringsgeneeskunde (TBV) [Dutch Journal for Occupational - and Insurance Medicine]". We also checked the database from the "Deutsches Arzteblatt [German Medical Journal]" and made use of the online catalogue from THIEME - eJOURNALS. Last but not least, I used the online catalogue from the German paper "Arbeits -, Sozial -, Umweltmedizin [Occupational -, Social -, Milieu Medicine]". Additionally, we made use of the "snowball - method" to find relevant literature. We found many references to this subject. The Netherlands in particular has done a lot of research in this field. However, there is little research on the cooperation between occupational physicians and specialists; in particular insurance physicians. This is interesting, because several authors have mentioned its importance. However, cooperation with other specialists seems not to be the norm. Therefore, cooperation between curative physicians (specialists but also family doctors), insurance physicians and

  3. Stars For Citizens With Urban Star Parks and Lighting Specialists (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin


    General contextOne hundred years ago, almost nobody imagine a life without stars every night even in the urban areas. Now, to see a starry sky is a special event for urban citizens.It is possible to see the stars even inside cities? Yes, but for that we need star parks and lighting specialists as partners.Educational aspectThe citizens must be able to identify the planets, constellations and other celestial objects in their urban residence. This is part of a basic education. The number of the people living in the urban area who never see the main constellations or important stars increase every year. We must do something for our urban community.What is an urban star park?An urban public park where we can see the main constellations can be considered an urban star park. There can be organized a lot of activities as practical lessons of astronomy, star parties, etc.Classification of the urban star parksA proposal for classification of the urban star parks taking in consideration the quality of the sky and the number of the city inhabitants:Two categories:- city star parks for cities with parks for cities with > 100.000 inhabitantsFive levels of quality:- 1* level = can see stars of at least 1 magnitude with the naked eyes- 2* level = at least 2 mag- 3* level = at least 3 mag- 4* level= at least 4 mag- 5* level = at least 5 magThe urban star urban park structure and lighting systemA possible structure of a urban star park and sky-friend lighting including non-electric illumination are descripted.The International Commission on IlluminationA description of this structure which has as members national commissions from all over the world.Dark-sky activists - lighting specialistsNational Commissions on Illumination organize courses of lighting specialist. Dark-sky activists can become lighting specialists. The author shows his experience in this aspect as a recent lighting specialist and his cooperation with the Romanian National Commission on Illumination working for a

  4. Intuitive Tools for the Design and Analysis of Communication Payloads for Satellites (United States)

    Culver, Michael R.; Soong, Christine; Warner, Joseph D.


    In an effort to make future communications satellite payload design more efficient and accessible, two tools were created with intuitive graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The first tool allows payload designers to graphically design their payload by using simple drag and drop of payload components onto a design area within the program. Information about each picked component is pulled from a database of common space-qualified communication components sold by commerical companies. Once a design is completed, various reports can be generated, such as the Master Equipment List. The second tool is a link budget calculator designed specifically for ease of use. Other features of this tool include being able to access a database of NASA ground based apertures for near Earth and Deep Space communication, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) base apertures, and information about the solar system relevant to link budget calculations. The link budget tool allows for over 50 different combinations of user inputs, eliminating the need for multiple spreadsheets and the user errors associated with using them. Both of the aforementioned tools increase the productivity of space communication systems designers, and have the colloquial latitude to allow non-communication experts to design preliminary communication payloads.

  5. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven


    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  6. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads (United States)

    Kassa, M.; Rapp, M.; Hartquist, T. W.; Havnes, O.


    We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE) dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  7. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa


    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  8. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    , James D. Risk factors at medical school for subsequent professional misconduct: multicenter retrospective case-control study. BMJ 2010;340:c2040. Evans DE, Alstead EM, Brown J. Applying your clinical skills to students and trainees in academic difficulty. Clin Teach 2010;7(4):230-235. Yao DC, Wright SM....... The challenge of problem residents. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:486-492. Papadakis MA, Hodgson CS, Theherani A, Kohatsu ND. Unprofessional behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board. Acad Med 2004;79:244-249. Ringsted C, Hodges B, Scherpbier A. ‘The...... seemed to predict struggling in postgraduate education if any. The study design is rooted in epidemiological methodology. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case-control study. It has been reported in the international literature, that around 3-10% of doctors in post-garduate specialist...

  9. Translational health research: perspectives from health education specialists. (United States)

    Mata, Holly J; Davis, Sharon


    The phrase "from bench to bedside to curbside" is a common definition of translational research among health disparities researchers. Health Education Specialists can make important contributions to the field of clinical translational medicine, particularly in light of U.S. health care reform and a renewed emphasis on medical home or health care home models.Health Education Specialists have the training and experience to engage in and facilitate translational research, as well as the opportunity to learn from the translational efforts of other professions and enhance our research, practice, and community partnerships through translational efforts. In this paper, a Translational Health Education Research framework for health education researchers is suggested to foster increased translational efforts within our profession as well as to promote interdisciplinary collaborations to translate a variety of health-related research. A conceptual framework adapted from translational health disparities research that highlights the level and scope of translational research necessary for changes in practice and policy is also provided.

  10. STS-93 Mission Specialist Cady Coleman suits up for launch (United States)


    For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) dons her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman, and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  11. Some milestones: specialist education, training and assessment in Singapore. (United States)

    Chew, Chin Hin


    Singapore had its most significant milestone in 1905 when the Singapore Medical School was founded. The Academy of Medicine, founded in 1957, celebrates its Golden Anniversary in 2007. Thus, the events that influenced the development of postgraduate medicine, specialist education, training and examinations commenced rightly from 1957. These are presented chronologically. The significant roles played by the Academy, the University's Medical School and the Ministry of Health are highlighted, bearing in mind the ongoing developments in Singapore and globally over the years. To keep pace with the further developments and advances, the high gold standards in specialist training and assessment need to be refined with time. This can only be to the benefit of our patients and the community in Singapore and beyond.

  12. Physical perfection of future specialists to the management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolinnyj U.A.


    Full Text Available The process of leadthrough of practical employments is considered on physical education on an experimental model, which are directed on the increase of reserve possibilities of organism of future specialists of management. In an experiment took part 30 students of 2 and 3 courses. It is set that management specialists for high-quality implementation of work need a high mental capacity, enhanceable psychoemotional firmness, general endurance. Directions of prophylaxis of emotional and physical overstrain are recommended, increases of level of positive motivation to systematic employments by physical exercises. It is marked that an experimental model in combination with the fixed form of leadthrough of employments on a body-conditioning and employments on specialization of the chosen type of sport is one the stages of alteration organizationally of methodical aspects of physical culture.

  13. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones. (United States)

    Rouse, Greg W; Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C


    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three species of Osedax, each of which also lives off whalebones. This suggests that rather than being a whale-fall specialist, Osedax has exploited and continues to exploit a variety of food sources. The ability of Osedax to colonize and to grow on fishbone lends credibility to a hypothesis that it might have split from its siboglinid relatives to assume the bone-eating lifestyle during the Cretaceous, well before the origin of marine mammals.

  14. STS-86 Mission Specialist Jean-Loup Chretien at TCDT (United States)


    STS-86 Mission Specialist Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES, participates in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at Launch Pad 39A. This will be his third spaceflight, but first on the Space Shuttle. He flew twice as a research-cosmonaut on Russian missions. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will transfer to the orbiting Russian station and become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since the last docking mission, STS-84, in May. Launch of Mission STS-86 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis is targeted for Sept. 25.

  15. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations (United States)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  16. The opinions of Finnish specialist physicians on social security system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arttu O Saarinen


    Full Text Available

    Background: We can argue that opinions are considered to be part of the physician’s professional identity. Professional identity has been considered a result of learning. After graduation physicians usually continue to study to gain a specialisation, and we can assume that this process affects their opinions because every specialty has its own “cultural climate”. Also, specialists have different views towards the welfare state because, for example, of the fact that they work with different types of population groups.

    Aim of the study: In this article we will describe how specialists feel about the current level of social security in Finland.

    Methods: The empirical analysis in our study is based on postal survey. The 2000 working age physicians’ random survey sample was picked from the register of the Finnish Medical Association (n=1092, response rate 54,6 %. The whole questionnaire included questions dealing with social security, health policy and health care system. The data was analysed using means and multinomial logistic regression analysis.

    Results: This study shows that surgeons and radiologists are the most critical of social security. These groups often think that social security is excessive. In contrast, psychiatrists show a stronger tendency to support social security. All in all, Finnish specialists are more critical of the social security system than are nonspecialised physicians.

    Conclusions: There are many similarities between Nordic countries when we look at the historical role of medical profession. We can also assume that specialist physicians' opinions on social security are quite similar compared to those of other Nordic countries.

