WorldWideScience

Sample records for suboptimum post-detection optical-radar

  1. Some Optimum and Suboptimum Frame Synchronizers for Binary Data in Gaussian Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Palle Tolstrup

    1973-01-01

    In this correspondence we investigate the performance of several optimum and suboptimum devices for locating a sync word in data corrupted by Gaussian noise. One suboptimum synchronizer, which is extremely simple to instrument, is shown to perform virtually optimally over the entire range...

  2. Performance of Optimum and Suboptimum Combining Diversity Reception for Binary DPSK over Independent, Nonidentical Rayleigh Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the error performance analysis of binary differential phase shift keying with differential detection over the nonselective, Rayleigh fading channel with combining diversity reception. Space antenna diversity reception is assumed. The diversity branches are independent, but have nonidentically distributed statistics. The fading process in each branch is assumed to have an arbitrary Doppler spectrum with arbitrary Doppler bandwidth. Both optimum diversity reception and suboptimum diversity reception are considered. Results available previously apply only to the case of first and second-order diversity. Our results are more general in that the order of diversity is arbitrary. Moreover, the bit error probability (BEP) result is obtained in an exact, closed-form expression which shows the behavior of the BEP as an explict function of the one-bit-interval fading correlation coefficient at the matched filter output, the mean signal-to-noise ratio per bit per branch and the order of diver...

  3. Optical-radar imaging of scale models for studies in asteroid astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, A. K.; Hudson, R. S.; Psaltis, D.

    1995-01-01

    During the past five years, delay-Doppler radar has become the primary technique for studying the structure of Earth-crossing asteroids. None of these objects has yet been visited by spacecraft, so ground-truth test cases are lacking. A laboratory system is described that provides optical-radar images at 0.1-mm resolution. These data are analogous to the highest-resolution asteroid radar images currently available and provided realistic test cases for developing signal-processing techniques. ...

  4. Mapping forested wetlands in the Great Zhan River Basin through integrating optical, radar, and topographical data classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, X D; Zang, S Y; Wu, C S; Li, W L

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the spatial extent of forested wetlands is essential to many studies including wetland functioning assessment, greenhouse gas flux estimation, and wildlife suitable habitat identification. For discriminating forested wetlands from their adjacent land cover types, researchers have resorted to image analysis techniques applied to numerous remotely sensed data. While with some success, there is still no consensus on the optimal approaches for mapping forested wetlands. To address this problem, we examined two machine learning approaches, random forest (RF) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, and applied these two approaches to the framework of pixel-based and object-based classifications. The RF and KNN algorithms were constructed using predictors derived from Landsat 8 imagery, Radarsat-2 advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and topographical indices. The results show that the objected-based classifications performed better than per-pixel classifications using the same algorithm (RF) in terms of overall accuracy and the difference of their kappa coefficients are statistically significant (pwetlands based on the per-pixel classifications using the RF algorithm. As for the object-based image analysis, there were also statistically significant differences (pwetlands and omissions for agriculture land. This research proves that the object-based classification with RF using optical, radar, and topographical data improved the mapping accuracy of land covers and provided a feasible approach to discriminate the forested wetlands from the other land cover types in forestry area.

  5. Polarimetry as a valid means to reduce optical noise in underwater 3D imaging by means of amplitude-modulated laser optical radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, L; Ferri de Collibus, M; Fornetti, G; Francucci, M; Guarneri, M; Nuvoli, M; Paglia, E; Ricci, R

    2009-07-15

    We report the results of a series of underwater imaging experiments in the visible, carried out at ENEA (Frascati, Rome) by using a bistatic, amplitude-modulated laser optical radar system. In these experiments, polarimetry is used for minimizing the water backscattering signal and improving the accuracy of phase measurements directly related to distance. The presented technique enables one to obtain 3D images of underwater real scenes characterized by high quality, space resolution, and contrast. The results are of remarkable importance for applications in the 3D imaging of submerged objects, such as submarine archaeological sites.

  6. Space radar image of Ubar optical/radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This pair of images from space shows a portion of the southern Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula in the country of Oman. On the left is a radar image of the region around the site of the fabled Lost City of Ubar, discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. On the right is an enhanced optical image taken by the shuttle astronauts. Ubar existed from about 2800 BC to about 300 AD. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. The actual site of the fortress of the Lost City of Ubar, currently under excavation, is too small to show in either image. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, show as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks in the radar image. Although used in modern times, field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing images provided by the Landsat satellite was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes. The green areas are limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the scene and appears as a white line. The radar images, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on an early civilization about which little in known. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) and is centered at 18 degrees North latitude and 53 degrees East longitude. The image covers an area about 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. An All-Solid-State Chirped Source for Coherent Optical Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-15

    establish a reference which is compared to the difference in resistance between the thermistor and the setpoint potentiometer. The INAI01...indicating possible damage to the diode laser. The control stage is simply a single opamp implementing a P1 control law. Even with the very long

  8. An all-solid-state chirped source for coherent optical radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1992-03-01

    A low-noise, high-power, single-frequency, solid-state laser harmonically converted to the green is required to pump a single-frequency, singly-resonant, chirped, optical parametric oscillator. As work toward this new frequency agile source we have built and injection locked an 18 watt Nd:YAG slave laser with a 40 mW master laser to produce single frequency operation, generated 6.5 watts of 532 nm radiation at 36 percent efficiency by resonant second harmonic generation, and measured spectral and spatial mode characteristics of this laser. Toward an all-solid-state version of this laser we have designed a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser. All subsystems of this laser have been built and tested and the final construction of the laser is currently underway. In addition, we have built both a pulsed singly resonant optical parametric oscillator, and a low threshold cw doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator that operated at 80 percent conversion efficiency in a single axial mode.

  9. Preparing for LISA in the post-detection era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John

    2017-01-01

    In 2016 we saw the first direct detections of gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO and the positive results from LISA Pathfinder. In this context, NASA has decided to partner with the ESA on their L3 gravitational wave observatory, whose science goals are outlined in the white paper, The Gravitational Universe. The current launch date for L3 is 2034, but with the success of Pathfinder and the increased scientific interest in gravitational waves caused by LIGO, ESA and its member states are exploring ways to move up the launch date. In the U.S., the National Academy's Astronomy Midterm Assessment has recommended that NASA restore support for a gravitational wave mission in this decade with the goal of realizing the full scientific capability of the mission envisioned in the 2020 decadal. NASA has appointed the L3 Study Team, charged with providing analysis of potential U.S. contributions to the European-led L3 mission and preparing for the next decadal survey. The LISA mission concept, proposed for L3, will improve our understanding of the formation and growth of massive black holes, create a census of compact binary systems in the Milky Way, test general relativity in extreme conditions, provide predictions of black hole binary mergers in the LIGO frequency band, and enable searches for new physics.

  10. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francucci M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager ( = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  11. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ricci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager (λ = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  12. Remote sensing systems – Platforms and sensors: Aerial, satellites, UAVs, optical, radar, and LiDAR: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Fitzerald, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing defined remote sensing as the measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon, by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study (Colwell et al., 1983). Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) in its geographic information system (GIS) dictionary defines remote sensing as “collecting and interpreting information about the environment and the surface of the earth from a distance, primarily by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the earth’s surface or from the atmosphere, or by sending signals transmitted from a device and reflected back to it (ESRI, 2014).” The usual source of passive remote sensing data is the measurement of reflected or transmitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from the sun across the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS); this can also include acoustic or sound energy, gravity, or the magnetic field from or of the objects under consideration. In this context, the simple act of reading this text is considered remote sensing. In this case, the eye acts as a sensor and senses the light reflected from the object to obtain information about the object. It is the same technology used by a handheld camera to take a photograph of a person or a distant scenic view. Active remote sensing, however, involves sending a pulse of energy and then measuring the returned energy through a sensor (e.g., Radio Detection and Ranging [RADAR], Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR]). Thermal sensors measure emitted energy by different objects. Thus, in general, passive remote sensing involves the measurement of solar energy reflected from the Earth’s surface, while active remote sensing involves synthetic (man-made) energy pulsed at the environment and the return signals are measured and recorded.

  13. Conformal Array Antenna Modelling within EUCLID CEPA-1 / Modern Radar Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Gerini, G.; Zaragoza, B.M.; Hond, F. de; Bertuch, Th.; S”ntgerath, W.; Knott, P.; Gniss, H.; Schmid, O.; Winterfeld, Chr. von; Paul, D.L.; Craddock, I.; Economou, D.P.; Kaklamani, D.I.; Kyriakou, G.; Sahalos, J.N.; Uzunoglu, N.K.; Backhouse, P.; Fletcher, P.; Watkins, C.D.; Vitiello, R.; D'Elia, U.F.

    2000-01-01

    The mounting of antennas on military platforms, land-, sea- and air-based is a well-known problem due to the conflict it generates between platform and sensor interests. Most visibly this situation arises in aircraft where platform interests gain the highest priority and lead to sub-optimum antennas

  14. Performance of binary FSK data transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    Matched-filter detection of binary signals is discussed in terms of the probability of bit error. The equations for the probability of error are derived for coherent phase shift keying, and coherent frequency shift keying (FSK). Suboptimum detection of FSK signals is also discussed for discriminators.

  15. Digital image registration by correlation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, D. J.; Mccormack, D. S.; Lee, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    This study considers the translation problem associated with digital image registration and develops a means for comparing commonly used correlation techniques. Using suitably defined constraints, an optimum and four suboptimum registration techniques are defined and evaluated. A computational comparison is made and Gaussian image statistics are used to compare the selected techniques in terms of radial position location error.

  16. Soil tillage and water infiltration in semi-arid Morocco: the role fo surface and sub-surface soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimanche, P.H.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of cereals in a dryland farming system forms an important part of agricultural production in Morocco. Yield levels on the Saïs Plateau between Meknès and Fez in the semi-arid zone, however, remain low possibly because of sub-optimum water use due to inefficient tillage systems. A study

  17. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids. IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.; Michalowski, T.; Antonini, P.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Crippa, R.; Esseiva, N.; Fagas, M.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Hein - Bertelsen, R.P.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Kaminski, K.; Kryszczynska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Manzini, F.; Michalowski, J.; Michalowski, M. J.; Paschke, A.; Polinska, M.; Poncy, R.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Sobkowiak, K.; Stasik, M.; Starczewski, S.; Velichko, F.; Wucher, H.; Zafar, T.

    Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar

  18. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  19. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical changes in two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different photosynthetically active radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-10-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating physiological and biochemical behavior of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different levels (sub-optimum; 25 ± 0.5, optimum; 75 ± 2.5 and supra-optimum; 225 ± 3.5 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and subsequently treated with two doses (30 and 90 mM) of NaCl. PAR influences growth in tested cyanobacteria being maximum in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. NaCl-induced maximum percent decline in growth was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells, which was in consonance with a decrease in chlorophyll content. Sub-optimum PAR acclimatization stimulated phycocyanin content in control cells, whereas maximum carotenoids content was observed in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. Photosystem II photochemistry viz. Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, Ψ0, ϕE0, PIABS, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC was also influenced by PAR and NaCl. Maximum percent rise in superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells exposed to NaCl, which could be correlated with lower values of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (NP-SH and cysteine) antioxidants. In supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells level of oxidative stress markers was in parallel with enhanced antioxidants. The results suggest that PAR significantly changes physiological and biochemical responses of studied cyanobacteria under NaCl stress. Besides this, this study also shows that P. foveolarum is more tolerant than N. muscorum under test conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Massive lumbar spine hematoma post-spinal tap

    OpenAIRE

    Al Jishi, Ahmed; Murty, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lumbar puncture is a well-known procedure. The indications for lumbar puncture vary among different medical and surgical disciplines, though obtaining a sample for cerebrospinal fluid analysis is the most common one. A normal coagulation profile is crucial prior to pursing the procedure. Occasionally, an urgent sample is needed to guide an appropriate treatment while the patient's coagulation status is suboptimum. In those specific critical situations, some may accept suboptimal c...

  1. Beamforming-Based Physical Layer Network Coding for Non-Regenerative Multi-Way Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Anja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose non-regenerative multi-way relaying where a half-duplex multi-antenna relay station (RS assists multiple single-antenna nodes to communicate with each other. The required number of communication phases is equal to the number of the nodes, N. There are only one multiple-access phase, where the nodes transmit simultaneously to the RS, and broadcast (BC phases. Two transmission methods for the BC phases are proposed, namely, multiplexing transmission and analog network coded transmission. The latter is a cooperation method between the RS and the nodes to manage the interference in the network. Assuming that perfect channel state information is available, the RS performs transceive beamforming to the received signals and transmits simultaneously to all nodes in each BC phase. We address the optimum transceive beamforming maximising the sum rate of non-regenerative multi-way relaying. Due to the nonconvexity of the optimization problem, we propose suboptimum but practical signal processing schemes. For multiplexing transmission, we propose suboptimum schemes based on zero forcing, minimising the mean square error, and maximising the signal to noise ratio. For analog network coded transmission, we propose suboptimum schemes based on matched filtering and semidefinite relaxation of maximising the minimum signal to noise ratio. It is shown that analog network coded transmission outperforms multiplexing transmission.

  2. CSIR Annual report 2007-08

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Science: real & relevant SAPDM South African pavement design method SAPS South African Police Service SARMES South African resource management and expert system SASL South African Sign Language SET Science, engineering and technology SRP... Metrology Laboratory NPA National Port Authority NSDP National Spatial Development Perspective NSI National System of Innovation NWU North-West University ORT Optical radar tracker OSS Open Source Software PFMA Public Finance Management Act PG...

  3. Lidar Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Weitkamp, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Written by leading experts in optical radar, or lidar, this book brings all the recent practices up-to-date and covers a multitude of applications, from atmospheric sciences to environmental protection. Its broad cross-disciplinary scope should appeal to both the experienced scientist and the novice in the field. The Foreword is by one of the early pioneers in the area, Herbert Walther.

  4. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  5. Early and effective use of ketamine for treatment of phantom limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Shanthanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for phantom limb pain is difficult and challenging. There is often suboptimum treatment with fewer than 10% receiving lasting relief. Treatments based broadly on other neuropathic pains may not be appropriate for a clinical success. We report a case of phantom limb pain, which proved resistant to multiple analgesics, including opioids and continuous epidural blockade. Treatment with intravenous (IV ketamine as an alternate day infusion, gave complete remission of phantom limb pain. This demonstrates an early and effective use of a potent NMDA antagonist for treatment of phantom limb pain. Mechanisms underlying phantom limb pain are briefly discussed.

  6. PERBANDINGAN VIGORITAS BENIH Acacia mangium HASIL PEMULIAAN DAN YANG BELUM DIMULIAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds with high vigour are seeds that can germinate normally in sub-optimum conditions and above normal in optimum condition. To predict the performance of seedlings after planting and the storability of seeds, it is necessary to test the seed vigour. This study aims to investigate the growth and storage vigour of Acacia mangium breeding and unbreeding seeds. The experiment design was arranged in completely randomized design with each treatment being replicated four times with 100 seeds. Results obtained showed that breeding seeds had better growth and storage vigour. 

  7. Capital intangível e direitos de propriedade intelectual: uma análise institucionalista Intangible capital and intellectual property rights: an analysis in terms of institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Herscovici

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the main evolutions that explain the emergence of new institutional arrangements that characterize the post-fordism. (i Hence, I will show that the property rights modifications bring forth new forms of competition;(ii Also, I will make explicit the concrete expressions of this new competition, as well as how it translates itself in a sub-optimum allocation in the framework of the market game; (iii I will study the modifications of externalities nature produced by technical progress; (iv Finally, I will analyze the macroeconomic implications in regard to growth mechanisms and to capital nature.

  8. Influence of health locus of control and fear of hypoglycaemia on glycaemic control and treatment satisfaction in people with Type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, L; Mariano, V; Galasso, S; Boscari, F; Cipponeri, E; Negri, C; Frigo, A; Avogaro, A; Bonora, E; Trombetta, M; Bruttomesso, D

    2017-05-01

    To assess the influence of health locus of control and fear of hypoglycaemia on metabolic control and treatment satisfaction in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. People with Type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for at least 1 year, sub-classified as an 'acceptable glucose control' group [HbA1c ≤ 58 mmol/mol (7.5%)] and a 'suboptimum glucose control' group [HbA1c > 58 mmol/mol (7.5%)], were consecutively enrolled in a multicentre cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were administered to assess health locus of control [Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale, with internal and external subscales], fear of hypoglycaemia [Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey II (HFS-II)] and treatment satisfaction [Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ)]. We enrolled 214 participants (mean ± sd age 43.4 ± 12.1 years). The suboptimum glucose control group (n = 127) had lower mean ± sd internal MHLC and DTSQ scores than the acceptable glucose control group (19.6 ± 5.2 vs 21.0 ± 5.0, P = 0.04 and 28.8 ± 4.8 vs 30.9 ± 4.5, P Type 1 diabetes receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, high internal locus represents the most important locus of control pattern for achieving good metabolic control. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  9. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids: IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar occultat......Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar...... occultations, or space probe imaging. Aims. During our ongoing work to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters, there appeared a need for displaying the model plane-of-sky orientations for specific epochs to compare models from different techniques. It would also be instructive...... to be able to track how the complex lightcurves are produced by various asteroid shapes. Methods. Basing our analysis on an extensive photometric observational dataset, we obtained eight asteroid models with the convex lightcurve inversion method. To enable comparison of the photometric models with those...

  10. Remote sensing of ecosystem health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-11-07

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  11. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1 scale issue; (2 transportability issue; (3 data availability; and (4 uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  12. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction. Clinical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, R.A. (Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Many patients with an acute myocardial infarction can be stratified into subgroups that are at high risk for morbidity and mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics that indicate recurrent myocardial ischemia, persistent left ventricular dysfunction, and/or recurrent cardiac arrhythmias. In patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction the assessment of symptoms, physical findings, and ECG changes during predischarge exercise testing often identifies patients at increased risk for further cardiac events. Because of the suboptimum sensitivity and specificity of the exercise ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging with 201Tl and/or assessment of global and segmental ventricular function by two-dimensional echocardiography or radionuclide cineangiography during or immediately after exercise are often added to the predischarge risk stratification.