  17. Contemporary challenges for specialist nursing in interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Russell


    To explain the similarities and differences between clinical nurse specialists (CNSs and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs in the context of ILD specialism To review contemporary nursing specialism in the UK’s government subsidised healthcare system To stimulate discussion and debate across the European/international respiratory community regarding the clinical and academic development of the ILD CNS To identify key priorities that will support collaboration across the ILD interdisciplinary workforce in clinical practice and research

  18. Commissioning of specialist palliative care services in England. (United States)

    Lancaster, Harriet; Finlay, Ilora; Downman, Maxwell; Dumas, James


    Some failures in end-of-life care have been attributed to inconsistent provision of palliative care across England. We aimed to explore the variation in commissioning of services by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) using a data collection exercise. We sent a Freedom of Information request in the form of an open questionnaire to all 209 CCGs in England to assess their commissioning of palliative and end-of-life care services, mainly focused on the provision of specialist palliative care services. 29 CCGs provided information about the number of patients with some form of palliative care needs in their population. For specialist palliative care services, CCGs allocated budgets ranging from £51.83 to £2329.19 per patient per annum. 163 CCGs (77.90%) currently commission 7-day admission to their specialist palliative care beds. 82.84% of CCGs commission 7-day specialist palliative care services in patients' own homes and out-of-hours services rely heavily on hospice provision. 64 CCGs (31.37%) commission pain control teams, the majority of whom only operate in regular working hours. 68.14% of CCGs reported commissioning palliative care education of any sort for healthcare professionals and 44.85% of CCGs had no plans to update or review their palliative care services. The most important finding from this exercise is that the information CCGs hold about their population and services is not standardised. However, information based on data that are more objective, for example, population and total budget for palliative care, demonstrate wide variations in commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev prepares to enter Endeavour (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, is assisted with his ascent and re-entry flight suit in the white room at Launch Pad 39A before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour for launch. During the nearly 12-day mission, the six-member crew will mate the first two elements of the International Space Station -- the already-orbiting Zarya control module with the Unity connecting module carried by Endeavour. He is making his fourth spaceflight.

  20. Caring for cancer patients on non-specialist wards.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Finola


    As cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, every nurse will be required to care for patients with the condition at some point in his\\/her career. However, non-specialized oncology nurses are often ill-prepared to nurse patients suffering from cancer. This literature review aims to provide an overview of current trends and developments in cancer care nursing in an attempt to identify the range of previous research pertaining to caring for patients with cancer on non-specialist wards. The review finds that non-specialized cancer nurses report a lack of education and training with regard to cancer care and cancer treatments, which acts as a barrier to providing quality nursing care. Emotional and communication issues with patients and their families can also cause non-specialist nurses significant distress. International research has shown that specialist oncology nurses make a considerable difference to physical and psychosocial patient care. It is therefore paramount that non-speciality nurses\\' educational needs are met to develop clinical competence and to provide supportive holistic care for both patients and their families.

  1. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy. (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie


    Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.

  2. Neurofibromatosis and the role of the specialist adviser. (United States)

    Redman, Carolyn


    Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetic condition that mainly involves the nervous system. There are two types: NF1 affects about one in 2,500 of the population worldwide and NF2 affects one in 35,000. Both types result in complex health problems for patients and can pose significant challenges for all those involved in their management. Established in 1981, The Neuro Foundation is a patient-focused charity that funds a network of specialist advisers who work in partnership with the NHS to offer support and advice for families affected by NF and the professionals who care for them. With a significant level of autonomy, the specialist adviser role is flexible in matching the needs of those affected while working cooperatively alongside the national specialist services for NF1 and NF2. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  3. From Humanizing the Educational Process to Professionally Mobile Specialists Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Fugelova


    Full Text Available Training professional mobile specialists capable of responding flexibly to dynamic changes in society is considered to be the most important issue of the modern educational system. The paper justifies the idea that technical universities should take responsibility for solving this problem by means of humanization of technical education, which implies reconsidering its values and general notions. For overcoming the technocratic trends, the author recommends to cultivate the value of professionalism in the humanization context.Professionalism is defined by using the «professional service» idea as a «purpose acknowledgment, supertask, even a mission». The main components of the above attitude lie in finding the harmony with the world and its basic values. Therefore, technical universities face the challenge of training people of intelligence with a high moral and business responsibility. The basic value of such a person is regarded as «dedication to the cause» - the constant desire to improve the world and leave behind them- selves something of value to society. For training such specialists, the educational process should provide teachers dialogue and collaboration with students to facilitate the process of self-determination and self-development of the prospective specialists

  4. Acculturation in the Professional Activities of Specialists in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Romanenko


    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon of acculturation in the professional activities of international profile in terms of intercultural communication. The author emphasizes that acculturation problems related to intercultural communication have not only domestic but also international dimension. The article presents the theory and methodology of acculturation problems at different stages ofdevelopment of foreign and domestic scholars (specialists in cultural studies, ethnographers, ethnosociologists and specifies the defference between the concepts of acculturation and assimilation of national and regional cultures. It further describes the strategy of acculturation (separation, marginalization, integration, emphasizes the role of integration strategy that makes it possible to preserve the cultural identity of a specialist in international relations along with an awareness of the regional culture of the host country. Special attention is given to the task of the university in preventing possible assimilation of future specialists in international relations and building "immunity" to the cultural (regional adaptation and sustainable cultural identity as a representative the Russia. The article marks the mission of Russian culture as a medium of traditions, moral and spiritual values that built the Russian nation as a single community and state. The author writes that ethno-cultural component brings together many cultures, ethnic groups and nationalities of Russia, forms a common multicultural ground and brings about the need for cross-cultural awareness in international relations. That is confirmed by the State Federal Standard of Higher Education which describes specific competences that students of international relations are supposed to possess.

  5. Clinical nurse specialist education: actualizing the systems leadership competency. (United States)

    Thompson, Cathy J; Nelson-Marten, Paula


    The purpose of this article was to show how sequenced educational strategies aid in the acquisition of systems leadership and change agent skills, as well as other essential skills for professional clinical nurse specialist (CNS) practice. Clinical nurse specialist education offers the graduate student both didactic and clinical experiences to help the student transition into the CNS role. Clinical nurse specialist faculty have a responsibility to prepare students for the realities of advanced practice. Systems leadership is an integral competency of CNS practice. The contemporary CNS is to be a leader in the translation of evidence into practice. To assist students to acquire this competency, all CNS students are expected to use research and other sources of evidence to identify, design, implement, and evaluate a specific practice change. Anecdotal comments from students completing the projects are offered. Student projects have been focused in acute and critical care, palliative care, and adult/gerontologic health clinical settings; community outreach has been the focus of a few change projects. Examples of student projects related to the systems leadership competency and correlated to the spheres of influence impacted are presented.

  6. Science and technology results from the OSS-1 payload on the Space Shuttle (United States)

    Chipman, Eric G.

    The OSS-1 Payload of nine experiments was carried on the STS-3 Space Shuttle flight in March of 1982. The OSS-1 Payload contained four instruments that evaluated specific aspects of the Orbiter's environment, including the levels of particulate, gaseous and electromagnetic emissions given off by the Orbiter, and the interactions between the Orbiter and the surrounding plasma. In addition to these environmental observations, these instruments performed scientific investigations in astronomy and in space plasma physics, including active experiments in electron beam propagation. Other experiments were in the areas of solar physics, plant growth, micrometeorite studies and the technology of actively controlled heat pipes. We present the initial results from these experiments, with some implications of these results for future operation of space experiments from the Shuttle payload bay. One major result was the unexpected discovery of a faint surface-induced optical glow created near the Shuttle surfaces by impacts of ambient atmospheric atoms and molecules.

  7. Pay-load Estimation of a 2 DOF Flexible Link Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole


    The paper presents a new method for online identification of pay-loads for a two-link flexible robot. The method benefits from the close corre-spondence between parameters of a discrete-time model represented by means of the Delta-Operator, and those of the underlying continuous-time model....... Although the applied principle might be general in nature, the pa-per is applied to the well-known problem of identifying a pay-load of a moving flexible robot. This problem is almost impossible to solve by measurements, so an estimation technique must be applied. The presented method benefits from...... the close correspondence with the continuous-time representation to allow a scalar and implicit adaptive technique which based on flexibility measurements leads to the online estimation of the pay-load....

  8. Canadian robotic arm is moved to the payload canister for STS-100 (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves into place over the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS, and its pallet. The crane will lift the SSRMS and move it to the payload canister. The arm is 57.7 feet (17.6 meters) long when fully extended and has seven motorized joints. It is capable of handling large payloads and assisting with docking the Space Shuttle. The SSRMS is self-relocatable with a Latching End Effector, so it can be attached to complementary ports spread throughout the Station'''s exterior surfaces. The SSRMS is part of the payload on mission STS-100, scheduled to launch April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A, KSC.