  13. Adaptive Jamming Suppression in Coherent FFH System Using Weighted Equal Gain Combining Receiver over Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast frequency hopping (FFH is commonly used as an antijamming communication method. In this paper, we propose efficient adaptive jamming suppression schemes for binary phase shift keying (BPSK based coherent FFH system, namely, weighted equal gain combining (W-EGC with the optimum and suboptimum weighting coefficient. We analyze the bit error ratio (BER of EGC and W-EGC receivers with partial band noise jamming (PBNJ, frequency selective Rayleigh fading, and channel estimation errors. Particularly, closed-form BER expressions are presented with diversity order two. Our analysis is verified by simulations. It is shown that W-EGC receivers significantly outperform EGC. As compared to the maximum likelihood (ML receiver in conventional noncoherent frequency shift keying (FSK based FFH, coherent FFH/BPSK W-EGC receivers also show significant advantages in terms of BER. Moreover, W-EGC receivers greatly reduce the hostile jammers’ jamming efficiency.

  14. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-04-06

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  15. Low-Complexity Iterative Receiver for Space-Time Coded Signals over Frequency Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a low-complexity turbo-detector scheme for frequency selective multiple-input multiple-output channels. The detection part of the receiver is based on a List-type MAP equalizer which is a state-reduction algorithm of the MAP algorithm using per-survivor technique. This alternative achieves a good tradeoff between performance and complexity provided a small amount of the channel is neglected. In order to induce the good performance of this equalizer, we propose to use a whitened matched filter (WMF which leads to a white-noise “minimum phase” channel model. Simulation results show that the use of the WMF yields significant improvement, particularly over severe channels. Thanks to the iterative turbo processing (detection and decoding are iterated several times, the performance loss due to the use of the suboptimum List-type equalizer is recovered.

  16. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  17. Valvular aspects of rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenyi, Boglarka; ElGuindy, Ahmed; Smith, Sidney C; Yacoub, Magdi; Holmes, David R

    2016-03-26

    Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain major global health problems. Although strategies for primary and secondary prevention are well established, their worldwide implementation is suboptimum. In patients with advanced valvular heart disease, mechanical approaches (both percutaneous and surgical) are well described and can, for selected patients, greatly improve outcomes; however, access to centres with experienced staff is very restricted in regions that have the highest prevalence of disease. Development of diagnostic strategies that can be locally and regionally provided and improve access to expert centres for more advanced disease are urgent and, as yet, unmet clinical needs. We outline current management strategies for valvular rheumatic heart disease on the basis of either strong evidence or expert consensus, and highlight areas needing future research and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is a predatory, semiaquatic mammal that is generally associated with stream and river banks, lake shores, fresh and saltwater marshes, and marine shore habitats (Gerell 1970).  Mink are chiefly nocturnal and remain active throughout the year (Marshall 1936); Gerell 1969; Burgess 1978).  The species is adaptable in its use of habitat, modifying daily habits according to environmental conditions, particularly prey availability (Wise et al. 1981; Linn and Birds 1981; Birks and Linn 1982).  The species is tolerant of human activity and will inhabit suboptimum habitats as long as an adequate food source is available; however, mink will be more mobile and change home ranges more frequently under such conditions (Linn pers. comm.).

  19. Diagnosis and management of compartmental syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, F A; Winquist, R A; Krugmire, R B

    1980-03-01

    Patients at risk for compartmental syndromes challenge both the diagnostic and the therapeutic abilities of the physician. Suboptimum results may be due to delays in diagnosis and treatment, to incomplete surgical decompression, and to difficulties in the management of the limb after decompression. Although careful clinical assessment permits the diagnosis of a compartmental syndrome in most patients, we have found measurement of tissue pressure and direct nerve stimulation to be helpful for resolving ambiguous or equivocal cases. In our experience, the four-compartment parafibular approach to the leg and the ulnar approach to the volar compartments of the forearm provide efficient and complete decompression of potentially involved compartments. The skeletal stabilization of fractures associated with compartmental syndromes may facilitate management of the limb after surgical decompression.

  20. Capacity of MIMO-OFDM with Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosovic Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is established to dimension the pilot grid for MIMO-OFDM operating in time-variant frequency selective channels. The optimum placement of pilot symbols in terms of overhead and power allocation is identified that maximizes the training-based capacity for MIMO-OFDM schemes without channel knowledge at the transmitter. For pilot-aided channel estimation (PACE with perfect interpolation, we show that the maximum capacity is achieved by placing pilots with maximum equidistant spacing given by the sampling theorem, if pilots are appropriately boosted. Allowing for realizable and possibly suboptimum estimators where interpolation is not perfect, we present a semianalytical method which finds the best pilot allocation strategy for the particular estimator.

  1. Capacity of MIMO-OFDM with Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Auer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is established to dimension the pilot grid for MIMO-OFDM operating in time-variant frequency selective channels. The optimum placement of pilot symbols in terms of overhead and power allocation is identified that maximizes the training-based capacity for MIMO-OFDM schemes without channel knowledge at the transmitter. For pilot-aided channel estimation (PACE with perfect interpolation, we show that the maximum capacity is achieved by placing pilots with maximum equidistant spacing given by the sampling theorem, if pilots are appropriately boosted. Allowing for realizable and possibly suboptimum estimators where interpolation is not perfect, we present a semianalytical method which finds the best pilot allocation strategy for the particular estimator.

  2. Estimation variance bounds of importance sampling simulations in digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D.; Yao, K.

    1991-01-01

    In practical applications of importance sampling (IS) simulation, two basic problems are encountered, that of determining the estimation variance and that of evaluating the proper IS parameters needed in the simulations. The authors derive new upper and lower bounds on the estimation variance which are applicable to IS techniques. The upper bound is simple to evaluate and may be minimized by the proper selection of the IS parameter. Thus, lower and upper bounds on the improvement ratio of various IS techniques relative to the direct Monte Carlo simulation are also available. These bounds are shown to be useful and computationally simple to obtain. Based on the proposed technique, one can readily find practical suboptimum IS parameters. Numerical results indicate that these bounding techniques are useful for IS simulations of linear and nonlinear communication systems with intersymbol interference in which bit error rate and IS estimation variances cannot be obtained readily using prior techniques.

  3. Awareness of World Health Organization methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus guidelines at Alexandria University hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, G S; Abu-Youssef, R M; Saleib, B F; El-Moughazi, A M; Zaki, A

    2013-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess knowledge of routes of transmission, awareness of MRSA control guidelines and reasons for non-adherence to guidelines among medical staff at Alexandria University hospitals. A random sample of 158 physicians and 47 nurses answered a self-administered questionnaire. Overall awareness of MRSA control guidelines was 67.3%, and nurses were significantly more aware than physicians (91.5% versus 60.1%). The lowest awareness level was among anaesthesiologists; only 54.4% knew the correct transmission routes. Among medical staff overall, 70.0% accepted the necessity of screening measures for high-risk patients and 35.8% of doctors accepted the use of the same pair of gloves when caring for different body sites on an individual patient. Lack of resources was the most common justification for suboptimum adherence. The study showed low awareness levels of MRSA-related guidelines.

  4. Analytical design of multispectral sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, D. J.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    An optimal design based on the criterion of minimum mean square representation error using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion was developed to represent the spectral response functions from a stratum based upon a stochastic process scene model. From the overall pattern recognition system perspective, the effect of the representation accuracy on a typical performance criterion (the probability of correct classification) is investigated. The optimum sensor design provides a standard against which practical (suboptimum) operational sensors can be compared. An example design is provided and its performance is illustrated. Although developed primarily for the purpose of sensor design, the procedure has potential for making important contributions to scene understanding. Spectral channels which have narrow bandwidths relative to current sensor systems may be necessary to provide adequate spectral representation and improved classification performance.

  5. Deep Space Network Capabilities for Receiving Weak Probe Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Johnston, Doug; Preston, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Planetary probes can encounter mission scenarios where communication is not favorable during critical maneuvers or emergencies. Launch, initial acquisition, landing, trajectory corrections, safing. Communication challenges due to sub-optimum antenna pointing or transmitted power, amplitude/frequency dynamics, etc. Prevent lock-up on signal and extraction of telemetry. Examples: loss of Mars Observer, nutation of Ulysses, Galileo antenna, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing, and the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion. A Deep Space Network capability to handle such cases has been used successfully to receive signals to characterize the scenario. This paper will describe the capability and highlight the cases of the critical communications for the Mars rovers and Saturn Orbit Insertion and preparation radio tracking of the Huygens probe at (non-DSN) radio telescopes.

  6. Resource-efficient fusion over fading and non-fading reporting channels for cooperative spectrum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Aquino, Guilherme Pedro

    2015-01-16

    Recently, a novel resource-efficient technique for the reporting channel transmissions in cooperative spectrum sensing was proposed. In this technique, secondary users are allowed to simultaneously send their local decisions to the fusion center, saving time and frequency resources. Expressions for the probabilities of detection and false alarm for the unitary-gain AWGN reporting channels were derived, while simulation results were given for both the AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. Here, we provide an expression that is applicable to AWGN channels with different real-valued gains and to time-varying real-valued gains. A simple suboptimum receiver is proposed for the general complex-valued fading and non-fading channels, with an improved performance in the low signal-to-noise ratio condition. Numerical results are shown for both the AWGN and Rayleigh fading reporting channels, demonstrating the accuracy of the derived expressions and the attractive performance of the proposed receiver.

  7. Effect on Non-Uniform Heat Generation on Thermionic Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The penalty resulting from non-uniform heat generation in a thermionic reactor is examined. Operation at sub-optimum cesium pressure is shown to reduce this penalty, but at the risk of a condition analogous to burnout. For high pressure diodes, a simple empirical correlation between current, voltage and heat flux is developed and used to analyze the performance penalty associated with two different heat flux profiles, for series-and parallel-connected converters. The results demonstrate that series-connected converters require much finer power flattening than parallel converters. For example, a ±10% variation in heat generation across a series array can result in a 25 to 50% power penalty.

  8. Longitudinal relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and follow-up HbA1c in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, R B; Graue, M; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Peyrot, M; Thordarson, H B; Rokne, B

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to follow-up glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus completed the Diabetes Distress Scale and reported sociodemographic information when attending a clinical consultation at a university endocrinology unit. Blood samples to determine baseline HbA1c were taken during consultations. All respondents' HbA1c measurements registered from January 2009 to December 2011 were collected from medical records. The relationship between baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and HbA1c was examined with linear mixed-effects models in 175 patients with complete data. After controlling for confounders, baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and glycaemic control were significantly associated (fixed-effect coefficient 0.40, P < 0.001) and the regimen-related distress subscale had the strongest association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.47, P < 0.001). The two-item measure of diabetes-specific distress had a weaker but still significant association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.31, P < 0.001). None of these relationships was significant after adjusting for the baseline HbA1c . People with elevated baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress are at risk of prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control; therefore, elevated diabetes-specific emotional distress, especially regimen-related distress, might be an important marker for prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control, and might indicate a need for special attention regarding patient self-management. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  9. Multiple nutritional deficiencies in cerebral palsy compounding physical and functional impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Hariprasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP refers to a spectrum of disorders causing physical and intellectual morbidity. Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies often contribute to the subnormal physical and mental capabilities of them. Objectives: To assess the growth, nutritional status, physical and functional ability and quality of life in cerebral palsy children and to determine any relation with their gross motor and functional capabilities. Method: The study was conducted at a Tertiary Care Centre, with the participants in the age group 1-16 years. A pretested evaluation tool was prepared which included Anthropometric measurements, tests for hemoglobin and Vitamin D estimation, evidence of micronutrient deficiencies, Dietary patterns, Epidemiological factors, Functional assessment using GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure and FIM (Functional Independent Measurement scales and Quality of life (QOL assessment. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: Out of the 41 children, 30 had quadriplegia, 3 had hemiplegia and 8 had spastic diplegia. 34 (82.9% were severely underweight, 35 (85.4% had severe stunting and 38 (92.7% had severe wasting. Micronutrient deficiencies were noted like vitamin B complex deficiency in 37 (90.2%, vitamin A deficiency in 31 (75.6%, low vitamin D levels in 27 (65.9% and insufficient levels in 9 (22%, severe anemia in 5 (12.2% and moderate anemia in 26 (63.4%.The gross motor and functional scores were suboptimum in the majority of patients and the care givers had significant impairment in the quality of life. Conclusion: Majority of children with cerebral palsy had multiple nutritional deficiencies, gross motor and functional disabilities. QOL of the children and their care givers were suboptimum. A comprehensive package that address dietary intake, correction of micronutrient deficiencies especially anemia and vitamin D deficiency, physical and emotional support is recommended for the wellbeing of the affected children.

  10. Multiple Nutritional Deficiencies in Cerebral Palsy Compounding Physical and Functional Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, P G; Elizabeth, K E; Valamparampil, Mathew J; Kalpana, D; Anish, T S

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a spectrum of disorders causing physical and intellectual morbidity. Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies often contribute to the subnormal physical and mental capabilities of them. To assess the growth, nutritional status, physical and functional ability and quality of life in cerebral palsy children and to determine any relation with their gross motor and functional capabilities. The study was conducted at a Tertiary Care Centre, with the participants in the age group 1-16 years. A pretested evaluation tool was prepared which included Anthropometric measurements, tests for hemoglobin and Vitamin D estimation, evidence of micronutrient deficiencies, Dietary patterns, Epidemiological factors, Functional assessment using GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure ) and FIM (Functional Independent Measurement) scales and Quality of life (QOL) assessment. The data was statistically analyzed. Out of the 41 children, 30 had quadriplegia, 3 had hemiplegia and 8 had spastic diplegia. 34 (82.9%) were severely underweight, 35 (85.4%) had severe stunting and 38 (92.7%) had severe wasting. Micronutrient deficiencies were noted like vitamin B complex deficiency in 37 (90.2%), vitamin A deficiency in 31 (75.6%), low vitamin D levels in 27 (65.9%) and insufficient levels in 9 (22%), severe anemia in 5 (12.2%) and moderate anemia in 26 (63.4%). The gross motor and functional scores were suboptimum in the majority of patients and the care givers had significant impairment in the quality of life. Majority of children with cerebral palsy had multiple nutritional deficiencies, gross motor and functional disabilities. QOL of the children and their care givers were suboptimum. A comprehensive package that address dietary intake, correction of micronutrient deficiencies especially anemia and vitamin D deficiency, physical and emotional support is recommended for the wellbeing of the affected children.

  11. The emerging versatility of a scannerless range imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.; Bradley, B.; Nellums, B.; Diegert, C.

    1996-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is nearing the completion of the initial development of a unique type of range imaging sensor. This innovative imaging optical radar is based on an active flood-light scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is an all solid-state device (no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, including: scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, terrain mapping, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology and its development for the advanced conventional munition guidance application, and discusses a few of the many other emerging applications for this new innovative sensor technology.

  12. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  13. MATHEON Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Calderbank, Robert; Kutyniok, Gitta; Vybíral, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Since publication of the initial papers in 2006, compressed sensing has captured the imagination of the international signal processing community, and the mathematical foundations are nowadays quite well understood. Parallel to the progress in mathematics, the potential applications of compressed sensing have been explored by many international groups of, in particular, engineers and applied mathematicians, achieving very promising advances in various areas such as communication theory, imaging sciences, optics, radar technology, sensor networks, or tomography. Since many applications have reached a mature state, the research center MATHEON in Berlin focusing on "Mathematics for Key Technologies", invited leading researchers on applications of compressed sensing from mathematics, computer science, and engineering to the "MATHEON Workshop 2013: Compressed Sensing and its Applications” in December 2013. It was the first workshop specifically focusing on the applications of compressed sensing. This book featur...

  14. Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Technology for Space Based Wind Measurements Including SPARCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1999-01-01

    It has been over 30 years since coherent lidar systems first measured wind velocity, and over 20 years since the "ultimate application" of measuring Earth's winds from space was conceived. Coherent or heterodyne optical detection involves the combination (or mixing) of the returned optical field with a local oscillator (LO) laser's optical field on the optical detector. This detection technique yields the benefits of dramatically improved signal-to-noise ratios; insensitivity to detector noise, background light and multiply scattered light; reduction of the returned signal's dynamic range; and preservation of the optical signal spectrum for electronic and computer processing. (Note that lidar systems are also referred to as optical radar, laser radar, and LADAR systems.) Many individuals, agencies, and countries have pursued the goal of space-based wind measurements through technology development, experiments, field campaigns and studies.

  15. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  16. Modulation of key metabolic enzyme of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juvenile: effect of dietary starch type, protein level and exogenous alpha-amylase in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shivendra; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Sagar, Vidya; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Baruah, Kartik

    2009-06-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to delineate the effect of both gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) corn with or without supplementation of exogenous alpha-amylase, either at optimum (35%) or sub-optimum (27%) protein levels, on blood glucose, and the key metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, HK), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6 phosphatase, G6Pase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase, FBPase), lipogenesis (glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD) and amino acid metabolism (alanine amino transferase, ALT and aspartate amino transferase, AST) in Labeo rohita. Three hundred and sixty juveniles (average weight 10 +/- 0.15 g) were randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with each of two replicates. Twelve semi-purified diets containing either 35 or 27% crude protein were prepared by including G or NG corn as carbohydrate source with different levels of microbial alpha-amylase (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg kg(-1)). The G corn fed groups showed significantly higher (P Dietary corn type, alpha-amylase level in diet or their interaction had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on liver HK activity, but the optimum crude protein (35%) fed group showed higher HK activity than their low protein counterparts. The sub-optimum crude protein (27%) fed group showed significantly higher (P protein fed group, whereas the reverse trend was observed for HK, G6Pase, FBPase, ALT and AST activity. Addition of 50 mg alpha-amylase kg(-1) feed showed increased blood glucose and G6PD activity of the NG corn fed group, whereas the reverse trend was found for G6Pase, FBPase, ALT and AST activity in liver, which was similar to that of the G or NG corn supplemented with 100/150 mg alpha-amylase kg(-1) feed. Data on enzyme activities suggest that NG corn in the diet significantly induced more gluconeogenic and amino acid metabolic enzyme activity, whereas G corn induced increased lipogenic enzyme activity. Increased amino acid catabolic enzyme (ALT and AST) activity was observed either at

  17. Optimal routing for efficient municipal solid waste transportation by using ArcGIS application in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, V; Shahabudeen, P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, about US$410 billion is spent every year to manage four billion tonnes of municipal solid wastes (MSW). Transport cost alone constitutes more than 50% of the total expenditure on solid waste management (SWM) in major cities of the developed world and the collection and transport cost is about 85% in the developing world. There is a need to improve the ability of the city administrators to manage the municipal solid wastes with least cost. Since 2000, new technologies such as geographical information system (GIS) and related optimization software have been used to optimize the haul route distances. The city limits of Chennai were extended from 175 to 426 km(2) in 2011, leading to sub-optimum levels in solid waste transportation of 4840 tonnes per day. After developing a spatial database for the whole of Chennai with 200 wards, the route optimization procedures have been run for the transport of solid wastes from 13 wards (generating nodes) to one transfer station (intermediary before landfill), using ArcGIS. The optimization process reduced the distances travelled by 9.93%. The annual total cost incurred for this segment alone is Indian Rupees (INR) 226.1 million. Savings in terms of time taken for both the current and shortest paths have also been computed, considering traffic conditions. The overall savings are thus very meaningful and call for optimization of the haul routes for the entire Chennai. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Incorporation of Low Molecular Weight Molecules into α2- Macroglobulin by Nucleophilic Exchange*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jennifer E.; Cianciolo, George J.; Pizzo, Salvatore V.

    2007-01-01

    α2-Macroglobulin (α2M) is a proteinase inhibitor that functions by a trapping mechanism which has been exploited such that the receptor-recognized, activated form (α2M*) can be employed to target antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Another potential use of α2M* is as a drug delivery system. In this study we demonstrate that guanosine triphosphate, labeled with Texas red (GTP-TR) formed complexes with α2M* following activation by proteolytic or non-proteolytic reactions. Optimal incorporation occurred with 20μM GTP-TR, pH 8.0 for 5h at 50°C. NaCl concentration (100mM or 200mM) had little effect on incorporation at this pH or temperature, but was significant at sub-optimum temperature and pH values. Maximum incorporation was 1.2 mol GTP-TR/mol α2M*. PAGE analysis showed that 70-90% of the GTP-TR is bound in a SDS/2-mercaptoethanol resistant manner. Guanosine, adenosine, and imidazole competed with GTP-TR to form complexes with α2M*. PMID:17428443

  19. Incorporation of low molecular weight molecules into alpha(2)-macroglobulin by nucleophilic exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jennifer E; Cianciolo, George J; Pizzo, Salvatore V

    2007-06-01

    alpha(2)-Macroglobulin (alpha(2)M) is a proteinase inhibitor that functions by a trapping mechanism which has been exploited such that the receptor-recognized, activated form (alpha(2)M( *)) can be employed to target antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Another potential use of alpha(2)M( *) is as a drug delivery system. In this study we demonstrate that guanosine triphosphate, labeled with Texas red (GTP-TR) formed complexes with alpha(2)M( *) following activation by proteolytic or non-proteolytic reactions. Optimal incorporation occurred with 20 microM GTP-TR, pH 8.0 for 5h at 50 degrees C. NaCl concentration (100 or 200 mM) had little effect on incorporation at this pH or temperature, but was significant at sub-optimum temperature and pH values. Maximum incorporation was 1.2 mol GTP-TR/mol alpha(2)M( *). PAGE showed that 70-90% of the GTP-TR is bound in a SDS/2-mercaptoethanol resistant manner. Guanosine, adenosine, and imidazole competed with GTP-TR to form complexes with alpha(2)M( *).

  20. The emergence of influenza A H7N9 in human beings 16 years after influenza A H5N1: a tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Chen, Honglin; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-09-01

    Infection with either influenza A H5N1 virus in 1997 or avian influenza A H7N9 virus in 2013 caused severe pneumonia that did not respond to typical or atypical antimicrobial treatment, and resulted in high mortality. Both viruses are reassortants with internal genes derived from avian influenza A H9N2 viruses that circulate in Asian poultry. Both viruses have genetic markers of mammalian adaptation in their haemagglutinin and polymerase PB2 subunits, which enhanced binding to human-type receptors and improved replication in mammals, respectively. Hong Kong (affected by H5N1 in 1997) and Shanghai (affected by H7N9 in 2013) are two rapidly flourishing cosmopolitan megacities that were increasing in human population and poultry consumption before the outbreaks. Both cities are located along the avian migratory route at the Pearl River delta and Yangtze River delta. Whether the widespread use of the H5N1 vaccine in east Asia-with suboptimum biosecurity measures in live poultry markets and farms-predisposed to the emergence of H7N9 or other virus subtypes needs further investigation. Why H7N9 seems to be more readily transmitted from poultry to people than H5N1 is still unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selenium, selenoproteins and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohé, Leopold

    2005-01-01

    Selenium biochemistry is reviewed in respect to its presumed relevance to age-related ocular diseases. Selenium is an essential trace element that exerts its physiological role as selenocysteine residue in at least 25 distinct selenoenzymes in mammals. Lack of GPx-1 due to alimentary selenium deprivation has been inferred to induce cataract in rats and was demonstrated to cause cataracts in mice by targeted gene disruption. The role of other selenoproteins in the eye remains to be worked out. Selenium in excess of the tiny amounts required for selenoprotein synthesis is toxic in general and causes cataracts in experimental animals. Clinical evidence for a protective role of selenium in the development of cataract, macula degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa or any other ocular disease is not available, likely because suboptimum selenium intake, as it may result from unbalanced diet, does not cause any pathologically relevant selenium deficiency in the eye. At present, there is neither theoretical nor an empirical basis to expect beneficial effects of selenium supplementation beyond the dietary reference intakes of 55 microg/day in the context of ocular diseases.

  2. Evaluation of use of a very short polar microbore column segment in high-speed gas chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Mondello, Monica; Sciarrone, Danilo; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2008-08-01

    Very fast GC analyses are commonly carried out by using 10 m x 0.1 mm id capillaries. In order to achieve rapid elution times (1-3 min), the latter are operated under suboptimum conditions. The present research is focused on the evaluation of use of a 0.1 mm id polar column segment (2 m), operated under near-to-optimum conditions, in very fast GC analysis. The results attained are compared with those derived from using a 10 m microbore column in very fast GC experiments. Prior to method development, the effects of gas velocity, temperature program rate, and sample amounts on analytical performance were evaluated. Following these preliminary applications, a complex lipidic sample, cod liver oil, was subjected to rapid separation (approximately 2.1 min) on the 10 m capillary through the application of a 50 degrees C/min temperature rate and a 130 cm/s gas velocity. The same matrix was analyzed on the 2 m capillary using the same temperature program rate and range, but with a close-to-ideal linear velocity. The results observed were of interest, as the separation was achieved in less time (1.45 min) with improved peak resolution. Finally, both methods were validated in terms of retention time and peak area repeatability, LOQ, and linearity.

  3. Kaleidoscope model of diabetes care: time for a rethink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, K D; Lloyd, C E; Dyson, P A; Davies, M J; O'Neil, S; Naresh, K; Lawton, J; Ziegler, R; Holt, R I G

    2014-05-01

    National Audit Data highlight persistent sub-optimum control among increasing numbers of people living with diabetes, with severe consequences for the individual and the NHS. The aim of the present review was to introduce a new cohesive, holistic model of care, tailored to individual needs to support optimum diabetes outcomes. This model of diabetes is necessary in order to understand the driving forces behind behaviour and their impact on diabetes management. Feelings (an emotional state or reaction) and beliefs (an acceptance that something is true or real) are fundamental behavioural drivers and influence diabetes self-management choices. Individually, these explain some of the complexities of behaviour and, collectively, they impact on personal motivation (rationale/desire to act) to achieve a specific outcome. Inevitably, they independently affect diabetes self-management and the environment in which individuals live. A model of care that proposes the encompassing of environment, intrinsic thought and therapy regimens to provide tailored, personalized healthcare should support enhanced diabetes self-management and outcomes from diagnosis. The Kaleidoscope model of care could be deliverable in routine care, incorporating each of the influences on diabetes self-management, and should benefit both individuals with diabetes and healthcare professionals. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  4. Clinical management of concurrent diabetes and tuberculosis and the implications for patient services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Anca Lelia; Pearson, Fiona; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van de Vijver, Steven; Panduru, Nicolae M; Hill, Philip C; Ruslami, Rovina; Moore, David; Aarnoutse, Rob; Critchley, Julia A; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes triples the risk for active tuberculosis, thus the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes will help to sustain the present tuberculosis epidemic. Recommendations have been made for bidirectional screening, but evidence is scarce about the performance of specific tuberculosis tests in individuals with diabetes, specific diabetes tests in patients with tuberculosis, and screening and preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infections in individuals with diabetes. Clinical management of patients with both diseases can be difficult. Tuberculosis patients with diabetes have a lower concentration of tuberculosis drugs and a higher risk of drug toxicity than tuberculosis patients without diabetes. Good glycaemic control, which reduces long-term diabetes complications and could also improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes, is hampered by chronic inflammation, drug-drug interactions, suboptimum adherence to drug treatments, and other factors. Besides drug treatments for tuberculosis and diabetes, other interventions, such as education, intensive monitoring, and lifestyle interventions, might be needed, especially for patients with newly diagnosed diabetes or those who need insulin. From a health systems point of view, delivery of optimum care and integration of services for tuberculosis and diabetes is a huge challenge in many countries. Experience from the combined tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS epidemic could serve as an example, but more studies are needed that include economic assessments of recommended screening and systems to manage concurrent tuberculosis and diabetes. PMID:25194887

  5. Improving patient experience with spinal cord stimulation: implications of position-related changes in neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Edgar; Abejón, David

    2014-06-01

      The objective of this narrative review is to discuss the clinical implications of position-related changes in spinal cord stimulation and technological improvements to better meet patient needs.   Keywords applicable to spinal cord stimulation therapy, including paresthesia perception, spinal cord position, lead impedance, and sensor technologies, were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Literature analysis, combined with extensive clinical experience with spinal cord stimulation therapy, forms the basis of this review.   Fluctuations in paresthesia perception are largely caused by variation in the distance between the fixed electrodes and the spinal cord consequent to patient movement. Patients employ multiple strategies with varying success to manage position-related fluctuations in stimulation perception, which may result in suboptimum therapy delivery.   A new type of spinal cord stimulation system that incorporates accelerometer technology to automatically adjust stimulation amplitude based on patient position may better meet patient analgesic needs and is in early clinical application. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  6. Role of Leadership in Narrowing the Gap between Science and Practice: Improving Treatment Outcomes at the Systems Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Bloch, Richard M; Silver, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    It's been well documented that health care does not reliably transfer what we know from science into clinical practice. As a result, Americans do not always receive the care suggested by the scientific evidence. Despite the best intentions of a dedicated and skilled healthcare workforce, this can often lead to poor clinical outcomes. As research and technology rapidly advance, this gap between science and practice appears to be widening. There is an increasing public concern about a lack of access to appropriate treatment, pervasiveness of unsafe practices, and wasteful uses of precious health care resources leading to suboptimum treatment outcomes. Leadership has a critical role in creating and sustaining the environment that supports health services for individuals and populations that increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. Leadership has some responsibility to improve outcomes by insuring effective use of evidence-based treatment guidelines; measurement-based care; knowledge and skills management; care coordination; and information technologies. This paper addresses leadership issues in these components of a system's ability to improve treatment outcomes.

  7. Iterative Fusion of Distributed Decisions over the Gaussian Multiple-Access Channel Using Concatenated BCH-LDGM Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo PedroM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the data fusion scenario where nodes sense and transmit the data generated by a source to a common destination, which estimates the original information from more accurately than in the case of a single sensor. This work joins the upsurge of research interest in this topic by addressing the setup where the sensed information is transmitted over a Gaussian Multiple-Access Channel (MAC. We use Low Density Generator Matrix (LDGM codes in order to keep the correlation between the transmitted codewords, which leads to an improved received Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR thanks to the constructive signal addition at the receiver front-end. At reception, we propose a joint decoder and estimator that exchanges soft information between the LDGM decoders and a data fusion stage. An error-correcting Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem (BCH code is further applied suppress the error floor derived from the ambiguity of the MAC channel when dealing with correlated sources. Simulation results are presented for several values of and diverse LDGM and BCH codes, based on which we conclude that the proposed scheme outperforms significantly (by up to 6.3 dB the suboptimum limit assuming separation between Slepian-Wolf source coding and capacity-achieving channel coding.

  8. Glucose Respiration in the Intact Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Gibbs, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Chloroplastic respiration was monitored by measuring 14CO2 from 14C glucose in the darkened Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 chloroplast. The patterns of 14CO2 evolution from labeled glucose in the absence and presence of the inhibitors iodoacetamide, glycolate-2-phosphate, and phosphoenolpyruvate were those expected from the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle and glycolysis. The Km for glucose was 56 micromolar and for MgATP was 200 micromolar. Release of 14CO2 was inhibited by phloretin and inorganic phosphate. Comparing the inhibition of CO2 evolution generated by pH 7.5 with respect to pH 8.2 (optimum) in chloroplasts given C-1, C-2, and C-6 labeled glucose indicated that a suboptimum pH affects the recycling of the pentose phosphate intermediates to a greater extent than CO2 evolution from C-1 of glucose. Respiratory inhibition by pH 7.5 in the darkened chloroplast was alleviated by NH4Cl and KCl (stromal alkalating agents), iodoacetamide (an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), or phosphoenolpyruvate (an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase). It is concluded that the site which primarily mediates respiration in the darkened Chlamydomonas chloroplast is the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase/phosphofructokinase junction. The respiratory pathways described here can account for the total oxidation of a hexose to CO2 and for interactions between carbohydrate metabolism and the oxyhydrogen reaction in algal cells adapted to a hydrogen metabolism. PMID:16667985

  9. Glucose Respiration in the Intact Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Gibbs, M

    1991-01-01

    Chloroplastic respiration was monitored by measuring (14)CO(2) from (14)C glucose in the darkened Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 chloroplast. The patterns of (14)CO(2) evolution from labeled glucose in the absence and presence of the inhibitors iodoacetamide, glycolate-2-phosphate, and phosphoenolpyruvate were those expected from the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle and glycolysis. The K(m) for glucose was 56 micromolar and for MgATP was 200 micromolar. Release of (14)CO(2) was inhibited by phloretin and inorganic phosphate. Comparing the inhibition of CO(2) evolution generated by pH 7.5 with respect to pH 8.2 (optimum) in chloroplasts given C-1, C-2, and C-6 labeled glucose indicated that a suboptimum pH affects the recycling of the pentose phosphate intermediates to a greater extent than CO(2) evolution from C-1 of glucose. Respiratory inhibition by pH 7.5 in the darkened chloroplast was alleviated by NH(4)Cl and KCl (stromal alkalating agents), iodoacetamide (an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), or phosphoenolpyruvate (an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase). It is concluded that the site which primarily mediates respiration in the darkened Chlamydomonas chloroplast is the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase/phosphofructokinase junction. The respiratory pathways described here can account for the total oxidation of a hexose to CO(2) and for interactions between carbohydrate metabolism and the oxyhydrogen reaction in algal cells adapted to a hydrogen metabolism.

  10. Assessment of the decreased productivity of patients with diabetes type 2 in the Clinical Endocrynological Center Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaveev O,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the influence of type 2 diabetes on the patients’ productivity and quality of life. The WHO’s methodology – HLQ (Health and Labor Questionnaire is applied. Subjects were 38 patients with type 2 diabetes, diagnosed and treated at the Clinical center on endocrinology at the MU-Specialized hospital center for active treatment-Sofia. Control consisted of 100 patients without diabetes. The results from the study proofs the fact that the patients with type 2 diabetes manage with their day-to-day activities like their colleagues and even better, but they absent from work because of: their illness, experiencing fatigue and insomnia, pain in hands, legs, joints and muscles. They receive hospital treatment because of the insufficient control on their treatment and the advanced diabetes complications. The application of the Osterhaus method establishes that type 2 diabetes is connected with the excess illness-related work loss and with more often “medically related absences”. These do not lead to significant indirect productivity costs because these patients are with lower income. The cumulative costs from the sporadic work loss during their whole life are even greater, because of the increased spread of the disease, suboptimum treatment, and many complications and prolonged life duration thanks to the contemporary medicine.

  11. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  12. Optimal detection and control strategies for invasive species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans; Stephen Polasky; Robert C. Venette

    2007-01-01

    The increasing economic and environmental losses caused by non-native invasive species amplify the value of identifying and implementing optimal management options to prevent, detect, and control invasive species. Previous literature has focused largely on preventing introductions of invasive species and post-detection control activities; few have addressed the role of...

  13. Wetland mapping and flood extent monitoring using optical and radar remotely sensed data and ancillary topographical data in the Zhalong National Natural Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Xiaodong; Zang, Shuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Information regarding the spatial extent and inundation state in the internationally important Wetlands as designated by Ramsar Convention is important to a series of research questions including wetland ecosystem functioning and services, water management and habitat suitability assessment. This study develops an expedient digital mapping technique using optical remotely sensed imagery of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), ENVISAT ASAR active radar C-band imagery, and topographical indices derived from topographic maps. All data inputs were resampled to a common 30 m resolution grid. An ensemble classifiers based on trees (random forest) procedure was employed to produce a final map of per-grid cell wetland probability map. This study also provides a general approach to delineate the extent of flooding builds upon documented relationships between fields measured inundation state and SAR data response on each vegetation types. The current study indicated that multi-source data (i.e. optical, radar and topography) are useful in the characterization of freshwater marshes and their inundation state. This analysis constitutes a necessary step towards improved herbaceous wetland monitoring and provides ecologists and managers with vital information that is related to ecology and hydrology in a wetland area.

  14. Optics At White Sands Missile Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.

    1985-11-01

    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  15. High power gain switched laser diodes using a novel compact picosecond switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor structure for pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Kostamovaara, Juha

    2006-04-01

    A number of up-to-date applications, including advanced optical radars with high single-shot resolution, precise 3 D imaging, laser tomography, time imaging spectroscopy, etc., require low-cost, compact, reliable sources enabling the generation of high-power (1-100 W) single optical pulses in the picosecond range. The well-known technique of using the gain-switching operation mode of laser diodes to generate single picosecond pulses in the mW range fails to generate high-power single picosecond pulses because of a lack of high-current switches operating in the picosecond range. We report here on the achieving of optical pulses of 45W / 70ps, or alternatively 5W / 40ps, with gain-switched commercial quantum well (QW) laser diodes having emitting areas of 250 × 200 μm and 75 × 2 μm, respectively. This was made possible by the use of a novel high-current avalanche switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure with a switching time (transistor structure.) A simulation code developed earlier but modified and carefully verified here allowed detailed comparison of the experimental and simulated laser responses and the transient spectrum.