  9. STS-39 AFP-675 and STP-1 MPESS in OV-103's payload bay (PLB) (United States)


    An overview of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft payload bay (PLB) documents a variety of STS-39's payloads. In the foreground is the Space Test Payload 1 (STP-1) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) (left), ascent particle monitor (APM) (center), and advanced liquid feed experiment (ALFE) (two canisters) visible. Behind the STP-1 is the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) experiment support structure (ESS) with ESS tape recorders (left), Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) (front),and Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle 1A (CIRRIS-1A) (center back) visible. The ESS pallet power distribution system thermal covering (gold-colored) is visible at the bottom. AFP-675 is a Department of Defense (DOD)-sponsored collection of experiments whose objective is to gather data on the Earth's atmosphere (aurora, Earth limb, and airglow), celestial objects, and the environment in and around the PLB. In the backgroun

  10. Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis for Launch Vehicles with Varying Payloads and Adapters for Structural Dynamics and Loads (United States)

    McGhee, David S.; Peck, Jeff A.; McDonald, Emmett J.


    This paper examines Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis (PSA) methods and tools in an effort to understand their utility in vehicle loads and dynamic analysis. Specifically, this study addresses how these methods may be used to establish limits on payload mass and cg location and requirements on adaptor stiffnesses while maintaining vehicle loads and frequencies within established bounds. To this end, PSA methods and tools are applied to a realistic, but manageable, integrated launch vehicle analysis where payload and payload adaptor parameters are modeled as random variables. This analysis is used to study both Regional Response PSA (RRPSA) and Global Response PSA (GRPSA) methods, with a primary focus on sampling based techniques. For contrast, some MPP based approaches are also examined.

  11. Numerical Estimation of Sound Transmission Loss in Launch Vehicle Payload Fairing (United States)

    Chandana, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Shashi Bhushan; Vukkadala, Kishore Nath


    Coupled acoustic-structural analysis of a typical launch vehicle composite payload faring is carried out, and results are validated with experimental data. Depending on the frequency range of interest, prediction of vibro-acoustic behavior of a structure is usually done using the finite element method, boundary element method or through statistical energy analysis. The present study focuses on low frequency dynamic behavior of a composite payload fairing structure using both coupled and uncoupled vibro-acoustic finite element models up to 710 Hz. A vibro-acoustic model, characterizing the interaction between the fairing structure, air cavity, and satellite, is developed. The external sound pressure levels specified for the payload fairing's acoustic test are considered as external loads for the analysis. Analysis methodology is validated by comparing the interior noise levels with those obtained from full scale Acoustic tests conducted in a reverberation chamber. The present approach has application in the design and optimization of acoustic control mechanisms at lower frequencies.

  12. Education of specialists-cartographers in Lviv Polytechnic National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ярема


    Full Text Available This paper describes the system of future specialists-cartographers education in Lviv polytechnic national university. Main targets of the department of cartography and geospatial modelling are listed. Key research areas of the department, the educational specifics of students at «Bachelor» and «Master‘s» levels are described. At present, the main task of the department is to train specialists with good knowledge of cartographic investigation method, GIS technologies, because digital cartography, web-mapping, web-portal are things of the future. Cartography specialists must know how to create traditional maps (topographic, thematic, tourist using computer technologies and electronic maps that can be used in the creation of GIS systems, informational resources in navigation, military affairs and so on. The main scientific direction of the department is general geographic and thematic mapping, GIS mapping and development of GIS, history of the cartography, mathematic modelling in geodesy, astronomy and geophysics. The department trains bachelors on specialty 103 «Earth sciences», specialization 103.02 «Cartography». The feature of master’s education is maximum approach to education content for future employment. Master degree students are improving their professional knowledge and skills received during their study for the bachelor’s degree. They are deeply studying modern methods of cartographic digital terrain models with GIS technologies, combining their work with development of cartographic databases. They get acquainted with the principles of base sets of geospatial data, conduct thematic evaluation and forecast maps, using GIS. The students also study methods and order of design, edition, and maps development in detail. Modern mapping needs to be more efficient in the use of both natural and human resources, reflect a complex system man - society - environment. Such problem can be solved using various modeling techniques with

  13. The STS-98 crew looks over Atlantis and payload in the OPF (United States)


    In Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3, the STS-98 crew talks with United Space Alliance worker Larry Oshein (right). Standing left to right are Mission Specialist Robert Curbeam, Commander Ken Cockrell, Mission Specialist Tom Jones, and Mission Specialists Mark Polansky and Marsha Ivins. The crew is at KSC for Crew Equipment Interface Test activities. Launch on mission STS-98 is scheduled for Jan. 18, 2001. It will be transporting the U.S. Lab, Destiny, to the International Space Station with five system racks already installed inside of the module. After delivery of electronics in the lab, electrically powered attitude control for Control Moment Gyroscopes will be activated.

  14. Operative training in otolaryngology in the United Kingdom: a specialist registrar survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with

  15. 78 FR 14359 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Specialist-Tech Customer Service, Philadelphia, PA... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Specialist-Tech Customer Service, Philadelphia, PA; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Specialist-Tech Customer Service...-Tech Customer Service, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc...

  16. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO (United States)

    Duffy, James B.


    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  17. Vibroacoustic payload environment prediction system (VAPEPS): Data base management center remote access guide (United States)

    Thomas, V. C.


    A Vibroacoustic Data Base Management Center has been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The center utilizes the Vibroacoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) software package to manage a data base of shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight and ground test data. Remote terminal access over telephone lines to a dedicated VAPEPS computer system has been established to provide the payload community a convenient means of querying the global VAPEPS data base. This guide describes the functions of the JPL Data Base Management Center and contains instructions for utilizing the resources of the center.

  18. Parametric evaluation of the cost effectiveness of Shuttle payload vibroacoustic test plans (United States)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Keegan, W. B.; Young, J. P.


    Consideration is given to alternate vibroacoustic test plans for sortie and free flyer Shuttle payloads. Statistical decision models for nine test plans provide a viable method of evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternate vibroacoustic test plans and the associated test levels. The methodology is a major step toward the development of a useful tool for the quantitative tailoring of vibroacoustic test programs to sortie and free flyer payloads. A broader application of the methodology is now possible by the use of the OCTAVE computer code.

  19. Workspace and Payload-Capacity of a New Reconfigurable Delta Parallel Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maya


    Full Text Available In this paper the workspace and payload capacity of a new design of reconfigurable Delta-type parallel robot is analysed. The reconfiguration is achieved by adjusting the length of the kinematic chains of a given robot link simultaneously and symmetrically during the operation of the robot. This would produce a dynamic workspace in shape and volume. A numerical analysis of the variation of shape and volume of the workspace and payload capacity of the robot is presented. Based both on the results of this analysis and on practical requirements, a proposal for the design of a reconfiguring mechanism is presented.

  20. External Contamination Environment at ISS Included: Selected Results from Payloads Contamination Mapping Delivery 3 Package (United States)

    Olsen, Randy; Huang, Alvin; Steagall, Courtney; Kohl, Nathaniel; Koontz, Steve; Worthy, Erica


    The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  1. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas


    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  2. Efficient loads analyses of Shuttle-payloads using dynamic models with linear or nonlinear interfaces (United States)

    Spanos, P. D.; Cao, T. T.; Hamilton, D. A.; Nelson, D. A. R.

    An efficient method for the load analysis of Shuttle-payload systems with linear or nonlinear attachment interfaces is presented which allows the kinematics of the interface degrees of freedom at a given time to be evaluated without calculating the combined system modal representation of the Space Shuttle and its payload. For the case of a nonlinear dynamic model, an iterative procedure is employed to converge the nonlinear terms of the equations of motion to reliable values. Results are presented for a Shuttle abort landing event.

  3. Factors Influencing Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Payload Delivery for Outer Planet Missions (United States)

    Cupples, Michael; Green, Shaun; Coverstone, Victoria


    Systems analyses were performed for missions utilizing solar electric propulsion systems to deliver payloads to outer-planet destinations. A range of mission and systems factors and their affect on the delivery capability of the solar electric propulsion system was examined. The effect of varying the destination, the trip time, the launch vehicle, and gravity-assist boundary conditions was investigated. In addition, the affects of selecting propulsion system and power systems characteristics (including primary array power variation, number of thrusters, thruster throttling mode, and thruster Isp) on delivered payload was examined.

  4. How do general practitioners and specialists value their mutual communication? A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voorn Theo B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication between general practitioners (GPs and specialists is important, if we want patients to receive the right type of care at the right moment. Most communication takes place through telephone contact, letters concerning information on patients more recently also by email, and joint postgraduate training. As much research has been aimed at the content of communication between GPs and specialists, we wished to address the procedural aspects of this communication. We addressed the following research question. How do GPs and specialists assess their mutual communication through telephone, letters and postgraduate courses? Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of 550 GPs and 533 specialists selected from the Netherlands Medical Address Book. The response rate was 47% GPs (n = 259 and 44% specialists (n = 232. Results Specialists qualify the GPs' telephone accessibility as poor; while GPs themselves do not. Specialists think poorly of the GPs' referral letter. Merely half of GPs feels their questions are addressed appropriately by the specialist, whereas specialists think this number is considerably higher. According to specialists, GPs often do not follow the advice given by them. GPs rate their compliance much higher. Less than a quarter of GPs feel the specialist's letter arrives on time. Specialists have a different perception of this. Both parties wish to receive feedback from one and other, while in practice they do so very little. Conclusion GPs and specialists disagree on several aspects of their communication. This impedes improvements. Both GP's accessibility by phone and time span to the specialist's report could be earmarked as performance indicators. GPs and specialists should discuss amongst themselves how best to compose a format for the referral letter and the specialist's report and how to go about exchanging mutual feedback.

  5. Current Practices in Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Survey of Brazilian Uveitis Specialists. (United States)

    Morais, Fábio Barreto; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio Faria E; Muccioli, Cristina


    To describe treatment practices for ocular toxoplasmosis among members of the Brazilian Uveitis Society. An online questionnaire sent to specialists, between October 2014 and March 2015. Most respondents (67.9%) treat all active cases. Most specialists consider visual acuity toxoplasmosis are not uniform among Brazilian specialists. Most specialists treat all cases of active retinochoroiditis. Typical cases are more frequently treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, classical therapy is the regimen of choice when lesions are considered more severe.

  6. The use of Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialist paediatric dentists in the UK


    Roberts, A; McKay, A; Albadri, S


    Examines treatment planning involving Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialists in paediatric dentistry. Explores clinical situations in which specialists in paediatric dentistry feel it is appropriate or not to fit Hall technique preformed metal crowns. Investigates which types of carious lesions are being treated with Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialists in paediatric dentistry.

  7. Nurse specialists in adult congenital heart disease: The current status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, P.; Scholte op Reimer, W.; De Geest, S.; Fridlund, B.; Heikkila, J.; Jaarsma, Trijntje (Tiny); Martensson, J.; Smith, K; Stewart, S.; Stromberg, A; Thompson, D.R.


    Aim: Recommendations for the management of adults with congenital heart disease indicate that specialist referral centres should employ nurse specialists who are trained and educated in the care for these patients. We surveyed the involvement, education and activities of nurse specialists in the

  8. Perceptions of Information Technology Specialists Regarding Securing Re-Employment after Offshoring Displacement (United States)

    Gallaway, Ricky A.


    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore why some IT specialists, after experiencing unemployment because of corporate offshoring, acquired gainful re-employment, whereas other similarly unemployed IT specialists had not. To effectively address this case study, two cases were studied: (a) displaced IT specialists who…

  9. Legal Translator Training: Partnership between Teachers of English for Legal Purposes and Legal Specialists (United States)

    Northcott, Jill; Brown, Gillian


    Training legal English specialists is one area in which cooperation between discipline and language specialists is particularly valuable. Seven short excerpts from a short training course run jointly by teachers of English for legal purposes and legal specialists are presented and analysed to illustrate the contribution an ESP oriented approach,…

  10. Inter-tester Reliability in Classifying Acute and Subacute Low Back Pain Patients into Clinical Subgroups: A Comparison of Specialists and Non-Specialists. A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Paatelma, Markku; Karvqnen, Eira; Heinqnen, Ari


    Many systems have been suggested for classifying low back pain (LBP); the most commonly used among physiotherapists involves a pathoanatomical/pathophysiological tissue classification system. Few studies have examined whether this form of classification of LBP disorders can be performed in a reliable manner between specialists with advanced training, or between specialists with advanced training and non-specialists who lack advanced training. The purpose of this paper was to examine the inter-tester reliability of two specialists, and the ability of a specialist and non-specialist to independently classify patients with LBP, utilizing clinical tests and history-based classification methods after a short educational course on the classification system. Subjects were acute or sub-acute patients with LBP who visited their occupational healthcare or municipal healthcare center. Inter-tester reliability between the specialist and non-specialists was at almost the same level: overall Kappa 0.60 (95%CI; 0.40 to 0.85), overall agreement 70%, as between the two specialists: overall Kappa 0.65 (95%CI; 0.33-0.86), overall agreement 77%. The findings suggest that a short educational course can provide rather reliable examination tools to allow non-specialized physiotherapists to classify patients according to tissue origination.

  11. Increasing the involvement of specialist physicians in chronic disease management. (United States)

    Taylor, Dylan; Lahey, Michele


    The Capital Health (CH) region in Alberta serves the population of the Edmonton area as well as a large referral population in western Canada. CH is responsible for the delivery of the spectrum of patient care, from inpatient to outpatient services. Growth in outpatient care, in particular, has led to the development of several ambulatory care facilities from which the delivery of care to several populations with a chronic disease will be coordinated. The traditional model of care delivery is unsuited to the management of chronic diseases. Physicians must be part of the planning and implementation of new models if they are to be successful and sustainable. The concept of integration into a delivery team is not well understood or practised. This is not conducive to the integration of specialist physicians into multidisciplinary teams in ambulatory care that serves the needs of patients from a large geographic area. Chronic disease management using the Chronic Care Model has proven to be an effective method of delivering care to this wide population. Specialist physicians have not always taken advantage of opportunities to be involved in the planning and development of such new health care projects. In CH, physician integration in the planning, development and implementation of this new model has proven vital to its success. We based our strategy for change on Wagner's Chronic Care Model. This involved eight steps, the first four of which have been completed and the fifth and sixth are underway. Five factors contributed to the successful integration of specialist physicians in chronic disease management: collaboration between disciplines and organizations; creating patient-centred services; organizational commitments; strong clinical leadership; and early involvement of clinicians.

  12. Medical student perceptions of plastic surgeons as hand surgery specialists. (United States)

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Mendenhall, Shaun D; Hopkins, Paul N


    Plastic surgeons are often not perceived as hand surgery specialists. Better educating medical students about the plastic surgeon's role in hand surgery may improve the understanding of the field for future referring physicians. The purposes of this study were to assess medical students' understanding of hand surgery specialists and to analyze the impact of prior plastic, orthopedic, and general surgery clinical exposure on this understanding. An online survey including 8 hand-related clinical scenarios was administered to students at a large academic medical center. After indicating training level and prior clinical exposure to plastic surgery or other surgical subspecialties, students selected one or more appropriate surgical subspecialists for management of surgical hand conditions. A response rate of 56.4% was achieved. Prior clinical exposure to plastic, orthopedic, and general surgery was reported by 29%, 43%, and 90% of fourth year students, respectively. Students generally chose at least 1 acceptable specialty for management of hand conditions with improvement over the course of their training (P = 0.008). Overall, students perceived orthopedic surgeons as hand specialists more so than plastic and general surgeons. Clinical exposure to plastic surgery increased the selection of this specialty for nearly all scenarios (22%-46%, P = 0.025). Exposure to orthopedic and general surgery was associated with a decrease in selection of plastic surgery for treatment of carpal tunnel and hand burns, respectively. Medical students have a poor understanding of the plastic surgeon's role in hand surgery. If plastic surgeons want to continue to be recognized as hand surgeons, they should better educate medical students about their role in hand surgery. This can be achieved by providing a basic overview of plastic surgery to all medical students with emphasis placed on hand and peripheral nerve surgery.

  13. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev suits up for launch (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev gets assistance from suit technician George Brittingham while donning his orange launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. STS-88 will be Krikalev's fourth spaceflight, but only his second on the Space Shuttle. He also twice flew on long- duration missions aboard the Russian Space Station Mir. Krikalev and the five other STS-88 crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A where the Space Shuttle Endeavour is poised for liftoff on the first U.S. mission dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station.

  14. STS-88 Mission Specialists Krikalev and Newman inside Endeavour (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialists Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev (left) and James H. Newman (right) sit inside orbiter Endeavour during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Activities (TCDT). The TCDT includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and the simulated main engine cut-off exercise. Mission STS-88 is targeted for launch on Dec. 3, 1998. It is the first U.S. flight for the assembly of the International Space Station and will carry the Unity connecting module. Unity will be mated with the already orbiting Russian-built Zarya control module. The 12-day mission includes three planned spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment.

  15. Column: The Consortium of Digital Forensics Specialists (CDFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kelley


    Full Text Available Digital forensic practitioners are faced with an extraordinary opportunity. In fact, we may never again be faced with such an opportunity, and this opportunity will challenge us in ways we may never again be challenged.At this point in the history of the Digital Forensics profession, digital forensic specialists have the unique opportunity to help this profession emerge from its infancy. But for this profession to mature -- and to flourish -- individuals and organizations integral to the practice must assemble and shape its future. This is our opportunity. In fact, this is our mandate.(see PDF for full column

  16. Regional trends amongst Danish specialist farmland breeding birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David


    be related to their respective specializations. Generally, few species showed differences in regional population trends, despite the increasing concentration of mixed (mainly pastoral) agriculture in the West and predominantly arable cultivation in the East. Most grassland and arable specialists were...... the period. Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra showed significant declines in the East of Denmark in contrast to stable trends in the Central and Western regions, but was declining everywhere since 2003. The results underline the need to understand how individual farmland species exploit specific crops and micro...