  16. Room temperature high-detectivity mid-infrared photodetectors based on black arsenic phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gao, Anyuan; Wang, Peng; Xia, Hui; Ott, Claudia; Pan, Chen; Fu, Yajun; Liu, Erfu; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Nilges, Tom; Xu, Jianbin; Wang, Xiaomu; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range, pertaining to important applications, such as molecular “fingerprint” imaging, remote sensing, free space telecommunication, and optical radar, is of particular scientific interest and technological importance. However, state-of-the-art materials for MIR detection are limited by intrinsic noise and inconvenient fabrication processes, resulting in high-cost photodetectors requiring cryogenic operation. We report black arsenic phosphorus–based long-wavelength IR photodetectors, with room temperature operation up to 8.2 μm, entering the second MIR atmospheric transmission window. Combined with a van der Waals heterojunction, room temperature–specific detectivity higher than 4.9 × 109 Jones was obtained in the 3- to 5-μm range. The photodetector works in a zero-bias photovoltaic mode, enabling fast photoresponse and low dark noise. Our van der Waals heterojunction photodetectors not only exemplify black arsenic phosphorus as a promising candidate for MIR optoelectronic applications but also pave the way for a general strategy to suppress 1/f noise in photonic devices. PMID:28695200

  17. Study on wind wave variability by inhomogeneous currents in the neighborhood underwater hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhanov, Victor V.; Bogatov, Nikolai A.; Ermoshkin, Alexei V.; Titov, Victor I.; Zimin, Alexei V.

    2016-05-01

    A experiments were performed in the shelf zone of the Black Sea in 2015 to study variability of the current fields and other characteristics of sea bulk, wind waves, and the near-surface atmospheric layer. Region with the secluded underwater hill streamlined with currents was selected. Measurements were carried out from the onboard of vessels on move and in drift by optical, radar, acoustic equipment, and STD probe. The complex different structure of waters, which was formed under the influence of shelf waters and water of the open sea interaction, was observed during the experiment. The analysis of measurements in the water column showed that that the flow around underwater elevation forms the hydro-physical disturbances of marine environment. Maximum flow observed above the slopes of underwater elevation and reach 50 cm/s. Wind speed varied from 0 to 10 m/s. On radar panoramas in the region of underwater elevation is observed the appearance of the wave structure, different from the background wind waves. This anomaly on the sea surface is connected with non-uniform current in the neighborhood underwater elevation.

  18. Forest biomass observation: current state and prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Schepaschenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With this article, we provide an overview of the methods, instruments and initiatives for forest biomass observation at global scale. We focus on the freely available information, provided by both remote and in-situ observations. The advantages and limitation of various space borne methods, including optical, radar (C, L and P band and LiDAR, as well as respective instruments available on the orbit (MODIS, Proba-V, Landsat, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 , ALOS PALSAR, Envisat ASAR or expecting (BIOMASS, GEDI, NISAR, SAOCOM-CS are discussed. We emphasize the role of in-situ methods in the development of a biomass models, providing calibration and validation of remote sensing data. We focus on freely available forest biomass maps, databases and empirical models. We describe the functionality of Biomass.Geo-Wiki.org portal, which provides access to a collection of global and regional biomass maps in full resolution with unified legend and units overplayed with high-resolution imagery. The Forest-Observation-System.net is announced as an international cooperation to establish a global in-situ forest biomass database to support earth observation and to encourage investment in relevant field-based observations and science. Prospects of unmanned aerial vehicles in the forest inventory are briefly discussed. The work was partly supported by ESA IFBN project (contract 4000114425/15/NL/FF/gp.

  19. Room temperature high-detectivity mid-infrared photodetectors based on black arsenic phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gao, Anyuan; Wang, Peng; Xia, Hui; Ott, Claudia; Pan, Chen; Fu, Yajun; Liu, Erfu; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Nilges, Tom; Xu, Jianbin; Wang, Xiaomu; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng

    2017-06-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range, pertaining to important applications, such as molecular "fingerprint" imaging, remote sensing, free space telecommunication, and optical radar, is of particular scientific interest and technological importance. However, state-of-the-art materials for MIR detection are limited by intrinsic noise and inconvenient fabrication processes, resulting in high-cost photodetectors requiring cryogenic operation. We report black arsenic phosphorus-based long-wavelength IR photodetectors, with room temperature operation up to 8.2 μm, entering the second MIR atmospheric transmission window. Combined with a van der Waals heterojunction, room temperature-specific detectivity higher than 4.9 × 10 9 Jones was obtained in the 3- to 5-μm range. The photodetector works in a zero-bias photovoltaic mode, enabling fast photoresponse and low dark noise. Our van der Waals heterojunction photodetectors not only exemplify black arsenic phosphorus as a promising candidate for MIR optoelectronic applications but also pave the way for a general strategy to suppress 1/ f noise in photonic devices.

  20. Automatic Registration and Mosaicking System for Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Castejon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is an important operation in many remote sensing applications and it, besides other tasks, involves the identification of corresponding control points in the images. As manual identification of control points may be time-consuming and tiring, several automatic techniques have been developed. This paper describes a system for automatic registration and mosaic of remote sensing images under development at The National Institute for Space Research (INPE and at The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB. The user can provide information to the system in order to speed up the registration process as well as to avoid mismatched control points. Based on statistical procedure, the system gives an indication of the registration quality. This allows users to stop the processing, to modify the registration parameters or to continue the processing. Extensive system tests have been performed with different types of data (optical, radar, multi-sensor, high-resolution images and video sequences in order to check the system performance. An online demo system is available on the internet ( which contains several examples that can be carried out using web browser.

  1. Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Technology for Short Pulse Electromagnetics and Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, Gary J.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; O' Malley, Martin W.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1999-08-05

    High gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are being used to produce high power electromagnetic pulses foc (1) compact, repetitive accelerators, (2) ultra-wide band impulse sources, (3) precision gas switch triggers, (4) optically-activated firesets, and (5) high power optical pulse generation and control. High power, sub-nanosecond optical pulses are used for active optical sensors such as compact optical radars and range-gated hallistic imaging systems. Following a brief introduction to high gain PCSS and its general applications, this paper will focus on PCSS for optical pulse generation and control. PCSS technology can be employed in three distinct approaches to optical pulse generation and control: (1) short pulse carrier injection to induce gain-switching in semiconductor lasers, (2) electro-optical Q-switching, and (3) optically activated Q-switching. The most significant PCSS issues for these applications are switch rise time, jitter, and longevity. This paper will describe both the requirements of these applications and the most recent results from PCSS technology. Experiments to understand and expand the limitations of high gain PCSS will also be described.

  2. Remote electrically passive position transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Markos, Constantine T.; Rieder, R. J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.

    1999-02-01

    We will report on the design and testing of a precision, remote, via fiber optics position transducer suitable for incorporation in a closed loop fly-by-light positioning system. The design is based on Visidyne developed technology for an ultra high resolution optical radar based on Continuous Wave modulated light at a frequency of 1 GHz. It produces digital position data with 12 bit precision e.g., for a travel distance, stroke of 6 inches or greater at a bandwidth, update rate of 1 KHz. The passive nature of the transducer at the actuator location and the high operating frequency makes it highly tolerant to even extreme levels of Electro Magnetic Interference and when constructed from high temperature material is can operate at temperatures well in excess of 300 degrees C. We will discuss transducer performance, precision and position stability with particular emphasis on the effects of length changes within the multi-mode optical fibers used to deliver and collect the light to and from the transducer. We will also discuss cost aspects of the design and their effect on overcoming market entry barriers.

  3. Auxologic, biochemical and clinical (ABC) profile of low birth weight babies- a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, K E; Krishnan, Viji; Zachariah, Philip

    2007-12-01

    supplements in this group. Calcium and iron levels were suboptimum at birth and calcium levels remained suboptimum even at the end of 2 years in all three subsets including controls in this non-affluent group. Currently available interventions may prevent the occurrence of overt clinical nutrient deficiencies, but do not ensure optimum growth, even among normal birth weight babies as some of these babies were seen to slip into the pool of malnutrition subsequently. Specialized nutritional surveillance and supplements are recommended for LBW babies to promote optimum growth and prevent subclinical nutrient deficiencies. Infant feeding practices should be strengthened and integrated with the existing health care programs to reach all the beneficiaries. Along with the existing special supplementation programs like iron folic acid, vitamin A, iodine etc., calcium supplementation should also be considered. It is also essential to concentrate on the girl child, the adolescent girl, prospective mother and prenatal mother to ensure optimum nutrition and nutrient

  4. Optimization of calyculin A-induced premature chromosome condensation assay for chromosome aberration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomisato; Blakely, William F

    2011-12-01

    Calyculin A-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay is a simple and useful method to assess structural and numerical chromosome aberrations in cells. Our hypothesis in this study is that suboptimum calyculin A induction of PCC resulting in fuzzy compactness and/or shortened length chromosomes would decrease the detection sensitivity of numerical and structural chromosome aberrations such as small PCC rings and small excess fragments. In this study, an optimization of calyculin A exposure on chromosome morphology and PCC induction frequency was investigated using a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) ex vivo irradiation ((60) Co-γ rays; ∼0.6 Gy/min; 0-30 Gy) model. Treatment with calyculin A (50 nM) for 15 and 30 min resulted in 11.3 ± 2.7 and 9.9 ± 1.6-fold increases in the frequency of G(2) /M-PCC cells with extended length chromosomes compared with the 60-min treated group over a broad dose range (0 to 20 Gy), respectively. The G(2) /M-PCC scoring index per PCC in 15- and 30-min treated groups was increased by 1.9 ± 0.2 (P = 0.001) and 1.8 ± 0.2 (P = 0.001) compared with the 60-min treated group over 0-20 Gy, respectively. The G(2) /M-PCC efficiency of 30-min treated group was highest in the three conditions (i.e., 15-, 30-, and 60-min treatment) of calyculin A exposure. Calyculin A (50 nM) treatment for 30 min before the 48-h harvest of mitogen-stimulated human PBL is optimum for the formation of suitable chromosome morphology necessary to assess structural chromosome aberrations induced by exposure to radiation using the chemical induced-PCC assay. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Fast data placement scheme for video server with zoned-disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chung; Tsao, Shiao-Li; Chang, Ray-I.; Chen, Meng-Chang; Ho, Jan-Ming; Ko, Ming-Tat

    1997-10-01

    Recently, zoning technique has been applied to disk technology to increase disk capacities. As a side effect, data transfer rates from outer zones of a hard disk are much higher than those from inner zones. Unfortunately, either VBR nature of video streams or the effects of disk zoning are neglected by previous studies on data placement of VBR video streams on a zoned- disk. Our objective is to minimize server buffer size and to maximize disk utilization subject to the capacity constraints of disk zones. To solve the problem, we adopt the concept of constant read time in which a constant period of time is allocated to retrieve a variable-sized disk block. Blocks retrieved from the same disk zone have the same size. This problem is then formulated as a constrained combinatorial optimization problem. In a previous paper, we present an optimum algorithm to solve the data placement problem based on dynamic programming. In this paper, we present suboptimum heuristics to reduce time and space complexities. The algorithms are implemented in C language and run on Linux operating system and Pentium Pro 200. Preliminary experimental results show that our solutions are very effective. For example, our approach guarantees 100 percent of disk storage efficiency and bandwidth utilization and its buffer size requirement is no more than 3 disk blocks for practical examples. We also run our program on MPEG/1 encoded movie 'Star War', the optimized buffer size is slightly more than 2 disk blocks, e.g., 500KBytes for 140-220KBytes variable-sized disk blocks, with 70 utilization. Preliminary performance studies also shows that the proposed CRT scheme is very promising in maximizing system throughput.

  6. Robust Dynamic Multi-objective Vehicle Routing Optimization Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Nan; Cheng, Jian; Luo, Sha; Gong, Dun-Wei

    2017-03-21

    For dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems, the waiting time of vehicle, the number of serving vehicles, the total distance of routes were normally considered as the optimization objectives. Except for above objectives, fuel consumption that leads to the environmental pollution and energy consumption was focused on in this paper. Considering the vehicles' load and the driving distance, corresponding carbon emission model was built and set as an optimization objective. Dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems with hard time windows and randomly appeared dynamic customers, subsequently, were modeled. In existing planning methods, when the new service demand came up, global vehicle routing optimization method was triggered to find the optimal routes for non-served customers, which was time-consuming. Therefore, robust dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing method with two-phase is proposed. Three highlights of the novel method are: (i) After finding optimal robust virtual routes for all customers by adopting multi-objective particle swarm optimization in the first phase, static vehicle routes for static customers are formed by removing all dynamic customers from robust virtual routes in next phase. (ii)The dynamically appeared customers append to be served according to their service time and the vehicles' statues. Global vehicle routing optimization is triggered only when no suitable locations can be found for dynamic customers. (iii)A metric measuring the algorithms' robustness is given. The statistical results indicated that the routes obtained by the proposed method have better stability and robustness, but may be sub-optimum. Moreover, time-consuming global vehicle routing optimization is avoided as dynamic customers appear.

  7. Reproductive health, and child health and nutrition in India: meeting the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Vinod Kumar; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Mavalankar, Dileep; Ramachandran, Prema; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhandari, Nita; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan; Govil, Dipti; Osrin, David; Kirkwood, Betty

    2011-01-22

    India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and consequences of urbanisation and demographic transition. In 2005, India embarked on the National Rural Health Mission, an extraordinary effort to strengthen the health systems. However, coverage of priority interventions remains insufficient, and the content and quality of existing interventions are suboptimum. Substantial unmet need for contraception remains, adolescent pregnancies are common, and access to safe abortion is inadequate. Increases in the numbers of deliveries in institutions have not been matched by improvements in the quality of intrapartum and neonatal care. Infants and young children do not get the health care they need; access to effective treatment for neonatal illness, diarrhoea, and pneumonia shows little improvement; and the coverage of nutrition programmes is inadequate. Absence of well functioning health systems is indicated by the inadequacies related to planning, financing, human resources, infrastructure, supply systems, governance, information, and monitoring. We provide a case for transformation of health systems through effective stewardship, decentralised planning in districts, a reasoned approach to financing that affects demand for health care, a campaign to create awareness and change health and nutrition behaviour, and revision of programmes for child nutrition on the basis of evidence. This agenda needs political commitment of the highest order and the development of a people's movement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  9. Apoptosis imaging studies in various animal models using radio-iodinated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonjung; Ha, Yeong Su; Soni, Nisarg; Lee, Woonghee; Park, Se-Il; Ahn, Heesu; An, Gwang Il; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has a role in many medical disorders and treatments; hence, its non-invasive evaluation is one of the most riveting research topics. Currently annexin V is used as gold standard for imaging apoptosis. However, several drawbacks, including high background, slow body clearance, make it a suboptimum marker for apoptosis imaging. In this study, we radiolabeled the recently identified histone H1 targeting peptide (ApoPep-1) and evaluated its potential as a new apoptosis imaging agent in various animal models. ApoPep-1 (CQRPPR) was synthesized, and an extra tyrosine residue was added to its N-terminal end for radiolabeling. This peptide was radiolabeled with (124)I and (131)I and was tested for its serum stability. Surgery- and drug-induced apoptotic rat models were prepared for apoptosis evaluation, and PET imaging was performed. Doxorubicin was used for xenograft tumor treatment in mice, and the induced apoptosis was studied. Tumor metabolism and proliferation were assessed by [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET imaging and compared with ApoPep-1 after doxorubicin treatment. The peptide was radiolabeled at high purity, and it showed reasonably good stability in serum. Cell death was easily imaged by radiolabeled ApoPep-1 in an ischemia surgery model. And, liver apoptosis was more clearly identified by ApoPep-1 rather than [(124)I]annexin V in cycloheximide-treated models. Three doxorubicin doses inhibited tumor growth, which was evaluated by 30-40% decreases of [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT PET uptake in the tumor area. However, ApoPep-1 demonstrated more than 200% increase in tumor uptake after chemotherapy, while annexin V did not show any meaningful uptake in the tumor compared with the background. Biodistribution data were also in good agreement with the microPET imaging results. All of the experimental data clearly demonstrated high potential of the radiolabeled ApoPep-1 for in vivo apoptosis imaging.

  10. Self-reported diabetes self-management competence and support from healthcare providers in achieving autonomy are negatively associated with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, J; Graue, M; Assmus, J; Zoffmann, V; B Thordarson, H; Peyrot, M; Rokne, B

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the associations of self-perceived competence in diabetes management and autonomy support from healthcare providers with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus that is not optimally controlled [HbA(1c) ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)]. This cross-sectional study comprised blood sampling and three self-report questionnaires, the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale and a measure of autonomy support by healthcare providers, the Health Care Climate Questionnaire. We fitted blockwise linear regression models to assess the associations between Problem Areas in Diabetes score and the variables of interest (autonomy support and perceived diabetes competence), controlling for clinical and sociodemographic variables. Of the study sample [n = 178; mean age 36.7 (±10.7) years], 31.5% had long-term complications and 43.2% reported elevated (≥40) Problem Areas in Diabetes scores. A significant negative association was found between autonomy support and Problem Areas in Diabetes score (B = -3.61, P = 0.001), indicating that lower autonomy support was associated with greater diabetes distress. When perceived competence was controlled, it mediated the association of autonomy support with diabetes distress, reducing it to non-significance. There was a significant negative association between perceived competence and Problem Areas in Diabetes score (B = -8.89, P autonomy support and diabetes distress; autonomy support was associated with increased perceived competence, which, in turn, was associated with reduced distress. Healthcare providers' communication styles enhancing perceived competence through autonomy support may contribute to effective treatment for people with Type 1 diabetes and suboptimum glycaemic control. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  11. Evaluation of methods to reduce formaldehyde levels of cadavers in the dissection laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Mark C; Savoia, Maria C

    2008-01-01

    Dissection of conventionally embalmed cadavers exposes students, staff, and faculty to formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. Therefore, prudent practices should seek to minimize formaldehyde exposure. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available chemicals, InfuTrace and Perfect Solution, for their effectiveness in reducing ambient formaldehyde levels. Four cadavers embalmed conventionally with formaldehyde and/or with the above agents were compared for their formaldehyde levels under conditions that strictly controlled for air circulation and for locations and methods of testing, and during activities that simulated student dissecting. For InfuTrace, one cadaver was reinfused with InfuTrace after initial standard perfusion with formaldehyde; a second cadaver had InfuTrace injected into the thoracic and abdominal body cavities after formaldehyde perfusion. For Perfect Solution, the product was used for embalming a third cadaver in lieu of formaldehyde. For a control, a fourth cadaver was embalmed with the standard formaldehyde solution. Testing of personal and ambient room air samples and of fluid obtained from the cadavers was performed and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results indicated that both Perfect Solution, substituted for standard formaldehyde embalming, and InfuTrace infused through the vasculature after formaldehyde embalming, resulted in lower concentrations of formaldehyde than embalming with formaldehyde solution alone or in combination with body cavity injection of InfuTrace. These differences in formaldehyde concentrations are consistent across measuring methods, for example, of room air, of breathing zone air during cadaver handling and dissection, and of liquid samples obtained from the cadavers. Perfect Solution yielded suboptimum fixation and a different texture, color, and smell than the formaldehyde treatments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A new osteophyte segmentation method with applications to an anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.; Saha, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion in a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to segment osteophytes from healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features in CT imaging. Here, we present a new method, based on active shape model (ASM), to solve this problem and evaluate its application to ex vivo μCT images in an ACLT rabbit femur model. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and during application, find a shape instance from the model that optimally fits to target image. However, it poses a fundamental difficulty for the current application because a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method that eventually leads to suboptimum segmentation results. Here, we introduce a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolate its shape over diseased region following the underlying shape model. Once the healthy bone region is detected, osteophyte is segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for rabbit femur. The method has been applied to μCT images of 2-, 4-, and 8-week post ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs and results of reproducibility and sensitivity analyses of the new osteophyte segmentation method are presented.