  17. Clinical molecular testing: subspecialty, entry-level or specialist certification? (United States)

    Lennon, Alan; Hu, Peter


    Some clinical laboratories require workers who have basic knowledge in molecular techniques (such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction). Exclusively molecular diagnostic laboratories need workers to be competent in a variety of cutting edge molecular technologies, such as DNA sequencing, array-based comparative genomic hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques. Having only one certification for molecular biology at the entry level, as newly prescribed by the Board of Certification, doesn't accurately define the two very differently trained types of people these differing types of laboratories require. Creating a second molecular certification, at the specialist level, would address this issue positively.

  18. Development of a prototype specialist shuttle vehicle for chipped woodfuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report gives details of a project to develop and test a specialist chip shuttle vehicle for conveying woodchips out of the forest with the aim of reducing the cost of woodfuel production. The design objectives are described and include the need to allow easy transfer of the chips from the chipper to the shuttle and on into haulage units, good performance and manoeuvrability on and off roads, and high-tip capacity. Estimates of the improved production and reduced woodfuel production costs are discussed along with the anticipated satisfactory operation of the chipper-shuttle combination in a forestry site.

  19. Use of professional profiles in applications for specialist training positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Skjelsager, Karen; Wildgaard, Kim


    investigated use of professional profiles among the 38 Danish specialty societies in order to ascertain the use of the seven roles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used information from the websites of the Postgraduate Medical Training Secretariats in March 2012. For each profile, we extracted information on how......INTRODUCTION: The seven roles of the CanMEDS system have been implemented in Danish postgraduate medical training. For each medical specialty, a professional profile describes which elements of the seven roles the specialty deems important for applicants for a specialist training position. We...

  20. Peculiarities of self-regulation of extreme profile specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanova T.N.


    Full Text Available Individually-psychological characteristics were studied and profiles of the styles of self-regulation of the employees engaged in hazardous were determined. The mainly group consisted of 30 men aged 21 to 60 years, who are specialists of dangerous professions. The comparison group included 30 men from 22 to 60 years, whose professional activity was not associated with risk. The following methods were used: questionnaire "Style of self-regulation of behavior" by V. I. Morosanova; questionnaire of self-control (H. Grasmik, 1993, adaptation Bulygina V. G., Abdrazakova A. M., 2009; the questionnaire BIS/BAS, used to study the sensitivity to punishment and reward; the questionnaire formal-dynamic properties of individuality by V. M. Rusalov; the aggression questionnaire by A. Buss and M. Perry (adaptation Enikolopov S. N., Cybulski N. P., 2007; the scale of anxiety Charles D. Spielberger (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI; personal questionnaire of the G. and S. Eysenck – EPQ. It was found that specialists hazardous professions are distinguished by: a higher level of development of the regulatory flexibility and individual system of conscious self-regulation activity; higher levels of extroversion, communication activity, the total adaptability; a lower level of reactive anxiety, trait anxiety and general emotional. Moreover, impulsiveness, egocentrism, lack of restraint and physical activity in the structure of self-monitoring specialists of dangerous professions associated with high levels of affective component of aggression and incoherence of parts of the process of self-regulation. There were allocated a 3 profile of self-regulation in specialists of dangerous professions: a a high level of self-regulation – coupled with a high intellectual and physical development, the highest level of adaptability and general activity; b medium – rapid response to emerging changes in the situation, the successful production alternatives, greater

  1. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, payload bay aft firewall and thermal insulation (United States)


    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, payload bay (PLB) aft firewall is documented to show a loose piece of thermal insulation. The crew discovered the loose blanket soon after opening the PLB doors on 06-05-91. The vertical tail and the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod are visible above the bulkhead.

  2. Training Physics Students for Space Careers: Introduction to the Balloon Payload Projects at UL Lafayette (United States)

    Hollerman, W. A.; Mazzino, L.; Fontenot, R.; Giovinazzo, P.; Malespin, C.


    In January 2004, the President set goals for the space program in the 21st century. This renewed sense of direction means that a whole new generation of scientists and engineers will be needed to support space- based science and technology. Declining enrollments in science, mathematics, and space related engineering programs are well documented in the United States. These enrollment reductions are also observed at Louisiana colleges and universities, which are starting to recover from last year's hurricanes. Since 2003, physics students at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (UL Lafayette) have participated in two balloon payload projects sponsored by the Louisiana Space Grant Consortium (LaSPACE). In 2004-2005, physics students at UL Lafayette attended an informal ballooning course to design and build a student-directed payload for launch at the NASA National Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, Texas in May 2005. In 2006, students participated in the High Altitude Student Payload (HASP) program to measure cosmic ray intensities using traditional film and absorbers. This 10 kg payload flew from Fort Sumner, New Mexico in early September 2006. This presentation will discuss our participation in both balloon projects. Emphasis will be placed on highlighting the "hands-on" and step-by-step approach used to provide students with practical space related skills.

  3. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj


    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  4. A comparison between five principle strategies for adapting shaking force balance during varying payload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jan Johannes; Herder, Justus Laurens


    Dynamic balance has been studied to eliminate the shaking forces and vibration at the base induced by rapid motion of robotic devices. This is done by designing the mass distribution such that the total center of mass of the mechanism is stationary for all motions. However, when the payload changes,

  5. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio Verification Test Report (United States)

    Bishop, William D.; Frantz, Brian D.; Thadhani, Suresh K.; Young, Daniel P.


    This report provides an overview and results from the verification of the specifications that defines the operational capabilities of the airborne and ground, L Band and C Band, Command and Non-Payload Communications radio link system. An overview of system verification is provided along with an overview of the operation of the radio. Measurement results are presented for verification of the radios operation.

  6. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission – Low Energy Payload ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of 'Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)' mission, which was launched onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 rocket to study the solar flares. The SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload was designed, developed and fabricated by Physical Research Laboratory. (PRL) in collaboration with Space ...

  7. Orbital Payload Reductions Resulting from Booster and Trajectory Modifications for Recovery of a Large Rocket Booster (United States)

    Levin, Alan D.; Hopkins, Edward J.


    An analysis was made to determine the reduction in payload for a 300 nautical mile orbit resulting from the addition of inert weight, representing recovery gear, to the first-stage booster of a three-stage rocket vehicle. The values of added inert weight investigated ranged from 0 to 18 percent of gross weight at lift off. The study also included the effects on the payload in orbit and the distance from the launch site at burnout and at impact caused by variation in the vertical rise time before the programmed tilt. The vertical rise times investigated ranged from 16-7 to 100 percent of booster burning time. For a vertical rise of 16.7 percent of booster burning time it was found that a 50-percent increase in the weight of the empty booster resulted in only a 10-percent reduction of the payload in orbit. For no added booster weight, increasing vertical rise time from 16-7 to 100 percent of booster burning time (so that the spent booster would impact in the launch area) reduced the payload by 37 percent. Increasing the vertical rise time from 16-7 to 50 percent of booster burning time resulted in about a 15-percent reduction in the impact distance, and for vertical rise times greater than 50-percent the impact distance decreased rapidly.

  8. Payload charging events in the mesosphere and their impact on Langmuir type electric probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bekkeng


    Full Text Available Three sounding rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range in the ECOMA campaign in December 2010. The aim was to study the evolution of meteoric smoke particles during a major meteor shower. Of the various instruments onboard the rocket payload, this paper presents the data from a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe (m-NLP and a charged dust detector. The payload floating potential, as observed using the m-NLP instrument, shows charging events on two of the three flights. These charging events cannot be explained using a simple charging model, and have implications towards the use of fixed bias Langmuir probes on sounding rockets investigating mesospheric altitudes. We show that for a reliable use of a single fixed bias Langmuir probe as a high spatial resolution relative density measurement, each payload should also carry an additional instrument to measure payload floating potential, and an instrument that is immune to spacecraft charging and measures absolute plasma density.

  9. Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power Utilization with Varying Throughput and Payload Sizes (United States)


    ARL-TR-7532 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power Utilization with Varying...Characterization of Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe) Power Utilization with Varying Throughput and Payload Sizes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-07

  10. HERO: High Energy Replicated Optics for a Hard-X-Ray Balloon Payload (United States)

    Ramsey, B.; Engelhaupt, D.; Speegle, C. O.; ODell, S. L.; Austin, R. A.; Elsner, R. F.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.


    We are developing high-energy grazing-incidence replicated optics for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope. When completed, the instrument will have 170 cm2 of effective collecting area at 40 keV and 130 square cm at 60 keV with <= 30 arc seconds half power diameter. This payload will offer unprecedented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region, with around 250 microCrab sensitivity on long-duration flights and 50-100 microCrab on ultra- long-duration balloon missions The payload consists of 16 mirror modules, each with 14 nested mirrors made from a high-strength nickel alloy, and a corresponding array of 16 focal plane detectors. An engineering demonstration flight is scheduled for the Spring of 2000, using just two mirror modules each with 3 shells, above a pair of gas-scintillation-proportional counters. This flight is intended to test a newly designed gondola pointing and aspect system and the stability of the optical bench design. The first scientific flight of the full payload is scheduled for the Fall of 2002. Full details of the payload and its capabilities will be presented together with data from various mirror-module tests. If available data from the first flight will also be presented.

  11. A 3D CZT hard x-ray polarimeter for a balloon-borne payload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, E.; Alvarez, J. M.; Auricchio, N.


    be optimized also for this type of measurement. In this framework, we present the concept of a small high-performance spectrometer designed for polarimetry between 100 and 1000 keV suitable as a stratospheric balloon-borne payload dedicated to perform an accurate and reliable measurement of the polarization...

  12. UFFO/Lomonosov: The Payload for the Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.


    . Fast response measurements of the optical emission of GRB will be made by a Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT), a key instrument of the payload, which will open a new frontier in transient studies by probing the early optical rise of GRBs with a response time in seconds for the first time. The SMT employs...

  13. Performance of Manchester-coded payload in an optical FSK labeling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva


    The modulation crosstalk between combined frequency-shift keying (FSK) and intensity modulation (IM) in an optical label-switching network is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. A comparison between the performance of nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) and Manchester-coded payload is made. It is...

  14. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.


    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  15. Performance analysis of IM, DPSK and DQPSK payload signals with frequency swept coherent detected spectral amplitude code labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yongsheng; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Xin, Xiangjun


    We present the performance analysis for frequency swept coherent detection of spectral amplitude code (SAC) labelled switching systems for high-speed payload signals with different modulation formats. We consider a payload bit-rate of 40 Gbit/s for an intensity modulation (IM), differential phase...

  16. Osmotic pressure-dependent release profiles of payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulation of simple salts (United States)

    Behzadi, Shahed; Rosenauer, Christine; Kappl, Michael; Mohr, Kristin; Landfester, Katharina; Crespy, Daniel


    The encapsulation of payloads in micro- to nano-scale capsules allows protection of the payload from the surrounding environment and control of its release profile. Herein, we program the release of hydrophilic payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulating simple inorganic salts for adjusting the osmotic pressure. The latter either leads to a burst release at high concentrations of co-encapsulated salts or a sustained release at lower concentrations. Osmotic pressure causes swelling of the nanocapsule's shell and therefore sustained release profiles can be adjusted by crosslinking it. The approach presented allows for programing the release of payloads by co-encapsulating inexpensive salts inside nanocontainers without the help of stimuli-responsive materials.The encapsulation of payloads in micro- to nano-scale capsules allows protection of the payload from the surrounding environment and control of its release profile. Herein, we program the release of hydrophilic payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulating simple inorganic salts for adjusting the osmotic pressure. The latter either leads to a burst release at high concentrations of co-encapsulated salts or a sustained release at lower concentrations. Osmotic pressure causes swelling of the nanocapsule's shell and therefore sustained release profiles can be adjusted by crosslinking it. The approach presented allows for programing the release of payloads by co-encapsulating inexpensive salts inside nanocontainers without the help of stimuli-responsive materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01882c

  17. Clinical toxicity of antibody drug conjugates: a meta-analysis of payloads. (United States)

    Masters, Joanna C; Nickens, Dana J; Xuan, Dawei; Shazer, Ronald L; Amantea, Michael


    Background Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) utilize a monoclonal antibody to deliver a cytotoxic payload specifically to tumor cells, limiting exposure to healthy tissues. Major clinical toxicities of ADCs include hematologic, hepatic, neurologic, and ophthalmic events, which are often dose-limiting. These events may be off-target effects caused by premature release of payload in circulation. A meta-analysis was performed to summarize key clinical safety data for ADCs by payload, and data permitting, establish a dose-response model for toxicity incidence as a function of payload, dose/regimen, and cancer type. Methods A literature search was performed to identify and extract data from clinical ADC studies. Toxicity incidence and severity were collected by treatment arm for anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hepatic toxicity, peripheral neuropathy, and ocular toxicity. Exploratory plots, descriptive summaries, and logistic regression modelling were used to explore Grade ≥ 3 (G3/4) toxicities and assess the impact of covariates, including cancer type and dose/regimen. Results The dataset contained 70 publications; quantitative analysis included 43 studies with G3/4 toxicity information reported for the endpoints above. G3/4 anemia, neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy were consistently reported for MMAE ADCs, thrombocytopenia and hepatic toxicity for DM1, and ocular toxicity for MMAF. Safety profiles of MMAE, DM1, and DM4 ADCs differed between solid and hematologic cancers. Conclusions Published ADC clinical data is limited by non-uniform reporting for toxicity and lack of dosing information, limiting the ability to develop quantitative models relating toxicity to exposure. However, the current analysis suggests that key G3/4 toxicities of ADCs in the clinic are likely off-target and related to payload.

  18. A Robust Oil-in-Oil Emulsion for the Nonaqueous Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Payloads. (United States)

    Lu, Xiaocun; Katz, Joshua S; Schmitt, Adam; Moore, Jeffrey S


    Compartmentalized structures widely exist in cellular systems (organelles) and perform essential functions in smart composite materials (microcapsules, vasculatures, and micelles) to provide localized functionality and enhance materials compatibility. An entirely water-free compartmentalization system is of significant value to the materials community as nonaqueous conditions are critical to packaging microcapsules with water-free hydrophilic payloads while avoiding energy-intensive drying steps. Few nonaqueous encapsulation techniques are known, especially when considering just the scalable processes that operate in batch mode. Herein, we report a robust oil-in-oil Pickering emulsion system that is compatible with nonaqueous interfacial reactions as required for encapsulation of hydrophilic payloads. A major conceptual advance of this work is the notion of the partitioning inhibitor - a chemical agent that greatly reduces the payload's distribution between the emulsion's two phases, thus providing appropriate conditions for emulsion-templated interfacial polymerization. As a specific example, an immiscible hydrocarbon-amine pair of liquids is emulsified by the incorporation of guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) as a partitioning inhibitor into the dispersed phase. Polyisobutylene (PIB) is added into the continuous phase as a viscosity modifier for suitable modification of interfacial polymerization kinetics. The combination of GuHCl and PIB is necessary to yield a robust emulsion with stable morphology for three weeks. Shell wall formation was accomplished by interfacial polymerization of isocyanates delivered through the continuous phase and polyamines from the droplet core. Diethylenetriamine (DETA)-loaded microcapsules were isolated in good yield, exhibiting high thermal and chemical stabilities with extended shelf-lives even when dispersed into a reactive epoxy resin. The polyamine phase is compatible with a variety of basic and hydrophilic actives, suggesting that

  19. What Proportion of Terminally Ill and Dying People Require Specialist Palliative Care Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Wilson


    Full Text Available Currently, around 55 million people die each year worldwide. That number is expected to increase rapidly with accelerating population aging. Despite growth in the number of palliative care specialists and specialist services in most countries, the prospect of an increasing number of terminally ill and dying persons is daunting. This paper attempts to answer the question: what proportion of terminally ill and dying persons require specialist palliative care services? To address this question and highlight which persons require specialist palliative care, the current state of access to specialist palliative care services and specialists in Canada and other countries is highlighted, along with available evidence-based information on specialist services utilization and the care needs of terminally ill and dying persons. Current evidence and information gaps reveal that this question cannot be answered now, but it should be answered in advance of a crisis of unmet end-of-life care needs with the rising death toll.

  20. Immolation of p-Aminobenzyl Ether Linker and Payload Potency and Stability Determine the Cell-Killing Activity of Antibody-Drug Conjugates with Phenol-Containing Payloads. (United States)

    Zhang, Donglu; Le, Hoa; Cruz-Chuh, Josefa Dela; Bobba, Sudheer; Guo, Jun; Staben, Leanna; Zhang, Chenghong; Ma, Yong; Kozak, Katherine R; Lewis Phillips, Gail D; Vollmar, Breanna S; Sadowsky, Jack D; Vandlen, Richard; Wei, BinQing; Su, Dian; Fan, Peter; Dragovich, Peter S; Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Pillow, Thomas H


    The valine-citrulline (Val-Cit) dipeptide and p-aminobenzyl (PAB) spacer have been commonly used as a cleavable self-immolating linker in ADC design including in the clinically approved ADC, brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris). When the same linker was used to connect to the phenol of the cyclopropabenzindolone (CBI) (P1), the resulting ADC1 showed loss of potency in CD22 target-expressing cancer cell lines (e.g., BJAB, WSU-DLCL2). In comparison, the conjugate (ADC2) of a cyclopropapyrroloindolone (CPI) (P2) was potent despite the two corresponding free drugs having similar picomolar cell-killing activity. Although the corresponding spirocyclization products of P1 and P2, responsible for DNA alkylation, are a prominent component in buffer, the linker immolation was slow when the PAB was connected as an ether (PABE) to the phenol in P1 compared to that in P2. Additional immolation studies with two other PABE-linked substituted phenol compounds showed that electron-withdrawing groups accelerated the immolation to release an acidic phenol-containing payload (to delocalize the negative charge on the anticipated anionic phenol oxygen during immolation). In contrast, efficient immolation of LD4 did not result in an active ADC4 because the payload (P4) had a low potency to kill cells. In addition, nonimmolation of LD5 did not affect the cell-killing potency of its ADC5 since immolation is not required for DNA alkylation by the center-linked pyrrolobenzodiazepine. Therefore, careful evaluation needs to be conducted when the Val-Cit-PAB linker is used to connect antibodies to a phenol-containing drug as the linker immolation, as well as payload potency and stability, affects the cell-killing activity of an ADC.