  13. Action of granulopoiesis-stimulating cytokines rhG-CSF, rhGM-CSF, and rmGM-CSF on murine haematopoietic progenitor cells for granulocytes and macrophages (GM-CFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M; Vacek, A; Weiterová, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide new data to the knowledge of mechanisms by which recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) enhance the numbers of colonies growing from hematopoietic progenitor cells for granulocytes and macrophages (GM-CFC) in the murine bone marrow. The in vitro technique for cultivating GM-CFC from normal bone marrow cells was used. For evaluation of stimulatory actions of the drugs studied, the factors themselves or sera of mice given these factors were added to the cultures. The factors or the sera were present in the cultures either as the only potentially stimulatory agents or acted jointly with a suboptimum concentration of recombinant murine interleukin-3 (rmIL-3). It was found that both rhG-CSF and rmGM-CSF stimulate the proliferation of GM-CFC by a combination of direct mechanisms (direct actions on the target cells) and indirect effects (effects mediated through the induction of other cytokines and/or growth factors in the murine organism). The rhGM-CSF exhibited somewhat weaker in vitro effects in comparison with the other two factors and only indirect effects were noted. Additional in vivo experiments documented that, in spite of differences in mechanisms of action of the individual drugs studied on murine bone marrow cells in vitro, equal in vivo doses of the factors induce quantitatively similar effects on the production of GM-CFC in vivo.

  14. SU-E-T-570: Management of Radiation Oncology Patients with Cochlear Implant and Other Bionic Devices in the Brain and Head and Neck Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.Q; Chen, Z; Nath, R [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale UniversitySchool of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the current status of clinical usage of cochlear implant (CI) and other bionic devices (BD) in the brain and head and neck regions (BH and N) and their management in patients during radiotherapy to ensure patient health and safety as well as optimum radiation delivery. Methods: Literature review was performed with both CIs and radiotherapy and their variants as keywords in PubMed, INSPEC and other sources. The focus was on CIs during radiotherapy, but it also included other BDs in BHȦN, such as auditory brainstem implant, bionic retinal implant, and hearing aids, among others. Results: Interactions between CIs and radiation may cause CIs malfunction. The presence of CIs may also cause suboptimum dose distribution if a treatment plan was not well designed. A few studies were performed for the hearing functions of CIs under irradiations of 4 MV and 6 MV x-rays. However, x-rays with higher energies (10 to 18 MV) broadly used in radiotherapy have not been explored. These higher energetic beams are more damaging to electronics due to strong penetrating power and also due to neutrons generated in the treatment process. Modern CIs are designed with more and more complicated integrated circuits, which may be more susceptible to radiation damage and malfunction. Therefore, careful management is important for safety and treatment outcomes. Conclusion: Although AAPM TG-34, TG-63, and TG-203 (update of TG-34, not published yet) reports may be referenced for management of CIs and other BDs in the brain and H and N regions, a site- and device-specified guideline should be developed for CIs and other BDs. Additional evaluation of CI functions under clinically relevant set-ups should also be performed to provide clinicians with better knowledge in clinical decision making.

  15. Glucose respiration in the intact chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changguo Chen; Gibbs, M. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Chloroplastic respiration was monitored by measuring {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from {sup 14}C glucose in the darkened Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 chloroplast, The patterns of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from labeled glucose in the absence and presence of the inhibitors iodoacetamide, glycolate-2-phosphate, and phosphoenolypyruvate were those expected from the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle and glycolysis. The K{sub m} for glucose was 56 micromolar and for MgATP was 200 micromolar. Release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was inhibited by phloretin and inorganic phosphate. Comparing the inhibition of CO{sub 2} evolution generated by pH 7.5 with respect to pH 8.2 (optimum) in chloroplasts given C-1, C-2, and C-6 labeled glucose indicated that a suboptimum pH affects the recycling of the pentose phosphate intermediates to a greater extent than CO{sub 2} evolution from C-1 of glucose. Respiratory inhibition by pH 7.5 in the darkened chloroplast was alleviated by NH{sub 4}Cl and KCl (stromal alkalating agents), iodoacetamide (an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), or phosphoenolypyruvate (an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase). It is concluded that the site which primarily mediates respiration in the darkened Chlamydomonas chloroplast is the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase/phosphofructokinase junction. The respiratory pathways described here can account for the total oxidation of a hexose to Co{sub 2} and for interactions between carbohydrate metabolism and the oxyhydrogen reaction in algal cells adapted to a hydrogen metabolism.

  16. Detection and management of medication errors in internal wards of a teaching hospital by clinical pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinazari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Any suboptimum treatment in the management of patients can lead to medication errors (MEs that may increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. By establishing well-designed patient care activities within the managed care setting, clinical pharmacists can cooperate with other health care professionals to provide quality care and maximize safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and prevention of MEs by clinical pharmacists. This was a cross-sectional interventional study conducted in internal wards of a teaching hospital during a two-month period. During this period, patient records, and physician orders were reviewed by clinical pharmacists. Any prescription error identified was documented. Incorrect drug selection, dose, dosage form, frequency, or route of administration all were considered as medication errors. Then, the clinical pharmacist discuss about findings with the clinical fellows to change faulty orders. The frequency and types of MEs in different wards that were detected and prevented by clinical pharmacists was documented. During the study period, in 132 patients, 262 errors were detected (1.98 per each. Wrong frequency 71 (27%, forget to order 37 (14.1%, wrong selection 33 (12.5%, drug interactions 26 (9.9%, forget to discontinue 25 (9.5% and inappropriate dose adjustment in renal impairment 25 (9.5% were the most types of errors. Cardiovascular medications were the class with the highest detected errors (31.6% followed by gastrointestinal agents (15.6%. Medication errors are common problems in medical wards that their frequency can be restricted by the intervention of clinical pharmacists.

  17. IUPAC-IUGS status report on the half-lives of 238U, 235U and 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, I. M.; Bonardi, M. L.; De Bièvre, P.; Holden, N. E.; Renne, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on the half-lives of the long-lived U radionuclides has been reviewed by the IUPAC-IUGS joint Task Group ;Isotopes in Geosciences;. 238U is assigned a half-life of (4.4683 ± 0.0096) Ga, i.e. a decay constant λ238 = (0.155125 ± 0.000333) Ga-1. The coverage factor is k = 2 for this and all other estimates presented here. The 238U half-life can be used as a reference for the half-lives/decay constants of all other isotopic geochronometers. A revision of the half-life of 235U based on intercomparison of natural geological samples is premature. The improved repeatability of mass spectrometric measurements has revealed Type B uncertainties that had been dismissed as subordinate in the past. The combined uncertainty of these as yet incompletely charted and quantified sources of Type B uncertainty may be no smaller than the currently accepted uncertainty of the α counting experiments. A provisional value for the 234U half-life can be calculated with the assumption of secular equilibrium in the analyzed natural samples. This assumption has not yet been verified independently and its metrological traceability appears sub-optimum. A Type B evaluation suggests that the ca. 0.17% offset between the N(234U)/N(238U) number-ratios of the natural samples used to estimate the 235U half-life and those of the four samples used to estimate the 234U half-life should be compounded into the standard measurement uncertainty of the latter. The resulting provisional uncertainty interval (k = 2) for the 234U half-life is (244.55-247.77) ka, corresponding to λ234 = (2.8203-2.8344) Ma-1.

  18. Improved Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2003-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a bearingless switched-reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in a prior bearingless switched-reluctance motor, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motor, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation in that it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration-suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that the stator contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. A prototype includes six rotor poles and eight stator poles (see figure). During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative lengths of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to levitation load capacity and stiffness, and vice versa.

  19. Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2004-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a switched reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in prior bearingless switched-reluctance motors, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motors, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation because it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that it contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. Simultaneous levitation and rotation at 6000 rpm were achieved with a prototype that included six rotor poles and eight stator poles. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative length of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to the levitation

  20. The DISC Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  1. Understanding Forest Health with Remote Sensing-Part II—A Review of Approaches and Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lausch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress in forest ecosystems (FES occurs as a result of land-use intensification, disturbances, resource limitations or unsustainable management, causing changes in forest health (FH at various scales from the local to the global scale. Reactions to such stress depend on the phylogeny of forest species or communities and the characteristics of their impacting drivers and processes. There are many approaches to monitor indicators of FH using in-situ forest inventory and experimental studies, but they are generally limited to sample points or small areas, as well as being time- and labour-intensive. Long-term monitoring based on forest inventories provides valuable information about changes and trends of FH. However, abrupt short-term changes cannot sufficiently be assessed through in-situ forest inventories as they usually have repetition periods of multiple years. Furthermore, numerous FH indicators monitored in in-situ surveys are based on expert judgement. Remote sensing (RS technologies offer means to monitor FH indicators in an effective, repetitive and comparative way. This paper reviews techniques that are currently used for monitoring, including close-range RS, airborne and satellite approaches. The implementation of optical, RADAR and LiDAR RS-techniques to assess spectral traits/spectral trait variations (ST/STV is described in detail. We found that ST/STV can be used to record indicators of FH based on RS. Therefore, the ST/STV approach provides a framework to develop a standardized monitoring concept for FH indicators using RS techniques that is applicable to future monitoring programs. It is only through linking in-situ and RS approaches that we will be able to improve our understanding of the relationship between stressors, and the associated spectral responses in order to develop robust FH indicators.

  2. Mapping the Dabus Wetlands, Ethiopia, Using Random Forest Classification of Landsat, PALSAR and Topographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Dubeau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Dabus Wetland complex in the highlands of Ethiopia is within the headwaters of the Nile Basin and is home to significant ecological communities and rare or endangered species. Its many interrelated wetland types undergo seasonal and longer-term changes due to weather and climate variations as well as anthropogenic land use such as grazing and burning. Mapping and monitoring of these wetlands has not been previously undertaken due primarily to their relative isolation and lack of resources. This study investigated the potential of remote sensing based classification for mapping the primary vegetation groups in the Dabus Wetlands using a combination of dry and wet season data, including optical (Landsat spectral bands and derived vegetation and wetness indices, radar (ALOS PALSAR L-band backscatter, and elevation (SRTM derived DEM and other terrain metrics as inputs to the non-parametric Random Forest (RF classifier. Eight wetland types and three terrestrial/upland classes were mapped using field samples of observed plant community composition and structure groupings as reference information. Various tests to compare results using different RF input parameters and data types were conducted. A combination of multispectral optical, radar and topographic variables provided the best overall classification accuracy, 94.4% and 92.9% for the dry and wet season, respectively. Spectral and topographic data (radar data excluded performed nearly as well, while accuracies using only radar and topographic data were 82–89%. Relatively homogeneous classes such as Papyrus Swamps, Forested Wetland, and Wet Meadow yielded the highest accuracies while spatially complex classes such as Emergent Marsh were more difficult to accurately classify. The methods and results presented in this paper can serve as a basis for development of long-term mapping and monitoring of these and other non-forested wetlands in Ethiopia and other similar environmental settings.

  3. Rotation Rates and Spin Changes of Jupiter Family Comet Nuclei: New optical lightcurves and an update on the population properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotanekova, Rosita; Snodgrass, Colin; Lacerda, Pedro; Green, Simon F.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we revise the physical characteristics of Jupiter family comets (JFCs) by expanding the sample of nuclei with known rotational and shape properties.The study provides a review of the properties of all JFCs with known rotation rates derived from optical, radar or spacecraft measurements. This sample is complemented by newly obtained lightcurves of eight comets which are used to improve the precision of some known spin rates as well as to add new objects to the sample. We derive the new lightcurves from archival data partially taken within the framework of the Survey of Ensemble Physical Properties of Cometary Nuclei (SEPPCoN) and from devoted phase function observing campaigns. The lightcurves are produced with a specially-developed pipeline which enables data from various instruments at different epochs and geometries to be analyzed together. All lightcurves are absolutely calibrated using PanSTARRs photometric standards. Combining photometric measurements from different epochs allows us to achieve high precision in the period determinations and to constrain the phase functions of the comets. For three of the comets - 8P/Tuttle, 110P/Hartley 3 and 162P/Siding Spring - we obtain well-sampled phase functions which we compare to these of other well-studied JFCs.The newly added data provide us with a better-constrained sample which we use to compare JFC characteristics with the rotation rates, shapes and surface properties of other small-body populations.A special focus is put on the handful of JFCs which are known to demonstrate spin changes on orbital timescales. We are expanding this sample by adding new lightcurves derived from archival data as well as from our targeted survey using 2-4m telescopes. The rotational changes are obtained by comparison of the comets' current spin rates to those from previous apparitions. Using the new extended sample, we study the relation between the measured period changes and the physical properties of the nuclei.

  4. Atmospheric Research 2016 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  5. UTILIZING SAR AND MULTISPECTRAL INTEGRATED DATA FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Havivi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are used widely in the risk cycle to understand the exposure, refine hazard maps and quickly provide an assessment after a natural or man-made disaster. Though there are different types of satellite images (e.g. optical, radar these have not been combined for risk assessments. The characteristics of different remote sensing data type may be extremely valuable for monitoring and evaluating the impacts of disaster events, to extract additional information thus making it available for emergency situations. To base this approach, two different change detection methods, for two different sensor's data were used: Coherence Change Detection (CCD for SAR data and Covariance Equalization (CE for multispectral imagery. The CCD provides an identification of the stability of an area, and shows where changes have occurred. CCD shows subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimetres to centimetres. The CE method overcomes the atmospheric effects differences between two multispectral images, taken at different times. Therefore, areas that had undergone a major change can be detected. To achieve our goals, we focused on the urban areas affected by the tsunami event in Sendai, Japan that occurred on March 11, 2011 which affected the surrounding area, coastline and inland. High resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX and Landsat 7 images, covering the research area, were acquired for the period before and after the event. All pre-processed and processed according to each sensor. Both results, of the optical and SAR algorithms, were combined by resampling the spatial resolution of the Multispectral data to the SAR resolution. This was applied by spatial linear interpolation. A score representing the damage level in both products was assigned. The results of both algorithms, high level of damage is shown in the areas closer to the sea and shoreline. Our approach, combining SAR and multispectral images, leads to more reliable information and provides a

  6. Utilizing SAR and Multispectral Integrated Data for Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havivi, S.; Schvartzman, I.; Maman, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gamba, P.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images are used widely in the risk cycle to understand the exposure, refine hazard maps and quickly provide an assessment after a natural or man-made disaster. Though there are different types of satellite images (e.g. optical, radar) these have not been combined for risk assessments. The characteristics of different remote sensing data type may be extremely valuable for monitoring and evaluating the impacts of disaster events, to extract additional information thus making it available for emergency situations. To base this approach, two different change detection methods, for two different sensor's data were used: Coherence Change Detection (CCD) for SAR data and Covariance Equalization (CE) for multispectral imagery. The CCD provides an identification of the stability of an area, and shows where changes have occurred. CCD shows subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimetres to centimetres. The CE method overcomes the atmospheric effects differences between two multispectral images, taken at different times. Therefore, areas that had undergone a major change can be detected. To achieve our goals, we focused on the urban areas affected by the tsunami event in Sendai, Japan that occurred on March 11, 2011 which affected the surrounding area, coastline and inland. High resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Landsat 7 images, covering the research area, were acquired for the period before and after the event. All pre-processed and processed according to each sensor. Both results, of the optical and SAR algorithms, were combined by resampling the spatial resolution of the Multispectral data to the SAR resolution. This was applied by spatial linear interpolation. A score representing the damage level in both products was assigned. The results of both algorithms, high level of damage is shown in the areas closer to the sea and shoreline. Our approach, combining SAR and multispectral images, leads to more reliable information and provides a complete scene for

  7. Fuel level sensor based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.; Webb, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    Safety in civil aviation is increasingly important due to the increase in flight routes and their more challenging nature. Like other important systems in aircraft, fuel level monitoring is always a technical challenge. The most frequently used level sensors in aircraft fuel systems are based on capacitive, ultrasonic and electric techniques, however they suffer from intrinsic safety concerns in explosive environments combined with issues relating to reliability and maintainability. In the last few years, optical fiber liquid level sensors (OFLLSs) have been reported to be safe and reliable and present many advantages for aircraft fuel measurement. Different OFLLSs have been developed, such as the pressure type, float type, optical radar type, TIR type and side-leaking type. Amongst these, many types of OFLLSs based on fiber gratings have been demonstrated. However, these sensors have not been commercialized because they exhibit some drawbacks: low sensitivity, limited range, long-term instability, or limited resolution. In addition, any sensors that involve direct interaction of the optical field with the fuel (either by launching light into the fuel tank or via the evanescent field of a fiber-guided mode) must be able to cope with the potential build up of contamination - often bacterial - on the optical surface. In this paper, a fuel level sensor based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs), including poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and TOPAS fibers, embedded in diaphragms is investigated in detail. The mPOFBGs are embedded in two different types of diaphragms and their performance is investigated with aviation fuel for the first time, in contrast to our previous works, where water was used. Our new system exhibits a high performance when compared with other previously published in the literature, making it a potentially useful tool for aircraft fuel monitoring.

  8. Parallel Processing of Broad-Band PPM Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew; Kang, Edward; Lay, Norman; Vilnrotter, Victor; Srinivasan, Meera; Lee, Clement

    2010-01-01

    A parallel-processing algorithm and a hardware architecture to implement the algorithm have been devised for timeslot synchronization in the reception of pulse-position-modulated (PPM) optical or radio signals. As in the cases of some prior algorithms and architectures for parallel, discrete-time, digital processing of signals other than PPM, an incoming broadband signal is divided into multiple parallel narrower-band signals by means of sub-sampling and filtering. The number of parallel streams is chosen so that the frequency content of the narrower-band signals is low enough to enable processing by relatively-low speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronic circuitry. The algorithm and architecture are intended to satisfy requirements for time-varying time-slot synchronization and post-detection filtering, with correction of timing errors independent of estimation of timing errors. They are also intended to afford flexibility for dynamic reconfiguration and upgrading. The architecture is implemented in a reconfigurable CMOS processor in the form of a field-programmable gate array. The algorithm and its hardware implementation incorporate three separate time-varying filter banks for three distinct functions: correction of sub-sample timing errors, post-detection filtering, and post-detection estimation of timing errors. The design of the filter bank for correction of timing errors, the method of estimating timing errors, and the design of a feedback-loop filter are governed by a host of parameters, the most critical one, with regard to processing very broadband signals with CMOS hardware, being the number of parallel streams (equivalently, the rate-reduction parameter).

  9. Comparison of BCG, MPL and cationic liposome adjuvant systems in leishmanial antigen vaccine formulations against murine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhowmick Sudipta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of an effective vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania donovani is an essential aim for controlling the disease. Use of the right adjuvant is of fundamental importance in vaccine formulations for generation of effective cell-mediated immune response. Earlier we reported the protective efficacy of cationic liposome-associated L. donovani promastigote antigens (LAg against experimental VL. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two very promising adjuvants, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG and Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL plus trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM with cationic liposomes, in combination with LAg, to confer protection against murine VL. Results All the three formulations afforded significant protection against L. donovani in both the visceral organs, liver and spleen. Although comparable level of protection was observed in BCG+LAg and MPL-TDM+LAg immunized mice, highest level of protection was exhibited by the liposomal LAg immunized group. Significant increase in anti-LAg IgG levels were detected in both MPL-TDM+LAg and liposomal LAg immunized animals with higher levels of IgG2a than IgG1. But BCG+LAg failed to induce any antibody response. As an index of cell-mediated immunity DTH responses were measured and significant response was observed in mice vaccinated with all the three different formulations. However, highest responses were observed with liposomal vaccine immunization. Comparative evaluation of IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in immunized mice revealed that MPL-TDM+LAg group produced the highest level of IFN-γ but lowest IL-4 level, while BCG+LAg demonstrated generation of suboptimum levels of both IFN-γ and IL-4 response. Elicitation of moderate levels of prechallenge IFN-γ along with optimum IL-4 corresponds with successful vaccination with liposomal LAg. Conclusion This comparative study reveals greater effectiveness of the liposomal vaccine for

  10. Comparison of BCG, MPL and cationic liposome adjuvant systems in leishmanial antigen vaccine formulations against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajesh; Bhowmick, Sudipta; Das, Amrita; Ali, Nahid

    2010-06-24

    The development of an effective vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is an essential aim for controlling the disease. Use of the right adjuvant is of fundamental importance in vaccine formulations for generation of effective cell-mediated immune response. Earlier we reported the protective efficacy of cationic liposome-associated L. donovani promastigote antigens (LAg) against experimental VL. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two very promising adjuvants, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) plus trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM) with cationic liposomes, in combination with LAg, to confer protection against murine VL. All the three formulations afforded significant protection against L. donovani in both the visceral organs, liver and spleen. Although comparable level of protection was observed in BCG+LAg and MPL-TDM+LAg immunized mice, highest level of protection was exhibited by the liposomal LAg immunized group. Significant increase in anti-LAg IgG levels were detected in both MPL-TDM+LAg and liposomal LAg immunized animals with higher levels of IgG2a than IgG1. But BCG+LAg failed to induce any antibody response. As an index of cell-mediated immunity DTH responses were measured and significant response was observed in mice vaccinated with all the three different formulations. However, highest responses were observed with liposomal vaccine immunization. Comparative evaluation of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses in immunized mice revealed that MPL-TDM+LAg group produced the highest level of IFN-gamma but lowest IL-4 level, while BCG+LAg demonstrated generation of suboptimum levels of both IFN-gamma and IL-4 response. Elicitation of moderate levels of prechallenge IFN-gamma along with optimum IL-4 corresponds with successful vaccination with liposomal LAg. This comparative study reveals greater effectiveness of the liposomal vaccine for protection against progressive VL in BALB

  11. Whole-body electromyostimulation and protein supplementation favorably affect sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older men at risk: the randomized controlled FranSO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Weissenfels, Anja; Teschler, Marc; Willert, Sebastian; Bebenek, Michael; Shojaa, Mahdieh; Kohl, Matthias; Freiberger, Ellen; Sieber, Cornel; von Stengel, Simon

    2017-01-01

    tackling sarcopenia and SO in older men. However, the suboptimum effect on functional parameters should be addressed by increased voluntary activation during WB-EMS application.

  12. Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Isidro; Lescano, Andres G; Bustos, Javier A; Zimic, Mirko; Escalante, Diego; Saavedra, Herbert; Gavidia, Martin; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Najar, Enrique; Umeres, Hugo; Pretell, E Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Neurocysticercosis causes a substantial burden of seizure disorders worldwide. Treatment with either praziquantel or albendazole has suboptimum efficacy. We aimed to establish whether combination of these drugs would increase cysticidal efficacy and whether complete cyst resolution results in fewer seizures. We added an increased dose albendazole group to establish a potential effect of increased albendazole concentrations. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients with viable intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of combined albendazole (15 mg/kg per day) plus praziquantel (50 mg/kg per day), standard albendazole (15 mg/kg per day), or increased dose albendazole (22·5 mg/kg per day). Randomisation was done with a computer generated schedule balanced within four strata based on number of cysts and concomitant antiepileptic drug. Patients and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was complete cyst resolution on 6-month MRI. Enrolment was stopped after interim analysis because of parasiticidal superiority of one treatment group. Analysis excluded patients lost to follow-up before the 6-month MRI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00441285. Findings Between March 3, 2010 and Nov 14, 2011, 124 patients were randomly assigned to study groups (41 to receive combined albendazole plus praziquantel [39 analysed], 43 standard albendazole [41 analysed], and 40 increased albendazole [38 analysed]). 25 (64%) of 39 patients in the combined treatment group had complete resolution of brain cysts compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (rate ratio [RR] 1·75, 95% CI 1·10–2·79, p=0·014). 20 (53%) of 38 patients in the increased albendazole group had complete cyst resolution at 6-month MRI compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (RR 1·44, 95% CI 0·87–2·38, p=0·151

  13. A Method for Aircraft Concept Selection Using Multicriteria Interactive Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Michael; Mavris, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    The problem of aircraft concept selection has become increasingly difficult in recent years as a result of a change from performance as the primary evaluation criteria of aircraft concepts to the current situation in which environmental effects, economics, and aesthetics must also be evaluated and considered in the earliest stages of the decision-making process. This has prompted a shift from design using historical data regression techniques for metric prediction to the use of physics-based analysis tools that are capable of analyzing designs outside of the historical database. The use of optimization methods with these physics-based tools, however, has proven difficult because of the tendency of optimizers to exploit assumptions present in the models and drive the design towards a solution which, while promising to the computer, may be infeasible due to factors not considered by the computer codes. In addition to this difficulty, the number of discrete options available at this stage may be unmanageable due to the combinatorial nature of the concept selection problem, leading the analyst to arbitrarily choose a sub-optimum baseline vehicle. These concept decisions such as the type of control surface scheme to use, though extremely important, are frequently made without sufficient understanding of their impact on the important system metrics because of a lack of computational resources or analysis tools. This paper describes a hybrid subjective/quantitative optimization method and its application to the concept selection of a Small Supersonic Transport. The method uses Genetic Algorithms to operate on a population of designs and promote improvement by varying more than sixty parameters governing the vehicle geometry, mission, and requirements. In addition to using computer codes for evaluation of quantitative criteria such as gross weight, expert input is also considered to account for criteria such as aeroelasticity or manufacturability which may be impossible or

  14. Maternal near miss and quality of maternal health care in Baghdad, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Maysoon; Abdul-Salam, Imad; Suheil, Dhikra M; Al-Hilli, Wafa; Abul-Hassan, Sana; Al-Zuheiri, Amal; Al-Ba'aj, Rasha; Dekan, Abeer; Tunçalp, Ozge; Souza, Joao Paulo

    2013-01-16

    The maternal near-miss concept has been developed as an instrument for assisting health systems to evaluate and improve their quality of care. Our study aimed at studying the characteristics and quality of care provided to women with severe complications in Baghdad through the use of the World Health Organization (WHO) near-miss approach for maternal health. This is a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 6 public hospitals in Baghdad between March 1, 2010 and the June 30, 2010. WHO near-miss approach was utilized to analyze the data in terms of indicators of maternal near miss and access to and quality of maternal care. The maternal near-miss rate was low at 5.06 per 1,000 live births, while the overall maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 9:1. One third of the near-miss cases were referred from other facilities and the mortality index was the same for referred women and for in-hospital women (11%). The intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate was 37% for women with severe maternal outcomes (SMO), while the overall admission rate was 0.28%. Anemia (55%) and previous cesarean section (45%) were the most common associated conditions with severe maternal morbidity. The use of magnesium sulfate for treatment of eclampsia, oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, prophylactic antibiotics during caesarean section, and corticosteroids for inducing fetal lung maturation in preterm birth is suboptimum. The WHO near-miss approach allowed systematic identification of the roadblocks to improve quality of care and then monitoring the progress. Critical evidence-based practices, relevant to the management of women experiencing life-threatening conditions, are underused. In addition, possible limitations in the referral system result in a very high proportion of women presenting at the hospital already in a severe health condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction). A shortage of ICU beds leading to women taken care of without admission to ICU

  15. Maternal near miss and quality of maternal health care in Baghdad, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir Maysoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal near-miss concept has been developed as an instrument for assisting health systems to evaluate and improve their quality of care. Our study aimed at studying the characteristics and quality of care provided to women with severe complications in Baghdad through the use of the World Health Organization (WHO near-miss approach for maternal health. Methods This is a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 6 public hospitals in Baghdad between March 1, 2010 and the June 30, 2010. WHO near-miss approach was utilized to analyze the data in terms of indicators of maternal near miss and access to and quality of maternal care. Results The maternal near-miss rate was low at 5.06 per 1,000 live births, while the overall maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 9:1. One third of the near-miss cases were referred from other facilities and the mortality index was the same for referred women and for in-hospital women (11%. The intensive care unit (ICU admission rate was 37% for women with severe maternal outcomes (SMO, while the overall admission rate was 0.28%. Anemia (55% and previous cesarean section (45% were the most common associated conditions with severe maternal morbidity. The use of magnesium sulfate for treatment of eclampsia, oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, prophylactic antibiotics during caesarean section, and corticosteroids for inducing fetal lung maturation in preterm birth is suboptimum. Conclusions The WHO near-miss approach allowed systematic identification of the roadblocks to improve quality of care and then monitoring the progress. Critical evidence-based practices, relevant to the management of women experiencing life-threatening conditions, are underused. In addition, possible limitations in the referral system result in a very high proportion of women presenting at the hospital already in a severe health condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction. A shortage of ICU

  16. Simeprevir with pegylated interferon alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection (QUEST-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Michael; Marcellin, Patrick; Poordad, Fred; de Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau Affonso; Buti, Maria; Horsmans, Yves; Janczewska, Ewa; Villamil, Federico; Scott, Jane; Peeters, Monika; Lenz, Oliver; Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; De La Rosa, Guy; Kalmeijer, Ronald; Sinha, Rekha; Beumont-Mauviel, Maria

    2014-08-02

    Pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin regimens were the standard of care in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the sustained virological response can be suboptimum in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the combination of simeprevir, a one-pill, once-daily, oral HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor versus placebo, plus peginterferon alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin was assessed in treatment-naive patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. In the QUEST-2, phase 3 study, done at 76 sites in 14 countries (Europe, and North and South Americas), patients with confirmed chronic HCV genotype 1 infection and no history of HCV treatment were randomly assigned with a computer-generated allocation sequence in a ratio of 2:1 and stratified by HCV genotype 1 subtype and host IL28B genotype to receive simeprevir (150 mg once daily, orally), peginterferon alfa 2a (180 μg once weekly, subcutaneous injection) or 2b (according to bodyweight; 50 μg, 80 μg, 100 μg, 120 μg, or 150 μg once weekly, subcutaneous injection), plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day or 800-1400 mg/day, orally; simeprevir group) or placebo (once daily, orally), peginterferon alfa 2a or 2b, plus ribavirin (placebo group) for 12 weeks, followed by just peginterferon alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin. Total treatment duration was 24 weeks or 48 weeks (simeprevir group) based on criteria for response-guided therapy (ie, HCV RNA alfa used. The most common adverse events were headache, fatigue, pyrexia, and influenza-like illness at 12 weeks (95 [37%) vs 45 [34%], 89 [35%] vs 52 [39%], 78 [30%] vs 48 [36%], and 66 [26%] vs 34 [25%], respectively) and for the entire treatment (100 [39%] vs 49 [37%], 94 [37%] vs 56 [42%], 79 [31%] vs 53 [40%], and 66 [26%] vs 35 [26%], respectively). Rash and photosensitivity frequencies were higher in the simeprevir group than in the placebo group (61 [24%] vs 15 [11%] and ten [4%] vs one [alfa 2a or

  17. Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craufurd, P Q; Wheeler, T R

    2009-01-01

    Crop production is inherently sensitive to variability in climate. Temperature is a major determinant of the rate of plant development and, under climate change, warmer temperatures that shorten development stages of determinate crops will most probably reduce the yield of a given variety. Earlier crop flowering and maturity have been observed and documented in recent decades, and these are often associated with warmer (spring) temperatures. However, farm management practices have also changed and the attribution of observed changes in phenology to climate change per se is difficult. Increases in atmospheric [CO(2)] often advance the time of flowering by a few days, but measurements in FACE (free air CO(2) enrichment) field-based experiments suggest that elevated [CO(2)] has little or no effect on the rate of development other than small advances in development associated with a warmer canopy temperature. The rate of development (inverse of the duration from sowing to flowering) is largely determined by responses to temperature and photoperiod, and the effects of temperature and of photoperiod at optimum and suboptimum temperatures can be quantified and predicted. However, responses to temperature, and more particularly photoperiod, at supraoptimal temperature are not well understood. Analysis of a comprehensive data set of time to tassel initiation in maize (Zea mays) with a wide range of photoperiods above and below the optimum suggests that photoperiod modulates the negative effects of temperature above the optimum. A simulation analysis of the effects of prescribed increases in temperature (0-6 degrees C in +1 degree C steps) and temperature variability (0% and +50%) on days to tassel initiation showed that tassel initiation occurs later, and variability was increased, as the temperature exceeds the optimum in models both with and without photoperiod sensitivity. However, the inclusion of photoperiod sensitivity above the optimum temperature resulted in a

  18. The Integration of Chuji Calendars in the Late Western Zhou Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate 23 four-element-materials contained Chuji (characters usually on bronze vessels, perhaps represent the moon phase) in the late Western Zhou Dynasty. It is assumed that all 5 elder-year data (kings' year>25 yr) should belong to the periods of king Li or king Xuan. At the same time, in order to guarantee the completeness, compatibility, and objectivity of these kinds of calendars, in the paper we build up them respectively according to the 24 characters of Chinese ancient calendar. We use the transformation platform for Chinese ancient dates to finish the calendars, consider the five different first years when both kings took their powers, set the moon age of Chuji cover any day in a lunar month, and as far as possible give every result for each material as in different kings' period. As a result, we totally derive 13 calendars according to different combinations of the characters of ancient calendars. When subdivided by the different combinations of the kings' periods, 33 solutions are obtained, but the moon phases of Chuji are usually in the second half month. The best result, with Jian Mao and the leap month in the end of the year, is related with the BC878 (BC827) as the first year of king Li (king Xuan). The coincidence rate of 23 data is 100%, and average moon phases are 19.84 days. The suboptimum choices have four solutions; the coincidence rate is 95.7%, respectively with Jian Chen and the leap month in the middle of the year; together with Jian Wu and the leap month in the middle or end of the year. We point out that these results may constitute and link respectively with other materials (even with other moon phases) as long as have the same calendar features. After adopting more materials and higher qualification, the scope of the solutions can be further limited and narrow. In addition, the different researchers can easily obtain or intercept their needed results respectively from this paper.

  19. Epidemiological study of non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors in tribal district of Kinnaur, HP: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Prakash Chand; Chauhan, Raman; Rana, Vivek; Vidyasagar; Lal, Kavinder

    There are no data available on the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors among the tribal population of hill state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). The epidemiological study of NCD risk factors was done in the tribal population of district Kinnaur of HP to estimate the burden of NCD risk factors and their risk determinants. WHO STEP wise approach was used for screening of the core NCD risk indicators in 3582 randomly selected natives of Kinnaur aged 20-70 years by trained Health workers of the district health services. The hypertension was prevalent in 19.7% (18.4-21.1%) and diabetes in 6.9% (6.1-7.8%) of the population. Awareness of hypertension and diabetes was 39.8% and 40.8% respectively. The adherence to prescribed medications was reported in 52.1% and 56.4% of patients of aware hypertension and diabetes respectively. Overall, 23.3% and 8.5% of the patients with hypertension and diabetes had controlled BP and blood glucose respectively. Overweight and obesity were observed in 38.2% (36.6-39.9%) and 8.8% (7.9-9.8%) of the population respectively. The consumption of tobacco and alcohol was reported in 22.6% and 24.9% of the population, respectively, and 34.5% were physically inactive. Physical inactivity, BMI, high alcohol consumption, and age were independently associated with risk of hypertension, while age was the only determinant of risk of diabetes. Education and women gender had a significant influence on tobacco and alcohol consumption behavior adjusted for age. NCD risk factors are prevalent in the tribal district of Kinnaur. The awareness, treatment, control of blood pressure and blood glucose were found to be suboptimum in the study subjects. Strengthening of primary health care services and community based interventions are urgently required to improve awareness and control of NCD risk factors in this tribal district of HP. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Whole-body electromyostimulation and protein supplementation favorably affect sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older men at risk: the randomized controlled FranSO study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Weissenfels, Anja; Teschler, Marc; Willert, Sebastian; Bebenek, Michael; Shojaa, Mahdieh; Kohl, Matthias; Freiberger, Ellen; Sieber, Cornel; von Stengel, Simon

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusion WB-EMS&P is a safe and efficient method for tackling sarcopenia and SO in older men. However, the suboptimum effect on functional parameters should be addressed by increased voluntary activation during WB-EMS application. PMID:28989278

  1. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  2. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis in the electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, DC

    2003-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth description of x-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope. It is sufficiently detailed to ensure that novices will understand the nuances of high-quality EDX analysis. Includes information about hardware design as well as the physics of x-ray generation, absorption and detection, and most post-detection data processing. Details on electron optics and electron probe formation allow the novice to make sensible adjustments to the electron microscope in order to set up a system which optimises analysis. It also helps the reader determine which microanalytical me

  3. The detection and correlation modeling of Rayleigh distributed radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buterbaugh, Alan L.