  1. STS-103 Mission Specialist Clervoy DEPARTs PAFB for Houston (United States)


    STS-103 Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France exhibits his holiday spirit on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The STS-103 crew and their families are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  2. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żukowski Wojciech


    Full Text Available Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst; program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that marketing is one of the most important activities in all types of organizations since it is a link between customers and companies in the context of global changes in business environment. The need of leading companies for their staff to be highly qualified, open for new opportunities, ready to take an initiative and comprehend the global needs and values has been justified. It has been clarified that both higher education institutions have the same strategic aims, aimed at highly professional specialists’ training, the cultural-based education of youth, stimulating for critical reflection, lifelong learning, and professional development. Positive aspects in Polish experience of training future specialists in international marketing have been defined. Perspectives for further research have been considered.

  3. Opportunity Costs in Paediatric Training: The Specialist Registrars Experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Neill, MB


    In the training process, there is a tension between the work life and home life of trainees. This study explored both the personal impact and the opportunity costs of training from the Specialist Paediatric Registrar (SPR) perspective. The survey explored 1) career progression2) perceived functional effectiveness at work 3) psychological impact of hospital based training and 4) the personal and social cost of training. Fifty-three (71%) SPRs responded of whom 47 (89%)were married or in long term relationships. Seventy-five percent of trainees had a definite career plan with 86% intending to undertake fellowship training. Seventy percent believed they were efficient time managers but 53% had difficulty in making time for academic pursuits and fifty percent experienced negative feelings, which lingered after work and interfered with their relationships at home. Seventy-four percent stated training was undertaken at significant personal cost with only 21% achieving a very satisfactory work\\/life balance. To address these difficulties trainee wellbeing should be addressed at the Basic Specialist Training (BST) level and the career path clearly explained outlining the challenges that are likely to be encountered.

  4. Activities of Intellectual Disability Clinical Nurse Specialists in Ireland. (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of Irish intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists (ID CNSs) to service delivery. A nonexperimental descriptive design was selected to survey ID CNSs presently working in Ireland. The questionnaire was developed based on focus group interviews, available literature, and expert panel views. Ethical approval and access were granted to all ID CNSs in Ireland. Thirty-two responded (33.68% response rate) from all work areas (voluntary organizations or health service executive) practicing within residential, community, or school services. Respondents were surveyed across a range of areas (demographic details and support to client, staff, family, organization, community, other agencies, and professional development). Findings identify that ID CNSs are active in all aspects of their roles as clinical specialist, educator, communicator, researcher, change agent, and leader, thus supporting person-centered care and improving service delivery. To meet changing healthcare demands, promote person-centered care, and improve service delivery, the CNS role in ID should be developed and supported. The findings merit a further study on ID CNS role activity, possible variables influencing role activity, and team members' views.

  5. Professional standard of specialist of guardianship and custodianship agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Semya


    Full Text Available We justified the introduction of the professional standard of specialist of guardianship and custodianship agency taking into consideration the psychological characteristics of the target group of customers. We describe the situation in our country with qualification of professionals, the international trends in the field of protection of the rights of minors in the countries – members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. We analyze the reflection of the theme of labor functions in the Russian legislation. We reveal the need for psychological and pedagogical knowledge for successful professional of guardianship authorities, compile a list of the necessary skills and knowledge. The main focus of the work of specialists is to maintain the child in the biological family at all stages of working with child and family problems. We characterize the trends in professional activities related to the development of the regional legislation in comparison with federal, increased number of international instruments to which Russia joined in the protection of children's rights. It is stressed that a requirement for education is additional retraining for new programs on the basis of higher education in the following professions and fields of study: law, pedagogy and psychology, social pedagogy and social work.

  6. Current nursing practice by hospital-based stoma specialist nurses. (United States)

    Burch, Jennie

    Nurses frequently care for patients who have stomas. A common complication is sore peristomal skin (skin around the stoma). The study aim was to answer the research question: what is the current nursing practice for peristomal skin problems among UK stoma specialist nurses? The question was explored through investigation of descriptions, treatments and opinions of peristomal skin problems. Results were examined to ascertain if practice reflects the literature and if care was evidence-based. A questionnaire was posted in September 2009 to the stoma care nurses in all UK NHS hospitals (n=596). The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires was 15% (89 of 596). Most of the responding nurses held a stoma-related qualification (86%), a degree (55%) and had specialised in stoma care for over 5 years (67%). Respondents used erythema to describe sore skin (80%). Stoma powder (98%) and convex appliances (98%) were the most commonly used treatments. The most common cause of sore skin was appliance leakage (61%). The study population was deemed suitably qualified and experienced to answer the research question. Many responses were reflected in the literature (predominantly opinion articles), reflecting a degree of reliability and validity. It could be concluded that stoma specialist nurses can accurately assess and use stoma accessories to treat sore skin, but due to the paucity of research, the care cannot be defined as evidence-based. More research is needed to determine universally accepted definitions and treatments for sore peristomal skin.

  7. [Education of clinical pharmacy specialists in critical care in Japan]. (United States)

    Maeda, Mikihiro


    In Japan, recent initiation of the reimbursement from the government to monitor patients in intensive care unit (ICU) and the foundation of certified emergency medicine and critical care specialist resulted in the increased number of ICU pharmacists. Because most pharmacy schools in Japan have provided few lectures or rotations related to critical care, pharmacy students may think critical care is a difficult field. Pharmacy students in the United States usually have basic didactic courses for critical care such as sepsis or sedation. They can also take critical care rotations as an elective advanced rotation. An organized postgraduate training programs, pharmacy practice residency programs (PGY1; post graduate year 1) and specialized pharmacy practice residency programs (PGY2), develop clinical knowledge and skills as clinical pharmacists. Critical care is one of the most popular areas in PGY2 specialty residency programs. Through three years pharmacy students and residents can develop required knowledge and skills in critical care such as patient monitoring skill. As a part of new pharmacists training, our institution provides a week of critical care rotation. The main objective is the introduction of critical care to be a pharmacy generalist and to develop patient monitoring skills. The critical care rotation is the first step to develop critical care clinical pharmacy specialists in the future.

  8. Professional communications of Russian technical and engineering specialists: empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Abramov


    Full Text Available Sociology of professions focus on the role of interpersonal and intergroup communications in the professional communities as an element of professional culture. The article considers forms and features of professional communications of Russian engineers and technicians in the context of their professional culture defined as the constellation of ideology, values, beliefs, language, and forms of activity typical for the community, which rarely becomes an object of Russian sociologists’ studies. The author shows that interpersonal professional communications on the various aspects of professional activity is an important element of professional culture. The article is based on the results of online survey of Russian engineers and expert interviews with Russian technical specialists - they were questioned on the ways of updating their professional knowledge and on the role of various channels of communication in this process. At the beginning of the article, the author provides an overview of approaches to the study of professional culture in Russia and abroad, and underlines the significant role of the Internet and the declining role of literature as a source of new knowledge for the engineering and technical staff. The results of the study also revealed an important role of informal and direct communications in the transfer of professional knowledge within the engineering community, while organizational environment has a relatively low impact on the updating of professional knowledge, which can be explained by the lack of management attention to the professional development of specialists.

  9. 3rd CEAS Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Drouin, Antoine; Roos, Clément


    The two first CEAS (Council of European Aerospace Societies) Specialist Conferences on Guidance, Navigation and Control (CEAS EuroGNC) were held in Munich, Germany in 2011 and in Delft, The Netherlands in 2013. ONERA The French Aerospace Lab, ISAE (Institut Supérieur de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace) and ENAC (Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile) accepted the challenge of jointly organizing the 3rd edition. The conference aims at promoting new advances in aerospace GNC theory and technologies for enhancing safety, survivability, efficiency, performance, autonomy and intelligence of aerospace systems. It represents a unique forum for communication and information exchange between specialists in the fields of GNC systems design and operation, including air traffic management. This book contains the forty best papers and gives an interesting snapshot of the latest advances over the following topics: l  Control theory, analysis, and design l  Novel navigation, estimation, and tracking methods l  Aircr...