    1992-09-01

    This thesis provides a method for determining the detection of partially correlated Rayleigh distributed radar returns by a pulsed search radar. The receiver consists of a quadrature demodulator receiver, followed by a square law envelope detector and a linear post-detection integrator. In addition, a technique for determining the pulse-to-pulse correlation of a complex target is given using inverse Fourier transforms of the target scattering centers. An AIM-9 missile is used to illustrate how the partially correlated detection techniques and the pulse-to-pulse correlation predictions can be used to determine the probability of detection.

  4. Microwave metamaterials—from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-08-01

    Since 2004, my group at Southeast University has been carrying out research into microwave metamaterials, which are classified into three catagories: metamaterials based on the effective medium model, plasmonic metamaterials for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and coding and programmable metamaterials. For effective-medium metamaterials, we have developed a general theory to accurately describe effective permittivity and permeability in semi-analytical forms, from which we have designed and realized a three dimensional (3D) wideband ground-plane invisibility cloak, a free-space electrostatic invisibility cloak, an electromagnetic black hole, optical/radar illusions, and radially anisotropic zero-index metamaterial for omni-directional radiation and a nearly perfect power combination of source array, etc. We have also considered the engineering applications of microwave metamaterials, such as a broadband and low-loss 3D transformation-optics lens for wide-angle scanning, a 3D planar gradient-index lens for high-gain radiations, and a random metasurface for reducing radar cross sections. In the area of plasmonic metamaterials, we proposed an ultrathin, narrow, and flexible corrugated metallic strip to guide SPPs with a small bending loss and radiation loss, from which we designed and realized a series of SPP passive devices (e.g. power divider, coupler, filter, and resonator) and active devices (e.g. amplifier and duplexer). We also showed a significant feature of the ultrathin SPP waveguide in overcoming the challenge of signal integrity in traditional integrated circuits, which will help build a high-performance SPP wireless communication system. In the area of coding and programmable metamaterials, we proposed a new measure to describe a metamaterial from the viewpoint of information theory. We have illustrated theoretically and experimentally that coding metamaterials composed of digital units can be controlled by coding sequences, leading to different

  5. Simultaneous optical and meteor head echo measurements using the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY): Data collection and preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P.; Stober, G.; Schult, C.; Krzeminski, Z.; Cooke, W.; Chau, J. L.

    2017-07-01

    The initial results of a two year simultaneous optical-radar meteor campaign are described. Analysis of 105 double-station optical meteors having plane of sky intersection angles greater than 5° and trail lengths in excess of 2 km also detected by the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) as head echoes was performed. These events show a median deviation in radiants between radar and optical determinations of 1.5°, with 1/3 of events having radiant agreement to less than one degree. MAARSY tends to record average speeds roughly 0.5 km/s and 1.3 km higher than optical records, in part due to the higher sensitivity of MAARSY as compared to the optical instruments. More than 98% of all head echoes are not detected with the optical system. Using this non-detection ratio and the known limiting sensitivity of the cameras, we estimate that the limiting meteoroid detection mass of MAARSY is in the 10-9-10-10 kg (astronomical limiting meteor magnitudes of +11 to +12) appropriate to speeds from 30 to 60 km/s. There is a clear trend of higher peak RCS for brighter meteors between 35 and -30 dBsm. For meteors with similar magnitudes, the MAARSY head echo radar cross-section is larger at higher speeds. Brighter meteors at fixed heights and similar speeds have consistently, on average, larger RCS values, in accordance with established scattering theory. However, our data show RCS ∝ v/2, much weaker than the normally assumed RCS ∝ v3, a consequence of our requiring head echoes to also be detectable optically. Most events show a smooth variation of RCS with height broadly following the light production behavior. A significant minority of meteors show large variations in RCS relative to the optical light curve over common height intervals, reflecting fragmentation or possibly differential ablation. No optically detected meteor occurring in the main radar beam and at times when the radar was collecting head echo data went unrecorded by MAARSY. Thus there does not

  6. Overview and summary of the Spread F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Fritts

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We provide here an overview of, and a summary of results arising from, an extensive experimental campaign (the Spread F Experiment, or SpreadFEx performed from September to November 2005, with primary measurements in Brazil. The motivation was to define the potential role of neutral atmosphere dynamics, specifically gravity wave motions propagating upward from the lower atmosphere, in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI and plasma bubbles extending to higher altitudes. Campaign measurements focused on the Brazilian sector and included ground-based optical, radar, digisonde, and GPS measurements at a number of fixed and temporary sites. Related data on convection and plasma bubble structures were also collected by GOES 12, and the GUVI instrument aboard the TIMED satellite.

    Initial results of our SpreadFEx analyses are described separately by Fritts et al. (2009. Further analyses of these data provide additional evidence of 1 gravity wave (GW activity near the mesopause apparently linked to deep convection predominantly to the west of our measurement sites, 2 small-scale GWs largely confined to lower altitudes, 3 larger-scale GWs apparently penetrating to much higher altitudes, 4 substantial GW amplitudes implied by digisonde electron densities, and 5 apparent influences of these perturbations in the lower F-region on the formation of equatorial spread F, RTI, and plasma bubbles extending to much higher altitudes. Other efforts with SpreadFEx data have also yielded 6 the occurrence, locations, and scales of deep convection, 7 the spatial and temporal evolutions of plasma bubbles, 8 2-D (height-resolved structures in electron density fluctuations and equatorial spread F at lower altitudes and plasma bubbles above, and 9 the occurrence of substantial tidal perturbations to the large-scale wind and temperature fields extending to bottomside F-layer and higher altitudes. Collectively, our various SpreadFEx analyses suggest direct links

  7. Overview and summary of the Spread F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Fritts

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We provide here an overview of, and a summary of results arising from, an extensive experimental campaign (the Spread F Experiment, or SpreadFEx performed from September to November 2005, with primary measurements in Brazil. The motivation was to define the potential role of neutral atmosphere dynamics, specifically gravity wave motions propagating upward from the lower atmosphere, in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI and plasma bubbles extending to higher altitudes. Campaign measurements focused on the Brazilian sector and included ground-based optical, radar, digisonde, and GPS measurements at a number of fixed and temporary sites. Related data on convection and plasma bubble structures were also collected by GOES 12, and the GUVI instrument aboard the TIMED satellite. Initial results of our SpreadFEx analyses are described separately by Fritts et al. (2009. Further analyses of these data provide additional evidence of 1 gravity wave (GW activity near the mesopause apparently linked to deep convection predominantly to the west of our measurement sites, 2 small-scale GWs largely confined to lower altitudes, 3 larger-scale GWs apparently penetrating to much higher altitudes, 4 substantial GW amplitudes implied by digisonde electron densities, and 5 apparent influences of these perturbations in the lower F-region on the formation of equatorial spread F, RTI, and plasma bubbles extending to much higher altitudes. Other efforts with SpreadFEx data have also yielded 6 the occurrence, locations, and scales of deep convection, 7 the spatial and temporal evolutions of plasma bubbles, 8 2-D (height-resolved structures in electron density fluctuations and equatorial spread F at lower altitudes and plasma bubbles above, and 9 the occurrence of substantial tidal perturbations to the large-scale wind and temperature fields extending to bottomside F-layer and higher altitudes. Collectively, our various SpreadFEx analyses suggest direct links between

  8. Sensing of DNA by graphene-on-silicon FET structures at DC and 101 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Brown

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A graphene–silicon field-effect transistor (GFET structure is demonstrated as a detector of single-stranded 13-mer DNA simultaneously at DC and 101 GHz at three different molarities: 0.01, 1.0 and 100 nM. The mechanism for detection at DC is the DNA-induced change in lateral sheet conductance, whereas at 101 GHz it is the change in RF sheet conductance and the resulting effect on the perpendicular beam transmittance through the GFET acting as an optical etalon. For example, after application and drying of the DNA on a GFET film biased to a DC sheet conductance of 2.22 mS, the 1.0 nM solution is found to reduce this by 1.24 mS with a post-detection signal-to-noise ratio of 43 dB, and to increase the transmitted 101-GHz signal from 0.828 to 0.907 mV (arbitrary units with a post-detection signal-to-noise ratio of 36 dB. The increase in transmittance is consistent with a drop of the 101-GHz sheet conductance, but not as much drop as the DC value. Excellent sensitivity is also achieved with the 0.01-nm solution, yielding a DC SNR of 41 dB and a 101-GHz SNR of 23 dB.

  9. Responses of photosynthesis, nitrogen and proline metabolism to salinity stress in Solanum lycopersicum under different levels of nitrogen supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhulika; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, effect of different levels of nitrogen (N0, deprived; N25, sub-optimum; N75, optimum and N150, supra-optimum) in Solanum lycopersicum L. seedlings under NaCl (NaCl1, 0.3 g kg(-1) sand and NaCl2, 0.5 g kg(-1)sand) stress was investigated. Biomass accumulation, pigments, K(+) concentration, nitrate and nitrite contents were declined by NaCl in dose dependent manner. As compared to control (N75 without NaCl), fresh weight declined by 4% and 11%, and dry weight by 7 and 13% when seedlings were grown under N75+NaCl1 and N75+NaCl2 combinations, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescence parameters (JIP-test): the size and number of active reaction centres of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/F0), efficiency of water splitting complex (F0/Fv), quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0 or Phi_P0), yield of electron transport per trapped excitation (Ψ0 or Psi_0), the quantum yield of electron transport (φE0), and performance index of PS II (PIABS) and parameters related to energy fluxes per reaction centre (ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC) were also affected by NaCl. However, toxic effect of NaCl on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by N. The lower dose (NaCl1) of NaCl exerts damaging effect on oxidation side of PS II, while higher dose (NaCl2) damages PS II reaction centre and its reduction side. Moreover, control seedlings (N75 without NaCl) when exposed to NaCl1 and NaCl2 exhibited a significant enhancement in respiration rate by 6 and 16%, Na(+) accumulation by 111 and 169% in shoot, and 141 and 223% in root and ammonium contents by 19 and 34% respectively. Nitrate and ammonium assimilating enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) were adversely affected by NaCl stress while glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) showed reverse trend. N addition caused further enhancement in free proline, and activity of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), while

  10. Late Pleistocene to Holocene composite speleothem 18O and 13C chronologies from South Island, New Zealand—did a global Younger Dryas really exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. W.; King, D. N. T.; Zhao, J.-X.; Collerson, K. D.

    2005-02-01

    . The lowest δ13C values coincided with the early Holocene climatic suboptimum when conditions were relatively wet as well as mild. Major trends in the δ18O c record are similar to the Northern Hemisphere, but second order detail is often distinctly different. Consequently, at the millennial scale, a more convincing case can be made for asymmetric climatic response between the two hemispheres rather than synchronicity.

  11. Whole-body electromyostimulation and protein supplementation favorably affect sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older men at risk: the randomized controlled FranSO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2017-09-01

    -EMS&P and protein were significant for the Sarcopenia Z-Score (P=0.39 and borderline nonsignificant (P=0.051 for body fat. SMI increased significantly in both groups (P<0.001 and P=0.043 and decreased significantly in the control group (CG; P=0.033; differences between the verum groups and control were significant (P≤0.009. Handgrip strength increased in the WB-EMS group (1.90 kg; P<0.001; P=0.050 vs control only. No adverse effects of WB-EMS or protein supplementation were recorded. Conclusion: WB-EMS&P is a safe and efficient method for tackling sarcopenia and SO in older men. However, the suboptimum effect on functional parameters should be addressed by increased voluntary activation during WB-EMS application. Keywords: sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, exercise, electrostimulation, older people

  12. Gastrointestinal Tumor Board: An Evolving Experience in Tehran Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Haddad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in Iran, with stomach adenocarcinoma as the most common cancer in men and the second common cancer in women. Also, some parts of Northern Iran have one of the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Multi-disciplinary organ-based joint clinics and tumor boards are a well-recognized necessity for modern treatment of cancer and are routinely utilized in developed countries, especially in major academic centres. But this concept is relatively new in developing countries, where cancer treatment centres are burdened by huge loads of patients and have to cope with a suboptimum availability of resources and facilities. Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the oldest and the only comprehensive cancer treatment centre in Iran, with a long tradition of a general tumor board for all cancers. But with the requirements of modern oncology, there has been a very welcome attention to sub-specialized organ-based tumor boards and joint clinics here in the past few years. Considering this, we started a multi-disciplinary tumor board for GI cancers in our institute in early 2010 as the first such endeavor here. We hereby review this 2-year evolving experience. The process of establishment of a GI tumor board, participations from different oncology disciplines and related specialties, the cancers presented and discussed in the 2 years of this tumor board, the general intents of treatment for the decisions made and the development of interest in this tumor board among the Tehran oncology community will be reviewed. The GI tumor board of Tehran Cancer Institute started its work in January 2010, with routine weekly sessions. A core group of 2 physicians from each surgical, radiation and medical oncology departments plus one gastroenterologist, GI pathologist and radiologist was formed, but participation from all interested physicians was encouraged. An

  13. Otimização de alternativas para o desenvolvimento de campos de petróleo Selection of alternatives for the development of oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Faletti Almeida

    2007-12-01

    and delimited petroleum reservoir allowing the maximum hydrocarbon production within the physical and economical limitations i.e., maximizing the net present value (NPV. The net present value is calculated according to the oil production, which is obtained with the use of a reservoir simulator. Each reservoir simulation can take from few seconds to several hours, depending on the complexity of the reservoir being modeled. This reduces the total number of configurations that can be generated and evaluated by the user in search for the best solution. Therefore, this work proposes and evaluates a new intelligent, optimization system that employs genetic algorithms (GA, cultural algorithms (CA, and co-evolution in order to search for an optimal development alternative in a parallel computing environment for reservoir simulations and NPV calculation. The proposed system provides the user, in a reasonable time, with the optimum (or sub-optimum configuration for the development of the petroleum field. The results obtained in the case studies demonstrate that the proposed system, based on intelligent techniques, enable good configurations for the development of petroleum fields with a great reduction in computational time. This reduction is obtained from the computational power of the parallel computing environment and from the expert knowledge, through the initial configuration of the optimizing system (initial seed.

  14. Fraunhofer filters to reduce solar background for optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    A wavelength that lies within a spectral interval of reduced solar emission (a Fraunhofer line) can carry optical communications with reduced interference from direct or reflected background sunlight. Suitable Fraunhofer lines are located within the tuning range of good candidate lasers. The laser should be tunable dynamically to track Doppler shifts in the sunlight incident on any solar system body that may appear in the background as viewed by the receiver. A Fraunhofer filter used with a direct-detection receiver should be tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. The required tuning calculated here for various situations is also required if, instead, one uses a heterodyne receiver with limited post-detection bandwidth.

  15. Image based book cover recognition and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhadan, Kalyani; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthi, A.; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    In this we are developing a graphical user interface using MATLAB for the users to check the information related to books in real time. We are taking the photos of the book cover using GUI, then by using MSER algorithm it will automatically detect all the features from the input image, after this it will filter bifurcate non-text features which will be based on morphological difference between text and non-text regions. We implemented a text character alignment algorithm which will improve the accuracy of the original text detection. We will also have a look upon the built in MATLAB OCR recognition algorithm and an open source OCR which is commonly used to perform better detection results, post detection algorithm is implemented and natural language processing to perform word correction and false detection inhibition. Finally, the detection result will be linked to internet to perform online matching. More than 86% accuracy can be obtained by this algorithm.

  16. Sensory capabilities and food capture of two small copepods, Paracalanus parvus and Pseudocalanus sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, Peter; Saiz, Enric; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Detection, handling, and selection of prey are key features of suspension-feeding copepods. Using high-speed video, we determined detection distances and durations of all elements of the food gathering process in two small calanoid copepods, Paracalanus parvus and Pseudocalanus sp. Animals were...... distance, but larger prey caused a significantly longer handling time. Post-detection processing of the cells was exceedingly fast. The time from detection to the cell being placed at the mouth lasted 35 ± 19 ms and rejection of unwanted cells 61 ± 21 ms. Grooming of antennules and carapace occurred...... intermittently and lasted 215–227 ms. The weak feeding current and fast response of the copepods allowed ample time for detection of cells entrained in the feeding current and no distant olfaction was observed. Modeled effect of cell size on cell surface concentration of cue chemicals show that only cells...

  17. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System for Monitoring Smart Composite Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard J.; Gowayed, Yasser

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight, electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune, fiber-optic, sensor- based structural health monitoring (SHM) will play an increasing role in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for SHM include advanced signal processing, system and damage identification, and location and quantification algorithms. Potentially, the solution could be developed into an autonomous onboard system to inspect and perform non-destructive evaluation and SHM. A novel method has been developed to massively multiplex FBG sensors, supported by a parallel processing interrogator, which enables high sampling rates combined with highly distributed sensing (up to 96 sensors per system). The interrogation system comprises several subsystems. A broadband optical source subsystem (BOSS) and routing and interface module (RIM) send light from the interrogation system to a composite embedded FBG sensor matrix, which returns measurand-dependent wavelengths back to the interrogation system for measurement with subpicometer resolution. In particular, the returned wavelengths are channeled by the RIM to a photonic signal processing subsystem based on powerful optical chips, then passed through an optoelectronic interface to an analog post-detection electronics subsystem, digital post-detection electronics subsystem, and finally via a data interface to a computer. A range of composite structures has been fabricated with FBGs embedded. Stress tensile, bending, and dynamic strain tests were performed. The experimental work proved that the FBG sensors have a good level of accuracy in measuring the static response of the tested composite coupons (down to submicrostrain levels), the capability to detect and monitor dynamic loads, and the ability to detect defects in composites by a variety of methods including monitoring the decay time under different dynamic loading conditions. In addition to quasi-static and dynamic load monitoring, the

  18. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  19. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report. The Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 613) is part of the Earth Sciences Division (Code 610), formerly the Earth Sun Exploration Division, under the Sciences and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) based at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In line with NASA s Exploration Initiative, the Laboratory executes a comprehensive research and technology development program dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. The research program is aimed at understanding the influence of solar variability on the Earth s climate; predicting the weather and climate of Earth; understanding the structure, dynamics, and radiative properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; understanding atmospheric chemistry, especially the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and advancing our understanding of physical properties of Earth s atmosphere. The research program identifies problems and requirements for atmospheric observations via satellite missions. Laboratory scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Laboratory members conduct field measurements for satellite data calibration and validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud-resolving models, and development of next-generation Earth system models. Interdisciplinary research is carried

  20. Erradicação de escleródios de Sclerotium rolfsii em substratos tratados em coletores solares, em Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ Eradication of Sclerotium rolfsii sclerotia in substrate treated in solar collector devices in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Vagner Valentim Martins

    2003-12-01

    risk of soil being contaminated with plant pathogen inocula its uses in the substrate composition is the most economical and useful practice for fruit propagation in general. In this work, looking for an alternative method besides the methyl bromide fumigation for soil sterilization the efficiency of solar collector devices for substrate disinfestations in the elimination of S. rolfsii sclerotia was evaluated. The assays were realized in three dates: October 6th and 25th and December 13th of 2000. For evaluation of the sclerotia viability the sclerotia recovered from the soil treated in solar collector were sown in culture medium and submitted to the tetrazolium staining test (tetrazolium triphenil-chloride. The tetrazolium coloration was used to confirm if non-germinated sclerotia were really heat inactivated or if there was fungistase induction. In the first assay during a cloudy day, the maximum temperature reached in the substrate was 45ºC and the germination of sclerotia was null and accompanied by 100% of bacteria colonization. In the two last dates of evaluation during sunny days the maximum temperatures in the substrate varied from 60 to 80ºC and the sclerotia were 100% eradicated with only one day-treatment. The staining test with TTC confirmed that non-germinated sclerotia were heat inactivated by the absence of red color due to the dehydrogenase activity inhibition (enzymatic denaturation. It was concluded that even under sub-optimum conditions for substrate treatment in solar collector devices the long exposition to higher temperatures were enough to cause severe injuries in the pathogen sclerotia which became vulnerable to microbial antagonism. The solar collector devices were efficient for substrate disinfestations and for the control of S. rolfsii in the evaluated conditions.

  1. Ship heading and velocity analysis by wake detection in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Maria Daniela; D'Errico, Marco; Rufino, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of ship-route estimation, a wake detection method is developed and applied to COSMO/SkyMed and TerraSAR-X Stripmap SAR images over the Gulf of Naples, Italy. In order to mitigate the intrinsic limitations of the threshold logic, the algorithm identifies the wake features according to the hydrodynamic theory. A post-detection validation phase is performed to classify the features as real wake structures by means of merit indexes defined in the intensity domain. After wake reconstruction, ship heading is evaluated on the basis of turbulent wake direction and ship velocity is estimated by both techniques of azimuth shift and Kelvin pattern wavelength. The method is tested over 34 ship wakes identified by visual inspection in both HH and VV images at different incidence angles. For all wakes, no missed detections are reported and at least the turbulent and one narrow-V wakes are correctly identified, with ship heading successfully estimated. Also, the azimuth shift method is applied to estimate velocity for the 10 ships having route with sufficient angular separation from the satellite ground track. In one case ship velocity is successfully estimated with both methods, showing agreement within 14%.

  2. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  3. Evaluation of the Control Strategy for the 2010 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Japan Using Disease Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, M; Stevenson, M; Cogger, N; Carpenter, T

    2017-06-01

    In 2010, Japan experienced a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic where 292 premises were infected over a period of 75 days. The epidemic was controlled by stamping-out and vaccination, applied 5 weeks after the first confirmation of disease within a 10 km radius of identified infected places. This study aimed at identifying the role of emergency vaccination to epidemic control while adjusting for the dynamic pattern of local spread, and assessing alternative vaccination strategies, using a disease simulation model. Our results indicate that the overall hazard of local spread remained high throughout the silent spread phase and the first two weeks post-detection, with significant reduction occurring from week 3 onwards. The estimated effectiveness of emergency vaccination quantified as reduction in the hazard of infection was at most 81% and 44% for cattle and pig farms, respectively. The vaccination strategy reduced the simulated median number of IPs by 22%, epidemic duration by 64% and culling duration by 52%, but increased the total number of infected or vaccinated premises subject to culling by 144% compared with no vaccination. The simulation indicated that vaccination starting 2 weeks earlier (3 weeks post-first detection) with a smaller vaccination radius (3 km) was more effective for eradication of the epidemic compared with the actually implemented strategy. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Constructing the matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2012-09-01

    As part of our 'toolkit' for analysing an extraterrestrial signal, the facility for calculating structural affinity to known phenomena must be part of our core capabilities. Without such a resource, we risk compromising our potential for detection and decipherment or at least causing significant delay in the process. To create such a repository for assessing structural affinity, all known systems (language parameters) need to be structurally analysed to 'place' their 'system' within a relational communication matrix. This will need to include all known variants of language structure, whether 'living' (in current use) or ancient; this must also include endeavours to incorporate yet undeciphered scripts and non-human communication, to provide as complete a picture as possible. In creating such a relational matrix, post-detection decipherment will be assisted by a structural 'map' that will have the potential for 'placing' an alien communication with its nearest known 'neighbour', to assist subsequent categorisation of basic parameters as a precursor to decipherment. 'Universal' attributes and behavioural characteristics of known communication structure will form a range of templates (Elliott, 2001 [1] and Elliott et al., 2002 [2]), to support and optimise our attempt at categorising and deciphering the content of an extraterrestrial signal. Detection of the hierarchical layers, which comprise intelligent, complex communication, will then form a matrix of calculations that will ultimately score affinity through a relational matrix of structural comparison. In this paper we develop the rationales and demonstrate functionality with initial test results.

  5. A discussion paper on indoor air quality investigations of houses used for marijuana grow operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salares, V.; Dyck, M. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This paper explored issues and potential solutions to the increasing incidence of indoor residential marijuana grow operations (MGOs) in Canada. A study was conducted in which as small number of MGO houses were investigated to better understand the physical damages and the environmental contamination sustained by the houses. Indoor air quality was examined along with mold growth resulting from excessive moisture. This report identified safety issues and provided a list of recommendations for rehabilitation of the houses. Detailed procedures for clean-up were also presented. Alterations made to accommodate ventilation equipment for the grow areas were noted in most houses. Other evidence of alteration were disconnected heating ducts, addition of wiring, electrical assemblies and electrical panels that had been tampered with. Since most of the chemical containers had been removed prior to testing, the chemical component of MGOs will be the subject of a future study. The following issues of importance were highlighted during the study: (1) a nationwide harmonization of remediation requirements, (2) guidelines for mortgage lenders, (3) qualified contractors, standard protocol, (4) assessment of the extent of contamination, (5) prevention of unnecessary damage post-detection, and (6) record keeping. 3 refs.

  6. Systems Harmonization and Convergence - the GIGAS Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, P. G.; Biancalana, A.; Coene, Y.; Uslander, T.

    2009-04-01

    0.1 Background The GIGAS1 Support Action promotes the coherent and interoperable development of the GMES, INSPIRE and GEOSS initiatives through their concerted adoption of standards, protocols, and open architectures. 0.2 Preparing for Coordinated Data Access The GMES Coordinated Data Access System is under design and implementation2. This objective has motivated the definition of the interoperability standards between the contributing missions. The following elements have been addressed with associated papers submitted to OGC: The EO Product Metadata has been based on the OGC Geographic Markup Language, addressing sensor characteristics for optical, radar and atmospheric products. Collection and service discovery: an ISO extension package for CSW ebRim has been proposed. Catalogue Service (CSW): an Earth Observation extension package of the CSW ebRim has been proposed. Feasibility Analysis and Order: an Order interface control document and an Earth Observation profile of the Sensor Planning Service have been proposed. Online Data Access: an Earth Observation profile of the Web Map Services (WMS) for visualization and evaluation purposes has been proposed. Identity (user) management: the objective in the long term is to allow for a single sign-on to the Coordinated Data Access system by users registered in the various Earth Observation ground segments by providing a federated identity across participating ground segments, exploiting OASIS standards. 0.3 The GIGAS proposed harmonization approach The approach proposed by GIGAS is based on three elements: Technology watch Comparative analysis Shaping of initiatives and standards This paper concentrates on the methodology for technology watch and comparative analysis. The complexity of the GIGAS scenario involving huge systems (i.e. GEOSS, INSPIRE, GMES etc.) entails the interaction with different heterogeneous partners, each with a specific competence, expertise and know-how. 0.3.1 Technology watch The methodology

  7. PLATO: PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catala, Claude [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, Place Jules Janssen 92190 Meudon (France)], E-mail: Claude.Catala@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    The PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars Mission (PLATO), presented to ESA in the framework of its 'Cosmic Vision' programme, will detect and characterize exoplanets by means of their transit signature in front of a very large sample of bright stars, and measure the seismic oscillations of the parent stars orbited by these planets in order to understand the properties of the exoplanetary systems. PLATO is the next-generation planet finder, building on the accomplishments of CoRoT and Kepler. i) it will observe significantly more stars, ii) its targets will be 2 to 3 magnitudes brighter (hence the precision of the measurements will be correspondingly greater as will be those of post-detection investigations, e.g. spectroscopy, asteroseismology, and eventually imaging), iii) it will be capable of observing significantly smaller exoplanets. The space-based observations will be complemented by ground- and space-based follow-up observations. These goals will be achieved by a long-term (5 years), high-precision, high-time-resolution, high-duty-cycle monitoring in visible photometry of a sample of more than 100,000 relatively bright (my {<=} 12) stars and another 400,000 down to my = 14. Two different mission concepts are proposed for PLATO: i) a 'staring' concept with 100 small, very wide-field telescopes, assembled on a single platform and all looking at the same 26 deg. diameter field, and ii) a 'spinning' concept with three moderate-size telescopes covering more than 1400 deg.{sup 2}.

  8. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  9. Syndromic surveillance in companion animals utilizing electronic medical records data: development and proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Kass

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to recognize and address communicable and point-source epidemics in dog and cat populations, this project created a near real-time syndromic surveillance system devoted to companion animal health in the United States. With over 150 million owned pets in the US, the development of such a system is timely in light of previous epidemics due to various causes that were only recognized in retrospect. The goal of this study was to develop epidemiologic and statistical methods for veterinary hospital-based surveillance, and to demonstrate its efficacy by detection of simulated foodborne outbreaks using a database of over 700 hospitals. Data transfer protocols were established via a secure file transfer protocol site, and a data repository was constructed predominantly utilizing open-source software. The daily proportion of patients with a given clinical or laboratory finding was contrasted with an equivalent average proportion from a historical comparison period, allowing construction of the proportionate diagnostic outcome ratio and its confidence interval for recognizing aberrant heath events. A five-tiered alert system was used to facilitate daily assessment of almost 2,000 statistical analyses. Two simulated outbreak scenarios were created by independent experts, blinded to study investigators, and embedded in the 2010 medical records. Both outbreaks were detected almost immediately by the alert system, accurately detecting species affected using relevant clinical and laboratory findings, and ages involved. Besides demonstrating proof-in-concept of using veterinary hospital databases to detect aberrant events in space and time, this research can be extended to conducting post-detection etiologic investigations utilizing exposure information in the medical record.

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and hospitalization in high-risk patients in the year following detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Huang

    Full Text Available Many studies have evaluated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections during single hospitalizations and subsequent readmissions to the same institution. None have assessed the comprehensive burden of MRSA infection in the period after hospital discharge while accounting for healthcare utilization across institutions.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients insured by Harvard Pilgrim Health Care who were newly-detected to harbor MRSA between January 1991 and December 2003 at a tertiary care medical center. We evaluated all MRSA-attributable infections associated with hospitalization in the year following new detection, regardless of hospital location. Data were collected on comorbidities, healthcare utilization, mortality and MRSA outcomes. Of 591 newly-detected MRSA carriers, 23% were colonized and 77% were infected upon detection. In the year following detection, 196 (33% patients developed 317 discrete and unrelated MRSA infections. The most common infections were pneumonia (34%, soft tissue (27%, and primary bloodstream (18% infections. Infections occurred a median of 56 days post-detection. Of all infections, 26% involved bacteremia, and 17% caused MRSA-attributable death. During the admission where MRSA was newly-detected, 14% (82/576 developed subsequent infection. Of those surviving to discharge, 24% (114/482 developed post-discharge infections in the year following detection. Half (99/185, 54% of post-discharge infections caused readmission, and most (104/185, 55% occurred over 90 days post-discharge.In high-risk tertiary care patients, newly-detected MRSA carriage confers large risks of infection and substantial attributable mortality in the year following acquisition. Most infections occur post-discharge, and 18% of infections associated with readmission occurred in hospitals other than the one where MRSA was newly-detected. Despite gains in reducing MRSA infections during hospitalization, the

  11. Anthropomorphism in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence - The limits of cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Ulrike M.; Bürger, Moritz J. F.

    2018-02-01

    The question "Are we alone?" lingers in the human mind since ancient times. Early human civilisations populated the heavens above with a multitude of Gods endowed with some all too human characteristics - from their outer appearance to their innermost motivations. En passant they created thereby their own cultural founding myths on which they built their understanding of the world and its phenomena and deduced as well rules for the functioning of their own society. Advancing technology has enabled us to conduct this human quest for knowledge with more scientific means: optical and radio-wavelengths are being monitored for messages by an extra-terrestrial intelligence and active messaging attempts have also been undertaken. Scenarios have been developed for a possible detection of extra-terrestrial intelligence and post-detection guidelines and protocols have been elaborated. The human responses to the whole array of questions concerning the potential existence, discovery of and communication/interaction with an extra-terrestrial intelligence share as one clear thread a profound anthropomorphism, which ascribes classical human behavioural patterns also to an extra-terrestrial intelligence in much the same way as our ancestors attributed comparable conducts to mythological figures. This paper aims at pinpointing this thread in a number of classical reactions to basic questions related to the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. Many of these reactions are based on human motives such as curiosity and fear, rationalised by experience and historical analogy and modelled in the Science Fiction Culture by literature and movies. Scrutinising the classical hypothetical explanations of the Fermi paradox under the angle of a potentially undue anthropomorphism, this paper intends to assist in understanding our human epistemological limitations in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. This attempt is structured into a series of questions: I. Can we be alone? II

  12. Clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with stent fracture after successful drug-eluting stent implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Soo [Cadiovascular center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Many studies have suggested that in the era of Drug Eluting Stents (DES) are one of the causes of In-Stent Restenosis (ISR) of Stent Fracture (SF). The present study sought to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients with stent fracture after successful DES implantation. The 4,701 patients were selected for analysis who underwent a follow-up coronary angiography irrespective of ischemic symptoms. The overall incidence of SF was 32 patients(male:female=19:13, Av. age 62.44±9.8 year, 0.68%). Fractures of Sirolimus-Eluting Stents (SES), Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents (PES), Biolimus A9-Eluting Stents (BES), Everolimus-Eluting Etents (EES), Endothelial Progenitor Cell Capture Stent (EPC) and Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents (ZES) are accounted for 19 (59.4%), 9 (28.1%), 2 (6.3%), 1 (3.1%), 1 (3.1%) and 0 (0%) respectively. SF developed in the left Anterior Dscending (LAD) artery in 16 patients (50%) and in complex(type B2, C) lesions in 25 patients (69.4%). Ten patients were treated with heterogenous DES, the rest being treated with either homogenous DES (3 patients), plain old balloon angioplasty (3 patients), or conservative medical treatment (17 patients). None of the patients with SF suffered from cardiac death during a follow-up period of 32.9±12.4 months. The overall rate of DES fracture over up to 3.7 years of follow-up was 0.68% with higher incidence in SES than in PES. SF frequently occurred in the LAD artery and in complex lesions. Of the patients with SF, coronary intervention was performed only when the binary restenosis lesion was significant. During the follow-up, patients with SF have continued on combination antiplatelet therapy. There is a very low rate of major adverse cardiac events(post-detection of SF), especially cardiac death associated with SF.

  13. Photon-Counting Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeters for Airborne and Spaceborne Topographic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We consider the optimum design of photon-counting microlaser altimeters operating from airborne and spaceborne platforms under both day and night conditions. Extremely compact Q-switched microlaser transmitters produce trains of low energy pulses at multi-kHz rates and can easily generate subnanosecond pulse-widths for precise ranging. To guide the design, we have modeled the solar noise background and developed simple algorithms, based on Post-Detection Poisson Filtering (PDPF), to optimally extract the weak altimeter signal from a high noise background during daytime operations. Practical technology issues, such as detector and/or receiver dead times, have also been considered in the analysis. We describe an airborne prototype, being developed under NASA's instrument Incubator Program, which is designed to operate at a 10 kHz rate from aircraft cruise altitudes up to 12 km with laser pulse energies on the order of a few microjoules. We also analyze a compact and power efficient system designed to operate from Mars orbit at an altitude of 300 km and sample the Martian surface at rates up to 4.3 kHz using a 1 watt laser transmitter and an 18 cm telescope. This yields a Power-Aperture Product of 0.24 W-square meter, corresponding to a value almost 4 times smaller than the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (0. 88W-square meter), yet the sampling rate is roughly 400 times greater (4 kHz vs 10 Hz) Relative to conventional high power laser altimeters, advantages of photon-counting laser altimeters include: (1) a more efficient use of available laser photons providing up to two orders of magnitude greater surface sampling rates for a given laser power-telescope aperture product; (2) a simultaneous two order of magnitude reduction in the volume, cost and weight of the telescope system; (3) the unique ability to spatially resolve the source of the surface return in a photon counting mode through the use of pixellated or imaging detectors; and (4) improved vertical and

  14. Compressive Sensing for Feedback Reduction in Wireless Multiuser Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2015-05-01

    error covariance matrix of the post-detection noise to be used in the back-off strategy. In addition to this, we provide exact closed form expressions for the average maximum equivalent SNR at the destination user. The last part of the thesis treats the problem of user selection in a network MIMO setting. We propose a distributed user selection strategy that is based on a well known technique called semi-orthogonal user selection when the zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) is adopted. Usually this technique requires perfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) which might not be available or need large feedback overhead. Instead, we propose a distributed user selection technique where no communication between base stations is needed. In order to reduce the feedback overhead, each user set a timer that is inversely proportional to his channel quality indicator (CQI). This technique will allow only the user with the highest CQI to feedback provided that the transmission time is shorter than the difference between his timer and the second strongest user timer, otherwise a collision will occur. In the case of collision, we propose another feedback strategy that is based on the theory of compressive sensing, where collision is allowed and each user encode its feedback using Gaussian codewords and feedback the combination at the same time with other users. We prove that the problem can be formulated as a block sparse recovery problem and that this approach is agnostic on the transmission time, thus it could be a good alternative to the timer approach when collision is dominant. Simulation results show that the proposed CS-based selection algorithms yield a rate performance that is close to the ones achieved when perfect CSI is available while consuming a small amount of feedback.