  10. Isolated single umbilical artery: need for specialist fetal echocardiography? (United States)

    DeFigueiredo, D; Dagklis, T; Zidere, V; Allan, L; Nicolaides, K H


    To examine the association between single umbilical artery (SUA) and cardiac defects and to determine whether patients with SUA require specialist fetal echocardiography. Incidence and type of cardiac defects were determined in fetuses with SUA detected at routine second-trimester ultrasound examination. A routine second-trimester scan was performed in 46 272 singleton pregnancies at a median gestation of 22 (range, 18-25) weeks and an SUA was diagnosed in 246 (0.5%). Cardiac defects were diagnosed in 16 (6.5%) of these cases, including 10 (4.3%) in a subgroup of 233 with no other defects and in six (46.2%) of the 13 with multiple defects. In 11 (68.8%) of the 16 cases with cardiac defects the condition was readily diagnosable by evaluating the standard four-chamber view and the views of the great arteries. In the remaining cases there was left persistent superior vena cava or small ventricular septal defect, where prenatal diagnosis may not be important because they are not associated with adverse outcome. Although SUA is associated with an increased incidence of cardiac defects it may not be necessary to refer such patients for specialist fetal echocardiography because the defects are detectable by evaluating standard cardiac views that should be part of the routine second-trimester scan. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Specialist nectar-yeasts decline with urbanization in Berlin (United States)

    Wehner, Jeannine; Mittelbach, Moritz; Rillig, Matthias C.; Verbruggen, Erik


    Nectar yeasts are common inhabitants of insect-pollinated flowers but factors determining their distribution are not well understood. We studied the influence of host identity, environmental factors related to pollution/urbanization, and the distance to a target beehive on local distribution of nectar yeasts within Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Tilia tomentosa Moench in Berlin, Germany. Nectar samples of six individuals per species were collected at seven sites in a 2 km radius from each target beehive and plated on YM-Agar to visualise the different morphotypes, which were then identified by sequencing a section of the 26S rDNA gene. Multivariate linear models were used to analyze the effects of all investigated factors on yeast occurrence per tree. Yeast distribution was mainly driven by host identity. The influence of the environmental factors (NO2, height of construction, soil sealing) strongly depended on the radius around the tree, similar to the distance of the sampled beehive. Incidence of specialist nectar-borne yeast species decreased with increasing pollution/urbanization index. Given that specialist yeast species gave way to generalist yeasts that have a reduced dependency on pollinators for between-flower dispersal, our results indicate that increased urbanization may restrict the movement of nectar-specialized yeasts, via limitations of pollinator foraging behavior.

  12. Smoking among French infertility specialists: habits, opinions and patients' management. (United States)

    Freour, Thomas; Dessolle, Lionel; Jean, Miguel; Barriere, Paul


    The deleterious effects of tobacco on fertility are now largely demonstrated. Little is known, however, about how infertility doctors communicate on smoking and about their own smoking habits. In this study, we examined smoking habits among French infertility specialists and their attitudes towards infertile couples' exposure to tobacco. A postal survey was sent in 2009 to the 803 French certified physicians (gynaecologists, urologists, endocrinologists and embryologists) specializing in infertility. Demographical data, smoking habits and attitude towards patients' smoking were recorded. Statistical analysis and multiple correspondence analysis were performed in order to identify differences among physicians according to age, gender, occupation or smoking status. Response rate was 42.3%. Half of the respondents were male, 41% were under 45 years, 37% were embryologists and 53.3% were gynaecologists. Thirteen percent reported current smoking. More than 80% always asked their patients about smoking status and cannabis consumption. Most physicians specifically informed infertile couples on tobacco, advised them to quit and proposed smoking cessation therapies. Only 24% refused care unless smoking cessation occurred. Statistical analysis showed some differences among subgroups according to gender, occupation or age. Surprisingly, results were comparable according to smoking status. Most infertility specialists are aware of the deleterious effects of tobacco on fertility and ask their patients to quit. The heterogeneity in infertile patients' management, however, underlines the need for better professional and patients' information on smoking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Art Appreciation as a Learned Competence: A Museum-Based Qualitative Study of Adult Art Specialist and Art Non-Specialist Visitors (United States)

    Bracun Sova, Rajka


    Since Bourdieu, it has been argued that art appreciation requires "knowledge". The focus of this qualitative study was to examine art appreciation as a learned competence by exploring two different groups of museum visitors: art specialists and art non-specialists. The research was conducted at Moderna galerija in Ljubljana. Twenty-three…

  14. Redefining "Community" through Collaboration and Co-Teaching: A Case Study of an ESOL Specialist, a Literacy Specialist, and a Fifth-Grade Teacher (United States)

    Ahmed Hersi, Afra; Horan, Deborah A.; Lewis, Mark A.


    This article explores the development of a professional learning community through a case study of three teachers--an ESOL specialist, a literacy specialist, and a fifth-grade teacher--who engaged in co-teaching and collaboration. The emerging community of practice offered these teachers a space to learn and problem-solve by utilizing their…

  15. [Learning how to learn for specialist further education]. (United States)

    Breuer, G; Lütcke, B; St Pierre, M; Hüttl, S


    The world of medicine is becoming from year to year more complex. This necessitates efficient learning processes, which incorporate the principles of adult education but with unchanged periods of further education. The subject matter must be processed, organized, visualized, networked and comprehended. The learning process should be voluntary and self-driven with the aim of learning the profession and becoming an expert in a specialist field. Learning is an individual process. Despite this, the constantly cited learning styles are nowadays more controversial. An important factor is a healthy mixture of blended learning methods, which also use new technical possibilities. These include a multitude of e‑learning options and simulations, which partly enable situative learning in a "shielded" environment. An exemplary role model of the teacher and feedback for the person in training also remain core and sustainable aspects in medical further education.

  16. New study program: Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics. (United States)

    Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Simić, Diana; Božikov, Jadranka; Vondra, Petra


    Paper presents an overview of the EU funded Project of Curriculum Development for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics named MEDINFO to be introduced in Croatia. The target group for the program is formed by professionals in any of the areas of medicine, IT professionals working on applications of IT for health and researchers and teachers in medical informatics. In addition to Croatian students, the program will also provide opportunity for enrolling students from a wider region of Southeast Europe. Project partners are two faculties of the University of Zagreb - Faculty of Organization and Informatics from Varaždin and School of Medicine, Andrija Štampar School of Public Health from Zagreb with the Croatian Society for Medical Informatics, Croatian Chamber of Economy, and Ericsson Nikola Tesla Company as associates.

  17. An approach to mentoring healthcare play specialist students. (United States)

    Brown, Rachel; Jubb, Mags


    Healthcare play specialists (HPSs) provide therapeutic play programmes for children in healthcare settings. Each HPS student must have a mentor in practice, but most HPSs have received no formal training for their role. This article explores mentoring in the HPS service at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust. A study day for HPSs was arranged to share best practice and discuss the challenges of mentoring students. Stronger links were built between the higher education institute that delivers the training to HPS students and the trust, and the HPSs were provided with a deeper understanding of what was required of them in their mentoring role. HPSs highlighted the importance of a yearly update on mentoring students.

  18. Professional applied physical training of future specialists of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabanov Y.A.


    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and experimentally prove the contents, methods and forms of physical training of future specialists of agricultural production. This takes into account advanced course of professional applied physical preparation means kettlebell sport. Material : The study involved 141 students. Duration of study is 5 years. Results : It was found that a significant increase in indicators of flexibility, strength, coordination abilities of students promoted the use of exercises using weights of different weights. Confirmed the legitimacy of the use of such means of physical education for the development of muscle strength of the upper body, back, legs, abdominals. These muscles are the most loaded in the performance of professional activities of mechanical engineers. Conclusions : The program meets the basic criteria for the formation of curriculum for physical education. The program promotes the development of professional applications of physical qualities, motor skills and improve physical performance of students.

  19. 2nd CEAS Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, Bob; Choukroun, Daniel; Kampen, Erik-Jan; Visser, Coen; Looye, Gertjan


    Following the successful 1st CEAS (Council of European Aerospace Societies) Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control (CEAS EuroGNC) held in Munich, Germany in 2011, Delft University of Technology happily accepted the invitation of organizing the 2nd  CEAS EuroGNC in Delft, The Netherlands in 2013. The goal of the conference is to promote new advances in aerospace GNC theory and technologies for enhancing safety, survivability, efficiency, performance, autonomy and intelligence of aerospace systems using on-board sensing, computing and systems. A great push for new developments in GNC are the ever higher safety and sustainability requirements in aviation. Impressive progress was made in new research fields such as sensor and actuator fault detection and diagnosis, reconfigurable and fault tolerant flight control, online safe flight envelop prediction and protection, online global aerodynamic model identification, online global optimization and flight upset recovery. All of these challenges de...

  20. Andragogical Model in Language Training of Mining Specialists (United States)

    Bondareva, Evgeniya; Chistyakova, Galina; Kleshevskyi, Yury; Sergeev, Sergey; Stepanov, Aleksey


    Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class) one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.